Advances in Aging Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-0499 / 2169-0502
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 166
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Venusia Covelli, Erika Guastafierro, Matilde Leonardi
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 95-115; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.96008

Abstract:
Background: Limited research concerns the study of continuity in the future of the physical and social status of elderly people with DS that is when people who take care of them will not be there anymore (“after we have gone”). Objective: From a biopsychosocial perspective, to investigate the daily life of ageing people with Down Syndrome over 45 years old in order to identify the most important issues in better planning for their future. Methods: A cross-sectional Italian national study was carried out. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to formal and informal caregivers of aging people with Down Syndrome. Results: 136 family members and health professionals were involved. Most of the people with Down Syndrome live at home, attend a daily center and do many activities. Most of them had never worked and she/he is not at all autonomous. 25% of caregivers declared that, nowadays, there is not planning for the future, and 30.9% of participants who planned their future collected information when it occurred (e.g. when the parents pass away). Conclusions: The aging of people with DS requires attention to the planning of their future. In order to better plan, it is necessary to avoid programming “in emergency”, but for time, keeping in mind of the activities developed by the people, their abilities and all of the elements that have allowed them to live well up to a point of their life.
Lidan Bian, Huanlan Wang, Xun Gong, Xuanxuan Wang, Guo Lu, Guohong Wang
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 14-22; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91002

Abstract:
Objective: To know about the current situation of hypertension in some areas of Hubei Province and analyze the influencing factors. Methods: According to the principle of Stratified sampling, we conducted health examination and questionnaire survey for 1500 residents over the age of 18 at observation point of chronic noninfectious diseases at 10 sub-districts (towns) of Wuhan City, Jingzhou City, Huanggang City, Shiyan City, which used descriptive statistics and logistics to regressively analyze Current situation of hypertension and its influencing factors of residents. Results: Prevalence of hypertension of rural and urban residents over 18 is 27.44% in Hubei province. There are many differences among prevalence of hypertension of male and female, distribution of BMI of rural and urban residents and prevalence of hypertension and so on, and it has statistical significance (P-value , education level, dieting habits (high salt and high oil), family per capita monthly income, BMI have statistical significance on the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural residents of Hubei Province. Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension in the residents of five cities and prefectures in Hubei Province is on the trend of rising in ladder form and at a much earlier age. The health education, monitoring and intervention of chronic diseases need to be widely carried out, with emphasis on the intervention of the residents’ eating habits of high salt and oil, smoking, drinking and other bad lifestyle.
Joerg Gruenwald, Anne Eckert, Reto W. Kressig
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 45-65; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.93005

Abstract:
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is defined as the presence of self-reported cognitive complaints with unimpaired performance in neuropsychological cognitive tests. SCD has been identified as a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and potentially represents the earliest clinical sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba (GBE) are widely used as a treatment for cognitive impairment. Nonetheless, most of the available review articles focus on the effects of GBE in MCI and dementia but not in SCD and its specific cognitive effects. Thus, this review collects and discusses the available published clinical data for the effects of standardized GBE on the early stages of cognitive decline among an age group where SCD becomes a topic—the middle-aged adults. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses of standardized GBEs in cognitive decline subjects were searched using PubMed/MEDLINE, Science direct, Cochrane, and Google Scholar until January 2019. Data from relevant RCT were critically evaluated to determine the potential effects of GBE on SCD. The results showed that the number of available GBE studies on SCD is small. Eight studies were selected in which subjects reported memory impairment, in some cases with concerns (worries), and with an average age at onset SCD of 60 years. Six studies gave a proof of efficacy for GBE for the treatment of SCD in at least one cognitive parameter. One study is inconclusive, however, a post-hoc analysis demonstrates efficacy in preventing AD with intake >4 years. The most common GBE dosage used was 240 mg GBE/day over a minimum period of 8 weeks. Hence, there might be beneficial effects of GBE to prevent, improve or delay SCD in the generation of 50 years or older. However, larger, well-defined RCTs using SCD criteria are necessary to further substantiate this effect in SCD subjects.
Dimitrios Papadopoulos
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 23-31; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92003

Abstract:
Much research has highlighted the aging process as a global, multi-faceted issue, focusing on modifiable factors that can improve physical health and psychosocial well-being in late life. This is particularly true for both developed and developing countries, which are likely to face long-term issues in health and psychosocial care as the aging of their population increases. Within the theoretical framework of successful aging and developmental psychology, this paper aims to review recent advances in our knowledge of middle and late-life well-being in order to better understand the role of well-being and spirituality/religiosity across adulthood. The results of the selected studies allow us to conclude that subjective, hedonic, and eudemonic well-being and religious practices are significant determinants shaping the overall psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and social functioning of the older population. Limitations and implications of the study will also be discussed.
Jeffrey Yeung, Patrick C. L. Hui
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.91001

Abstract:
Aging population is substantively increased over last decade and they have specific clothing needs especially for the elderly with disabilities. Their clothing needs to cover functional and aesthetic requirements in order to improve their quality of life. Adaptive clothing is specially designed for the elderly and the disabled. However, there is no public policy to support such the elderly with disabilities in their clothing needs. In this paper, we aim to study the adaptive clothing and its significance, the problems encountered by the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing, analysis of public policy in Hong Kong for the elderly with disabilities in adaptive clothing over last decade, and implications and future directions for adaptive clothing in Hong Kong. In our findings, the demand of adaptive clothing in Hong Kong was substantially increased over last decade and the predicted demand will be twice of current demand after 50 years. However, the Government policy in Hong Kong has not yet fully supported their clothing needs, and the non-profit clothing services centre is set up to provide tailoring services to meet their needs. As the capacity of the centre is very limited, it is necessary to expand its capacity through assistive technology and to encourage non-government organizations (NGOs) to establish more social enterprises with Government’s support. Such findings would be beneficial to the Government for strengthening such services for the elderly and the disabled as well as public awareness.
Junko Ouchi, Yuko Hayashi, Michiko Matsubara, Kaoru Fukura, Kumiko Miyata, Michiyo Yamamoto
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 32-44; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.92004

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aims to examine the association between tongue and lip movement and physical fitness with a sample of independent community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 119 older adults living in a city of Japan participated in this study. Tongue and lip movement was evaluated with oral diadochokinesis (ODK) rate for the syllable “pa”, “ta”, and “ka” measured by counting syllable repetitions within one second. Physical fitness was objectively evaluated with the Timed-Up and Go Test (TUG) and the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (CS-30). Subjective physical fitness was also assessed with a Physical Component Summary score (PCS) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Partial correlation coefficients between ODK rates and physical fitness measures were obtained after adjusting the effects of age and the number of present teeth. Results: There were significant differences in ODK rates for the syllable “ta” and “ka” between the participants aged 65 - 74 and 75 or older. Significant differences in all the physical fitness measures were also observed in the two age groups. Partial correlation analysis with age and number of present teeth as covariates yielded significant correlations of ODK rates to TUG and PCS, but not with CS-30. Conclusion: Older adults whose functional mobility declined tended to maintain the movement of tongue and lips. Moreover, those who perceived declining physical fitness also tended to show a decline of tongue and lip movement. Thus, the present study added some knowledge on the relationships between general physical fitness and tongue and lip movement. It also made several suggestions for future interventions based on the findings.
Ericha Franey, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, Erin Richard, John Alcaraz, Caroline Nievergelt, Richard Shaffer, Vibha Bhatnagar
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 77-93; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.95007

Abstract:
Objective: This study evaluates the association of self-reported race with change in ankle-brachial index (ABI) over time and modification of this association by paraoxonase gene (PON1, PON2 and PON3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: This longitudinal study included 11,992 (N = 2952 Black, N = 9040 White) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort with PON genotyping. Mixed-effects models examined whether race was associated with change in ABI over time after adjustment for known peripheral artery disease (PAD) risk factors. Results: Change in ABI over time differed between Whites and Blacks (race-time interaction, p 0.0001). Stratified analyses showed that ABI values were better in both Blacks and Whites who completed high school or more education compared to those who completed less education. None of the PON SNPs met the significance level (p 0.001) after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: ABI differences by race were small and although statistically significant, may not be clinically significant. Change in ABI over time varies by race and may be modified by education. Results suggest that higher education may influence the lifestyle and behavioral choices contributing to better ABI in both Blacks and Whites. Further studies are needed to confirm this observation.
Saisamorn Chaleoykitti, Werayuth Srithumsuk, Saitip Jaipong, Pinthusorn Pattayakorn, Kattiya Podimuang
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 9, pp 67-76; doi:10.4236/aar.2020.94006

Abstract:
Objective: The number of people with stroke increases worldwide. The stroke survivors live with disabilities and those influence their quality of life (QOL). This study was aimed to investigate the association between clinical characteristics and QOL of the older people with stroke at discharge from the hospital. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The participants were 113 stroke survivors aged 60 years and older admitted to the stroke unit. Quality of life was the study’s outcome which measured by using the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF). Primary clinical characteristics were measured by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Potential confounding factors were age, sex, education levels, marital status, current occupation, and comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and heart disease). Multiple linear regression was used for data analysis. Results: The main effects of clinical outcomes were high BI Score that had a significant difference association with QOL (β = 0.312, 95% CI = 0.042, 0.296, P = 0.009), lower mRS score also had significant difference association with QOL (β= -0.371, 95%CI = LJ.394, ǃ.162, P = 0.003) after all adjusting. Additional risk factor in this study was marital status (currently married) (β= 0.155, 95% CI = 0.226, 8.666, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Low function status and severe stroke disability as the clinical characteristics were associated with QOL in older people with stroke at hospital discharge. An additional factor was marital status (currently married).
Tomader Taha Abdel Rahman, Maram Maher Monier, Sally Adel Hakim, Lamyaa Kamel Ebrahim
Advances in Aging Research, Volume 8, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/aar.2019.81001

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