Advances in Aging Research
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-0499 / 2169-0502
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 170
Latest articles in this journal
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 10, pp 31-57; doi:10.4236/aar.2021.102002
Standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is an established herbal treatment used for a variety of indications, including vertigo and/or tinnitus. The evidence base in human clinical studies for a clear benefit of GBE in vertigo and/or tinnitus is limited and contradictory due to poor reporting as well as variations in study quality and outcome measures used. The aim of this review is to identify and discuss the rationale for using GBE in the treatment of vertigo and/or tinnitus based on the known pleiotropic actions of GBE and the pathophysiology of vertigo and/or tinnitus. The rationale will be substantiated by a review of the literature in order to identify and evaluate clinical trials investigating the efficacy of GBE in individuals with vertigo and/or tinnitus. The review identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effectiveness of GBE in vertigo and/or tinnitus published in PubMed up to 1st January 2020. In total, 17 RCTs were included 8 of the 9 studies investigating tinnitus and/or vertigo/dizziness found improvements, and 6 of 8 included studies investigating solely tinnitus showed positive effects. Based on the known mechanisms of action of GBE as well as evidence from animal models and human clinical trials identified in this review, GBE is a rational alternative treatment that might provide benefits to individuals with vertigo and/or tinnitus. However, further well-defined RCTs in patients with defined pathological entities are necessary to further substantiate the beneficial effects of GBE for vertigo and/or tinnitus.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 10, pp 1-30; doi:10.4236/aar.2021.101001
The aim of this study was to identify the clothing needs of wheelchair users using relevant literatures in a global scale and to design a method to classify the clothing needs into a unified system, in order to generate a map of wheelchair users’ clothing needs with the information from multiple resources. The paper reviewed the previous studies about clothing needs and preference of wheelchair users. A three-tier screening was designed to extract main findings from the relevant literature. Content analysis and statistical analysis were used to integrate the information and identify implications. Information was categorized to represent the attributes of the clothing needs. The paper provides comprehensive insights about the specific barriers and abstract demands about the clothing needs of wheelchair users regarding their preference for apparel products. Eight essential attributes relating to the clothing needs of wheelchair users were identified: functional needs, fit attribute fabric and fiber, safety issue, aesthetic needs, expressive needs, quality of life, and extrinsic attributes. The attributes were classified into two general domains, reflecting the physical challenges and psychological desires of wheelchair users.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 10, pp 71-77; doi:10.4236/aar.2021.104004
The aim was to investigate the effect of three water levels (umbilical, 4th rib, and clavicular) on the respiratory function and respiratory muscle strength among elderly. Spirometry and respiratory strength were measured on land as baseline data. Next, water depth conditions were determined randomly, and spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were measured at each water level. The Vital Capacity and Expiratory reserve volume in the clavicular level were significantly lower than those in the land and umbilical trials. No significant difference was observed in other respiratory functions. Chest circumference and respiratory muscle strength were not significantly different among all conditions.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 10, pp 59-70; doi:10.4236/aar.2021.103003
Introduction: Due to the growth of the elderly population, there is a notable lack of preparation among family members and society to face the challenges of this new reality, resulting in an increasing demand for homes for the aged (HA). It is necessary to understand how the impairment of physical health, mental health and the level of depression can affect the functional capacity of the institutionalized elderly who live in homes for the aged. Objective: To describe the correlation between depression and functionality of elderly people who live in homes for the aged. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive study with 70 elderly people of both sexes, aged 60 years or older, who live in HA in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Result: It was verified that the female gender was predominant in the HA consulted. The majority of elderly live in HA voluntarily 48.6% and that 41.43% did not complete elementary school. The majority of the elderly 81.43% had the ability to perform basic activities of daily living and the elderly 52.86% had normal psychological pictures. The worsening of the depressive picture is associated with the worse functioning of elderly who live in HA (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Depression is a factor that is associated with the functional capacity of the institutionalized elderly. The worse the functional level of the institutionalized elderly, the greater the chances of presenting a depressive state.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 77-93; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.95007
Objective: This study evaluates the association of self-reported race with change in ankle-brachial index (ABI) over time and modification of this association by paraoxonase gene (PON1, PON2 and PON3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: This longitudinal study included 11,992 (N = 2952 Black, N = 9040 White) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort with PON genotyping. Mixed-effects models examined whether race was associated with change in ABI over time after adjustment for known peripheral artery disease (PAD) risk factors. Results: Change in ABI over time differed between Whites and Blacks (race-time interaction, p 0.0001). Stratified analyses showed that ABI values were better in both Blacks and Whites who completed high school or more education compared to those who completed less education. None of the PON SNPs met the significance level (p 0.001) after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: ABI differences by race were small and although statistically significant, may not be clinically significant. Change in ABI over time varies by race and may be modified by education. Results suggest that higher education may influence the lifestyle and behavioral choices contributing to better ABI in both Blacks and Whites. Further studies are needed to confirm this observation.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 32-44; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92004
Aim: The present study aims to examine the association between tongue and lip movement and physical fitness with a sample of independent community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 119 older adults living in a city of Japan participated in this study. Tongue and lip movement was evaluated with oral diadochokinesis (ODK) rate for the syllable “pa”, “ta”, and “ka” measured by counting syllable repetitions within one second. Physical fitness was objectively evaluated with the Timed-Up and Go Test (TUG) and the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (CS-30). Subjective physical fitness was also assessed with a Physical Component Summary score (PCS) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Partial correlation coefficients between ODK rates and physical fitness measures were obtained after adjusting the effects of age and the number of present teeth. Results: There were significant differences in ODK rates for the syllable “ta” and “ka” between the participants aged 65 - 74 and 75 or older. Significant differences in all the physical fitness measures were also observed in the two age groups. Partial correlation analysis with age and number of present teeth as covariates yielded significant correlations of ODK rates to TUG and PCS, but not with CS-30. Conclusion: Older adults whose functional mobility declined tended to maintain the movement of tongue and lips. Moreover, those who perceived declining physical fitness also tended to show a decline of tongue and lip movement. Thus, the present study added some knowledge on the relationships between general physical fitness and tongue and lip movement. It also made several suggestions for future interventions based on the findings.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91001
Aging population is substantively increased over last decade and they have specific clothing needs especially for the elderly with disabilities. Their clothing needs to cover functional and aesthetic requirements in order to improve their quality of life. Adaptive clothing is specially designed for the elderly and the disabled. However, there is no public policy to support such the elderly with disabilities in their clothing needs. In this paper, we aim to study the adaptive clothing and its significance, the problems encountered by the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing, analysis of public policy in Hong Kong for the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing over last decade, and implications and future directions for adaptive clothing in Hong Kong. In our findings, the demand of adaptive clothing in Hong Kong was substantially increased over last decade and the predicted demand will be twice of current demand after 50 years. However, the Government policy in Hong Kong has not yet fully supported their clothing needs, and the non-profit clothing services centre is set up to provide tailoring services to meet their needs. As the capacity of the centre is very limited, it is necessary to expand its capacity through assistive technology and to encourage non-government organizations (NGOs) to establish more social enterprises with Government’s support. Such findings would be beneficial to the Government for strengthening such services for the elderly and the disabled as well as public awareness.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 23-31; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92003
Much research has highlighted the aging process as a global, multi-faceted issue, focusing on modifiable factors that can improve physical health and psychosocial well-being in late life. This is particularly true for both developed and developing countries, which are likely to face long-term issues in health and psychosocial care as the aging of their population increases. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging and developmental psychology, this paper aims to review recent advances in our knowledge of middle and late-life well-being in order to better understand the role of well-being and spirituality/religiosity across adulthood. The results of the selected studies allow us to conclude that subjective, hedonic, and eudemonic well-being and religious practices are significant determinants shaping the overall psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and social functioning of the older population. Limitations and implications of the study will also be discussed.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 95-115; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.96008
Background: Limited research concerns the study of continuity in the future of the physical and social status of elderly people with DS that is when people who take care of them will not be there anymore (“after we have gone”). Objective: From a biopsychosocial perspective, to investigate the daily life of ageing people with Down Syndrome over 45 years old in order to identify the most important issues in better planning for their future. Methods: A cross-sectional Italian national study was carried out. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to formal and informal caregivers of aging people with Down Syndrome. Results: 136 family members and health professionals were involved. Most of the people with Down Syndrome live at home, attend a daily center and do many activities. Most of them had never worked and she/he is not at all autonomous. 25% of caregivers declared that, nowadays, there is not planning for the future, and 30.9% of participants who planned their future collected information when it occurred (e.g. when the parents pass away). Conclusions: The aging of people with DS requires attention to the planning of their future. In order to better plan, it is necessary to avoid programming “in emergency”, but for time, keeping in mind of the activities developed by the people, their abilities and all of the elements that have allowed them to live well up to a point of their life.
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 09, pp 14-22; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91002
Objective: To know about the current situation of hypertension in some areas of Hubei Province and analyze the influencing factors. Methods: According to the principle of Stratified sampling, we conducted health examination and questionnaire survey for 1500 residents over the age of 18 at observation point of chronic noninfectious diseases at 10 sub-districts (towns) of Wuhan City, Jingzhou City, Huanggang City, Shiyan City, which used descriptive statistics and logistics to regressively analyze Current situation of hypertension and its influencing factors of residents. Results: Prevalence of hypertension of rural and urban residents over 18 is 27.44% in Hubei province. There are many differences among prevalence of hypertension of male and female, distribution of BMI of rural and urban residents and prevalence of hypertension and so on, and it has statistical significance (P-value , education level, dieting habits (high salt and high oil), family per capita monthly income, BMI have statistical significance on the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural residents of Hubei Province. Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in the residents of five cities and prefectures in Hubei Province is on the trend of rising in ladder form and at a much earlier age. The health education, monitoring and intervention of chronic diseases need to be widely carried out, with emphasis on the intervention of the residents’ eating habits of high salt and oil, smoking, drinking and other bad lifestyle.