Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1745-0179 / 1745-0179
Current Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. (10.2174)
Former Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 325
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, Hernan Matta-Solis, Rosa Perez-Siguas, Eduardo Matta-Solis, Lourdes Matta-Zamudio
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 17, pp 19-25; doi:10.2174/1745017902117010019

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 crisis is fuelling a state of fear among the human population at global level. Especially, those living in informal settlements and slums worldwide have been profoundly impacted by this pandemic. Individuals living in these places are already leading underprivileged lives. Thus, the economic and mental health problems caused by the COVID-19 crisis have further exacerbated their living standards, which has resulted, for instance, in tragedies such as suicides. Objective: In this study, we have sought to identify those individuals most at risk of displaying high levels of fear of COVID-19 in an informal settlement located in the capital city of Peru. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 449 inhabitants living in the Carmen Alto informal settlement. The questionnaire was made up of two parts: the first one inquired about demographic data and the second part consisted of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Results: The demographic variables of age, gender, marital status, educational level, occupation, whether a relative from the household was infected with COVID-19, and whether one of them died of this showed significant differences. It could be observed as well that the groups of females, stable workers, unemployed and those having completed a workforce education are at higher odds of displaying high levels of fear of COVID-19. As expected, the groups that had either a relative infected with COVID-19 or a relative death by this had the highest levels of fear towards the virus. Conclusion: The female participants are more likely to display higher levels of fear of COVID-19 due to the terrible effect that unfavorable events have on them. In the cases of the unemployed and stable workers, their proneness to show high levels of fear towards the virus is because they have lost their incomes, due to the loss of their jobs, and because of fear of infection, respectively. Hence, we hope that this work serves Peruvian (and other) health authorities to develop strategies that help individuals living in informal settlements and are in urgent need of mitigating mental health problems.
Siti R.B.M. Arifin, Helen Cheyne, Margaret Maxwell, Abdilahi Yousuf
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 17, pp 10-18; doi:10.2174/1745017902117010010

Abstract:
Objectives: Early detection and intervention for Maternal Postnatal Depression (PND) are imperative to prevent devastating consequences for mothers, babies, and families. However, there are no guidelines that explicitly focus on the management of PND in Malaysia. Consequently, it is unclear whether women with PND are receiving proper care and treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to explore Malaysian Women's experience in managing PND symptoms. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among 33 women attending Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Kuala Lumpur. Data were obtained through a face-to-face semi-structured interview and analysed using framework analysis. Results: The women considered PND as a personal and temporary issue. Therefore, professional care was deemed unnecessary for them. Additionally, all Malay women considered religious approach as their primary coping strategy for PND. However, this was not the case for most Indian and Chinese women. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that women did not acknowledge the roles of Healthcare Practitioners (HCPs) in alleviating their emotional distress.Also, they perceived PND as a personal problem and less serious emotional condition. It is due to this perception that the women adopted self-help care as their primary coping strategy for PND. However, the coping strategy varied between different cultures. These findings underscore the importance of HCPs’ proactive action to detect and alleviate PND symptoms as their attitude towards PND may influence Women's help-seeking behaviour.
, , Maria Paola Contu, Mariateresa Latorre, Melanie Di Salvatore, ,
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 17, pp 9-9; doi:10.2174/1745017902117010009

Abstract:
Mediterranean Diet (MD) is currently considered one of the most healthy dietary models worldwide. It is generally based on the daily intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats, and olive oil. It may also include moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, a low intake of red meat, and red/white wine during the main course. Even if the effect of MD on cancer prevention as well as on human metabolic and cardiovascular balance has been discussed, including the quality of life of the exposed population, the putative effects on mental health are still not properly investigated. This narrative review reports on some emerging pieces of evidence on the possible impact of MD on general health and the outcome of psychiatric disorders (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and encourages further studies to test the benefits of healthy food selection on the health of the general population.
, Rym Ghacem, Myriam Milka, Olfa Moula, Nidhal Staali, Uta Uali, Ghassene Boukhari, Monica Mannu, Rym Refrafi, Souha Yaakoubi, et al.
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 17, pp 8-8; doi:10.2174/1745017902117010008

Dania Abu-Naser, Sara Gharaibeh, Ahmad Z. Al Meslamani, Qais Alefan, Renad Abunaser
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 17, pp 1-7; doi:10.2174/1745017902117010001

Abstract:
Background: Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) are unwanted symptoms commonly originating from the use of certain medications. The symptoms can range from minimal discomfort to permanent involuntary muscular movements. The aims of the study were to examine the incidence of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (di-EPS), associated risk factors, and clinical characteristics. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study of di-EPS conducted in outpatient clinics of Jordan using the longitudinal health database (Hakeem®) for data collection. Patients who received drugs with the risk of EPS during the period 2010-2020 were included and followed. Patients with any of the known underlying conditions that may cause EPS or were currently taking drugs that may mask the symptoms were excluded. Gender and age-matched control subjects were included in the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®) version 26 was used for data analysis. Results: The final dataset included 34898 exposed patients and 69796 matched controls. The incidence of di-EPS ranged from 9.8% [Amitriptyline 25mg] to 28.9% (Imipramine 25mg). Baseline factors associated with a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS were age {HR: 1.1 [95%CI: 0.8-1.2, p=0.003], smoking {HR: 1.7 (95%CI: 1.3-2.2), p=0.02}, tremor history {HR: 7.4 (95%CI: 5.9-8.3), p=.002} and history of taking antipsychotics {HR: 3.9, (95% CI: 2.5-4.6), p=0.001}. Patients taking paroxetine {HR: 8.6 [95%CI: 7.4-9.8], p=.0002},imipramine {HR: 8.3, [7.1-10.5], p=0.01}, or fluoxetine {HR: 8.2 (95%CI: 6.8-9.3), p=.006} had a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS compared to patients taking citalopram. Myoclonus, blepharospasm, symptoms of the basal ganglia dysfunction, and organic writers' cramp were reported among participants. Conclusion: Patients treated with paroxetine, imipramine, fluoxetine, or clomipramine had a higher risk of developing di-EPS than patients treated with citalopram. The difference in gender was not significantly related to di-EPS development. Whereas age, smoking, and history of taking antipsychotics were significantly associated with di-EPS development. Key findings: • High incidence of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (di-EPS) was reported • Age, smoking, tremor history, and history of taking antipsychotics were risk factors of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. • Patients taking paroxetine, imipramine or fluoxetine had a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS compared to patients taking citalopram
Liliana Dell’Osso, Claudia Carmassi, Ivan Mirko Cremone, Dario Muti, Antonio Salerni, Filippo Maria Barberi, Enrico Massimetti, Camilla Gesi, Pierluigi Politi, Eugenio Aguglia, et al.
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 16, pp 204-211; doi:10.2174/1745017902016010204

Abstract:
Background: The Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) is a recently developed instrument tailored to assess the broad range of full-threshold as well as sub-threshold manifestations related to the autism spectrum. Although it has proved to be a valuable instrument for quantitative assessment of autistic symptoms, the AdAS Spectrum still lacks validated diagnostic thresholds. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the best cut-off scores of the AdAS Spectrum for determining the presence of subthreshold autistic traits as well as a clinically significant autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Our sample was composed of 39 patients with full-blown ASD, 73 subjects with autistic traits, and 150 healthy controls. Subjects were evaluated by trained psychiatrists, who performed a clinical diagnosis according to DSM-5 and then assessed with the AdAS Spectrum and the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Results: Our results showed that the most discriminant cut-off scores were 70 for identifying subjects with full-blown ASD, and 43 for determining the presence of significant autistic traits. Conclusion: The threshold values proposed here showed satisfying levels of specificity and sensibility, as well as a good agreement with the diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria, confirming the validity of the AdAS Spectrum as a psychometric tool for measuring ASD-related conditions in the clinical and general population.
Samuel Tromans, Guiqing Yao, Regi Alexander, Elizabeta Mukaetova-Ladinska, Reza Kiani, Mohammed Al-Uzri, Verity Chester, Richard Carr, Zoe Morgan, Elpida Vounzoulaki, et al.
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 16, pp 212-225; doi:10.2174/1745017902016010212

Abstract:
Background: It has been proposed that autistic individuals are at an increased risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Improved understanding of diabetes prevalence in autistic persons will help inform resource allocation for diabetes-related public health measures for this patient group. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of published literature pertaining to type 1 and type 2 diabetes prevalence in autistic individuals, including comparison with their non-autistic peers. Methods: Eligibility criteria included studies investigating the prevalence of diabetes in autistic individuals, as well as having been published in the English language. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed) was conducted on 4th April 2020. Additional approaches included the ancestry method, grey literature searches and expert consultation. Studies were qualitatively analysed with reporting quality appraised. Results: 19 eligible studies were identified, 7 of which provided type-specific diabetes prevalence data. Of 15 studies that included a non-autistic control group, 9 reported a higher diabetes prevalence among autistic persons, with a statistically significant difference in 4 studies. Studies demonstrating a higher diabetes prevalence in autistic groups had higher average study population sizes and reporting quality ratings. Conclusion: It is uncertain whether diabetes is significantly more prevalent in autistic persons relative to their non-autistic peers, though larger studies suggest a trend in this direction. Nevertheless, diabetes is a significant public health issue for the autistic community, which may require a tailored approach for identification and management. Prospero database registration number: CRD42019122176.
, Silke Wiedmann, Viktoria Rücker, Henning Teismann, Klaus Berger, Stefan Störk, Eduard Vieta, Hermann Faller, Bernhard T Baune, Peter U Heuschmann
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 16, pp 192-203; doi:10.2174/1745017902016010192

Abstract:
Background: The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is an interviewer-administered scale assessing functional impairment originally developed for psychiatric patients. Objectives: To adapt the FAST for the general population, we developed a self-administered version of the scale and assessed its properties in a pilot study. Methods: The original FAST scale was translated into German via forward and backward translation. Afterwards, we adjusted the scale for self-administered application and inquired participants from two ongoing studies in Germany, ‘STAAB’ (Würzburg) and ‘BiDirect’ (Münster), both recruiting subjects from the general population across a wide age range (STAAB: 30-79 years, BiDirect: 35-65 years). To assess reliability, agreement of self-assessment with proxy-assessment by partners was measured via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over the FAST score. Construct validity was estimated by conducting correlations with validated scales of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), and health-related quality of life (SF-12) and regression analyses using these scales besides potentially disabling comorbidities (e.g. Chronic Back Pain (CBP)). Results: Participants (n=54) had a median age of 57.0 years (quartiles: 49.8, 65.3), 46.3% were female. Reliability was moderate: ICC 0.50 (95% CI 0.46-0.54). The FAST score significantly correlated with PHQ-9, GAD-7, and the mental sub-scale of SF-12. In univariable linear regression, all three scales and chronic back pain explained variance of the FAST score. In multivariable analysis, only CBP and the SF-12 remained significant predictors. Conclusion: The German self-administered version of the FAST yielded moderate psychometric properties in this pilot study, indicating its applicability to assess functional impairment in the general population.
, Ilaria Masala, Carmelo Masala
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 16, pp 189-191; doi:10.2174/1745017902016010189

Abstract:
School closure and home confinement are two of the measures of lockdown chosen by governments and policymakers all over the world to prevent and limit the spread of the infection of COVID-19. There is still an open debate about the real effect of school closure on the reduction of risk of infection on children and the risk of infection on with other age groups (parents, grandparents and others). There is an agreement on the effect of school closure in reducing and delaying the peak of the outbreak. In this Editorial, starting from the ongoing Italian experience, we discuss direct and indirect effects of school closure on children’s psychological health and learning. We also highlight the need for an “on peace time” planning of measures and strategies necessary to face the direct and indirect effect of this outbreak and other outbreaks, on children’s psychological health.
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, Volume 16, pp 134-141; doi:10.2174/1745017902016010134

Abstract:
Background: The number of individuals displaced from their original countries due to civil wars, hunger, disasters, and international wars is increasing worldwide day by day. These refugees are more vulnerable to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the intervention program in improving the well-being and reducing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among a sample of Syrian refugee women in Jordan who had been displaced due to civil wars in Syria. Methods: The study recruited 40 Syrian refugee females in Jordan who were psychologically challenged, with high PTSD symptoms (assessed by PCL) and a psychological well-being impairment (assessed by PWD). The culture of Jordanian society discriminates and affects the Syrian refugee women, rendering them vulnerable to PTSD. Quasi-experimental design was used, wherein the participants were randomly distributed in experimental and control groups (n=20/group). The control group members did not receive any services related to psychological support or psychiatric medications, while the experimental group underwent a counseling program. Results: The present study demonstrated that the intervention program improves the well-being and reduces PTSD among the Syrian refugee women who constituted the experimental group. The intervention program and the PTSD manifestation were not affected by age. The present study recommended that the program be applied to the refugees in Jordan to improve the well-being of the women in the residential areas. Conclusion: Furthermore, an intervention on the Jordanian cultural impact on the refugee camps was also essential if the condition for the female refugees worsened. Lastly, the effect of Jordanian culture on Syrian refugees should be investigated since the literature presented a negative impact.
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