Advances in Aging Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21690499 / 21690502
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 162
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Lidan Bian, Huanlan Wang, Xun Gong, Xuanxuan Wang, Guo Lu, Guohong Wang
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 14-22; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91002

Abstract:
Objective: To know about the current situation of hypertension in some areas of Hubei Province and analyze the influencing factors. Methods: According to the principle of Stratified sampling, we conducted health examination and questionnaire survey for 1500 residents over the age of 18 at observation point of chronic noninfectious diseases at 10 sub-districts (towns) of Wuhan City, Jingzhou City, Huanggang City, Shiyan City, which used descriptive statistics and logistics to regressively analyze Current situation of hypertension and its influencing factors of residents. Results: Prevalence of hypertension of rural and urban residents over 18 is 27.44% in Hubei province. There are many differences among prevalence of hypertension of male and female, distribution of BMI of rural and urban residents and prevalence of hypertension and so on, and it has statistical significance (P-value , education level, dieting habits (high salt and high oil), family per capita monthly income, BMI have statistical significance on the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural residents of Hubei Province. Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in the residents of five cities and prefectures in Hubei Province is on the trend of rising in ladder form and at a much earlier age. The health education, monitoring and intervention of chronic diseases need to be widely carried out, with emphasis on the intervention of the residents’ eating habits of high salt and oil, smoking, drinking and other bad lifestyle.
Junko Ouchi, Yuko Hayashi, Michiko Matsubara, Kaoru Fukura, Kumiko Miyata, Michiyo Yamamoto, Ouchi Junko, Hayashi Yuko, Matsubara Michiko, Fukura Kaoru, et al.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 32-44; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92004

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aims to examine the association between tongue and lip movement and physical fitness with a sample of independent community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 119 older adults living in a city of Japan participated in this study. Tongue and lip movement was evaluated with oral diadochokinesis (ODK) rate for the syllable “pa”, “ta”, and “ka” measured by counting syllable repetitions within one second. Physical fitness was objectively evaluated with the Timed-Up and Go Test (TUG) and the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (CS-30). Subjective physical fitness was also assessed with a Physical Component Summary score (PCS) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Partial correlation coefficients between ODK rates and physical fitness measures were obtained after adjusting the effects of age and the number of present teeth. Results: There were significant differences in ODK rates for the syllable “ta” and “ka” between the participants aged 65 - 74 and 75 or older. Significant differences in all the physical fitness measures were also observed in the two age groups. Partial correlation analysis with age and number of present teeth as covariates yielded significant correlations of ODK rates to TUG and PCS, but not with CS-30. Conclusion: Older adults whose functional mobility declined tended to maintain the movement of tongue and lips. Moreover, those who perceived declining physical fitness also tended to show a decline of tongue and lip movement. Thus, the present study added some knowledge on the relationships between general physical fitness and tongue and lip movement. It also made several suggestions for future interventions based on the findings.
Dimitrios Papadopoulos
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 23-31; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92003

Abstract:
Much research has highlighted the aging process as a global, multi-faceted issue, focusing on modifiable factors that can improve physical health and psychosocial well-being in late life. This is particularly true for both developed and developing countries, which are likely to face long-term issues in health and psychosocial care as the aging of their population increases. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging and developmental psychology, this paper aims to review recent advances in our knowledge of middle and late-life well-being in order to better understand the role of well-being and spirituality/religiosity across adulthood. The results of the selected studies allow us to conclude that subjective, hedonic, and eudemonic well-being and religious practices are significant determinants shaping the overall psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and social functioning of the older population. Limitations and implications of the study will also be discussed.
Jeffrey Yeung, Patrick C. L. Hui
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91001

Abstract:
Aging population is substantively increased over last decade and they have specific clothing needs especially for the elderly with disabilities. Their clothing needs to cover functional and aesthetic requirements in order to improve their quality of life. Adaptive clothing is specially designed for the elderly and the disabled. However, there is no public policy to support such the elderly with disabilities in their clothing needs. In this paper, we aim to study the adaptive clothing and its significance, the problems encountered by the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing, analysis of public policy in Hong Kong for the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing over last decade, and implications and future directions for adaptive clothing in Hong Kong. In our findings, the demand of adaptive clothing in Hong Kong was substantially increased over last decade and the predicted demand will be twice of current demand after 50 years. However, the Government policy in Hong Kong has not yet fully supported their clothing needs, and the non-profit clothing services centre is set up to provide tailoring services to meet their needs. As the capacity of the centre is very limited, it is necessary to expand its capacity through assistive technology and to encourage non-government organizations (NGOs) to establish more social enterprises with Government’s support. Such findings would be beneficial to the Government for strengthening such services for the elderly and the disabled as well as public awareness.
Joerg Gruenwald, Anne Eckert, Reto W. Kressig
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 45-65; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.93005

Abstract:
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is defined as the presence of self-reported cognitive complaints with unimpaired performance in neuropsychological cognitive tests. SCD has been identified as a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and potentially represents the earliest clinical sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba (GBE) are widely used as a treatment for cognitive impairment. Nonetheless, most of the available review articles focus on the effects of GBE in MCI and dementia but not in SCD and its specific cognitive effects. Thus, this review collects and discusses the available published clinical data for the effects of standardized GBE on the early stages of cognitive decline among an age group where SCD becomes a topic—the middle-aged adults. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses of standardized GBEs in cognitive decline subjects were searched using PubMed/MEDLINE, Science direct, Cochrane, and Google Scholar until January 2019. Data from relevant RCT were critically evaluated to determine the potential effects of GBE on SCD. The results showed that the number of available GBE studies on SCD is small. Eight studies were selected in which subjects reported memory impairment, in some cases with concerns (worries), and with an average age at onset SCD of 60 years. Six studies gave a proof of efficacy for GBE for the treatment of SCD in at least one cognitive parameter. One study is inconclusive, however, a post-hoc analysis demonstrates efficacy in preventing AD with intake >4 years. The most common GBE dosage used was 240 mg GBE/day over a minimum period of 8 weeks. Hence, there might be beneficial effects of GBE to prevent, improve or delay SCD in the generation of 50 years or older. However, larger, well-defined RCTs using SCD criteria are necessary to further substantiate this effect in SCD subjects.
Elisa Priscila Sousa De Assis, Barbara Gazolla De Macêdo, Thais Almeida Marques Da Silva, Poliana De Paula Dias Rezende, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antonio Lucio Teixeira Junior, Carlos M. De Figueiredo Antunes, Priscila Sousa De Assis Elisa, Gazolla De Macêdo Barbara, Almeida Marques Da Silva Thais, et al.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 75-87; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.85006

Abstract:
Frailty is an important and complex phenomenon in the fields of geriatrics and gerontology and a highly relevant topic. Frailty syndrome (FS) is a multidimensional clinical condition characterized by loss of physiological and cognitive reserves across multiple organ systems. The Fried frailty phenotype is the main model used to categorize FS. Recent studies have shown an association between anemia, low hemoglobin concentration and frailty. This study aimed to assess the association between FS and anemia in community-dwelling elderly. An observational cross-sectional design was used, with 308 elderly subjects. Most participants were women (78.2%) between 60 and 69 years old (50.6%). The average schooling level was 9.7 years. Anemia was detected in 9.7% of participants. The frequency of frailty, pre-frailty and non-frailty was 8.2, 74.0 and 17.8%, respectively. The multivariate ordinal logistic regression model identified low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.9; 0.9) as risk factor associated with FS. No significant association was found between frailty and anemia. Moreover, FS may be influenced by low schooling levels, despite the non-significant result obtained in the statistical model. These findings contribute to elucidating other factors associated with FS, especially in community-dwelling elderly.
Pnina Ron
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 88-106; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.85007

Abstract:
The aim of the current study was to compare between three generations groups of Arab and Jewish male’s attitudes towards filial responsibility. 121 university students, their fathers (116) and their grandfathers (114), answered a self-report questionnaire, which measured filial responsibility attitudes, type of attachment; self-esteem; sense of mastery and, family support. Results revealed ethnicity and religiosity differences as well as between-generations differences regarding filial responsibility. An additional finding brought to light the cross-generational differences in the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and the attitudes regarding filial responsibility. The most important finding shows that the Arab male, especially in the youngest generation, finds himself in a socio-psychological-internal conflict between tradition and modernization regarding the family norms. Arab society, in attitudes towards filial responsibility, is still traditional in terms of its approach to the institutions of clan and, the men status within the family. Thus, mostly among the elderly Arab Muslims.
Hom Nath Chalise, Edwin Rosenberg, Nath Chalise Hom, Rosenberg Edwin
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 63-74; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.84005

Abstract:
Span style="font-family:Verdana;">Background: Most developing countries are ageing at unprecedented rates, yet they are relatively under-studied regarding the demographic and health status of the older population. This in turn inhibits appropriate, positive societal responses. This study presents the socio-demographic and health status of older adults in Nepal. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of structured interview data collected by the Central Department of Population Studies at Tribhuvan University (TU) via a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling persons age 60+ in the Pharping area of Kathmandu. For this study, there were 1326 valid responses. Results: Respondents’ mean age was 69.92 years (sd = 7.82). The majority (70%) was illiterate. Nearly 3/5 of women were widowed (58.4%), which nearly doubles the male rate (31.8%). Over three-quarters of respondents (78.6%) were living with family members, far more than with spouse only (11.6%), alone (6.2%) or with others (3.6%). Only 9.2% of respondents received a pension, and over seventy percent of respondents (70.7%) were still working. About three-quarters (76.5%) of respondents had physical health problems; 14.6% had some physical disability, and 52.6% self-reported a mental health problem. Statistically significant (p 0.01) gender differences were found for marital status, literacy, living arrangements, pensions, physical health problems, and mental health problems. Conclusions: Like most nations, Nepal is ageing rapidly. There are gender differences that can differentially affect the experiences of older men and women. Nepal should increase the quantity and quality of data describing its older population so it can continue to develop appropriate, effective social and health programs and services to reduce gender disparities and maximize elderly quality of life.
H. Iwai, M. Inaba, D. B. Van, K. Suzuki, T. Sakagami, Y. Yun, Y. Kobayashi, A. Kanda
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 29-41; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.82003

Abstract:
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
Tomader Taha Abdel Rahman, Maram Maher Monier, Sally Adel Hakim, Lamyaa Kamel Ebrahim
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.81001

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