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Results in Journal Isis: 21,541

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Francesca Bray
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 548-563; https://doi.org/10.1086/715436

Abstract:
Taking tuber sciences and their histories as a case study, this essay hinges on materiality, both as a condition shaping thing–human relations and as a vector for producing knowledge and generating theory. It explores how people have made knowledge about some very earthy, solid, rooted, underground things: namely, tuber crops—yams, sweet or white potatoes, manioc, and taro. Unlike the waving seas of wheat and other grand global crops that sustained the rise of our modern world, tubers were almost invisible in history of science and technology until very recently. Anthropologists, however, have been thinking with tubers, recording how humans understand and work with them, and building theories about materiality and society from these observations for over a century—and they continue to be a vibrant source of inspiration to anthropologists of materiality today. The essay discusses the contexts in which different ways of knowing-through-tubers, vernacular and academic, have been formulated and asks what inspiration these tuber tales might offer to historians of science.
Paul Rubinson
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 484-506; https://doi.org/10.1086/715732

Abstract:
In 1794 the exiled chemist Joseph Priestley found asylum in the United States, where science was seen as both an international endeavor that depended upon human rights and a tool that would enhance national development. The arrival of Priestley, the first of many scientific exiles to relocate to the United States, seemed to fulfill Jeremy Belknap’s 1780 description of the United States as “the Mistress of the Sciences, as well as the Asylum of Liberty.” By declaring the United States the best, freest place to practice science, American scientists began to realign scientific internationalism according to U.S. interests and linked the universal ideals of science to the national mission.
Patrícia Martins Marcos, Sarah E. Naramore, Myrna Perez Sheldon, Sarah Pickman, Sarah A. Qidwai, Kathleen Sheppard
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 573-581; https://doi.org/10.1086/715711

Ylva Söderfeldt
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 531-547; https://doi.org/10.1086/715653

Abstract:
Around 1900, hay fever was a contested illness, mostly unknown among physicians or believed to be neurotic in nature. Motivated by a desire to gather and disseminate knowledge about their enigmatic ailment, hay fever sufferers organized to form the Hay Fever Association of Heligoland. The organization’s annual reports combined news from the latest medical science with observations of the illness as experienced by the members of the association. While employing observational practices derived from scientific settings in recording and documenting their suffering, the organized hay fever patients also used subjective experience to challenge the results from professional medical scientists. This struggle between scientific and embodied knowledge sheds new light on the emergence of patient advocacy.
Vera Keller
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 507-530; https://doi.org/10.1086/715760

Abstract:
This essay traces the changing relationship between horticulture, agriculture, and philosophy across the seventeenth century, as the personae of the philosophical husbandman and the philosophical gardener intertwined and competed. At stake in the dynamics between them was the relationship between abstruse researches and practical applications in evolving experimental philosophy, as well as the aesthetic of experimental practices and rhetoric. Early seventeenth-century promoters of colonial projects, such as Virginian sericulture, situated the metropolitan pleasure garden, a place of whimsy and fantastical reasoning, as a realm of trial that presumed eventual utility and application to large-scale husbandry. Such views informed relationships between fanciful trials, speculative proposals, and presumptions of future utility in the development of the persona of the philosophical gardener and attendant notions of experimental philosophy over the course of the century.
Elise K. Burton
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 461-483; https://doi.org/10.1086/715655

Abstract:
The Pasteur Institute of Iran underwent a major expansion of its research productivity and international recognition during some of the most significant events of modern Iranian history: the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, followed by the Anglo-American coup against Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1953. During this period, the institute’s French director, Marcel Baltazard, was embedded in a complex set of working relationships with his Iranian employees, research subjects, and government ministers; American scientists and foreign aid workers; and French Pasteurians and diplomats. Baltazard constantly described these relationships as instances of “collaboration.” The temporal and geographical context demands a critical reading of scientific collaboration alongside the negative implications of political collaboration. Investigating the political commitments and social attitudes of the French director and Iranian staff, this essay demonstrates that scientific collaboration at the institute both reinforced socioeconomic inequalities within Iran and mirrored global Cold War geopolitics that undermined Iranian sovereignty.
Steffen Ducheyne
Published: 1 September 2021
Isis, Volume 112, pp 584-584; https://doi.org/10.1086/715654

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