European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

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ISSN / EISSN : 1010-7940 / 1873-734X
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP) (10.1093)
Total articles ≅ 15,047
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Di Yu, Zhangke Guo, Xin You, Wei Peng, Jirong Qi, Jian Sun, Kaihong Wu, Xiaofeng Li, Xuming Mo
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab432

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES Vascular rings are rare anomalies of congenital heart disease that cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. This study assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with vascular ring division. METHODS A multi-institution retrospective review of 371 patients with vascular rings undergoing surgical division at 3 paediatric cardiac institutions between November 2007 and October 2019 was performed. RESULTS The complete vascular rings consisted of a double aortic arch (24.5%), right aortic arch with left ligamentum arteriosum (36.7%) and left aortic arch, with right ligamentum arteriosum (0.5%). The incomplete vascular rings consisted of a pulmonary artery sling (22.9%), left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery (15.1%) and innominate artery compression syndrome (0.3%). Respiratory symptoms included stridor (71.4%), wheezing (49.1%), coughing (31.5%), gastrointestinal symptoms included choking (12.4%), dysphagia (3.2%) and emesis (1.9%). Only one patient died after discharge, yielding a late mortality rate of 0.3% (1/360). The 10-year overall survival rate was 96.8%. Postoperative complications were reported in 51 patients, 15 of whom required reoperation. The 10-year freedom from reoperation rate was 95.9%. Follow-up was completed in 95.4% (354/371) of patients, with a mean follow-up time of 4.3 ± 2.9 years (range from 1 to 13 years). Twenty patients (5.6%) experienced residual symptoms during long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The outcomes of vascular ring division are excellent. A Kommerell diverticulum >1.5 times the aberrant left subclavian artery origin is an operative indication for primary resection. Tracheomalacia is a risk factor for reoperation and residual symptoms, and preoperative fibrobronchoscopy is important for evaluation.
, Michelle Mizrahi, Gregory Johnson, Hanoch Patt, Charles D Fraser, , Ziv Beckerman
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab416

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES Acute thoracic aortic dissection and rupture (TADR) has an incidence of 5–7 per 100 000-person years. Today, most children with congenital heart disease (CHD) survive to become adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). This study evaluates TADR in patients with ACHD in a large, hospitalized patient population over 11 years to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcomes associated with TADR. METHODS This was a retrospective review of the Texas Inpatient Discharge Data Set from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2019. All non-trauma discharges of patients ≥18 years were included. ACHD discharges were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9)/10 diagnosis codes. TADR were identified using 2 definitions: TADR1 is an ICD-9/10 code for TADR, and TADR2 is TADR1 with an ICD-9/10 procedure code for aortic intervention. Descriptive, univariate and logistic regression statistics were used. RESULTS A total of 22 154 664 eligible discharges were identified, of which 12 584 (0.06%) were TADR1 and a subgroup of 5699 (0.03%) were TADR2. CHD was more prevalent in TADR1 (0.2% vs 0.05%; P < 0.001) and TADR2 (0.3% vs 0.04%; P < 0.001). Adjusting for known TADR risk factors, CHD had an odds ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.63; P = 0.020) for TADR1 and an odds ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.99–2.88; P = 0.056) for TADR2. No in-hospital deaths were found in patients with CHD with TADR. CONCLUSIONS ACHD discharges had a higher frequency of TADR versus the general population (0.9–1.2 vs 0.3–0.6 per 1000 discharges). There is an indication that CHD confers an increased adjusted odds of TADR. As the ACHD population continues to grow in number as well as age, it will be important to continue to assess the risk of TADR from CHD and how traditional risk factors impact this risk.
, Jimmy J H Kang, , Nicholas Fialka, Lin Fu Zhu, Steven R Meyer, , , Jeevan Nagendran
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab439

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES Our aim was to address the role of autologous mesenchymal stem cell recellularization of xenogenic valves on the activation of the xenoreactive immune response in an in vivo rat model. METHODS Explanted aortic valve constructs from female Hartley guinea pigs were procured and decellularized, followed by recellularization with autologous Sprague-Dawley rat mesenchymal stem cells. Aortic valve xenografts were then implanted into the infrarenal aorta of recipient rats. Grafts were implanted as either autologous grafts, non-decellularized (NGP), decellularized and recellularized xenografts (RGP). Rats were euthanized after 7 and 21 days and exsanguinated and the grafts were explanted. RESULTS The NGP grafts demonstrated significant burden of granulocytes (14.3 cells/HPF) and CD3+ T cells (3.9 cells/HPF) compared to the autologous grafts (2.1 granulocytes/HPF and 0.72 CD3+ T cells/HPF) after 7 days. A lower absolute number of infiltrating granulocytes (NGP vs autologous, 6.4 vs 2.4 cells/HPF) and CD3+ T cells (NGP vs autologous, 2.8 vs 0.8 cells/HPF) was seen after 21 days. Equivalent granulocyte cell infiltration in the RGP grafts (2.4 cells/HPF) compared to the autologous grafts (2.1 cells/HPF) after 7 and 21 days (2.8 vs 2.4 cells/HPF) was observed. Equivalent CD3+ T-cell infiltration in the RGP grafts (0.63 cells/HPF) compared to the autologous grafts (0.72 cells/HPF) after 7 and 21 days (0.7 vs 0.8 cells/HPF) was observed. Immunoglobulin production was significantly greater in the NGP grafts compared to the autologous grafts at 7 (123.3 vs 52.7 mg/mL) and 21 days (93.3 vs 71.6 mg/mL), with a similar decreasing trend in absolute production. Equivalent immunoglobulin production was observed in the RGP grafts compared to the autologous grafts at 7 (40.8 vs 52.7 mg/mL) and 21 days (29.5 vs 71.6 mg/mL). CONCLUSIONS Autologous mesenchymal stem cell recellularization of xenogenic valves reduces the xenoreactive immune response in an in vivo rat model and may be an effective approach to decrease the progression of xenograft valve dysfunction.
Aritoshi Hattori, Takeshi Matsunaga, Mariko Fukui, , Kenji Suzuki
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab436

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the oncological role of a ground-glass opacity (GGO) component in hypermetabolic lung adenocarcinoma with a high maximum standardized uptake value. METHODS Between 2008 and 2017, we retrospectively reviewed the data of surgically resected clinically node-negative lung adenocarcinomas with a hypermetabolic activity. Furthermore, they were classified based on the presence of GGO. The prognostic significance of a GGO in hypermetabolic tumours was evaluated using the Cox proportional-hazards model. The overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method using a log-rank test. RESULTS Of the 1134 surgically resected clinically node-negative lung adenocarcinoma, 603 cases with hypermetabolic activity (maximum standardized uptake value ≥3.0 mg/dl) were evaluated. Among them, there were 120 (20%) cases in the With GGO group and 483 (80%) in the Solid group. The 5-year OS of patients with hypermetabolic lung adenocarcinoma was significantly different between the With GGO and Solid groups (83.1% vs 59.4%, P < 0.001). After stratifying by the presence of GGO, maximum standardized uptake value and maximum tumour size were independently significant prognosticators in the Solid group by multivariable analysis; however, no clinical factors were associated with survival among the With GGO group. The 5-year OS was favourable despite the solid component size among the With GGO group (T1a + T1b: 85.5%, T1c: 80.0%, T2a or more: 84.2%, P = 0.904). For the Solid group, survival diminished drastically with increasing tumour size (T1a + T1b: 68.7%, T1c: 62.8%, T2a or more: 48.0%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma with GGO was favourable even in hypermetabolic tumours. Accordingly, the presence of GGO should be considered as an important parameter in the next clinical T classification.
Andreas Winkler, Paul Puiu, Philipp Krombholz-Reindl, Andreas Vötsch, Johannes Steindl, Matthias Neuner, Michael Kirnbauer, Rainald Seitelberger,
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab420

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of concomitant ascending aortic replacement on operative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS We retrospectively analysed our institutional database for all patients undergoing elective isolated AVR and AVR with concomitant replacement of the ascending aorta between January 2009 and May 2020. Patients undergoing surgery for infective endocarditis or requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest were excluded. A 3:1 propensity matching was performed for 688 patients to compare isolated AVR (120 patients) with AVR + ascending aortic replacement (40 patients). RESULTS There were significant differences in median cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time [92.5 (75–114) vs 118.5 (104–131) min; P < 0.001], median aortic cross-clamp time [65.0 (51.5–78.5) vs 84.5 (77–94) min; P < 0.001] and median intensive care unit stay [1 (1–3) vs 2 (1–6) days; P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in the use of intraoperative and postoperative blood products, re-exploration for bleeding, postoperative atrial fibrillation, acute renal failure, incidence of stroke, perioperative myocardial infarction and 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS Concomitant replacement of the ascending aorta significantly prolongs CPB and aortic clamp times but does not increase operative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, replacement of a dilated ascending aorta appears to be the most durable and safest treatment option in patients undergoing AVR with an aneurysmatic ascending aorta.
Kenneth P Seastedt, Dana Moukheiber, Saurabh A Mahindre, Chaitanya Thammineni, Darin T Rosen, Ammara A Watkins, Daniel A Hashimoto, , Jacques Kpodonu,
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab422

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES Machine learning (ML) has great potential, but there are few examples of its implementation improving outcomes. The thoracic surgeon must be aware of pertinent ML literature and how to evaluate this field for the safe translation to patient care. This scoping review provides an introduction to ML applications specific to the thoracic surgeon. We review current applications, limitations and future directions. METHODS A search of the PubMed database was conducted with inclusion requirements being the use of an ML algorithm to analyse patient information relevant to a thoracic surgeon and contain sufficient details on the data used, ML methods and results. Twenty-two papers met the criteria and were reviewed using a methodological quality rubric. RESULTS ML demonstrated enhanced preoperative test accuracy, earlier pathological diagnosis, therapies to maximize survival and predictions of adverse events and survival after surgery. However, only 4 performed external validation. One demonstrated improved patient outcomes, nearly all failed to perform model calibration and one addressed fairness and bias with most not generalizable to different populations. There was a considerable variation to allow for reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS There is promise but also challenges for ML in thoracic surgery. The transparency of data and algorithm design and the systemic bias on which models are dependent remain issues to be addressed. Although there has yet to be widespread use in thoracic surgery, it is essential thoracic surgeons be at the forefront of the eventual safe introduction of ML to the clinic and operating room.
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