Natural Resources

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-706X / 2158-7086
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 511
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Natalya Evgenievna Savva, Pavel Sergeevich Minyuk, Tatiana Vladimirovna Subbotnikova
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 53-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.132004

Abstract:
Many years have passed since the two cosmic bodies of the Tunguska meteorite and the Vitim bollid fell to Earth, but so far the substance of these bodies has not been found on Earth. Therefore, each metal body found on the territory of their passage is of particular interest. The body of iron silicide weighing 12 kg was studied, which was accidentally discovered by a hunter of the village of Kyker in the Siberian taiga on the right bank of the Nercha River, Tungokochensky district, Trans-Baikal Territory. Coordinates of the place of discovery are: 53º19'N lat, 116º19'E long. The territory is located in the zone of the passage of the Tunguska meteorite and the Vitim bollid, 25 km from the hunting village of Green Lake. The body is named “Ilekta” after the nearest stream flowing into the Nercha River. The composition and magnetic properties of the exotic find have been determined. It is established that its main mass is composed of iron silicide, gupesiite Fe3Si (zussite?) and contains inclusions of needle-like rhabdite. On the surface, the body is covered with a melting crust, with signs of boiling, a bubbly structure and a film of clay minerals of terrestrial origin. In the molten porous crust, eutectic-schreibersite-gupeiite is observed, and rare titanium carbide crystals are also noted. The magnetic susceptibility of the samples is not uniform (286.6 - 461.8 10-6E-06 m3/kg). It is assumed that a drop of melt separated from the flying space body, and experienced overheating and boiling of the surface layer in the dense layers of the atmosphere.
Karimou Dia Hantchi, Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou, Adamou Didier Tidjani, Rachid Boubacar Oumarou, Zibo Garba
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 16-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.131002

Abstract:
Due to increasingly extreme climatic conditions in the Sahel, irrigated crops are emerging as imperative innovations for agricultural transformation and resilience. This study is designed to assess the impact of market gardening on soil, water and plant cover in the western Niger Republic. Semi-structured survey data were collected from 78 site operators in the Imanan rural municipality (Filingué, Tillabéry). In addition to the survey, a photographic collection illustrated certain observable facts in the field. The survey shows that the wooden enclosures (70.65% of respondents) around the fields are renewed every year. The impacts are then substantial: deforestation of plateaus, clearing of valleys for new extensions, loss of wildlife habitat, changes in the water flow regime resulting from a geomorphological change in the commune. Itou, the preparation of the planks consumes a lot of water. Thus, the new sinking of water points and the load pressure increase the drawdowns of wells and boreholes in the sites (75.46% of respondents). The frequent spills of waste oil on the sites, as well as the numerous potato storage pits, are among the factors and vectors most likely to contaminate the soils and aquifers of the study area. Market gardening destabilizes the soils and induces regressive erosion as well as area runoff of rainwater on all sites and on the slopes. On the other hand, slash-and-burn practices, drying of branches intended for fences, as well as rain-fed cowpea crops, promote improved physical properties and soil fertilization. To reduce the risks of disintegration and especially of silting up of sites, the study suggests a policy of live hedges and wire fences so that common spaces can be imposed on operators.
Raj Kumar Bhosale, Sasidharan Sakkan, Srinivasa Murthy Venkatramanappa, Shivaswamy Mathada Rudraiah, Kumaraswamy Rampur, Arulmozhi Sathiyanarayanan, Deepa Mandlik, Sanman Kolhe, Sadanand Yewale, Sriram Padmanabhan
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 147-170; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.137010

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the contaminating bacteria in the extract of Garcinia cambogia, which is regularly used as a dietary supplement for addressing obesity in humans. Methods: The Garcinia cambogia extract was used and experiments were conducted to isolate the contaminating bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility was tested. The organism was identified using BIOLOG system. Such an extract was used in a placebo-controlled animal study when 6 eight adult male rats weighing between 200 and 220 g were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 3) and in test group 1, a single dose of 100 mg/kg bw of Garcinia cambogia extract was given while in the test group 2, 100 mg Garcinia cambogia extract + 116 mg Picrorhiza kurroa extract were administered through oral gavage. The normal control rats were given distilled water, and the treatment lasted for 30 days. Blood plasma and liver tissues were prepared for biochemical analysis and histology studies. Results: Nearly ~103 cfu/g of Bacillus atrophaeus was present in the Garcinia cambogia extract and we demonstrate >99% reduction in the microbial load with tetracycline. Such an extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg, showed weight loss in Wistar rats when administered orally for 1 month with no significant changes in liver histopathology. Picrorhiza kurroa, also known for its hepatoprotective properties, has been administered at a dose of 116 mg/kg along with Garcinia extract at 100 mg/kg orally and found to improve levels of hepatic enzymes as similar to control animals, although not statistically significant. Conclusions: The study revealed that Garcinia cambogia could prevent weight gain in Wistar rats when given orally and the weight gain in Garcinia-treated animals was almost 4 times less (7.31%), as against weight gain of 25.36% seen in vehicle control animals. The antibiotic susceptibility data indicated that the isolated bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics with a strong susceptibility to tetracycline.
James L. Creighton
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 127-146; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.136009

Abstract:
Over the past several decades natural resource issues have become highly controversial, even playing out on the national or international stage. While natural resource science has advanced, the controversy has not gone away. If anything, it has gotten worse. The reality is that natural resource managers need to be as skilled at addressing public concerns as they are with resource science. Fortunately, over the same period the social sciences have produced useful tools that can aid natural resource managers. But resource managers need to know about these tools and be trained in their use. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to some of the social science tools or approaches that have proven to reduce political conflict over resource issues. When beginning a major project, resource managers can review this list to see which of these approaches might prevent or mitigate controversy. References are provided for each tool as a starting place for further exploration.
Guanrong Li, Ruihua Ren, Deying Kong, Jie Feng, Yanyan Yin, Fang Liao
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 65-76; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.133005

Abstract:
Chinese traditional medicine Danshen is the radix of the perennial herbs of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has a variety of pharmacological effects and is traditionally and extensively applied clinically to treat cardiovascular disorders. In this research, the genomic genes for tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) of 38 cultivated populations of Danshen in China were cloned and bioinformatic analyses were conducted to reveal its genetic diversity and phylogeny. The full-length SmTAT was 2296 - 2444 bp including 6 exons (encoding 411 amino acids) and 5 introns. Overall, the SmTAT genes in cultivated Danshen populations are highly conserved with a relative low level of genetic diversity. The spliced exons (1236 bp) had 23 SNP variations with a rate of 1.86%, of which 22 occurred in the white flower S. miltiorrhiza Bge.f.alba population (W-SCHY-W-1) and led to 5 amino acid variations. The entire 290 SNP variations with a rate of 24% in the 5 introns occurred exclusively in W-SCHY-W-1. Phylogenetic trees based on the full-length, combined introns, the spliced exons, and the deduced amino acid sequences of SmTAT all showed a two-clade basic structure with W-SCHY-W-1 uniquely standing alone. The SmTAT gene of the white flower population (W-SCHY-W-1) is unique and especially rich in variations. The first time clarified genomic SmTAT gene structure and genetic diversity in cultivated Danshen populations laid an excellent foundation for further studies on the biosynthesis of bioactives and the molecular breeding of Danshen as well as in plant tyrosine metabolism.
Fraol Abebe Wudineh, Semu Ayalew Moges, Belete Berhanu Kidanewold
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 38-51; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.131003

Abstract:
Flood is a natural process generated by the interaction of various driving factors. Flood peak flows, flood frequency at different return periods, and potential driving forces are analyzed in this study. The peak flow of six gauging stations, with a catchment area ranging from 169 - 124,108 km2 and sufficient observed streamflow data, was selected to develop threshold (3rd quartile) magnitude and frequency (POTF) that occurred over ten years of records. Sixteen Potential climatic, watershed and human driving factors of floods in the study area were identified and analyzed with GIS, Pearson’s correlation, and Principal Correlation Analysis (PCA) to select the most influential factors. Eight of them (MAR, DA, BE, VS, sand, forest AGR, PD) are identified as the most significant variables in the flood formation of the basin. Moreover, mean annual rainfall (MAR), drainage area (DA), and lack of forest cover are explored as the principal driving factors for flood peak discharge in Wabi-Shebele River Basin. Finally, the study resulted in regression equations that helped plan and design different infrastructure works in the basin as ungauged catchment empirical equations to compute QMPF, Q5, Q10, Q50, and Q100 using influential climate, watershed, and human driving factors. The results of these empirical equations are also statistically accepted with a high significance correlation (R2 > 0.9).
Olga Murova
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 91-104; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.134007

Abstract:
This article returns to the topic of sustainability. West Texas, mainly known for its cotton and cattle production, is facing problems related to the dispensation of agricultural waste produced by these operations. The article looks at the ways of handling agricultural waste and the opportunities of dispensing it in West Texas. Since between 30 - 40 percent of food produced in the US is not consumed, reduction of food waste is another sustainability problem that, when solved, would lead to the reduction of agricultural production and, in turn, the reduction of agricultural waste. Waste reduction management practices of large food chain stores in West Texas are discussed, with a final goal of bringing waste to a zero level. Public sources of sustainable agricultural and non-agricultural waste handling are also mentioned. This research adds to the previous knowledge on sustainability by discussing agricultural waste practices of a specific local area, i.e. West Texas.
Abidemi Atteh, Adesoji Adeyeye
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 105-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.135008

Abstract:
Understanding the effects of ionising radiation (IR) on plants has been a major focus of research. Acute high-dose effects are well-documented and understood (mainly through laboratory testing). Lower doses, on the other hand, are less understood, as low dosage research is controversial, and there are only a few studies that use low and ecologically relevant IR levels, particularly those conducted under controlled conditions. The effect of low gamma radiation was investigated in this study using Vicia faba L., Vigna radiata L., and Pisum sativum L. Healthy and viable seeds of these plants were irradiated with varying doses of gamma radiation (Cs−137 source) and sown under controlled environmental conditions. The doses/dose rates used were within the scope of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s Derived Consideration Reference Level (DCRL) for these groups of plants (1 - 10 mGy∙d−1), so this study tested this DCRL. Observations were made on certain germination parameters and growth traits like germination percentage and rate, shoot and root length, seed weight, number of leaves, wet and dry biomass, plant height, leaf chlorophyll content, and leaf area. In the germination phase, the doses employed in this experiment did not affect the seeds’ weight, germination percentage, and rate, but there were some interesting effects on the root and shoot length; as all irradiated groups performed better than the control group (particularly the 16.2 mGy and 48.5 mGy dose in V. radiata and P. sativum, while the 1070 mGy dose had the highest value in V. faba). However, the plants were able to compensate for the effects observed in the germination phase and by the end of the experiment, there were no statistically significant effects (at 0.05 p level) in all the morphometric parameters studied; the visible organs appeared normal, and growth rate was normal. This study, therefore, concludes that the DCRL used to protect these groups of plants from the effects of IR (1 - 10 mGy∙d−1) is appropriate and present regulation appears to be suitable.
Michael J. Robidoux, Jill M. Voorhees, Abigail Domagall, Michael E. Barnes
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.131001

Abstract:
Salmonid fish are known to reproduce throughout the Black Hills in South Dakota, however, it is not known when or where they are spawning or how successful their spawning is. This study documented for the first-time brown trout (Salmo trutta) redd locations and redd construction timing in a 1.6 km reach of Spearfish Creek, within the northern most part of the city of Spearfish, South Dakota, USA in 2020. Redds were first observed on October 13, 2020, with observations continuing until November 17 when no new redds were spotted. Redd construction peaked during the first week of November, with 52 observed. A total of 146 redds was recorded over the course of the study, resulting in a density of 91 redds/km. This is the first study to document redds in this section of Spearfish Creek. These observations will allow for comparisons to future spawning activity which may be impacted by the increased urbanization likely along this section of the creek. Hopefully, This study can also guide future research and habitat projects throughout this section of Spearfish Creek, and potentially throughout this region.
Oscar Sarcinelli, Ademar Ribeiro Romeiro, Lauro Charlet Pereira, Sergio Gomes Tosto
Published: 1 January 2022
Natural Resources, Volume 13, pp 171-180; https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2022.138011

Abstract:
Establishing a sustainable scale in natural resources management enables effective economic and ecological policies and guarantees the long-term sustainability of economic production. In agriculture, land evaluations determine the land use sustainable scales, that is, those that avoid land degradation and allow the provision of food, wood, energy, and ecosystem services over time. The paper assessed São Paulo State’s agricultural sustainability by analyzing the current land use adequacy to the land use capability map that follows FAO 1976 “guide for land evaluation” and was applied to São Paulo by the State Agricultural Secretariat. Results indicate inefficiencies in land use at the state level, where more than one-third of agricultural lands do not satisfy technical land capability indications. According to technical land use capability, more than 4.5 million hectares are being underused (economic inefficiency) and another 2.2 million hectares are being overused (environmental inefficiency). Pasturelands represent the most unsustainable land use, where 3.7 million hectares are allocated in high quality lands with high agricultural production potential, and another 0.7 million hectares are allocated in lands with very low quality for agriculture, most of than area degraded. To achieve sustainability, lands with high agricultural production potential should be used to improve agriculture and food production and, on the other hand, lands with very low agricultural production potential should be used for wood production, agroforestry, ecotourism and natural ecosystems conservation. Our results provide a framework for improving land use policies in São Paulo State and highlight an opportunity to achieve land use sustainability.
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