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Kanatbek Orozobekov
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1156805

Abstract:
The vocabulary work consists of several basic steps. These basic steps are: collecting information and facts, choosing elements, organizing, writing and achieving the final result. The dictionary is an element that preserves the linguistic heritage of the nation. This factor is pushing ancient and modern scientists to guide dictionaries on certain theories. Thus, this study aims to analyze the dictionary "al-Mu'cemu'l-Arabiyyu'l-Esâsî", which is one of the modern dictionaries and is encyclopedic and monolingual in nature, published by the Organization for Education, Culture and Science of the League of Arab States, prepared for those whose native language is not Arabic. The dictionary was published as a book titled "al-Mu'cemu'l-Arabiyyu'l-Esâsî" distributed by the Arab League Education Culture and Science Organization, Larousse Foundation. The first edition was published in 1989. This is a modern dictionary entering the fourth generation of the Arabic dictionary process. In addition, it is accepted as the third dictionary after the dictionary Muʻcemu'l-Vasît and Kâmûsu'l-Cedîd Li't-Tullâb due to its collective authorship. The dictionary contains about twenty-five thousand items arranged alphabetically from the root of the word. Thus, the dictionary is a reliable aid for Arab and non-Arab teachers, students and general intellectuals. In the study, after the definition, editions and authors of the dictionary are specified, information about the main features and purposes of the dictionary is given. Then, the compilation issue of the dictionary, its articles and the methods it followed were analyzed with the analytical method and the evaluation of the dictionary was given with a critical point of view.
Ozan Ipek, Ferhat Ensar
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1156791

Abstract:
For students who have difficulty in learning from the text, teachers adopt summarizing as a developmental intervention process. This is because summarization is not implicit; It is a structure based on knowledge, education, guidance, awareness, skill and belief in the student. The aim of the research is to determine the characteristics and orientations of articles and theses related to the ability to summarize. The main reason for this research is the fact that there is no study examining the tendencies of the studies on summarizing skills. In this direction, 22 theses and 40 articles, which were determined in the literature review made by considering various criteria, were examined in terms of their general characteristics, methodological aspects, aims, subjects and main results. In the research, in which the document analysis method was used, the data were analyzed with descriptive content analysis. Regarding the general characteristics of the studies examined, it was determined that the most research on summarization was done in 2019, 35% of the articles were produced from theses, the most postgraduate thesis was made among the theses, and only 3 of the studies were published in the SSCI and field indexes. The results of the researches related to the methodological features; Quantitative research approach and descriptive survey model come to the fore in summarizing studies, the participant group is mostly composed of primary school students, the researches are carried out with 1-50 participants at most, the most used sampling method is random sampling, the most used data collection tool is scale, the most used shows that the data analysis method is the T-Test for unrelated samples. The studies examined according to the purpose and the results of the research were mostly carried out on summarization performance for the purpose of determining the situation. Finally, the characteristics of the main results of the studies examined are given under 4 themes: "summary writing success", "summarization strategies", "affective aspect of summarizing" and "summarizing in Turkish course elements". It is thought that the research will contribute to the researches about summarization.
Oya Özgat Tatan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1148428

Abstract:
This research was carried out in order to determine the problems experienced by the instructors who teach Turkish as a second/foreign language and give lessons via online distance education in Turkey in the 2020-2021 academic year. In this context, qualitative research method was used in our research. The sample of the study consists of 77 participants. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed by considering all stages of content analysis. Based on these analyzes, 7 main themes were reached. These main themes are namely technical problems, assessment and evaluation, lack of digital skills of learners, learners’ participation and motivation, limitations of distance education platforms, lack of digital materials and lack of information technology tools/physical conditions. Internet disconnection is seen as technical problems and the lack of reliability and objectivity of evaluating performance in class, exam and test applications are considered as an assessment and evaluation. The program/application/website used are unknown by the learners or the learners cannot use it at the expected level. It shows as learners' lack of digital skills. Learners’ motivation below expectations and being reluctance to turn on the camera and sound are evaluated as learners’ participation and motivation theme. Distance education platforms do not allow one-to-one interaction and socialization so it is considered as limitations of distance education platforms. Learners do not have enough information technology devices and there is not enough number of digital materials in the field of teaching Turkish as a second/foreign language. They were evaluated as lack of information technology tools/physical conditions and lack of digital materials respectively. The findings were discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions were made.
Gökçen Bilgin Aksoy
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 72-87; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164018

Abstract:
As a subclass of mental verbs, emotion verbs are verbs expressing the activity of the mind to be under the influence of an emotion or emotions such as sadness, fear, disgust, pleasure, love, surprise, shame, anger in other words, the processes of being "emotional". In today's linguistics studies, it can be stated that since the verbs are in the executive position in the sentence, it is seen as a prerequisite to determine the members that the verbs can coexist with due to their meanings and the semantic relationship of these members with the verbs in question so that they can be understood more accurately within the semantic verb category they belong to. The aim of this study is to present the semantic structure aspects of emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish. For this reason, first of all, the conceptual framework of emotion verbs in linguistics studies in Turkey and in the world was evaluated, and then the semantic roles of emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish were determined in the light of case grammar. Experiential, content and stimulus have been adopted as the basic semantic roles in the semantic structure of emotion verbs. It has been determined that emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish exhibit five different semantic structures consisting of these semantic roles. This study, which describes the semantic features of emotion verbs, is also a new classification for emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish. It is thought that this research will contribute to fields such as lexicology, logology, syntax and teaching Azerbaijan Turkish, as well as verb classification studies.
Ozan Ipek, Ferhat Ensar
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 617-647; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1165002

Abstract:
For students who have difficulty in learning from the text, teachers adopt summarizing as a developmental intervention process. This is because summarization is not implicit; It is a structure based on knowledge, education, guidance, awareness, skill and belief in the student. The aim of the research is to determine the characteristics and orientations of articles and theses related to the ability to summarize. The main reason for this research is the fact that there is no study examining the tendencies of the studies on summarizing skills. In this direction, 22 theses and 40 articles, which were determined in the literature review made by considering various criteria, were examined in terms of their general characteristics, methodological aspects, aims, subjects and main results. In the research, in which the document analysis method was used, the data were analyzed with descriptive content analysis. Regarding the general characteristics of the studies examined, it was determined that the most research on summarization was done in 2019, 35% of the articles were produced from theses, the most postgraduate thesis was made among the theses, and only 3 of the studies were published in the SSCI and field indexes. The results of the researches related to the methodological features; Quantitative research approach and descriptive survey model come to the fore in summarizing studies, the participant group is mostly composed of primary school students, the researches are carried out with 1-50 participants at most, the most used sampling method is random sampling, the most used data collection tool is scale, the most used shows that the data analysis method is the T-Test for unrelated samples. The studies examined according to the purpose and the results of the research were mostly carried out on summarization performance for the purpose of determining the situation. Finally, the characteristics of the main results of the studies examined are given under 4 themes: "summary writing success", "summarization strategies", "affective aspect of summarizing" and "summarizing in Turkish course elements". It is thought that the research will contribute to the researches about summarization.
Mehmet Yasti, Ayşe TURSUN
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 388-402; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164986

Abstract:
One of the leading novelists of 20th century Turkish literature is Hüseyin Rahmi Gürpınar. In his works, he revealed the colorful and active lifestyles, customs, superstitions and superstitions of Istanbul and its surroundings, with the richness of his imagination, in a fluent language. Most of his works are based on his own observations and life experiences. In his lifetime, he reflected almost all social, psychological, political and economic issues that were closely related to Turkish society by adding his imagination and life experience, sometimes exaggerating. The author, who is a good observer, reflected the language of the period he lived in in his works, taking into account the dialect characteristics. Gürpınar's works have been simplified to today's Turkish by many publishing houses. In this study, the reduplications in the works of Gurpinar, which were translated from the original language to Latin letters, suzc as Hayattan Sahifeler, Şeytan İşi, Kadınlar Vaizi, İffet, Şık, Gulyabani, Mezarından Kalkan Şehit and which have been used as a way of expression in the Turkish syntax since the first written texts have been identified. These languge units are formed by repetition of the same word, those formed by the repetition of synonyms or similar words, those formed by the repetition of word with antonyms, those formed by the repetition of one meaningful and one meaningless word, those formed by the repetition of two meaningless words, and those formed by the repetition of numbers. It has been examined under eight sub-titles, including those consisting of words (with reinforcement). Thus, it has been tried to reveal how Gürpınar used her reduplications as language and style in the works in question with numerical data.
Iclal Arslan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 771-804; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164987

Abstract:
In this article, it is aimed to catalog the theses studied between 2018-2022 related to Arabic Language Education (Arabic Teaching). In this way, the person who wants to do research on this subject will have the opportunity to see the theses on the subjects that include teaching Arabic. There are theses up to 2018 in the book titled The Index of Turkish Works Published in the Field of Arabic Language Literature and Rhetoric in Turkey (1928-2018), which was copyrighted by Hasan Harmancı. Since this study is aimed to include the theses on subjects indirectly related to Arabic teaching, it was preferred to start in 2018. As a result of the search, 204 master's and 16 doctoral theses could be reached. In addition, it was mentioned in which universities there are programs on 'Arabic Language Education' in Turkey, and information was given about postgraduate education. The theses cataloged were primarily determined from the ones made in the Faculties of Education in terms of being related to 'Arabic Language Education'. However, it has also been observed that a remarkable number of theses have been made, especially in the Department of Basic Islamic Sciences. These studies are included in the catalog as much as possible, with the thought that lexicography and lexicography, which represent the grammar of Arabic teaching, can be included in the education. Based on the connection of Arabic teaching with the textbooks taught in classical madrasas, the edition critiques of the classical textbooks also took place in this study. Thus, it is aimed for the researcher to turn to manuscripts that have not been verified. Thesis titles are given in Turkish-Arabic or Turkish-English or in three languages in accordance with their registration in YOK.
Kwestan Hussein Ahmed, Seçil Tümen Akyildiz
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 966-986; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164991

Abstract:
The use of digital technologies in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching has not been addressed enough. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the significance of digital technology and digital literacy in EFL field. This study aims at finding out EFL in-service secondary school (SS) and high school (HS) teachers’ views on the role of digital literacy in their EFL teaching; revealing the level of EFL teachers’ digital literacy and its effects on their teaching, and understanding the facilities of the digital tools and challenges in EFL teachers’ instructions. Further, this study aims to examine the difference between the thoughts of SS teachers and HS teachers about the role of digital literacy in EFL. To achieve these aims, this study utilized a qualitative paradigm to determine the role of digital literacy in EFL classes concerning the views of Turkish EFL teachers, and their perceptions about digital teaching and learning tools in their instruction. First it was found that HS teachers knew the term digital literacy more than the SS teachers. Both SS and HS teachers were confident using digital tools and being digitally literate although some of them could not define the term properly. Secondly digital literacy was claimed to have positive effects on language teaching. Thirdly, all the participants agreed with the fact that the innovations of the digital technologies facilitated their language instruction. Lastly, digital tools had many challenges due to some problems besides their advanteages. All in all, when taken together, the results of this study confirmed the vital role of digital literacy in EFL teaching in the digital age that teachers should acquire and use it actively. Therefore, EFL teachers should incorporate digital literacy in using different digital technologies such as Web 2 tools having several facilities into their instructions. The EFL teachers also admitted the need for trainings and seminars to help them using those tools and become digital natives.
Meltem Ekti
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 660-672; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164994

Abstract:
In the studies on humor, humor is generally regarded as an art form that reveals the funny side of life in different genres and styles. It can be said that the purpose of this activity is to make the recipient laugh and even criticize. While criticizing, the aim is also to eliminate the deficiencies, mistakes, and defects made in the communication and interaction process in which the messages are directly or indirectly transmitted. What makes humor important and different apart from its effects is the way it is applied, such as the style used, the rhetorical elements, etc. This is because what sounds "funny" for one may not be "funny" for another, so what seems "hilarious" to one may not be "hilarious" to another. Depending on the individual and even on the societies involved, this situation varies not only concerning the function of being hilarious but also concerning many other functions. Here lies actually the difficulty in creating humor. When individual differences, as well as the differences in the imagination of national and international receivers, are taken into account, it is a very tedious process to capture a common sense of humor, namely gathering people under the same roof by making them to get the same joke. Therefore, this study analyses not only (as usual) the choice of genre, style, and shape but especially their function in a multicultural, that is, multilingual environment. Obviously, it is necessary to add the dimension of a "metalanguage" in addition to the concepts of style and genre and to the rhetorical elements employed. In order to exemplify the function of "metalanguage" and "meta communication" as a tool to bring different cultures together, the perspective of humor has been used in this study. As a type of humor, the language used in the stand-up shows by Bülent Ceylan, who grew up in a bilingual environment, is Turkish; at the same time, he makes jokes Germans can understand easily; he can address not only native speakers but also memebers of other societies as the target group. This study analyses examples from Ceylan's humor. Ceylan uses humor as a communicative tool on the level of a metalanguage, thus bringing together the members of societies with two different, maybe even more, senses of humor under a common "humor" roof.
Fadime Çoban
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1107-1116; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164918

Abstract:
Audio-visual translation is relatively a new field in terms of translation studies and can be considered a paradigm under the umbrella of translation studies. In order to contribute to the aforementioned literature, in this study, the English original and Turkish subtitles of the comedy drama series "Orange Is The New Black", shown for seven seasons between 2013-2019, were analyzed. In the series in question, the emotional events of female prisoners, their experiences, their communication with one another, their love, their changes and their past lives are narrated in detail. Starting from the question of to what extent the plot in the original series has been preserved or has it been preserved in the Turkish subtitle, the strategies applied in the Turkish version were exemplified from the first season of the series and it was tried to describe whether a source or target-oriented approach was adopted in the translation. In the evaluation, it was found that the Turkish subtitles were mostly created faithfully, especially when compared to the dubbed version. This shows the availability of the adequate translation, one of the initial norms by Toury, in the Turkish subtitle. Finally, possible reasons behind the application of the source oriented approach in the translated version were expressed.
Zafer Sari
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 917-940; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164905

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to analyze two different Turkish translations, made by different translators and published by different publishers, of the figurative language in the dystopian novel Brave New World, written by British author Aldous Huxley, within the framework of Newmark, Popovic, Pym and Kocabıyık's translation theories. In this context, it has been tried to determine which translation strategies the translators prefer to use, that is, which translation theory or theories the translations can serve as an example. In accordance with this purpose, a total of thirty-four figurative language selected from each part of the original text consisting of eighteen chapters and their Turkish translations have been examined in the light of four translation theories. In this study, as the source text, the 25th edition of the original text published by Longman Literature Publishing House in 2010; as the target texts, 1989 - Orhan Burian’s translation of the Ministry of National Education Publications and the 2015 - Ümit Tosun’s translation of Ithaki Publications have been used. The research model of the study is document analysis, one of the qualitative research methods. The main point emphasized in the study is that a scientific translation analysis should be based on a theoretical framework and should not be a true-false analysis. When the data obtained at the end of the study are evaluated, it is found that these two translators have adopted different translation approaches from each other. The first target text translator, Burian, has often achieved Directional Equivalence and adopted the Communicative Translation approach. The second target text translator, Tosun, on the other hand, has generally preferred the Semantic Translation approach, unlike Burian. The main difference between Burian and Tosun's translations is that Burian has used Ottoman Turkish words very often; Tosun, on the other hand, has prefered a plainer and simpler style.
Kayhan Inan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 113-132; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164857

Abstract:
Moldova, home of the only autonomous region in Europe where Turkish is the official language, is an important country in terms of teaching Turkish. Moldova is a country where Turkish is taught as a mother tongue, a foreign language and a second language. Chisinau as a capital is the largest center where Turkish is taught as a foreign language. In this research, it is aimed to determine and analyze the language needs of Moldovans who learn Turkish as a foreign language in Chisinau. The model of the research is the survey model, which is one of the quantitative research methods. Within the scope of the research, the Turkish language needs of the participants were described. Language needs was examined according to variables (age, mother tongue, duration of Turkish learning, visiting, purpose of visit). Research data were collected with demographic information form and language need analysis scale. 93 individuals who learning Turkish in Chisinau participated in the research. The research results show that the participants have a high level of learning needs in Turkish. When language needs are examined in more detail, it is seen that the factor of individual interests and needs stands forward from the other factors. This is followed by language needs for education and job opportunities. It has been determined that people who learn Turkish are mostly 26 years old and over. Participants aged 25 and under learn Turkish for education and job opportunities. Particularly, it has been observed that the participants who want to visit Turkey mostly continue their Turkish education for 4 months and leave the courses in the later stages.
Çağrı Eroğlu
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 805-814; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164889

Abstract:
L’Étoile Vesper by Colette (1873-1954) is among her recent works. L’Étoile Vesper, which was published in one of the early issues of ELLE magazine between November 1945-January 1946 was published by Milieu du Monde in 1946. The work combines the impressions of the author, who could not leave her apartment in Palais-Royal due to her health problems, about Paris during the Second World War, health problems caused by old age, past memories and pleasures of everyday life. While the author, who was unable to walk because of arthritis, observed the threatening war outside through her window, she associated the reminiscents of the past with the feelings of the recent history and her present time. In L’Étoile Vesper, a maturity work of Colette, she conveys the darkness of the war, the pessimism caused by old age and a world that she beats with the experience of literature through a feminine sensitivity, which dominates all of her works. The writer inspired from all the opportunities presented by a limited environment, scents, sounds, colors and sky positions herself at the center of this limited world and balances the painful truth of the external world with the harmony of her little world, on the other hand, she creates a freedom space against the idea of captivity imposed by Paris under occupation and her physical disability. In this context, in this study, in L’Étoile Vesper by Colette, who expresses herself freely along her literary life, it is aimed to examine her effort to protect the hope against a pessimism caused by the war and old age as well as her observations on the Second World War.
Semra Baturay Meral
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 877-888; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164903

Abstract:
In today's society, racial and ethnic biases / concerns can be shown in a variety of ways. Members of the majority group primarily shape public discourse by expressing their ethnic perspectives in various ways. They may show, hide, and/or deny negative feelings against minorities, immigrants, refugees, and/or the others. In this regard, the present study attempts to examine and explore denial of unfavorable ethnic attitudes, biases, and worries voiced in public discourse regarding Turkey's Armenian minority. Within the framework of the study, I will investigate what kind of denial strategies may be found in the posts (comments) under the headings "Ermenilerden özür diliyorum" [I apologize to Armenians] and "Hepimiz Ermeniyiz" [We are all Armenians] posted on Ekşi Sözlük "Sour Dictionary" (one of the largest collaborative online communities in Turkey) between 2007-2008 years, shortly after the assassination of Hrant Dink (a journalist and member of the Armenian minority group living in Turkey) in 2007. Accordingly, I will discuss the sample entries within the scope of Critical Discourse Analysis and Teun van Dijk's denial strategies, which aim to show how ideology and ideological processes reveal themselves as linguistic systems. Then I will present my analysis of the most frequently used denial strategies observed in these entries. I will examine the denial methods used in the text and determine how racial or ethnic biases and concerns (at the macro level) are expressed in the text through word choice, sentence structure, hierarchy, and context (micro level). In this way, we will be able to see macro-level goals in the text through micro-level structures.
Emrah Gaznevi
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1023-1046; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164911

Abstract:
The prefixes used to form new verbs in Polish language undoubtedly have important functions. These prefixes add opposite or close meaning to the meaning of the non-prefixed verb, but often add an additional meaning. However, since there is not only one meaning that a prefix adds to a verb, categorizing the differences in meaning between the prefixed and non-prefixed verb has always been one of the biggest problems of Polish grammar. Each prefix is further divided into different subcategories of meaning, and moreover, the meaning that one prefix gives to a verb can also be given by another prefix. It should not be inferred from these findings, which reflect perhaps the most difficult side of the subject in general, that every prefix can be used indiscriminately with every verb and can be added to any verb. Prefixes also constitute a very important part of word formation, as they are highly functional among word formation methods. Considering that there are two prefixes consisting of four letters, three prefixes consisting of three letters, seven prefixes consisting of two letters, and even three prefixes consisting of one letter, and that these prefixes cause a complete change in meaning, although they do not cause any morphological changes in the root of the verb, it is necessary to conduct a study examining the function of verb prefixes.
Irem Ceren Doğan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1126-1138; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164920

Abstract:
Retranslation is a topic focused by translation scholars on its different aspects nowadays. Retranslation studies are based on the retranslation hypothesis associated with Antoine Berman, Paul Bensimon, and Yves Gambier. Following the increase in retranslations in the 21st century, research on retranslation has also gained momentum. More recent research has focused on different aspects of retranslations as products, particularly those found problematic in the retranslation hypothesis. The increase in retranslations as products of the literature market raises the problem of plagiarism. However, it has been observed that the retranslation hypothesis or criticisms of the hypothesis do not focus much on plagiarism. The difficulty of determining the parameters of plagiarism makes it difficult to work on this subject, especially in descriptive studies. Within the scope of this study, we will focus on two commercially available translations of the famous work of modernist writer William Faulkner, Sound and Fury. In the first part of the study, retranslation and plagiarism in retranslation will be discussed. Then, plagiarism of retranslation in Turkey will be scrutinized. In the last part, a case analysis will be made. In this context, the text related to plagiarism suspicion will be compared with the translation of the famous first translator of the work, Rasih Güran, which has been on the market for over 40 years and continues to be published today. This review will focus on commercial triggers of plagiarism in retranslations. The analysis will be made through the examples taken from the general flow of the novel, the footnotes and the examples taken from the section explaining characters of the novel added to the work by William Faulkner.
Nuray Kayatürk, Esra Nur Tiryaki
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 133-151; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164859

Abstract:
One of the effective tools used in language learning and teaching is textbooks. Text is a rich material in which structures of the language are presented together. One of the topics to be emphasized in Turkish teaching is knowledge of meaning.These semantic structures contained in the texts are sometimes given explicitly and sometimes implicitly. It is necessary to know expressions such as metaphors, proverbs and idioms in a text. For this reason, it is necessary to give foreigners implicit meanings in turkish teaching. This study aims at determining and evaluating elements of implicit meaning included in textbooks designed for teaching Turkish to foreigners. The study group is composed of reading passages in a set of İstanbul Teaching Turkish as a foreign language textbooks whose levels are B1, B2 ve C1/+. The obtained data were examined in the light of “Evaluation Form of Implicit Meaning Elements” which was developed on the basis of Onan and Tiryaki’s (2012) studies entitled “Elements Assigning Implicit Meaning in Turkish”. In the form, there were 9 sections. Expert opinion was obtained to ensure content validity of the scale. As a result of the expert opinion, the inter-rater reliability was found to be 0.92. Accordingly, the scale was accepted to be valid and reliable. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical techniques (frequency and percentage) were utilized. The results of the study revealed that the use of quotation in textbooks demonstrated a well-balanced distribution depending on the levels. In the use of sentences indicating the distinction of deep structure-surface structure, this element, however, it was concluded that it showed a distribution approximately at the same rate for the levels of B1-B2 and C1/+ . Elements of idiom-proverb and implicature showed an increase according to the levels as expected. Elements of association, connotation, figurative and pre-supposition did not display a balanced distribution among the levels. There was a regular increase in the element of metaphor at all levels except for C1/+.
Semahat Aysu
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 833-844; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164894

Abstract:
The textbook has a significant role in language teaching process for both teachers and learners. Therefore, teachers should select it considering the needs of learners, language teaching method or channel. In other words, a textbook might be appropriate for foreign language learners but not for second language learners or a textbook might be very useful for face-to-face teaching but not for online teaching. Therefore, this current study aims to evaluate “Life” textbook series, which was used in an elective preparatory school of a state university in Turkey. It was used through online learning during the pandemic. Since the number of English teachers in the elective preparatory class is less than 20 and the results, in turn, cannot be statistically significant, qualitative analysis was carried out. Furthermore, students’ opinions about the book and its activities were revealed through the parallel questionnaire. Open-ended questions were employed in this study. Data gathered by means of the questionnaires were analyzed via thematic analysis. Based on the gathered data, 3 codes were revealed, which are listed as in the following: strengths, weaknesses and suggestions.
Kürşat Cesur
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 889-903; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164904

Abstract:
Recently, Turkish education system has been subject to some new regulations which have induced an increase in the number of the studies conducted in the field of Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL) in Turkiye. This study mainly aims to determine the frequency distribution of these studies with regard to their topics, publishing years, the number of their authors, their samples and research methods with the help of a document analysis of the articles indexed by ULAKBIM TR Index (National Index) database. 56 articles were chosen as the sample since they were identified to be content-specific in the field of TEYL. Article Information Rubric was chosen as a data collection instrument and the data was processed through Microsoft Excel. The main findings of the study are: (1) ELT researchers are mostly concerned about writing papers about ‘Beliefs and Attitudes’ and ‘Methods and Techniques’; (2) there is an important change in the frequency distribution in terms of publishing years; (3) mostly in-service teachers have been chosen as the sample with purposive sampling method; (4) the studies mostly followed qualitative research with case studies, (5) researchers used interviews and questionnaires most as data collection tools and (6) the most frequently performed type of data analysis is content analysis in these studies. Suggestions for further research were provided at the end of the study.
Mine Yazici
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1047-1056; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164912

Abstract:
This paper is on the importance of extratextual knowledge in the professionalization of trainees. Translation is not a mere procedure of transfer from one language to another, but a cognitive process to be performed by combining original and translated text with cultural, encyclopedic or world knowledge. This raises the question what kind of method can be followed to turn textual research skills into reflex in translator training. Amateur translators who have not been able to acquire knowledge from their previous translation experiences produce time-consuming and non-functional translations by constantly encountering the same type of difficulties and errors. However, the translators have to do specific field translation even if they were not specialists, or experts. In this case, trying to find an answer to the question about how trainees acquire specific field knowledge from the perspective of translator training may help to improve the translation competence of them. Accordingly, this paper aims to develop awareness of extratextual knowledge in the course of translation by giving small sections especially from verse translation, which would refute their presumption that “there is no need for extra-textual research in verse translation”, thereby by gaining them awareness how they can acquire extra-textual knowledge even from verse translation. For this purpose, this paper is mainly divided into two sections: the first section sets up correlation between translation competence and extra-textual knowledge from the perspective of translation theory; the second chapter gives examples to guide the trainers how they can teach the ways of acquiring knowledge in the course of translation. As a result, this paper on translator training first discusses the impact of research and acquisition of extra-textual knowledge on the functionality of translation acquisition in the course of translation; Then, gives different examples from literary translation within framework of research techniques class to prove in what way discerning and tracking the tips on source text may help them enhance their storage of knowledge for prospective translation tasks and contribute to their professionalism.
Esra Birkan Baydan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1117-1125; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164919

Abstract:
This paper intends to explore concepts like adaptation, appropriation and remakes which are formulated and studied under the field of adaptation studies. Especially in case of adaptations from literary works to films the field of adaptation studies is more likely to be influenced from literary studies. This leads the source text to gain priority over its adaptation and therefore loyalty or fidelity to the source text becomes a primary concern and a basis for any definitions or conceptualizations set out to define the relationship between the source text and its adaptation. Hence the work derived from a certain source text is viewed subordinate and secondary in relation to its source which leads the researchers to ignore its own unique properties. For instance, Thomas Leitch argues that any discussion or research paper which sets out to explore whether the film is better than its literary source would be futile and would perpetuate the influence of literary studies over the field of adaptation studies. Once the paradigm of fidelity was overcome in translation studies it became possible to study translations for their own sake and for the contexts, they served in the target culture. For this reason, translation studies may contribute to this field on one hand. On the other hand, examination of “remakes”, i.e., foreign shows which are appropriated/adapted culturally, from the perspective of translation studies would possibly provide new insights to the field. Furthermore, the question of why foreign stories are appropriated culturally, instead of producing local ones will be evaluated. Certain aspects of foreign stories which are considered inappropriate for the target culture are appropriated. In addition, characters, places, habits and life styles in foreign shows are localized in order to make them acceptable and not to alienate Turkish people.
Göksenin Abdal, Tuba Ayik Akça
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1057-1072; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164914

Abstract:
The circulation of texts, in which feminist terms are used extensively, in the target language and culture system increases the publicity of the feminist knowledge and experiences and creates a strong base for the feminist activist struggle. Feminist print and digital media also pave the way for the feminist terms to meet with feminist activists and become widespread and standardized. Considering the mass accessibility of feminist media, it is clear that feminist digital platforms have a central importance in terms of feminist theory and struggle, especially in the digital age we live in.This paper aims to examine the feminist term translation strategies used in translations selected from online feminist platforms and to discuss the dimensions of feminist translation activity in digital feminist publishing in Turkey. In the study, the position of digital feminist platforms, which have become active since the late 1990s, in the field of feminist struggle and their contributions to the journey of feminist terms in the target language and culture system will be evaluated historically. In this regard, Feminisite, Kadın Cinayetlerini, Durduracağız Platformu, 5Harfliler, Çatlak Zemin, Ekmek ve Gül and Dijital Topuklar platforms will be discussed. The platforms in question are digital platforms that have a pioneering position in the field in terms of the number of users, the volume of activity, accessibility and their impact on the journey of feminist terms. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the transfer of feminist knowledge and experience on the basis of a feminist perspective gains priority in the translation activity, while the linguistic construction of the field does not become the main focus within the framework of feminist digital platforms.
Rıfat Günday
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 815-832; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164892

Abstract:
This study aims to comparatively examine the use of the content-based instruction model and action-oriented approach in foreign language education. Within this scope, the similarities and differences between the content-based instruction (CBI) model and the action-oriented approach and the positive and negative aspects of these were determined. Evaluations were made on which of them would be more appropriate to follow in teaching/learning the target language as a foreign language. Since the 1990s, various teaching models have emerged that envisage content-based teaching/learning of the second language and, at times, foreign language teaching in an interdisciplinary framework. One of them is the content-based instruction model. This model became popular in the United States and Canada in the 1990s. The focus of content-based teaching is on both the content and the target language at the same time. However, the degree of focus on content or language varies across models. The action-oriented approach was adopted for foreign language teaching/learning in Europe after the 2000s. It intends to maintain the target language based on the socio-cultural context in accordance with the thematic structuring. While the background of the content-based instruction model is to use the target language in the dimension of interdisciplinarity and the philosophy of multilingualism, it can be said that behind the action-oriented approach, there is multilingualism and the purpose of using the language in daily life based on communication, interaction and action. While it is essential to be able to use the target language in an interdisciplinary context when evaluating the subject in terms of second language education, it is more crucial to use the target language in daily life when evaluating the subject in terms of foreign language education. For this reason, employing an action-oriented approach in foreign language education appears to be more beneficial.
Mevlüt Öztürk
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 738-770; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164887

Abstract:
Collocation, which is defined as the continuous use of two or more words in a certain limitation and order, is the structure that is widely used and has an important place in the language. Learning and teaching such expressions will contribute to learning the language down to the smallest detail. For this reason, it is necessary to know these structures in order to understand the expressions correctly, especially in the translation and understanding of the texts. These structures, which are an integral part of language teaching, are included in all stages of teaching as well as among the achievements to be measured in measurement and evaluation. Central exams that measure Arabic proficiency are held by the Student Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM) in our country. Higher Education Institutions Examination Arabic Foreign Language Test (YDT) is one of the examinations conducted by the institution to measure Arabic language proficiency. In this exam, which is held for placement in higher education institutions teaching Arabic, questions that will enable the measurement of the acquisition of collocation structures are included. In some of these questions, the structures are asked directly, and these structures are also included in the expressions in the context of understanding different question types. In the study, the importance of collocational structures in measurement and evaluation processes has been tried to be revealed with descriptive content analysis by limiting it to the Arabic Foreign Language Test, which is a central exam. 5 exams, including the Arabic Foreign Language Test (YDT) exam questions between 2018-2021 and the 2018 sample test questions published, were examined. In the study, while the collocational expressions in the questions in the exams are grouped, a detailed question analysis of the 2021 Arabic Language Test is included in order to determine how and how often the structures are asked.
Taner Uluçay
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164866

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the musical structure of the song ‘’ Sevdalinka’’, whose brotherhood with Turkish society dates back 700 years, which is the basic element of the musical structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina and have a special genre in Balkan music. Starting from this point; Sevdalinka songs randomly selected by the researcher were examined and interpreted. The songs were analyzed in two dimensions. First dimension is to determine the musical characteristics of the songs. These are; tone, maqam, measure, note values, register and the musical terms. The second dimension is to study the lyrics. In this dimension, the subject that the song wants to describe, the words and sentences used in the song were examined and comments were made in the light of the data obtained. Sevdalinka are artistic products of Bosnian culture. Bosnian people used the sevdelinkas as a means of conveying their feelings. Sevdalinkas carry both traditional and popular culture elements. Over time, it changed with the influence of European societies and showed a tendency to westernize musically. In addition, it preserved its traditional features and included Turkish music maqams and methods. Sevdalinkas; They are songs of love and longing, which are included in both weddings and funerals of Bosnian people. In the study, it has been concluded thatSevdalinka's are in communication and interaction with the Turkish music structure, they contain both eastern and western cultures in their musical structure, the accordion is used as the main instrument, ornate and trill notes are used, as the subject; that the themes of love, longing, regret, prayer to Allah, homeland are mainly included.
Erhan Akdağ
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 403-417; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164868

Abstract:
The book has an important role in the personality development of the child. Books, which are highly functional in terms of cognitive, affective and psycho-motor development, affect children’s thoughts, feelings and imagination as well as their personalities. For this reason, publishing houses should be extremely conscious and careful in the approving (printing) of children’s books, and parents and teachers in their selection. Especially in translated children’s books, many criteria should be taken into consideration, such as whether authors with different cultures and beliefs have pedagogical care, whether they write for children, whether they consider universal values, and whether they pay attention to language and expression. Publications that do not meet these criteria may cause cultural and belief confusion in children’s minds. In this study, the basic values of Gülten Dayıoğlu’s Cambaz Parası and Virginia Woolf’s The Widow and the Parrot children’s stories were compared. When examining these works in question taking into account pedagogical sensitivity it has been determined that the sensitivity in question is observed in Cambaz Parası and that basic values such as ‘empathy, trust, honesty, kindness, love, sharing’ are processed, in The Widow and the Parrot, it was found that negative attitudes and behaviors such as ‘selfishness, alienation, hate speech, disrespect for the dead’ were included without considering the sensitivity in question.
Tamilla Aliyeva
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 987-1003; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164908

Abstract:
In this paper, it is focused on the reflections of the wars in the Caucasus on art in Russian literature. The concept of “Caucasian captive”, which is an integral part of the Caucasus war theme, has been studied in the context of its historical and literary sources. The understanding of “Caucasian captive”, which expresses the historical destiny of Russia in the Eurasian geography as a whole, has been reviewed within the framework of its historical formation, symbolic and literary expressions in classical and contemporary Russian literature. One of the traditional themes that has an important place in Russian literature is the “Caucasian captive” theme. This theme has been handled by Russian authors and poets such as A. Pushkin, A. Griboyedov, M. Lermontov, A. Bestujev-Marlinsky, L. N. Tolstoy, V. Velichko, N. Tikhonov, V. Makanin and more in terms of its political, social and philosophical aspects. It can be said that the historical and literary significance of the Caucasian captive subject comes from the analysis of Russia's view of the Eurasian geography and the Russian relations with the Caucasus. The interest of Russian authors in Muslims and Turks living in the Caucasus is due to their being influenced by the characters, lifestyles, traditions and warriors of these peoples. The concept of “Caucasian captive”, which is at the center of our study, was introduced in 1815 by the French author Xavier de Mestr, who visited the Caucasus in 1810-1811. The author’s notes on the war, which he wrote in a romantic-emotional spirit, vivid observations, events and characters he describes are distinguished by realistic features and contain historical significance as well as literary values. Another French author, Frederica Freiggang, whose wife served in the Russian army, touches on the same subject in the novel “Letters on the Caucasus and Georgia” published one year after the novel “Ksavie de Mestrin”. However, it can be said that from the beginning of the 19th century, including the 21st century, this theme has been handled in a broad, versatile and highly poetic interpretation in the works of Russian authors. A deep and sincere interest in the character, morality and lifestyle of the Caucasians has found wide coverage in the artistic works, letters and memoirs of many Russian authors. Even the Russian authors who fought in the Caucasus remember the representatives of the Caucasian-Muslim peoples with sincere respect and affection in their works. Particular attention should be paid to the works devoted to this subject by classical Russian poets and authors such as A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, A. Bestujev-Marlinsky, L. N. Tolstoy. Consequently, the subject of Caucasian captive in Russian literature attracts attention as an up-to-date scientific subject in terms of its literary, philosophical, aesthetic, historical-ideological aspects and Russian-Caucasian and Russian-Turkish relations. In this study, the above mentioned issues, the artistic description of the wars in the Caucasus in Russian literature, the issue of the Caucasian war, the historical and literary sources of the “Caucasian captive” content, which is an integral part of this theme, and the concept of “Caucasian captive” expressing the historical destiny of Russia in Eurasia and its symbolic meanings, artistic nature and historical evolution will be examined as a traditional image and content of classical and modern Russian literature.
Emine Seda Çağlayan Mazanoğlu
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 941-956; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164906

Abstract:
David Hare’s The Absence of War (1993) deals with the period before an early general election in Britain and the defeat of the Labour Party, which is led by George Jones, to the Conservative Party. Hare presents George Jones as a weak leader who cannot actively take part in the policy making process because he is constantly controlled by the members of his advisory committee who prevent George from making his own statements before the public and while speaking to the media by using the established traditions in the party system. Through George, Hare makes references to Neil Kinnock who was the leader of the Labour Party between 1983-1992 and aimed to change the social and economic policies of the Party, but he resigned after the defeat in the 1992 general election. The major aim of this paper is to argue that Hare illustrates, and in a way comments on, Kinnock’s leadership through that of George’s in the play, so he presents a historical period in British politics through a fictional character. In this sense, Hare demonstrates that both leaders of the Labour Party aim to reform the party; however, both encounter resistance; while George is silenced by his advisory committee, Kinnock is accused of changing the ideological and economic basis of the party. Moreover, it will be displayed that although both leaders resign before winning a general election, they struggle to introduce revolutionary changes to the traditional system in the Party in order to appeal to voters.
Ramazan Bezci
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 673-692; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164881

Abstract:
As mentioned in many authentic hadiths, the Qur'an was revealed in seven letters. There is an agreement of the scholars of recitation on the point that these seven letters mean different dialects. As a reflection of these seven different dialect phenomena, the efforts to prevent misreading of the Qur'an date back to the time of the Prophet. However, after the death of the Prophet, people lost the definitive source of information to ask about the recitations they disagreed with. When the conflict in this context increased, the recitation scholars put forward three conditions in order to distinguish the authentic recitation and the non-authentic recitation. The first of these three conditions is that the recitation should reach the Prophet as mutawatir, the second is to be compatible with Mesâhif-i Osman, and the third is to be suitable for any Arabic dialect. Recitation scholars have said that it is not necessary for this dialect spoken by the Arabs to be widespread or to be a dialect on which the nahivists agree. Abu Ishaq al-Hadramî (d. 117/735), Halil b. Ahmed al-Ferahidi (d. 175/791) and Yunus b. Early syntaxists such as Habîb (d. 182/798) avoided making negative judgments about the recitations and their narrators while examining the suitability of the recitations to the dialects. On the other hand, Sîbeveyh (d. 180/796) evaluated the recitations with the rules of the Basra syntax school and accused the recitations that do not comply with these rules as being wrong or ugly, and carried this phenomenon to a different dimension. Kisâî (d. 189/805) also approached recitations with his identity as both a reciter and a linguist, and accepted many recitations that Sîbeveyh rejected as correct and created new syntax rules. Ibn Cinnî (d. 392/1002), on the other hand, wrote al-Muhteseb to reveal the syntax value of the recitations rejected by Sîbeveyh and his followers, and brought this phenomenon to the point desired by the reciters by criticizing Sîbeveyh and his followers.
Talat Fatih Uluç, Nurhan Uluç
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 648-659; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164877

Abstract:
Es ist zurzeit fast unmöglich, ohne mit einer Kultur in einer Beziehung zu stehen und zu leben. In jedem Zeitalter sieht man, dass Menschen aus verschiedenen Gründen wie zum Beispiel Berufe, Bildung oder Kriege in anderen Ländern auswandern. Durch die Einwanderung in andere Länder treten verschiedene Kulturen auf, mit denen man in dem Laufe der Zeit konfrontiert werden. Man kann also auf der Welt in unterschiedlichen Phasen Einwanderungen in andere Länder sehen. Eine bedeutende Einwanderung aus anderen Ländern nach Deutschland fand in den 60er Jahren statt. Viele Arbeitskräfte kamen aus der Türkei und zogen mit ihrer Kultur, Sprache, Mentalitäten und Denkweise nach Deutschland. In diesem Zusammenhang haben gerade literarische Texte dazu beigetragen, fremde Kulturen einer Gesellschaft zu zeigen und anderen Kulturen näher zu bringen. Die Werke ab den 90er Jahre der Autorinnen und Autoren der zweiten und dritten Generation sind von Bedeutung, denn sie haben es geschafft, mit ihren Werken in der deutschen Literatur Gehör zu schaffen. Der Hauptpunkt dieser Arbeit soll es sein, die Sitten und Bräuche, in den Werken deutschsprachiger türkischer Autorinnen und Autoren und die Bedeutungen dieser Sitten und Bräuche der Menschen unterschiedlicher Nationen zu betonen. Bei der Analyse der Werke von Autorinnen und Autoren wie Emine Sevgi Özdamar, Renan Demirkan, Yade Kara, Ayşegül Acevit und Selim Özdoğan erkennt man im Hinblick der Sitten und Bräuche in verschiedenen Bereichen wie die religiösen-kulturellen und soziokulturellen Faktoren, die Faktoren der kulturellen Anredeformen und die kulturspezifischen Höflichkeitsformen, dass diese Autorinnen und Autoren in ihren Werken Gemeinsamkeiten aufweisen.
Mehmet Koç
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 708-726; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164883

Abstract:
Hasht Behesht (Eight Heavens) was written in Persian by İdrîs-i Bidlîsî (1457-1520) as a history book worthy of the Ottoman Empire, with the instruction of Bayezid II (1447-1512), and it represents a significant work in terms of Ottoman historical sources. Since this work, which consists of one introduction, eight inscriptions, and one epilogue, has not been appreciated as much as it deserves, it has not been published as a whole and translated into Turkish. This study, which categorizes two copies as the A-type and B-type, compares the fifth and sixth inscriptions of Esed Efendi 2199, which is acknowledged as an example of the A-type copy draft, and the Nuruosmaniye 3209, the B-type engrossed copy. It is seen that the A-type copies were subjected to heavy criticism by the chroniclers in the palace. The primary criticisms towards Bidlisî include that he used complex language and covered unnecessary details. As it can be understood from the comparison between the B-type copy presented to Bayezid II and the A-type copy presented to Selim I, Bidlisî took these criticisms into account and made changes in both volume and content in the engrossed copy. It has been found that Bidlisî has quoted other poets, whether Iranian or Arabic, in most of the verse parts of the work, without mentioning names and sources. It has been seen that Bidlisî frequently refers to verses from Quran and hadiths in order to strengthen his work in terms of meaning and influence.
Gökçe Mine Olgun
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1073-1085; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164915

Abstract:
Benim Kahramanım Sensin [My Hero is You] is a story book written and illustrated for children affected by COVID-19 pandemic, which aims to make them understand and reconcile with it. As a project developed by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings (IASC MHPSS RG), the framework of the topics covered in the book was determined based on the results of the global survey prepared in different languages and applied in 104 countries. A transcultural narrative of COVID-19 has emerged as result of the compilation of shared experiences of more than 1700 children, parents, caregivers. The present study aims to analyze this book which has been translated into many languages in the context of translation and cultural theory for the reason why it is a product of a translation centered process and because it also comprises the ideas of individuals from different cultures and different layers of society establishing a transcultural meta-narrative. Within the scope of the descriptive translational method in the context of polysystem theory, transcultural production process, the the source text that emerged as a result of this process and its translation into Turkish language are examined. This review considers a particular case that emerged as a result of the co-existence of the disciplines of medicine, humanities and social sciences, and reveals the emergence of new trends in children’s literature that can be associated with COVID-19. This study argues that as a result of the great impact of the pandemic on the world, a COVID-19 related polysystem and cultural repertoire is emerging in which the global and the local are interactively intertwined. Moreover, the study underlines the necessity of identifying this ongoing process, compiling the examples and naming it as a separate research area.
Yeşim Tükel KANRA
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1139-1157; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164921

Abstract:
“Editing in translation” is one of the most important components of the translation industry, especially book publishing. The practices of “editing in translation” are included under various names in the curricula of translation studies departments. The purpose and scope of these courses are rarely discussed in translation studies. The practices of these courses are aimed at promoting the field and the profession. In this study, it is assumed that editorial practices can contribute to the development of translation and interpreting competence. The method suggested by Don Kiraly, who emphasizes the importance of using content that reflects the real components of the translation world was adopted for the research. In this direction, a “workshop format” in which a real translation project is implemented was used, and this workshop was held in Translation and Publishing course offered to third-year students of the Department of Translation Studies in German in Istanbul University. Within the framework of this study, certain tasks were given in parallel with the publishing processes on the basis of the needs of a publishing house with which we cooperate. Students' homework was assessed and compared. Since the instructor of the course was a participant of the workshop, which was the basis of the research, the participant observation method was applied. In the analysis of the data, questionnaire and document analysis methods were used. The permission is obtained from the ethical committee of Istanbul University for this study. From this point of view, participating in the publishing process within the framework of a workshop and applications such as report writing and editing studies, which require evaluating books and translator decisions, can be used as a method in various courses in order to improve translation competence.
Mehmet Akif Yalçinkaya
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 519-567; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164870

Abstract:
The actual name of Zaîfî is Pîr Muhammed b. Evrenos b. Nûreddin; he was one of the poets who lived in the era of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He started his training at very early ages; he firstly took education in Üsküp and then continued his training in Sahn-ı Seman Madrasah in İstanbul. After being a lieutenant for seven years, he was promoted to mudarris (professor). Although he was revoked a few times, he continued serving as a mudarris in different madrasahs until he resigned. He wrote thirteen works throughout his life and one of them is his Münşeât. The work of the writer titled Münşeât-ı Mevlânâ Zaîfî is made of a total of 25 letters written by Zaîfî. As 6 of these letters were previously analyzed in different works, the remaining 19 letters, which weren’t researched before, are analyzed in the scope of this study. The general purpose of most of these letters is to generally present the situation to the statesmen. Besides these, there are letters addressed to relatives and friends. The language of letters in Münşeât is Turkish except for a few ones. There are some daily expressions in the letters and some parts of the work are written in plain language. However, it can be said that the overall language used in the letters is heavy; there are numerous Arabic and Persian words and prepositional phrases in letters, which is called artistic prose. There are verses from Qur’an, hadiths, darb-ı mesel, stories, etc. in the work. Additionally, different kinds of verses are placed in the work in line with the flow of the topic. Information about the life and works of Zaîfî is presented in this study. The letters are analyzed in terms of content, language, and manner in this study, and finally, the text of the work is presented to the readers.
Kanatbek Orozobekov
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 693-707; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164882

Abstract:
The vocabulary work consists of several basic steps. These basic steps are: collecting information and facts, choosing elements, organizing, writing and achieving the final result. The dictionary is an element that preserves the linguistic heritage of the nation. This factor is pushing ancient and modern scientists to guide dictionaries on certain theories. Thus, this study aims to analyze the dictionary "al-Mu'cemu'l-Arabiyyu'l-Esâsî", which is one of the modern dictionaries and is encyclopedic and monolingual in nature, published by the Organization for Education, Culture and Science of the League of Arab States, prepared for those whose native language is not Arabic. The dictionary was published as a book titled "al-Mu'cemu'l-Arabiyyu'l-Esâsî" distributed by the Arab League Education Culture and Science Organization, Larousse Foundation. The first edition was published in 1989. This is a modern dictionary entering the fourth generation of the Arabic dictionary process. In addition, it is accepted as the third dictionary after the dictionary Muʻcemu'l-Vasît and Kâmûsu'l-Cedîd Li't-Tullâb due to its collective authorship. The dictionary contains about twenty-five thousand items arranged alphabetically from the root of the word. Thus, the dictionary is a reliable aid for Arab and non-Arab teachers, students and general intellectuals. In the study, after the definition, editions and authors of the dictionary are specified, information about the main features and purposes of the dictionary is given. Then, the compilation issue of the dictionary, its articles and the methods it followed were analyzed with the analytical method and the evaluation of the dictionary was given with a critical point of view.
Ahmet Aykan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 241-251; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164863

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine how the professional development model of lesson study would function in special education. The study was designed as a case study, which is one of the qualitative research methods, and it was carried out with 10 special education teachers selected by criterion sampling. Data were collected through observation reports and semi-structured interview forms from special education teachers who learned and applied the lesson study model for the first time in a 6-week period. The data obtained were analyzed by content analysis and presented in tables. The study found that special education teachers receive professional development from social media, experts, experienced colleagues, trainings, and books. It was determined that special education teachers have achieved some pedagogical, student, and teacher-based positive gains thanks to the lesson study. In addition, special education teachers also mentioned some negativities such as worry, anxiety, time, and cost about the lesson study. The present study revealed that the lesson study model was represented by a small number of studies conducted within the scope of special education. In this context, it was suggested that the lesson study model, which could contribute to the professional development of special education teachers and the success of special education students, should be included in more studies in special education.
Ayhan Bulut
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 370-387; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164865

Abstract:
The Malta Exiles issue is the event of exiling patriotic Turkish officers, statesmen, intellectuals and journalists to Malta, without any evidence, in order to implement the provisions of the Mondros Armistice Agreement signed with the British after the First World War, which prepared them for an easy invasion of Anatolia. Acting with a colonial understanding, the main purpose of the British and their allies is to apply the provisions of the Mondros Armistice Agreement as they wish by judging these people who might support the possible national resistance in Anatolia. For this, the Istanbul Government cooperates with the Armenians and Greeks. With the fabricated documents of their collaborators, they accuse and arrest the Maltese exiles with the allegation of "Armenian genocide" Meanwhile, the activities of the Committee of Union and Progress, which believed that the war was not over, abroad and inside, he success of the Kuva-yı Milliye in the national struggle, led by Mustafa Kemal, ensures that the Maltese exiles are liberated from Malta. The transfer of the Malta exiles to the fictional world, in line with the historical reality, has led to the examination of the novel in question. The aim is to bring to light a dark page of history through examination. While doing this, scientific studies related to the subject were applied.
Abdulkadir Ünal
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 861-876; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164902

Abstract:
Gravel Heart (2017) is the ninth postcolonial novel of Tanzanian-born British novelist Abdulrazak Gurnah who was awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Literature. Being a part of his literary diction, his novel explores in-depth justification of traumatic migrant stories with neurological symptoms like sense of (un)belonging, assimilation, naturalisation, the hybridity of values and norms, and a keen sense of in-betweenness. Born in the postcolonial setting of his hometown, the migrant protagonist is exposed to the material and spiritual confiscations of the western rulers or their representatives which brings about neurotic concerns like an inevitable sense of shame and quilt. It is clear in his novel that his hometown and interpersonal relations were corrupted and abused by the local contributors of the colonial hegemonies. Having a chance to emigrate to England as a seemingly reward for his surrendering at the beginning, the narrator questions his use in such a plundered world even after years of wranglings back in his motherland. In this study, the theme of ‘plunderers of the human spirit’ in Abdulrazak Gurnah’s Gravel Heart will be discussed in terms of literary trauma theory which aims to legitimise trauma narratives by literary devices such as fragmentation, language manipulation, repetition, and intertextuality to extrapolate the meaning arising from extreme traumatic stress within the frame of postcolonial novels
Eren Bolat
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 851-860; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164900

Abstract:
Every individual has to make decisions that will significantly affect their destinies/futures at certain periods of their lives. Sometimes they take these decisions in line with their own wishes, and sometimes have to take it because of external factors and against their own wills. Kenyan writer Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wanja and Nigerian writer Cyprian Ekwensi’s Jagua Nana, who are the subject of this study, also make decisions that will change the course of their lives in the end and they begin to live by means of prostitution. Both characters choose this profession for separate purposes/reasons, however, the profession they want/have to do is the same. In general, prostitution, which is perceived as inappropriate for the moral codes, beliefs and lifestyles of the society in most regions, is carried out professionally and systematically in today’s Kenya and Nigeria. Prostitution, mostly preferred for economic reasons, has even become a tourism sector. The major factor behind is the colonial past, which seriously affected the African continent and left deep scars in the lives of the people living in the region. Therefore, in the light of these elements, while examining the preferences of Wanja and Jagua Nana, the condition of women in the colonized lands, how colonialism affected these native women as well as the relationship between colonialism and prostitution will also be examined in this study for they are the background forces that have triggered such choices.
Deniz Demirkan, Dilek Toprak
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1158-1170; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164922

Abstract:
In this study, hermeneutic and research areas in the historical process are briefly mentioned. In the studies of the literature, it is seen that hermeneutics is included in new research topics within the framework of language, culture and history. However, in the literature review, it is seen that hermeneutics interacts with translation studies within the framework of common elements, and it is now a discipline that is applied in new theoretical studies. It has been observed that hermeneutic approaches are seen in translation studies and studies are associated with hermeneutics. According to hermeneutics, meaning changes within the framework of time and culture and acquires different values. However, traditions and society shape meaning and do not accept it as one. The hermeneutic approach focuses on translating and conveying meanings, not on the translation of words. Translator subjectivity is also frequently encountered in the hermeneutic approach. In this respect, studies on the translator and the translation process are increasing. In addition, this approach is presented as a method based on hermeneutic principles for further research within the scope of translation hermeneutics. In this study, the validity of the hermeneutic approach in translation studies has been tried to be explained. This validity also includes factors such as subjectivity, intuition, corporeality and creativity in the theoretical reflection of the hermeneutic approach.
Sinem Çapar Ileri
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 845-850; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164895

Abstract:
Ignácz Kúnos (1860-1945) was a Hungarian-born linguist and Turkologist. He became an important figure in the Anatolian folklore tradition as he was one of the pioneers who compiled the Turkish fairy tales. He traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire between 1885 and 1890 and listened to many storytellers in the Ottoman society. Thanks to his efforts, with his research on Anatolian folklore and ethnography, several volumes of Anatolian oral tradition have been preserved. Kúnos sought to find international elements and themes in the Turkish folk tradition by comparing them with their European counterparts and those in the East, such as in the Arabian Nights. He tried to examine Turkish tales in a Western orientalist perspective. The fairy tale collection The Forty Four Turkish Tales (1913) exemplifies this attempt. The stories that contain supernatural, monotheistic or polytheistic religious elements include heroes, villains, helpers, sorcerers and witches which resembles European fairy tales thematically. In this article, “Helvacı Güzeli” from Kúnos' fairy tale collection will be analyzed in comparison with another selected work from English folklore, “Molly Whuppie”. “Helvacı Güzeli” is an example of Anatolian fairy tale tradition, which also includes traditional figures from Anatolian culture such as vizier and hodja. Furthermore, “Molly Whuppie” is compiled in folklorist writer Joseph Jacobs’ book English Fairy Tales for the first time, and ever since it is added in many fairy tale collections. The main argument in this article is about the heroine and storyteller “Helvacı Güzeli” and “Molly Whuppie” are the trickster figures in the stories while defeating traditional male figures (teacher, vizier, giant etc.) who try to kill them. Thus, Helvacı Güzeli and Molly Whuppie gain strength while defeating their enemies by using tricks such as disguise and properly exposing the wrongs they have experienced.
Okan Koç
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 603-616; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164872

Abstract:
This study aims to emphasize the importance of mobile technologies in terms of library services, and to examine the perceptions of university students regarding their access to library and information services via mobile phones, taking into account the use of mobile phones. In the study, data were obtained through a questionnaire using the descriptive method. The data were collected from university students using the library of Balıkesir University. A sample of 410 students was selected within the scope of the study. The results demonstrated that the participants' views on accessing library services using mobile technology were mostly positive and they were particularly willing in terms of accessing remote services, electronic resources, and audio-visual materials via mobile technologies. According to the findings, it is recommended that libraries make their services compatible with mobile systems.
Ahmed Hassan Mohamed Ali
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 727-737; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164884

Abstract:
اللغة والثقافة وجهان لعملة واحدة، ولا ينفك تعليم اللغة العربية عن تعليم ثقافتها، وقد اعتبرها الباحثون مهارة خامسة تصاحب المهارات اللغوية الأربع؛ الاستماع، والتحدث، والقراءة، والكتابة؛ وذلك لأنها مكون أساسي ومكمل للمحتوى اللغوي، وينبغي أن تندمج الثقافة في مادة تعليم وتعلم اللغة استنادا إلى أن تعلم اللغة يتوقف على مقدار نمو المهارة اللغوية وفي الوقت ذاته نمو الحصيلة الثقافية الفكرية. ويهدف البحث الحالي إلى إبراز مفهوم الثقافة ومكانتها في تعليم اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها في كل مناحي العملية التعليمية: المعايير، والخصائص، ومداخل التدريس، وكفايات المعلمين، والمحتوى التعليمي. يوظف البحث المنهج الوصفي لتحقيق أهدافه، وينقسم البحث إلى أربعة مباحث؛ المبحث الأول يتناول تعريفات الثقافة وأهميتها في تعليم اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها، والمبحث الثاني يستعرض معايير الثقافة وخصائصها ومداخل تدريسها، والمبحث الثالث يلقي الضوء على الكفايات الثقافية اللازمة لمعلمي اللغة العربية للناطقين بغيرها، والمبحث الرابع يتناول الكفايات الثقافية التي يجب أن تحتوي عليها كتب تعليم اللغة العربية...
Ayşe Şirin OKYAYUZ, Elif Ersözlü
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1086-1106; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164917

Abstract:
This article focuses on the translation of educational comics. A cartoon book and its’ Turkish translation are analyzed: The Cartoon History of the Universe Volumes 1-7 From the Big Bang to Alexander the Great (1990) by Larry Gonick and its’ translation by…. printed in 2010 published by …… The aim of the study is to analyze an educational cartoon translation from the translator’s perspective (referring to constraints, translation challenges, translator choices etc.) and to focus on the same texts from a translation critic/editor perspective who does not have previous knowledge about the section penned by the translator. The objective is to compare the text intended by the translator and the text written through the lenses of the professional translation critic/editor and to pinpoint differences and similarities and viewpoints. Furthermore, in the conclusion the article underlines the importance of the use of this approach and the actor-network theory in investigating educational material in cartoon format. The introduction outlines that cartoons and comics are less studied within translation studies and that they need to be thoroughly investigated. A literature review on the translation of comics and cartoons follows this section. Since the corpus to be studied in English and its’ translation into Turkish, a section on the Turkish translations of such publications is added. The next section is about the translation of educational material in cartoon format. The next sub section refers to the source text followed by the methodology, the analysis of the translator the analysis of the editor. The discussion section collates both analysis sections, the difference of point of view and similarities are discussed. The conclusion presents a summary of the findings.
Keziban Topbaşoğlu Eray
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 1004-1022; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164910

Abstract:
Cтатья посвящена рассмотрению наиболее общих представлений о лингвокультурологии как об интегративной гуманитарной дисциплине, ее базовых единицах и категориях. Отмечено, что на сегодняшний день в научном мире распространено несколько дефиниций понятия «лингвокультурология». В статье придерживаемся определения В.В. Красных, квалифицирующей лингвокультурологию как науку, которая изучает, как отражается культура в языке и речи. Лингвокультурология напрямую связана с национальной картиной мира, языковым сознанием и особенностями менталитета. Обращено внимание на историю возникновения лингвокультурологии, ее теоретическую основу (объект, предмет, цель, задачи, принципы), выделено этапы развития этой молодой лингвистической дисциплины. Лингвокультурология опирается на три главных принципа (антропоцентризм, когнитивизм, лингвокультурологизм) и рассматривается как один из «продуктов» становления антропоцентрической парадигмы, которая сформировалась в ХХ веке и сегодня является основной в лингвистике. Указано место лингвокультурологии среди других гуманитарных дисциплин: больше всего она связана с лингвоисторическими дисциплинами, такими как культурология, этнолингвистика, этнопсихолингвистика, лингвострановедение, а также лингвистикой (лексикологией, фразеологией, семантикой и т.п.). Лингвокультурология как наука и учебная дисциплина прошла достаточно долгий и сложный путь развития, но сегодня уже нет сомнений в том, что она представляет отдельную область знаний с собственным объектом, предметом исследования и методологией. Эта наука пока еще находится в стадии становления, но на сегодняшний день уже выделено несколько основных принципов и базовых положений, определяющих направление научных исследований в этой области знаний. В статье также проанализированы такие основные понятия и категории лингвокультурологии как лингвокультурема, логоэпистема, лингвокультурный концепт, стереотип, символ, мифологема, архетип и др. Базовым понятием лингвокультурологии является лингвокультурный концепт. Отдельное внимание уделено понятиям языковой личности, языковой компетенции, культурной компетенции, ментальности, менталитету. Отмечено различия языковой и когнитивной (концептуальной) картин мира.
Gamze Sabanci Uzun
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi pp 957-965; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164907

Abstract:
This article will examine the psychological dimensions of the concept of migration in Latife Tekin’s novel Dear Shameless Death, claiming that in addition to being a destructive process, migration can also have a liberating aspect on women. The migration concept will be explained through mother-child metaphor to highlight that migration is a separation necessary for autonomy, just as the child breaks away from the mother to start its process of subjectivity. This article will benefit from a Lacanian perspective to explain the reason behind Atiye’s dominance on Dirmit, Dirmit’s submissive position in her relation to her mother, and will suggest that just as the mother prevents the daughter’s autonomy, the village limits the freedom of the individuals. In the novel, we see that Dirmit tries to invent various ways to separate herself from the mother- this also includes her communication with the nonhuman, but the most valid space that offers her autonomy is the city. Therefore this article will claim that although migration appears to be a stage of loneliness, it is actually a step into adulthood and individuality.
Şeyma Çelik, Bahar Doğan Kahtali
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164066

Abstract:
This study aims to determine secondary school students' perceptions of the root values of justice, friendship, honesty, self-control, patience, love, respect, responsibility, patriotism and benevolence, with metaphors produced by students. For this purpose, the phenomenology design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the data collection and interpretation process. The research was carried out in three secondary schools in the central district of a province located in the west of the Eastern Anatolia Region in the 2019-2020 academic year. The study group was determined by stratum sampling, one of the probability-based sampling methods. The study group of the research consists of a total of 500 students studying in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades of secondary school. The research data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire containing open-ended questions prepared by the researcher. Content analysis method, one of the qualitative data analysis methods, was used in the process of analyzing and interpreting the data collected in the research. Common codes and categories were created for each root value, and the findings were interpreted. According to the findings obtained from the research, the value that secondary school students produced the most metaphors was friendship; The value in which they had the most misconceptions and had the most problems in producing metaphors was the value of self-control.
Oya Özgat Tatan
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164002

Abstract:
This research was carried out in order to determine the problems experienced by the instructors who teach Turkish as a second/foreign language and give lessons via online distance education in Turkey in the 2020-2021 academic year. In this context, qualitative research method was used in our research. The sample of the study consists of 77 participants. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed by considering all stages of content analysis. Based on these analyzes, 7 main themes were reached. These main themes are namely technical problems, assessment and evaluation, lack of digital skills of learners, learners’ participation and motivation, limitations of distance education platforms, lack of digital materials and lack of information technology tools/physical conditions. Internet disconnection is seen as technical problems and the lack of reliability and objectivity of evaluating performance in class, exam and test applications are considered as an assessment and evaluation. The program/application/website used are unknown by the learners or the learners cannot use it at the expected level. It shows as learners' lack of digital skills. Learners’ motivation below expectations and being reluctance to turn on the camera and sound are evaluated as learners’ participation and motivation theme. Distance education platforms do not allow one-to-one interaction and socialization so it is considered as limitations of distance education platforms. Learners do not have enough information technology devices and there is not enough number of digital materials in the field of teaching Turkish as a second/foreign language. They were evaluated as lack of information technology tools/physical conditions and lack of digital materials respectively. The findings were discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions were made.
Funda Örge Yaşar
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1164046

Abstract:
This study aims to examine the pictures and photographs in Turkish textbooks taught in 7th and 8th grades in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) according to their types and the steps in the Revised Bloom Taxonomy. In this context, the pictures and photographs in the Turkish textbooks taught in the 7th and 8th grades in the 2021-2022 academic year in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and published by the TRNC Ministry of National Education and Culture were first classified according to their types, and then their distributed and evaluated according to the Revised Bloom Taxonomy steps. In addition, the distribution of painting and photography types according to the steps in the Revised Bloom Taxonomy has been specifically examined based on the two themes “Me and My Environment” and “My Country and My Cultural Values” chosen as examples from both textbooks, and it is aimed to form a basis for more accurate analyzes. In the study, the document analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used. It was found that the types of pictures and photographs in the examined Turkish textbooks did not show a balanced distribution; and that the pictures and photographs primarily aim to explain and complete the text. In addition, it was determined that the concentration, problem, creative and criticism pictures and photographs that would activate the high-level mental skills of the students were not sufficiently included; and it was observed that 27.59% of the pictures and 14.64% of the photographs in the 7th grade Turkish textbook aim to gain metacognitive skills. In the 8th grade Turkish textbook, this rate was found to be 30.64% for pictures and 27.08% for photographs.
Tuğba ŞİMŞEK
RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.29000/rumelide.1163998

Abstract:
Writing is one of the four basic skills as stated in the 2019 Turkish Curriculum. The program includes gains for writing skills. In addition, there is an elective course in secondary schools, and the details of this course are included in the 2018 Authorship and Writing Skills Curriculum. Looking at the historical process, there are Turkish lessons and lessons for writing skills under various titles in the education yearbooks of the Salname-i Nezaret-i Maarif-i Umumiye (Maarif Yearbook), which is the curriculum of the period. This study was created by examining the 1316 H Education Yearbook, the 2019 Turkish Course Curriculum and the 2018 Authorship and Writing Skills Curriculum, in terms of writing skills in Turkish course, using the document analysis method. In the study, firstly, 1316 H Education Yearbook was translated into today's Turkish; Then, the Turkish lessons and the lessons for writing skills were determined. Then, by making a comparative analysis of the programs, the change and development of the writing skill in the programs were tried to be evaluated. As a result, it is seen that the course schedules in the 1316 H Education Yearbook included lessons such as lexicon and orthography, orthography, recitation and orthography, inscription, and calligraphy for writing skills. In the explanations of the lessons, details such as the stages of the lesson, the characteristics of the text, the role of the teacher, the subject and assignments to be given to the students are given. While Turkish is a compulsory course in the current course schedules; The writing and writing skills course is an elective course. Writing outcome and explanations are included in the 2019 Turkish Curriculum; While details are not included in terms of method and technique; The process is further detailed in the 2018 Authorship and Writing Skills Curriculum. In terms of assessment and evaluation, it is seen that a similar approach is adopted in the programs. Accordingly, it is stated that process-based evaluation is preferred and the success of the students in moving to the next level is measured with the exams to be held.
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