Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

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ISSN / EISSN : 20458118 / 20458118
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 379
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Latest articles in this journal

Moriah E. Katt, Lakyn N. Mayo, Shannon E. Ellis, Vasiliki Mahairaki, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Linzhao Cheng, Peter C. Searson
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0139-4

Adjanie Patabendige, Nick Mackovski, Debbie Pepperall, Rebecca Hood, Neil Spratt
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0144-7

Shujun Ge, Xi Jiang, Debayon Paul, Li Song, Xiaofang Wang, Joel S. Pachter
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0138-5

Abstract:Immune cell trafficking into the CNS is considered to contribute to pathogenesis in MS and its animal model, EAE. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of these pathologies and a potential target of therapeutics. Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hES-MSCs) have shown superior therapeutic efficacy, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs, in reducing clinical symptoms and neuropathology of EAE. However, it has not yet been reported whether hES-MSCs inhibit and/or repair the BBB damage associated with neuroinflammation that accompanies EAE. BMECs were cultured on Transwell inserts as a BBB model for all the experiments. Disruption of BBB models was induced by TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation. Results indicated that hES-MSCs reversed the TNF-α-induced changes in tight junction proteins, permeability, transendothelial electrical resistance, and expression of adhesion molecules, especially when these cells were placed in direct contact with BMEC. hES-MSCs and/or products derived from them could potentially serve as novel therapeutics to repair BBB disturbances in MS. The online version of this article (10.1186/s12987-019-0138-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Jeffrey Tithof, Douglas H. Kelley, Humberto Mestre, Maiken Nedergaard, John H. Thomas
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0140-y

Abstract:Periarterial spaces (PASs) are annular channels that surround arteries in the brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a flow of CSF in these channels is thought to be an important part of the brain’s system for clearing metabolic wastes. In vivo observations reveal that they are not concentric, circular annuli, however: the outer boundaries are often oblate, and the arteries that form the inner boundaries are often offset from the central axis. We model PAS cross-sections as circles surrounded by ellipses and vary the radii of the circles, major and minor axes of the ellipses, and two-dimensional eccentricities of the circles with respect to the ellipses. For each shape, we solve the governing Navier–Stokes equation to determine the velocity profile for steady laminar flow and then compute the corresponding hydraulic resistance. We find that the observed shapes of PASs have lower hydraulic resistance than concentric, circular annuli of the same size, and therefore allow faster, more efficient flow of cerebrospinal fluid. We find that the minimum hydraulic resistance (and therefore maximum flow rate) for a given PAS cross-sectional area occurs when the ellipse is elongated and intersects the circle, dividing the PAS into two lobes, as is common around pial arteries. We also find that if both the inner and outer boundaries are nearly circular, the minimum hydraulic resistance occurs when the eccentricity is large, as is common around penetrating arteries. The concentric circular annulus assumed in recent studies is not a good model of the shape of actual PASs observed in vivo, and it greatly overestimates the hydraulic resistance of the PAS. Our parameterization can be used to incorporate more realistic resistances into hydraulic network models of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Our results demonstrate that actual shapes observed in vivo are nearly optimal, in the sense of offering the least hydraulic resistance. This optimization may well represent an evolutionary adaptation that maximizes clearance of metabolic waste from the brain.
Albert Neutzner, Laura Power, Markus Dürrenberger, Hendrik P. N. Scholl, Peter Meyer, Hanspeter E. Killer, David Wendt, Corina Kohler
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0137-6

Abstract:Altered flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the subarachnoid space (SAS) is connected to brain, but also optic nerve degenerative diseases. To overcome the lack of suitable in vitro models that faithfully recapitulate the intricate three-dimensional architecture, complex cellular interactions, and fluid dynamics within the SAS, we have developed a perfusion bioreactor-based 3D in vitro model using primary human meningothelial cells (MECs) to generate meningeal tissue constructs. We ultimately employed this model to evaluate the impact of impaired CSF flow as evidenced during optic nerve compartment syndrome on the transcriptomic landscape of MECs. Primary human meningothelial cells (phMECs) were seeded and cultured on collagen scaffolds in a perfusion bioreactor to generate engineered meningeal tissue constructs. Engineered constructs were compared to human SAS and assessed for specific cell–cell interaction markers as well as for extracellular matrix proteins found in human meninges. Using the established model, meningeal tissue constructs were exposed to physiological and pathophysiological flow conditions simulating the impaired CSF flow associated with optic nerve compartment syndrome and RNA sequencing was performed. Engineered constructs displayed similar microarchitecture compared to human SAS with regards to pore size, geometry as well as interconnectivity. They stained positively for specific cell–cell interaction markers indicative of a functional meningeal tissue, as well as extracellular matrix proteins found in human meninges. Analysis by RNA sequencing revealed altered expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix remodeling, endo-lysosomal processing, and mitochondrial energy metabolism under pathophysiological flow conditions. Alterations of these biological processes may not only interfere with critical MEC functions impacting CSF and hence optic nerve homeostasis, but may likely alter SAS structure, thereby further impeding cerebrospinal fluid flow. Future studies based on the established 3D model will lead to new insights into the role of MECs in the pathogenesis of optic nerve but also brain degenerative diseases. The online version of this article (10.1186/s12987-019-0137-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16

Abstract:Pericytes of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are embedded within basement membrane between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocyte end-feet. Despite the direct cell–cell contact observed in vivo, most in vitro BBB models introduce an artificial membrane that separates pericytes from BMECs. In this study, we investigated the effects of pericytes on BMEC barrier function across a range of in vitro platforms with varied spatial orientations and levels of cell–cell contact. We differentiated RFP-pericytes and GFP-BMECs from hiPSCs and monitored transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) across BMECs on transwell inserts while pericytes were either directly co-cultured on the membrane, indirectly co-cultured in the basolateral chamber, or embedded in a collagen I gel formed on the transwell membrane. We then incorporated pericytes into a tissue-engineered microvessel model of the BBB and measured pericyte motility and microvessel permeability. We found that BMEC monolayers did not require co-culture with pericytes to achieve physiological TEER values (> 1500 Ω cm2). However, under stressed conditions where TEER values for BMEC monolayers were reduced, indirectly co-cultured hiPSC-derived pericytes restored optimal TEER. Conversely, directly co-cultured pericytes resulted in a decrease in TEER by interfering with BMEC monolayer continuity. In the microvessel model, we observed direct pericyte-BMEC contact, abluminal pericyte localization, and physiologically-low Lucifer yellow permeability comparable to that of BMEC microvessels. In addition, pericyte motility decreased during the first 48 h of co-culture, suggesting progression towards pericyte stabilization. We demonstrated that monocultured BMECs do not require co-culture to achieve physiological TEER, but that suboptimal TEER in stressed monolayers can be increased through co-culture with hiPSC-derived pericytes or conditioned media. We also developed the first BBB microvessel model using exclusively hiPSC-derived BMECs and pericytes, which could be used to examine vascular dysfunction in the human CNS. The online version of this article (10.1186/s12987-019-0136-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Open Access
John J. Jamieson, Raleigh M. Linville, Yuan Yuan Ding, Sharon Gerecht, Peter C. Searson
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, Volume 16; doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0136-7

Abstract:Pericytes of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are embedded within basement membrane between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocyte end-feet. Despite the direct cell–cell contact observed in vivo, most in vitro BBB models introduce an artificial membrane that separates pericytes from BMECs. In this study, we investigated the effects of pericytes on BMEC barrier function across a range of in vitro platforms with varied spatial orientations and levels of cell–cell contact. We differentiated RFP-pericytes and GFP-BMECs from hiPSCs and monitored transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) across BMECs on transwell inserts while pericytes were either directly co-cultured on the membrane, indirectly co-cultured in the basolateral chamber, or embedded in a collagen I gel formed on the transwell membrane. We then incorporated pericytes into a tissue-engineered microvessel model of the BBB and measured pericyte motility and microvessel permeability. We found that BMEC monolayers did not require co-culture with pericytes to achieve physiological TEER values (> 1500 Ω cm2). However, under stressed conditions where TEER values for BMEC monolayers were reduced, indirectly co-cultured hiPSC-derived pericytes restored optimal TEER. Conversely, directly co-cultured pericytes resulted in a decrease in TEER by interfering with BMEC monolayer continuity. In the microvessel model, we observed direct pericyte-BMEC contact, abluminal pericyte localization, and physiologically-low Lucifer yellow permeability comparable to that of BMEC microvessels. In addition, pericyte motility decreased during the first 48 h of co-culture, suggesting progression towards pericyte stabilization. We demonstrated that monocultured BMECs do not require co-culture to achieve physiological TEER, but that suboptimal TEER in stressed monolayers can be increased through co-culture with hiPSC-derived pericytes or conditioned media. We also developed the first BBB microvessel model using exclusively hiPSC-derived BMECs and pericytes, which could be used to examine vascular dysfunction in the human CNS. The online version of this article (10.1186/s12987-019-0136-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.