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Results in Journal Issues and Ideas in Education: 107

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C. Krishnan
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 7-19;

The fiscal crisis facing the economy has led to withdrawal of the state from major sectors of the economy including education. With the advent of the liberalized economic policy the private sector has been playing a pivotal role in the economic development. Higher education ceases to be the‘merit good’ and the universities are encouraged to mobilize resources by their own efforts rather than depending on government grants. This has impacted the financing of state and central universities across India. Actually, this paper evaluates the funding of state universities in India through a case study, taking into consideration the changing contours of financing higher education. The core idea of the study is to analyse the resource mobilization as well as its utilization by the selected university. The study is based on secondary data. The discussion on the funding pattern reveals that the university is highly dependent on state grants for their day-to-day functioning. Though the efforts to generate internal resources is picking up, the university has failed to address the long run financial crunch of the university. The study concludes that unless the universities explore alternative channels of resources mobilization, it would be difficult to offer quality education in this era of globalization.
Nandini Vankayala, K. Anuradha
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 49-61;

The present study focuses on the perceived stress in 353 parents, whose Children with Intellectual disability underwent training in special education schools of (Bavitha Readiness Centres), Chittoor dist., Andhra Pradesh. The overall perceived stress (scale) score was measured through family assessment scheduled (FAS) developed by NIMHANS. The concerned mean scores were computed and compared at two stages of special training given to children i.e., at the time of joining and after two years of training with a paired t-test of significance. The overall findings reveal that the overall score, as well as its four sub–scales score of parent’s perceived stress, have been reduced after providing 2 years of special training to their Children with Intellectual disability as compared to joining the school (training).
Rupa Ghosh, Sudeshna Lahiri
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 21-32;

Parenting holds tremendous significance in today’s world as quality parenting facilitates the development of social and emotional competence in a child. The present study explores the dual role of domestic workers as workers and parents. Domestic Workers work from dawn to dusk to take care of their employees’ families. The obvious question arises: who takes care of their children, back home? As a parent, Domestic workers with their odd working hours and low or no literacy rate are nowadays trying to overcome the socio-economic challenges as well as handicaps of the profession by getting involved in their children’s academics. This paper investigates the effects of the length of working hours and education levels of domestic worker parents on their academic involvement with the children. The present study uses a descriptive survey research design to find out the relationship between academic involvement and work hours. The data was subjected to appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate a negative relationship between work hours and academicinvolvement. It is also revealed that higher education level to be associated with better academic involvement. The study thus calls for further intervention by schools and the government to motivate parents. Parent-teacher meetings may be of help in this respect along with workshops and government-sponsored programs to educate the parents to support them to climb up the socio-economic ladder through their children.
Abba Salisu
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 1-6;

Background: Secondary school teacher’s turnover is one of the problems bedeviling education sector in Katsina state. The sector can hardly be improved unless the situation is changed. To change the situation the stakeholders should focus on the need to enhance secondary school teacher’s satisfaction, commitment and empowerment.Purpose: The study examines the influence of empowerment on turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina State Nigeria. In addition the study examines which dimension among the dimensions of empowerment best influences turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina state, Nigeria. Methods: Empowerment and Turnover Intention questionnaires were used to get the needed data. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data gathered using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The results show that the dimensions of empowerment significantly and negatively explain 40% of variance of turnover intention. Additionally, among the dimensions of empowerment namely; perceived control, perceived competence and goal internalization, perceived competence makes the largest contribution followed by perceived control; beta -.35 and -.31 respectively. Conclusion: the study establishes that empowerment significantly and negatively relates to turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina state Nigeria.
Runumi Sharma, Mamta Aswal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 33-37;

Bertrand Russell’s educational thoughts significantly deal with reforming education for school going children and he also supported pre-primary education. He favored early childhood education for physical, intellectual and character development. His emphasis on character development of a child shows the significance of early years of life for development of an individual. This paper aims at exploring Bertrand Russell’s thoughts on early childhood education. It is an attempt to understand the significance of early childhood education for the holistic development of the children. Though there are early childhood education is prevalent in our country, but it was not mandatory to get early childhood education till the approval of National Education Policy (N.E.P., 2020). It has included early childhood education in compulsory school education for promoting better learning and well being of a child. It is a qualitative research in which historical method has been used where data has been collected from primary and secondary sources. The finding of the study shows that Bertrand Russell’sthought on early childhood education is relevant in present Indian context for developing good values, physical and mental development as well as in future learning. This shows that the encouragement to early childhood education and Bertrand Russell’s thoughts on early childhood education would be helpful for holistic development of children.
Sarabjit Kaur
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 57-66;

Background: National Education Policy 2020 aims to eliminate existing disparities in access to education for children from any gender or any under-represented group. After independence, India makes considerable strides in reducing gender gaps in education, but even today the goal of gender parity in school enrolments remains elusive. India provides Universal Elementary Education to all and this commitment has been articulated through Constitution, National Education Policies and other Innovative Programmes. All these initiatives put a strong emphasis on the education of girls and some of the programmes have been started particularly to eliminate gender gaps in school education. Purpose: This paper is an attempt to review the Innovative Programmes started by the Government of India to redress the gender gaps in school education and also to analyze the impact of these programmes on female literacy rates and enrolment rates of girls in elementary education. Before analyzing the innovative programmes and their impact on educational statistics, the paper briefly assesses the status of education in the Constitution of India and also studies the national policy perspective regarding universal elementary education of girls in the country in order to provide a sound background to this study. Methods: The method of document analysis for the review of policy documents and innovative programmes has been utilized and trend analysis method has been applied to study the educational statistics from the year 1950 to 2015. Results: The female literacy rates and enrolment of girls in total enrolments for the classes VI-VIII have registered an increase after the implementation of these programmes. Conclusions: It has been observed that these community-based programmes of the country have received a lot of international recognition for their contribution towards reducing gender gaps in elementary education. So, the experiences of these Innovative Programmes can prove quite beneficial for other countries struggling with gender gaps in school education.
Ashutosh Biswal, Kamakshi Raipure
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 77-85;

Productive thinking is the cognitive ability to plan, reason logically, analyse, synthesize, evaluate, and make decision to reach at the solution of the problem or we can say that it is the ability by which one can refine their creative work with critical thinking to give strength and value to it. It is a way to solve problems creatively. For this research, a model has been developed called as FIESI (Foundation, Ideation, Evaluation, Stabilization and Implication) for fostering productive thinking. Researchers conducted an experiment to foster productive thinking among VIII standard students with the help of this model as elementary level is delimited to standard VIII. Quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design was used. Two Kendriya Vidyalayas (Central Schools) were selected purposively for experiment purpose. One section of standard VIII from each school was selected as the sample for the experiment and control groups. Students of both the classes were made equivalent on the basis of a science achievement test. The equivalent groups consist of 26 students each. Researchers taught Science to the experimental group for one academic year (2019-2020) using FIESI model and the control group was taught by their regular teachers. Researchers developed and validated a productivethinking test for data collection. Data were analysed using chi-square. The finding revealed that FIESI model was found significant in fostering productive thinking among standard VIII students.
Dn Sansanwal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 49-53;

Examination is a part and parcel of Teaching-Learning Process. In examination or tests different types of question are asked by teachers. These are Essay, Short Answer, Multiple Choice, Fill-in the Blanks, and Matching Types. These are not very suitable for Open Book Examination. Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology were developed for the research. It is a new type of question which can be used by school, College and University teachers irrespective of the subject taught by them. The objective of this research was to study the influence of Discipline, Gender and their interaction on Performance of participants on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. The Hypothesis formulated in null form was there is no significant influence of Discipline, Gender and their interaction on Performance of participants on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. This study was conducted on Sample of 423 Deans, Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Research Fellows and Postgraduate students from 26 states and six countries. Data were collected online using WhatsApp and emails during Covid-19 period. The findings were: (1) Social Science participants were found to have better understanding of Research Methodology than Science as well as Humanities participants. Further Science as well as Humanities participants were found to similar understanding of Research Methodology. (2) Male and Female Participants were found to perform equally well on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. (3) Performance on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology was found to be independent of interaction between Discipline and Gender of Participants.
Chinmaya Prakash, Shubha Chandra Shubha Chandra
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 67-76;

Background: In recent years, the importance of school as a stake-holder in CSR activities is gaining recognition. Companies channel financial and human resources into developing schools. School Development and Monitoring Committee (SDMC) plays an important part in the management of Primary schools in Karnataka and as such should have a role in CSR activities. Purpose: This exploratory study attempted to answer the following questions- (1) How aware are SDMC members of CSR and its role in schools (2) what is their perception of CSR in their schools? (3) Do rural and urban SDMC members differ in their perception of CSR Methods: Sample consisted of SDMC members from 50 rural and 50 urban Government run primary schools in Bangalore Educational districts. 100 SDMC members, one from each school, were interviewed using a semi structured information schedule developed for this study. Results: Management is not very clear about the nature of CSR support . However, 75% of them perceive CSR as beneficial to their schools. Rural subjects have a more favourable perception of CSR impact and they differ significantly from urban counterparts in rating ‘ how CSR has benefited students’ (t = 2.052).Conclusions: SDMC members do not clearly distinguish between support provided under CSR and support received from other sources. Overall, CSR is seen as beneficial to school by supplementing government support and helping the management. Rural schools seem to benefit more from CSR support. Though SDMC is supposed to monitor the developmental activities of the school, they are not often consulted by companies about the requirements for the school. Involving SDMC in planning, executing and monitoring would enhance the efficacy of CSR programmes.
Ajit Mondal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 39-48;

Background: The nitty-gritty of the teacher education chiefly rests on its curriculum implementation at institutional level, transaction in classrooms, assessment, evaluation, as well as the degree of its suitability. Thanks to the NCTE Regulations (Norms and Standards), 2014, the duration of the B. Ed. Programme has been extended from one year to two years across India from academic session 2015-16 to prepare the teachers professional and well-equipped with sound theoretical knowledge and pedagogical skills. However, the attitude of the teacher-educators and pupil teachers towards Two-Year B. Ed. Programme matters to a great extent for its assessing suitability of the new regulations. Purpose: The present study has been undertaken to review only ten selective research studies only on the attitude of the teacher-educators and pupil-teachers towards the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme, aiming at grasping their attitudinal status or trend in a single frame with a broader spectrum of views value towards the Programme.Methods: The review-based content analysis method was adopted and its approach was qualitative for analysing the attitude of the Teacher-Educators and Student-Teachers towards two-year B. Ed. Programme.Results: the entire gamut of the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme under the NCTE Regulations, 2014 is effective and more promising for preparing professional and accountable teachers from the lens of the teacher-educators. Only the student-teachers need to be oriented with prescribed theoretical knowledge base through viable pedagogical strategies as most of the student-teachers have not hold favourable attitude towards the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme. Conclusion: As a whole, the attitudinal trend among the teacher educators and pupil-students towards the two year B. Ed. Programme irrespective gender, locality, experience and types of institution hints at the pressing need to ensure that all the B. Ed. Institutions must comply with the norms and standards stipulated in the NCTE Regulations, 2014 for preparing professional and accountable teachers in the future ahead.
Richa Bansal, Sunil Dutt
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 1-8;

The study was executed to investigate the effects of teaching via WebQuest Based Instruction on students’ critical thinking in comparison to teaching through traditional mode of instruction. Murthy Critical Thinking Scale (2014) was used to assess students’ critical thinking. The study was carried out with ninth grade science students who were selected from government schools of Chandigarh and were randomly separated into two groups: the control group who received conventional mode of instruction and experimental group exposed to WebQuest based instruction created by the researcher. Both descriptive as well as inferential statistics (t-test) were employed to analyze the data. The findings of the research illustrated a noteworthy variation in critical thinking between two groups where students of experimental group dominated over control group students, hence demonstrating the substantial positive effect of WebQuest based instruction on student’s critical thinking. In view of the acquired results, the researcher recommended the use of WebQuest based instruction during teaching learning process and also proposed to provide proper training to teachers in how to implement the WebQuest in educational practices.
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 19-25;

CLIL programmes have been implemented in a large number of Spanish schools in the last decades as a means of promoting foreign language proficiency and fostering multilingualism and language diversity in order to meet the new demands of our globalized societies. Although Spain is considered one of the European leaders in CLIL practice and research, it nevertheless faces many challenges caused by teachers´ insufficient training both in the target language and in CLIL methodology. While the language-related shortcomings have been identified to a certain extent and remedied through language immersion courses and language assistant programmes, the content-related and methodological issues are still being largely neglected in spite of the fact that there exists considerable CLIL literature where these issues have been addressed. Renowned CLIL authors such as Do Coyle, David Marsh and Peeter Mehisto stress the importance of high quality teaching as key to the success of the CLIL approach; they claim that good CLIL practice not only broadens conceptual mapping resources by boosting cognitive development and metacognitive skills, but it also encourages active, meaningful, “deep” learning, critical thinking and creative thought with the help of scaffolding techniques that facilitate both language and content learning. This paper examines the language practices in content classrooms in the bilingual programmes of Castilla la Mancha. With a view to identifying the main difficulties that both teachers and students face. It also explores different ways of approaching these challenges, most of which are bound to be extensive to the Indian context.
Rafael Cruz
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 9-17;

The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is increasingly affecting every aspect of our daily lives, including the educational field where new approaches and methodologies are being developed. CLIL is currently one of the most popular educational approaches in Europe as it combines specifically created online course materials with more traditional teaching strategies. The case study introduced in this paper involves a charter school in Castilla-La Mancha called La Merced where CLIL was introduced in 2013. In the academic year 2018-2019, the school was taken over by an international educational network named Red Educativa Arenales, which decided to modernize the school by introducing highly innovative education teaching strategies related to ICT methodology. The initial stage of the modernization plan consists of equipping every classroom with digital devices such as laptops and tablets, as physical textbooks have been substituted by an online learning platform. Most school stakeholders agree that this first year has proved to be highly satisfactory regarding students’ motivation and academic achievement. Drawing on my experience as an English teacher in La Merced since 2011, in this paper I compare the classroom atmosphere and the academic achievements of my students until 2018, when more traditional methods were in use, to last year’s textbook-free pilot program. I will focus on my own grade, namely 3rd level of secondary education class (age 15-16) whose exam results have remarkably improved since the implementation of ICT blending methodology.
, María Victoria Guadamillas Gómez
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 53-63;

This article analyses the main legislation in Spain regarding Bilingual Education in the stage of Primary Education. Firstly, it divides Spanish regions into monolingual and bilingual. Later, it deals with the main legislation enforced in Primary Education, and carefully analyses three main aspects: teachers’ L2 level, teachers’ methodological requirements, and the non-linguistic discipline or disciplines included in bilingual programs together with the subjects’ language or languages of delivery and assessment. The first aspect, L2, is labelled following the different levels of the European Framework of Languages. As for teaching methodology, information has been classified as “not mentioned”, “recommended” or “required”. With regards to subjects, there are four different labels: “compulsory”, “optional”, “not mentioned”, and “not specified”. A high degree of heterogeneity is observed in two of the three areas analyzed. These differences among regions do not seem to be connected with their monolingual or bilingual nature. Finally yet importantly, it should be assumed that India and Spain are not close realities in some aspects. However, the study described above might help researchers, teachers or educational authorities to reflect upon some issues which are derived from CLIL(Content and Language Integrated Learning) methodology implementation in schools.
Vidyanand S. Khandagale, Rajendra Chavan
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 87-97;

Child abuse impedes an individual personality and leaves mark on the heart of an individual eventually and affects the growth and development. The children are most vulnerable and can be easily exploits. Child Abuse refers to the action which hurt or harms children in terms physical, emotional, sexual etc. The study was intended to find out the status and perceived attitude towards the child abuse among upper primary school students of Kolhapur city. A descriptive survey was conducted and the data was collected from 221 Upper Primary School students using structured questionnaire of child abuse. The findings of study were parents do not talk about the uncomfortable situations their child might face in absence of them along with and let the child make it know about the uncomfortable situation faced by their child to the responsible adult and the child to deal with such situations at school, movie, by doctor, friend or at a workshop. This is serious concern as parents must make aware about child abuse among their wards and Most of the Boys and Girls don’t know what to do if they will have to face any of the above mentioned situations.
Shailaja Bairy
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 71-86;

Multilingual approach to pedagogical practices in mathematics has the potential to target high level mathematical competence and abstraction. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is an innovative educational approach to learning, a dynamic and motivating force with holistic features. Not only does it image a shift towards curricular and cultural integration but also helps greatly to focus on deeper conceptual understanding in Mathematics. CLIL’s basic principle of integration of the content and languages if accepted in a broader sense as ‘Content connected to regional language and a new language, culture, nature, real-life’ might solve various problems associated with the teaching-learning of mathematics, and thus ensures to support ‘learning for real life’. This paper establishes the need for ‘Multilingualism’ through a comprehensive literature research. It highlights multilingualism as a trigger for active approach to the quality of Mathematics education, mainly in Indian scenario. The importance of teaching mathematics as a language and specific strategies for teaching mathematics vocabulary are discussed. The illustrations provided for such approaches are entirely based on author’s teaching experiences.
Fatma Gausiya, Hem Raj
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 65-70;

The evolution in field of science has led to technological advancement in present century and has made the human to think and behave in more scientific way. Inadequate knowledge of science and how it functions may affect the efficient functioning of humans, and thus this demands to have a society where students are exposed to scientific knowledge. Exposure to science from the foundations years in schools is not to develop each child into a scientist but it is necessary to develop scientific attitude in them to find out the truth by experiencing, observing and questioning what captivates their interest and attention.Hence, the present study focused on learning outcomes in science among elementary school students. The present study focuses on achievement of elementary school students in science and also compares the differences on the basis of the type of school and gender. The population for the study consisted of students from residential, government and private schools of Chandigarh. Sample was randomly selected including 35 students from class VIII from each type of school. The self-developed standardized Science Achievement Test (SAT) was used as an instrument for data collection. Data was analyzed using percentage, t-test and one way ANOVA with SPSS (version 21). The findings of the study revealed that 39 percent of students scored above average, 23 percent scored average and 38 percent scored below average in SAT. Male and female students do not differ on learning outcome in science but on the basis of type of school, students of residential school performed better in SAT as compared to government and private school students. It is recommended that various factors affecting learning outcomes in science should be explored to improve the Achievement in Science.
Lilu Ram Jakhar
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 13-17;

The adolescents’ occupational aspirations is affected by various factors such as intelligence, emotional stability, growth and development, peer group interest, family background, social and economic life and the cognitive maturity to select a career according to the one’s interest and needs. Adolescents’ career maturity is influenced by the attitude and the competencies of the individual. The study focused on finding out the relation between occupational aspirations and career maturity of the senior secondary school students according to their streams of study. The results of the study indicated no significant correlation between the occupational aspirations and career maturity of the arts stream senior secondary school students and it also shows no significant correlation between the occupational aspirations and career maturity of the science stream students of senior secondary classes.
Usashi Kundu (De)
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 19-25;

In the present day, the examination results of different school boards of India in general and West Bengal in particular are not much satisfactory in respect of performance in mathematics. It has been an observed fact that educational facilities provided in a school has to play a vital role in the performance of its students. The present study attempts to examine whether the performance of students in mathematics depends on the location of school where they study. Ex post facto research design has been employed in carrying out the study. The scores in mathematics of 1104 Madhyamik examinees from six secondary schools of Kolkata and outskirts served as the source of data and the sampling technique used was purposive. Results indicate that there exist significant differences between mathematics scores in Madhyamik Examination of students from Kolkata and outskirt schools. Students from Kolkata schools score better in mathematics than the students from the schools that are situated in the outskirts. The study, therefore, recommends that schools located in the outskirts should be provided with better infrastructure to help in better performance of their students in mathematics.
Sijji Jose, Remya Abraham
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 27-34;

The concept of learning and education is undergoing a rapid change. Learning has to be an enjoyable experience for the learners. Learning can be converted into a fun filled activity. Here, comes the role of games in the learning situations in classrooms. Children of all age love playing games all the time. They will enjoy their learning experience if it is done through playing games. Games can be either physical or mental activities or both. The study is an attempt to find out the influence of Chess and Sudoku on cognitive abilities of school students of secondary level. The method chosen for the study is descriptive survey method. The sample for the study comprises of 350 students from various schools in Kottayam District. The statistical measures used for the study are mean, percentage, S.D, and t-test. It was found that Chess and Sudoku players scored high in cognitive abilities test than the non-players. Boys are more interested in playing Chess and Sudoku than girls. CBSE private schools have more players than Govt. aided schools. Also it was found that trained Chess players scored high in cognitive abilities test than the untrained players.
Sonia Mahakur, Rajashree Baral, Venkateswar Meher
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 1-11;

The present study examines the perception of teachers and students of undergraduate colleges towards the implementation of Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) by investigating the significance of difference in the perception of teachers in relation to stream and students in relation to sex, streams and types of colleges. For this purpose near about 60 teachers and 120 students were selected through random sampling from 4 undergraduate colleges of Bargarh district affiliated to Sambalpur University, Odisha. The descriptive survey method was used by the researchers. The data were collected through five point perception scale developed by the researchers for teachers and students separately. For the analysis of the obtained data test was used. The result indicated that arts, science and commerce teachers did not differ significantly in their perception towards implementation of CBCS at undergraduate level. The science students differed significantly from the commerce and arts students in their perception towards the implementation of CBCS at undergraduate level. But arts and commerce students did not differ significantly in their perception. There was no significant difference in the perception of male and female students. The students of Government College differed significantly from the students of private college and government aided colleges in their perception towards the implementation of CBCS at under graduate level.
N.S. Mumthas, Shyma Usman Abdulla
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 7, pp 35-43;

Physics and Mathematics are two deeply interlinked domains of Science. Mathematics is considered as the language in which the Physics theories are built by employing mathematical symbols and operations to make equations and representations in the world of Physics completely meaningful. In spite of being the backbone of Physics, the use of Mathematics principles and operations in Physics is the root cause of most of the issues and hassles aroused among students who learn Physics. This is an investigation on the substandard performance in mathematical problem solving in Physics among higher secondary school students by looking into the responses of teachers and students. The responses obtained from 21 higher secondary Physics teachers through questionnaire were studied using percentage analysis and the four major categories of ‘Difficulties in Mathematical Problem Solving in Physics’ faced by students viz., ‘Creating or Identifying the Formula’, ‘Extracting Information from Diagrams’, ‘Using Physics Concepts to Create Schematic Diagrams’ and ‘Application of Mathematics’ to solve Physics problems. were identified, The investigators used ‘Test on Mathematical Problem Solving in Physics’ with 40 multiple choice questions on select basic topics from ‘Motion’, which was informed by the Physics teachers to be one of the strenuous concepts for students while solving problems. The extent of each category of difficulty in the respective topics based on the students’ responses in the test was studied to rank them. This study also highlights some suggestions for improving the teaching and learning of mathematical problems in Physics at higher secondary level.
Chandra B P Singh
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 135-143;

The study was designed to compute district wise Educational Development Index of Bihar. At the same time, an attempt was made to assess the trend of improvement in elementary education for the last few years. U-DISE data for the last two years (2014-15 and 2015-16) was analyzed and compared with the baseline data. Bihar showed significant improvement on many parameters of elementary education. Despite the fact that Bihar is yet to achieve the desirable level but the progress is evident. Other than learning achievement in terms of quality Bihar has shown her firm determination to change the gloomy picture of elementary education. The findings reflect a positive trend of upward movement. Right from access to teachers in school Bihar has made progress in the light of RTE act, 2009.
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 183-189;

In this technology era, students are becoming more efficient in coursework because of a better understanding of the subject materials due to the availability of multimedia packages that make teaching-learning an interesting process. In India, the scope of regional languages is limited only to their regions. Hence, more emphasis has been put on the use of Multimedia to develop the mother tongue. The development of instructional material using Multimedia in the Punjabi Language will help the teachers to procure and use these packages in classroom teaching, to make teaching interesting. Also, this will help the teachers to make a shift from traditional methods of teaching to new computerized methods. Due to this, students will able to retain the concepts for a long time as these methods have proved very effective in other courses too. Furthermore, films and print media also have a great contribution towards the technical teaching of these languages to promote the usage of regional languages at the National and International Level.
Anu Dandona
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 125-127;

Atharva Veda occupies a unique position among the four Vedas. The other three Vedas deal with matters of other world, the gods, the nature and supernatural, while Atharva Veda is more worldly. It seeks to solve the problems of this world and its common people. It deals with topic like leading a long and healthy life, to avoid sorrow, to ward off illness, to vanquish or win over the enemy, etc. Atharva Veda presents a detailed description of the life style of a very early stage of human society, which has just entered the agricultural stage. The importance of animal wealth cows, oxen, horses is much more. New kingdoms are being established. Men want to live happy healthy lives upto one hundred years. Pandit Bhagwat Sharma Upadhyay, in hindi Vishwakosh, says, “The stress in Atharva Veda is not so much on the use of Karma Kanda or the rituals, as on doing right or wrong, high or low, do-s and don’ts, popular beliefs, and tendencies of life. From this point of view, the importance of Atharva Veda is much more, for the historian, than of the other three Vedas. The first references to puranas, history, gathas etc. are found here. This Veda also points to many such traditions which are not only older than Rig Veda, but really go back to very very old times”.
Himanshu Tripathi
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 145-151;

Various measures have been recommended by different committees to improve the access, equity and quality status of higher education in Kerala. One of the major recommendations was initiated in the form of a pilot study with the commencement of honours course in English, Economics, Maths and Commerce subject at undergraduate level. This comparative study is an attempt to study the effectiveness of undergraduate English honours course, which commenced at Women’s College, Thiruvananthapuram in 2012. Comparison has been made between the learning outcomes of final year students from BA English (general) and BA English (honours) courses. The sample was tested on similar topics/sub-subjects taught in their course through an achievement test, oral test, extempore, tutorial observation and script play. An open discussion was also conducted with students and teachers to know their insight about the course. Findings of the study show positive impact of the honours course on the achievement of the learner. But, both the groups were found to be at the same platform in communication skill. Lastly, recommendations are made to bring improvement in the newly introduced English honours course to improve its quality in terms of learning outcomes.
Scott A. Courtney, Judy Benjamin
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 153-171;

As schools and teachers in the U.S. fine-tune their implementation of mathematics standards promoting college and career readiness, the number of support resources continues to expand. One resource focus experiencing significant growth involves sample items and tasks asserting alignment with the college and career ready mathematical content and practice standards. Such samples regularly identify both the content standards addressed and the mathematical habits of mind that students have the potential to engage in. Consistently absent are evaluation criteria articulating how engagement and demonstration of associated mathematical practices can be assessed, concurrent with content. The authors discuss the development of rubrics that attempt to faithfully assess the integration of mathematical content and practice standards and highlight the benefits to mathematics teachers, coaches, professional developers, and mathematics teacher educators of engaging in such reflective rubric-creating activities.
Atul Bamrara, Academic Counselor School of Computer & Information SciencesIndira Gandhi National Open University
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 11-28;

Kelvin Samuel, Katsina State Unity Secondary Funtua, Ibrahim Alhasan Libata, Abdulmalik Sabitu, Department of Science Education Federal University Dutsin-Ma
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 6, pp 87-97;

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