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Hemraj B. Dodiya, , Ian Q. Weigle, Priyam Patel, Julia Michalkiewicz, Carlos J. Roman-Santiago, , Yingxia Liang, Abhinav Srinath, Xulun Zhang, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200895

Abstract:
We previously demonstrated that lifelong antibiotic (ABX) perturbations of the gut microbiome in male APPPS1-21 mice lead to reductions in amyloid β (Aβ) plaque pathology and altered phenotypes of plaque-associated microglia. Here, we show that a short, 7-d treatment of preweaned male mice with high-dose ABX is associated with reductions of Aβ amyloidosis, plaque-localized microglia morphologies, and Aβ-associated degenerative changes at 9 wk of age in male mice only. More importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from transgenic (Tg) or WT male donors into ABX-treated male mice completely restored Aβ amyloidosis, plaque-localized microglia morphologies, and Aβ-associated degenerative changes. Transcriptomic studies revealed significant differences between vehicle versus ABX-treated male mice and FMT from Tg mice into ABX-treated mice largely restored the transcriptome profiles to that of the Tg donor animals. Finally, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor-mediated depletion of microglia in ABX-treated male mice failed to reduce cerebral Aβ amyloidosis. Thus, microglia play a critical role in driving gut microbiome–mediated alterations of cerebral Aβ deposition.
Mikko T. Huuskonen, Yaoming Wang, , , Zhonghua Dai, Divna Lazic, Abhay P. Sagare, , , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211372

Abstract:
Subcortical white matter (WM) stroke accounts for 25% of all strokes and is the second leading cause of dementia. Despite such clinical importance, we still do not have an effective treatment for ischemic WM stroke, and the mechanisms of WM postischemic neuroprotection remain elusive. 3K3A-activated protein C (APC) is a signaling-selective analogue of endogenous blood protease APC that is currently in development as a neuroprotectant for ischemic stroke patients. Here, we show that 3K3A-APC protects WM tracts and oligodendrocytes from ischemic injury in the corpus callosum in middle-aged mice by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR3. We show that PAR1 and PAR3 were also required for 3K3A-APC’s suppression of post–WM stroke microglia and astrocyte responses and overall improvement in neuropathologic and functional outcomes. Our data provide new insights into the neuroprotective APC pathway in the WM and illustrate 3K3A-APC’s potential for treating WM stroke in humans, possibly including multiple WM strokes that result in vascular dementia.
, Laszlo Halasz, Miguel A. Medina-Serpas, Wilhelm K. Berger, , Petros Tzerpos, , , , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210420

Abstract:
Muscle regeneration is the result of the concerted action of multiple cell types driven by the temporarily controlled phenotype switches of infiltrating monocyte–derived macrophages. Pro-inflammatory macrophages transition into a phenotype that drives tissue repair through the production of effectors such as growth factors. This orchestrated sequence of regenerative inflammatory events, which we termed regeneration-promoting program (RPP), is essential for proper repair. However, it is not well understood how specialized repair-macrophage identity develops in the RPP at the transcriptional level and how induced macrophage–derived factors coordinate tissue repair. Gene expression kinetics–based clustering of blood circulating Ly6Chigh, infiltrating inflammatory Ly6Chigh, and reparative Ly6Clow macrophages, isolated from injured muscle, identified the TGF-β superfamily member, GDF-15, as a component of the RPP. Myeloid GDF-15 is required for proper muscle regeneration following acute sterile injury, as revealed by gain- and loss-of-function studies. Mechanistically, GDF-15 acts both on proliferating myoblasts and on muscle-infiltrating myeloid cells. Epigenomic analyses of upstream regulators of Gdf15 expression identified that it is under the control of nuclear receptors RXR/PPARγ. Finally, immune single-cell RNA-seq profiling revealed that Gdf15 is coexpressed with other known muscle regeneration–associated growth factors, and their expression is limited to a unique subpopulation of repair-type macrophages (growth factor–expressing macrophages [GFEMs]).
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20212207

Abstract:
Drurey et al. (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211140) show that excretory/secretory products from the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress the host-protective small intestinal epithelial response. These findings establish that helminths directly modulate the tissue in which they live, shining new light on the host–parasite interaction.
Ensong Guo, Rourou Xiao, Yifan Wu, Funian Lu, Chen Liu, Bin Yang, Xi Li, Yu Fu, Zizhuo Wang, Yuan Li, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210789

Abstract:
Targeted therapies represent attractive combination partners with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) to increase the population of patients who benefit or to interdict the emergence of resistance. We demonstrate that targeting WEE1 up-regulates immune signaling through the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral defense pathway with subsequent responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade even in cGAS/STING-deficient tumors, which is a typical phenotype across multiple cancer types. WEE1 inhibition increases endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) expression by relieving SETDB1/H3K9me3 repression through down-regulating FOXM1. ERVs trigger dsRNA stress and interferon response, increasing recruitment of anti-tumor T cells with concurrent PD-L1 elevation in multiple tumor models. Furthermore, combining WEE1 inhibition and PD-L1 blockade induced striking tumor regression in a CD8+ T cell–dependent manner. A WEE1 inhibition–induced viral defense signature provides a potentially informative biomarker for patient selection for combination therapy with WEE1 and ICB. WEE1 inhibition stimulates anti-tumor immunity and enhances sensitivity to ICB, providing a rationale for the combination of WEE1 inhibitors and ICB in clinical trials.
Nouraiz Ahmed, Martin Etzrodt, , Tobias Kull, Dirk Loeffler, , James S. Chavez, Yang Zhang, Germán Camargo Ortega, Oliver Hilsenbeck, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202490

Abstract:
Transcription factors (TFs) regulate cell fates, and their expression must be tightly regulated. Autoregulation is assumed to regulate many TFs’ own expression to control cell fates. Here, we manipulate and quantify the (auto)regulation of PU.1, a TF controlling hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and correlate it to their future fates. We generate transgenic mice allowing both inducible activation of PU.1 and noninvasive quantification of endogenous PU.1 protein expression. The quantified HSPC PU.1 dynamics show that PU.1 up-regulation occurs as a consequence of hematopoietic differentiation independently of direct fast autoregulation. In contrast, inflammatory signaling induces fast PU.1 up-regulation, which does not require PU.1 expression or its binding to its own autoregulatory enhancer. However, the increased PU.1 levels induced by inflammatory signaling cannot be sustained via autoregulation after removal of the signaling stimulus. We conclude that PU.1 overexpression induces HSC differentiation before PU.1 up-regulation, only later generating cell types with intrinsically higher PU.1.
Tomonori Kaifu, Rikio Yabe, Takumi Maruhashi, , , Noriyuki Fujikado, ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210435

Abstract:
Dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) is a C-type lectin receptor with a carbohydrate recognition domain and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Previously, we showed that Dcir−/− mice spontaneously develop autoimmune enthesitis and sialadenitis, and also develop metabolic bone abnormalities. However, the ligands for DCIR functionality remain to be elucidated. Here we showed that DCIR is expressed on osteoclasts and DCs and binds to an asialo-biantennary N-glycan(s) (NA2) on bone cells and myeloid cells. Osteoclastogenesis was enhanced in Dcir−/− cells, and NA2 inhibited osteoclastogenesis. Neuraminidase treatment, which exposes excess NA2 by removing the terminal sialic acid of N-glycans, suppressed osteoclastogenesis and DC function. Neuraminidase treatment of mice ameliorated collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a DCIR-dependent manner, due to suppression of antigen presentation by DCs. These results suggest that DCIR activity is regulated by the modification of the terminal sialylation of biantennary N-glycans, and this interaction is important for the control of both autoimmune and bone metabolic diseases.
Takahiro Nakajima, Toshio Kanno, Satoru Yokoyama, Shigemi Sasamoto, Hikari K. Asou, , , ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210639

Abstract:
T cells possess distinguishing effector functions and drive inflammatory disorders. We have previously identified IL-5–producing Th2 cells as the pathogenic population predominantly involved in the pathology of allergic inflammation. However, the cell-intrinsic signaling pathways that control the pathogenic Th2 cell function are still unclear. We herein report the high expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) in the pathogenic CD4+ T cell population in the lung and skin. The genetic deletion of CD4+ T cell–intrinsic ACC1 dampened eosinophilic and basophilic inflammation in the lung and skin by constraining IL-5 or IL-3 production. Mechanistically, ACC1-dependent fatty acid biosynthesis induces the pathogenic cytokine production of CD4+ T cells via metabolic reprogramming and the availability of acetyl-CoA for epigenetic regulation. We thus identified a distinct phenotype of the pathogenic T cell population in the lung and skin, and ACC1 was shown to be an essential regulator controlling the pathogenic function of these populations to promote type 2 inflammation.
Bassem D. Khalil, Roberto Sanchez, Tasrina Rahman, Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Stefan Moritsch, Alba Rodriguez Martinez, , Eduardo Farias, , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210836

Abstract:
We describe the discovery of an agonist of the nuclear receptor NR2F1 that specifically activates dormancy programs in malignant cells. The agonist led to a self-regulated increase in NR2F1 mRNA and protein and downstream transcription of a novel dormancy program. This program led to growth arrest of an HNSCC PDX line, human cell lines, and patient-derived organoids in 3D cultures and in vivo. This effect was lost when NR2F1 was knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9. RNA sequencing revealed that agonist treatment induces transcriptional changes associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression and mTOR signaling, metastasis suppression, and induction of a neural crest lineage program. In mice, agonist treatment resulted in inhibition of lung HNSCC metastasis, even after cessation of the treatment, where disseminated tumor cells displayed an NR2F1hi/p27hi/Ki-67lo/p-S6lo phenotype and remained in a dormant single-cell state. Our work provides proof of principle supporting the use of NR2F1 agonists to induce dormancy as a therapeutic strategy to prevent metastasis.
Chuan Li, Yee Peng Phoon, Keaton Karlinsey, Ye F. Tian, Samjhana Thapaliya, Angkana Thongkum, Lili Qu, Alyssa Joyce Matz, , Cheryl Cameron, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202084

Abstract:
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy continues to revolutionize melanoma treatment, but only a subset of patients respond. Major efforts are underway to develop minimally invasive predictive assays of ICI response. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we discovered a unique CD8 T cell blood/tumor-shared subpopulation in melanoma patients with high levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the ectonucleotidases CD38 and CD39, and both exhaustion and cytotoxicity markers. We called this population with high levels of OXPHOS “CD8+ TOXPHOS cells.” We validated that higher levels of OXPHOS in tumor- and peripheral blood–derived CD8+ TOXPHOS cells correlated with ICI resistance in melanoma patients. We then developed an ICI therapy response predictive model using a transcriptomic profile of CD8+ TOXPHOS cells. This model is capable of discerning responders from nonresponders using either tumor or peripheral blood CD8 T cells with high accuracy in multiple validation cohorts. In sum, CD8+ TOXPHOS cells represent a critical immune population to assess ICI response with the potential to be a new target to improve outcomes in melanoma patients.
Roland A. Cooper,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211512

Abstract:
Innovative drug treatments for malaria, optimally with novel targets, are needed to combat the threat of parasite drug resistance. As drug development efforts continue, there may be a role for a host-targeting, repurposed cancer drug administered together with an artemisinin combination therapy that was shown to improve the speed of recovery from a malaria infection.
, Melanie S. Vacchio, Ting Chen, Jia Nie, Laura B. Chopp, , ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202343

Abstract:
During the immune response, CD4+ T cells differentiate into distinct effector subtypes, including follicular helper T (Tfh) cells that help B cells, and into memory cells. Tfh and memory cells are required for long-term immunity; both depend on the transcription factor Bcl6, raising the question whether they differentiate through similar mechanisms. Here, using single-cell RNA and ATAC sequencing, we show that virus-responding CD4+ T cells lacking both Bcl6 and Blimp1 can differentiate into cells with transcriptomic, chromatin accessibility, and functional attributes of memory cells but not of Tfh cells. Thus, Bcl6 promotes memory cell differentiation primarily through its repression of Blimp1. These findings demonstrate that distinct mechanisms underpin the differentiation of memory and Tfh CD4+ cells and define the Bcl6–Blimp1 axis as a potential target for promoting long-term memory T cell differentiation.
Kaitlin A. Read,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20212177

Abstract:
For over a decade, mutual antagonism between the transcriptional repressors Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 has been appreciated as a key mechanistic determinant of lymphoid differentiation programs. Now, in this issue of JEM, Ciucci et al. (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202343) demonstrate that this relationship is "central" to the generation of T cell memory.
Li Wang, Michael A. Crackower,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211147

Abstract:
Inflammasome proteins play an important role in many diseases of high unmet need, making them attractive drug targets. However, drug discovery for inflammasome proteins has been challenging in part due to the difficulty in solving high-resolution structures using cryo-EM or crystallography. Recent advances in the structural biology of NLRP3 and NLRP1 have provided the first set of data that proves a promise for structure-based drug design for this important family of targets.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211140

Abstract:
Helminth parasites are adept manipulators of the immune system, using multiple strategies to evade the host type 2 response. In the intestinal niche, the epithelium is crucial for initiating type 2 immunity via tuft cells, which together with goblet cells expand dramatically in response to the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. However, it is not known whether helminths modulate these epithelial cell populations. In vitro, using small intestinal organoids, we found that excretory/secretory products (HpES) from Heligmosomoides polygyrus blocked the effects of IL-4/13, inhibiting tuft and goblet cell gene expression and expansion, and inducing spheroid growth characteristic of fetal epithelium and homeostatic repair. Similar outcomes were seen in organoids exposed to parasite larvae. In vivo, H. polygyrus infection inhibited tuft cell responses to heterologous Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection or succinate, and HpES also reduced succinate-stimulated tuft cell expansion. Our results demonstrate that helminth parasites reshape their intestinal environment in a novel strategy for undermining the host protective response.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211665

Abstract:
The majority of humans infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis never experience clinical symptoms or signs, but predicting those who will remains out of reach. Here, we discuss recent studies that reveal patterns and pathways that determine who is at highest risk for progression.
Longfei Ma, Lina Yu, , Jingkai Wang, Xinying Guo, Yangyuxin Huang, Jinxuan Ren, Na Sun, Dave Schwinn Gao, Hao Ding, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210920

Abstract:
Nerve injury–induced changes of gene expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are critical for neuropathic pain genesis. However, how these changes occur remains elusive. Here we report the down-regulation of zinc finger protein 382 (ZNF382) in injured DRG neurons after nerve injury. Rescuing this down-regulation attenuates nociceptive hypersensitivity. Conversely, mimicking this down-regulation produces neuropathic pain symptoms, which are alleviated by C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) knockdown or its receptor CXCR5 knockout. Mechanistically, an identified cis-acting silencer at distal upstream of the Cxcl13 promoter suppresses Cxcl13 transcription via binding to ZNF382. Blocking this binding or genetically deleting this silencer abolishes the ZNF382 suppression on Cxcl13 transcription and impairs ZNF382-induced antinociception. Moreover, ZNF382 down-regulation disrupts the repressive epigenetic complex containing histone deacetylase 1 and SET domain bifurcated 1 at the silencer-promoter loop, resulting in Cxcl13 transcriptional activation. Thus, ZNF382 down-regulation is required for neuropathic pain likely through silencer-based epigenetic disinhibition of CXCL13, a key neuropathic pain player, in DRG neurons.
, , , , Maria Luisa Gomez-Calvo, Olga Fedorova, Mallery I. Breban, , Huiping Dong, Melissa Linehan, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211818

Abstract:
As SARS-CoV-2 continues to cause morbidity and mortality around the world, there is an urgent need for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Here, we assessed the antiviral capacity of a minimal RIG-I agonist, stem-loop RNA 14 (SLR14), in viral control, disease prevention, post-infection therapy, and cross-variant protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A single dose of SLR14 prevented viral infection in the lower respiratory tract and development of severe disease in a type I interferon (IFN-I)–dependent manner. SLR14 demonstrated remarkable prophylactic protective capacity against lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection and retained considerable efficacy as a therapeutic agent. In immunodeficient mice carrying chronic SARS-CoV-2 infection, SLR14 elicited near-sterilizing innate immunity in the absence of the adaptive immune system. In the context of infection with variants of concern (VOCs), SLR14 conferred broad protection against emerging VOCs. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SLR14 as a host-directed, broad-spectrum antiviral for early post-exposure treatment and treatment of chronically infected immunosuppressed patients.
, Tripti Kumari, Andrew Barazia, Vishwanath Jha, Si-Yeon Jeong, Amber Olson, Mijeong Kim, Bum-Kyu Lee, VijayPrakash Manickam, Zhimin Song, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211083

Abstract:
The interaction between neutrophils and endothelial cells is critical for the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation. However, the regulation of neutrophil adhesive function remains not fully understood. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that neutrophil DREAM promotes neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation induced by TNF-α but not MIP-2 or fMLP. We observe that neutrophil DREAM represses expression of A20, a negative regulator of NF-κB activity, and enhances expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) after TNF-α stimulation. Studies using genetic and pharmacologic approaches reveal that DREAM deficiency and IKKβ inhibition significantly diminish the ligand-binding activity of β2 integrins in TNF-α–stimulated neutrophils or neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. Neutrophil DREAM promotes degranulation through IKKβ-mediated SNAP-23 phosphorylation. Using sickle cell disease mice lacking DREAM, we show that hematopoietic DREAM promotes vaso-occlusive events in microvessels following TNF-α challenge. Our study provides evidence that targeting DREAM might be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce excessive neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory diseases.
Daniel B. Stamos, Lauren M. Clubb, Apratim Mitra, Laura B. Chopp, Jia Nie, Yi Ding, Arundhoti Das, , Jan Lee, Dalal El-Khoury, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202012

Abstract:
Analysis of the transcriptional profiles of developing thymocytes has shown that T lineage commitment is associated with loss of stem cell and early progenitor gene signatures and the acquisition of T cell gene signatures. Less well understood are the epigenetic alterations that accompany or enable these transcriptional changes. Here, we show that the histone demethylase Lsd1 (Kdm1a) performs a key role in extinguishing stem/progenitor transcriptional programs in addition to key repressive gene programs during thymocyte maturation. Deletion of Lsd1 caused a block in late T cell development and resulted in overexpression of interferon response genes as well as genes regulated by the Gfi1, Bcl6, and, most prominently, Bcl11b transcriptional repressors in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. Transcriptional overexpression in Lsd1-deficient thymocytes was not always associated with increased H3K4 trimethylation at gene promoters, indicating that Lsd1 indirectly affects the expression of many genes. Together, these results identify a critical function for Lsd1 in the epigenetic regulation of multiple repressive gene signatures during T cell development.
Jie Chen, Huie Jing, Andrea Martin-Nalda, , , Zhiyong Liu, , Danyel Lee, Wesley Tung, , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211349

Abstract:
Enterovirus (EV) infection rarely results in life-threatening infection of the central nervous system. We report two unrelated children with EV30 and EV71 rhombencephalitis. One patient carries compound heterozygous TLR3 variants (loss-of-function F322fs2* and hypomorphic D280N), and the other is homozygous for an IFIH1 variant (loss-of-function c.1641+1G>C). Their fibroblasts respond poorly to extracellular (TLR3) or intracellular (MDA5) poly(I:C) stimulation. The baseline (TLR3) and EV-responsive (MDA5) levels of IFN-β in the patients’ fibroblasts are low. EV growth is enhanced at early and late time points of infection in TLR3- and MDA5-deficient fibroblasts, respectively. Treatment with exogenous IFN-α2b before infection renders both cell lines resistant to EV30 and EV71, whereas post-infection treatment with IFN-α2b rescues viral susceptibility fully only in MDA5-deficient fibroblasts. Finally, the poly(I:C) and viral phenotypes of fibroblasts are rescued by the expression of WT TLR3 or MDA5. Human TLR3 and MDA5 are critical for cell-intrinsic immunity to EV, via the control of baseline and virus-induced type I IFN production, respectively.
Victoria M. Hallisey,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211971

Abstract:
In this elegant study, Evrard et al. (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210116) find that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1PR5) powerfully impairs tissue-resident memory T cell (TRM) formation, and that tissue-derived TGF-β limits S1pr5 expression by infiltrating T cells.
Nan Zhang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Anastasiia Gainullina, Emma C. Erlich, Emily J. Onufer, Jiseon Kim, Rafael S. Czepielewski, Beth A. Helmink, Joseph R. Dominguez, Brian T. Saunders, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210924

Abstract:
Two resident macrophage subsets reside in peritoneal fluid. Macrophages also reside within mesothelial membranes lining the peritoneal cavity, but they remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified two macrophage populations (LYVE1hi MHC IIlo-hi CX3CR1gfplo/− and LYVE1lo/− MHC IIhi CX3CR1gfphi subsets) in the mesenteric and parietal mesothelial linings of the peritoneum. These macrophages resembled LYVE1+ macrophages within surface membranes of numerous organs. Fate-mapping approaches and analysis of newborn mice showed that LYVE1hi macrophages predominantly originated from embryonic-derived progenitors and were controlled by CSF1 made by Wt1+ stromal cells. Their gene expression profile closely overlapped with ovarian tumor-associated macrophages previously described in the omentum. Indeed, syngeneic epithelial ovarian tumor growth was strongly reduced following in vivo ablation of LYVE1hi macrophages, including in mice that received omentectomy to dissociate the role from omental macrophages. These data reveal that the peritoneal compartment contains at least four resident macrophage populations and that LYVE1hi mesothelial macrophages drive tumor growth independently of the omentum.
Weifeng Liu, Ting-Fang Chou, , Goo-Young Seo, Elena Fedorov, , Jeffrey B. Bonanno, Qingyang Wang, , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211112

Abstract:
HVEM is a TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor contributing to a broad range of immune functions involving diverse cell types. It interacts with a TNF ligand, LIGHT, and immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members BTLA and CD160. Assessing the functional impact of HVEM binding to specific ligands in different settings has been complicated by the multiple interactions of HVEM and HVEM binding partners. To dissect the molecular basis for multiple functions, we determined crystal structures that reveal the distinct HVEM surfaces that engage LIGHT or BTLA/CD160, including the human HVEM–LIGHT–CD160 ternary complex, with HVEM interacting simultaneously with both binding partners. Based on these structures, we generated mouse HVEM mutants that selectively recognized either the TNF or Ig ligands in vitro. Knockin mice expressing these muteins maintain expression of all the proteins in the HVEM network, yet they demonstrate selective functions for LIGHT in the clearance of bacteria in the intestine and for the Ig ligands in the amelioration of liver inflammation.
Yuki Hikichi, Yasutaka Motomura, ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210181

Abstract:
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are unique in their ability to produce low levels of type 2 cytokines at steady state, and their production capacity is dramatically increased upon stimulation with IL-33. However, it is unknown how constitutive cytokine production is regulated in the steady state. Here, we found that tristetraprolin (TTP/Zfp36), an RNA-binding protein that induces mRNA degradation, was highly expressed in naive ILC2s and was downregulated following IL-33 stimulation. In ILC2s from Zfp36−/− mice, constitutive IL-5 production was elevated owing to the stabilization of its mRNA and resulted in an increased number of eosinophils in the intestine. Luciferase assay demonstrated that TTP directly regulates Il5 mRNA stability, and overexpression of TTP markedly suppressed IL-5 production by ILC2s, even under IL-33 stimulation. Collectively, TTP-mediated posttranscriptional regulation acts as a deterrent of excessive cytokine production in steady-state ILC2s to maintain body homeostasis, and downregulation of TTP may contribute to massive cytokine production under IL-33 stimulation.
Stephan Isringhausen, Yevin Mun, Larisa Kovtonyuk, Nike J. Kräutler, Ute Suessbier, Alvaro Gomariz, Gianluca Spaltro, Patrick M. Helbling, Hui Chyn Wong, , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20192070

Abstract:
Chronic viral infections are associated with hematopoietic suppression, bone marrow (BM) failure, and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) exhaustion. However, how persistent viral challenge and inflammatory responses target BM tissues and perturb hematopoietic competence remains poorly understood. Here, we combine functional analyses with advanced 3D microscopy to demonstrate that chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus leads to (1) long-lasting decimation of the BM stromal network of mesenchymal CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, (2) proinflammatory transcriptional remodeling of remaining components of this key niche subset, and (3) durable functional defects and decreased competitive fitness in HSCs. Mechanistically, BM immunopathology is elicited by virus-specific, activated CD8 T cells, which accumulate in the BM via interferon-dependent mechanisms. Combined antibody-mediated inhibition of type I and II IFN pathways completely preempts degeneration of CARc and protects HSCs from chronic dysfunction. Hence, viral infections and ensuing immune reactions durably impact BM homeostasis by persistently decreasing the competitive fitness of HSCs and disrupting essential stromal-derived, hematopoietic-supporting cues.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211996

Abstract:
In this issue of JEM, a paper by Kim et al. (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211872), asking a simple question through a remarkable alliance of human and mouse genetics, demonstrates that a prevalent hematological condition can lead to osteoporosis. This work is important by virtue of the quality of its results and its implication for the relationship between bone and its marrow.
Peter Geon Kim, , Veronica Shkolnik, Marie McConkey, , Mikołaj Słabicki, , , Christopher J. Gibson, Gabriel Griffin, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211872

Abstract:
Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, occurring in close proximity to hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Recurrent somatic mutations that lead to an expanded population of mutant blood cells is termed clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Analyzing exome sequencing data from the UK Biobank, we found CHIP to be associated with increased incident osteoporosis diagnoses and decreased bone mineral density. In murine models, hematopoietic-specific mutations in Dnmt3a, the most commonly mutated gene in CHIP, decreased bone mass via increased osteoclastogenesis. Dnmt3a−/− demethylation opened chromatin and altered activity of inflammatory transcription factors. Bone loss was driven by proinflammatory cytokines, including Irf3-NF-κB–mediated IL-20 expression from Dnmt3a mutant macrophages. Increased osteoclastogenesis due to the Dnmt3a mutations was ameliorated by alendronate or IL-20 neutralization. These results demonstrate a novel source of osteoporosis-inducing inflammation.
Hye Sun Kuehn, Jingjie Chang, , , , Kazuki Okuyama, Junji Harada, Jennifer L. Stoddard, Cristiane J. Nunes-Santos, Brigette Boast, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211118

Abstract:
AIOLOS/IKZF3 is a member of the IKAROS family of transcription factors. IKAROS/IKZF1 mutations have been previously associated with different forms of primary immunodeficiency. Here we describe a novel combined immunodeficiency due to an IKZF3 mutation in a family presenting with T and B cell involvement, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and/or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients carrying the AIOLOS p.N160S heterozygous variant displayed impaired humoral responses, abnormal B cell development (high percentage of CD21low B cells and negative CD23 expression), and abrogated CD40 responses. Naive T cells were increased, T cell differentiation was abnormal, and CD40L expression was dysregulated. In vitro studies demonstrated that the mutant protein failed DNA binding and pericentromeric targeting. The mutant was fully penetrant and had a dominant-negative effect over WT AIOLOS but not WT IKAROS. The human immunophenotype was recapitulated in a murine model carrying the corresponding human mutation. As demonstrated here, AIOLOS plays a key role in T and B cell development in humans, and the particular gene variant described is strongly associated with immunodeficiency and likely malignancy.
, Erica Wynne-Jones, Changwei Peng, , Susan N. Christo, , Simone L. Park, Thomas N. Burn, Maleika Osman, Sapna Devi, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 219; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210116

Abstract:
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells provide long-lasting immune protection. One of the key events controlling TRM cell development is the local retention of TRM cell precursors coupled to downregulation of molecules necessary for tissue exit. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1PR5) is a migratory receptor with an uncharted function in T cells. Here, we show that S1PR5 plays a critical role in T cell infiltration and emigration from peripheral organs, as well as being specifically downregulated in TRM cells. Consequentially, TRM cell development was selectively impaired upon ectopic expression of S1pr5, whereas loss of S1pr5 enhanced skin TRM cell formation by promoting peripheral T cell sequestration. Importantly, we found that T-bet and ZEB2 were required for S1pr5 induction and that local TGF-β signaling was necessary to promote coordinated Tbx21, Zeb2, and S1pr5 downregulation. Moreover, S1PR5-mediated control of tissue residency was conserved across innate and adaptive immune compartments. Together, these results identify the T-bet–ZEB2–S1PR5 axis as a previously unappreciated mechanism modulating the generation of tissue-resident lymphocytes.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201314

Abstract:
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii has long provided a tractable experimental system to investigate how the immune system deals with intracellular infections. This review highlights the advances in defining how this organism was first detected and the studies with T. gondii that contribute to our understanding of how the cytokine IFN-γ promotes control of vacuolar pathogens. In addition, the genetic tractability of this eukaryote organism has provided the foundation for studies into the diverse strategies that pathogens use to evade antimicrobial responses and now provides the opportunity to study the basis for latency. Thus, T. gondii remains a clinically relevant organism whose evolving interactions with the host immune system continue to teach lessons broadly relevant to host–pathogen interactions.
Correction
Zhen Zhuang, Xiaomin Lai, Jing Sun, Zhao Chen, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jun Dai, Donglan Liu, Yuming Li, Fang Li, Yanqun Wang, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.2020218710052021c

Xiuyuan Lu, Yuki Hosono, , Shigenari Ishizuka, Eri Ishikawa, Daisuke Motooka, Yuki Ozaki, Nicolas Sax, , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211327

Abstract:
Adaptive immunity is a fundamental component in controlling COVID-19. In this process, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that mediate the production of protective antibodies; however, the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes activating Tfh cells are not well characterized. Here, we identified and crystallized TCRs of public circulating Tfh (cTfh) clonotypes that are expanded in patients who have recovered from mild symptoms. These public clonotypes recognized the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) epitopes conserved across emerging variants. The epitope of the most prevalent cTfh clonotype, S864–882, was presented by multiple HLAs and activated T cells in most healthy donors, suggesting that this S region is a universal T cell epitope useful for booster antigen. SARS-CoV-2–specific public cTfh clonotypes also cross-reacted with specific commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified conserved SARS-CoV-2 S epitopes that activate public cTfh clonotypes associated with mild symptoms.
, Laura Marie Gail, Lisa Kleissl, , Valerie Smejkal, Julian Huber, Viktoria Puxkandl, Luisa Unterluggauer, Ruth Dingelmaier-Hovorka, Denise Atzmüller, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210417

Abstract:
Emigration of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) was recently introduced in mouse models and may drive systemic inflammation. Skin TRMs of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can coexist beside donor T cells, offering a unique human model system to study T cell migration. By genotyping, mathematical modeling, single-cell transcriptomics, and functional analysis of patient blood and skin T cells, we detected a small consistent population of circulating skin-derived T cells with a TRM phenotype (cTRMs) in the blood and unveil their skin origin and striking resemblance to skin TRMs. Blood from patients with active graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) contains elevated numbers of host cTRMs producing pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 cytokines and mediating keratinocyte damage. Expression of gut-homing receptors and the occurrence of cTRMs in gastrointestinal GVHD lesions emphasize their potential to reseed and propagate inflammation in distant organs. Collectively, we describe a distinct circulating T cell population mirroring skin inflammation, which could serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target in GVHD.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211427

Abstract:
Latent intact HIV-1 proviruses persist in a small subset of long-lived CD4+ T cells that can undergo clonal expansion in vivo. Expanded clones of CD4+ T cells dominate latent reservoirs in individuals on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and represent a major barrier to HIV-1 cure. To determine how integration landscape might contribute to latency, we analyzed integration sites of near full length HIV-1 genomes from individuals on long-term ART, focusing on individuals whose reservoirs are highly clonal. We find that intact proviruses in expanded CD4+ T cell clones are preferentially integrated within Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain–containing zinc finger (ZNF) genes. ZNF genes are associated with heterochromatin in memory CD4+ T cells; nevertheless, they are expressed in these cells under steady-state conditions. In contrast to genes carrying unique integrations, ZNF genes carrying clonal intact integrations are down-regulated upon cellular activation. Together, the data suggest selected genomic sites, including ZNF genes, can be especially permissive for maintaining HIV-1 latency during memory CD4+ T cell expansion.
Robert A. Lindquist,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211605

Abstract:
In this issue of JEM, Zhang et al. (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202669) identify a dependency of glioma stem cells on tyrosine phosphatase activity of EYA2 and a new role for this phosphatase at the centrosome, offering a new therapeutic approach to target mitotic activity.
Ryo Shinnakasu, , Hiromi Yamamoto, Po-Hung Wang, Saya Moriyama, Nicolas Sax, Chikako Ono, , Yu Adachi, Taishi Onodera, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211003

Abstract:
Broadly protective vaccines against SARS-related coronaviruses that may cause future outbreaks are urgently needed. The SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) comprises two regions, the core-RBD and the receptor-binding motif (RBM); the former is structurally conserved between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Here, in order to elicit humoral responses to the more conserved core-RBD, we introduced N-linked glycans onto RBM surfaces of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and used them as immunogens in a mouse model. We found that glycan addition elicited higher proportions of the core-RBD–specific germinal center (GC) B cells and antibody responses, thereby manifesting significant neutralizing activity for SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and the bat WIV1-CoV. These results have implications for the design of SARS-like virus vaccines.
Guoxin Zhang, Zhen Dong, Ryan C. Gimple, Arthur Wolin, Qiulian Wu, , Lisa M. Wood, , Li Jiang, Linjie Zhao, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202669

Abstract:
Glioblastoma ranks among the most lethal of primary brain malignancies, with glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) at the apex of tumor cellular hierarchies. Here, to discover novel therapeutic GSC targets, we interrogated gene expression profiles from GSCs, differentiated glioblastoma cells (DGCs), and neural stem cells (NSCs), revealing EYA2 as preferentially expressed by GSCs. Targeting EYA2 impaired GSC maintenance and induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of self-renewal. EYA2 displayed novel localization to centrosomes in GSCs, and EYA2 tyrosine (Tyr) phosphatase activity was essential for proper mitotic spindle assembly and survival of GSCs. Inhibition of the EYA2 Tyr phosphatase activity, via genetic or pharmacological means, mimicked EYA2 loss in GSCs in vitro and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Supporting the clinical relevance of these findings, EYA2 portends poor patient prognosis in glioblastoma. Collectively, our data indicate that EYA2 phosphatase function plays selective critical roles in the growth and survival of GSCs, potentially offering a high therapeutic index for EYA2 inhibitors.
Correction
Vishwas Mishra, Avipsa Bose, Shashi Kiran, Sanghita Banerjee, Idrees A. Shah, Pooja Chaukimath, Mudasir M. Reshi, Swarna Srinivas, Anaxee Barman, Sandhya S. Visweswariah
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.2021047909292021c

, , Kei Fujimura, Danny Li, Kathryn McCauley, , Shannon K.K. Best, Diana Zhu, Andrew J. Rasky, , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210235

Abstract:
Development of the immune system can be influenced by diverse extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence the risk of disease. Severe early life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with persistent immune alterations. Previously, our group had shown that adult mice orally supplemented with Lactobacillus johnsonii exhibited decreased airway immunopathology following RSV infection. Here, we demonstrate that offspring of mice supplemented with L. johnsonii exhibit reduced airway mucus and Th2 cell–mediated response to RSV infection. Maternal supplementation resulted in a consistent gut microbiome in mothers and their offspring. Importantly, supplemented maternal plasma and breastmilk, and offspring plasma, exhibited decreased inflammatory metabolites. Cross-fostering studies showed that prenatal Lactobacillus exposure led to decreased Th2 cytokines and lung inflammation following RSV infection, while postnatal Lactobacillus exposure diminished goblet cell hypertrophy and mucus production in the lung in response to airway infection. These studies demonstrate that Lactobacillus modulation of the maternal microbiome and associated metabolic reprogramming enhance airway protection against RSV in neonates.
Fahd Al Qureshah, , Christopher D. Thouvenel, Shuozhi Liu, Zhaolin Hua, , Mridu Acharya, ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211035

Abstract:
While phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) plays a critical role in humoral immunity, the requirement for PI3Kδ signaling in plasma cells remains poorly understood. Here, we used a conditional mouse model of activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), to interrogate the function of PI3Kδ in plasma cell biology. Mice expressing a PIK3CD gain-of-function mutation (aPIK3CD) in B cells generated increased numbers of memory B cells and mounted an enhanced secondary response but exhibited a rapid decay of antibody levels over time. Consistent with these findings, aPIK3CD expression markedly impaired plasma cell generation, and expression of aPIK3CD intrinsically in plasma cells was sufficient to diminish humoral responses. Mechanistically, aPIK3CD disrupted ER proteostasis and autophagy, which led to increased plasma cell death. Notably, this defect was driven primarily by elevated mTORC1 signaling and modulated by treatment with PI3Kδ-specific inhibitors. Our findings establish an essential role for PI3Kδ in plasma cell homeostasis and suggest that modulating PI3Kδ activity may be useful for promoting and/or thwarting specific immune responses.
Eric J. Wigton, , Ryan J. McMonigle, , Adam K. Wade-Vallance, Simon K. Zhou, Robin Kageyama, Adam Litterman, Suparna Roy, , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201422

Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) regulate cell fate decisions by post-transcriptionally tuning networks of mRNA targets. We used miRNA-directed pathway discovery to reveal a regulatory circuit that influences Ig class switch recombination (CSR). We developed a system to deplete mature, activated B cells of miRNAs, and performed a rescue screen that identified the miR-221/222 family as a positive regulator of CSR. Endogenous miR-221/222 regulated B cell CSR to IgE and IgG1 in vitro, and miR-221/222–deficient mice exhibited defective IgE production in allergic airway challenge and polyclonal B cell activation models in vivo. We combined comparative Ago2-HITS-CLIP and gene expression analyses to identify mRNAs bound and regulated by miR-221/222 in primary B cells. Interrogation of these putative direct targets uncovered functionally relevant downstream genes. Genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibition of Foxp1 and Arid1a confirmed their roles as key modulators of CSR to IgE and IgG1.
Akemi Kosaka, Kei Ishibashi, , , , Syunsuke Yasuda, Marino Nagata, Shohei Harabuchi, Ryusuke Hayashi, Yuki Yajima, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200792

Abstract:
Activation of STING signaling plays an important role in anti-tumor immunity, and we previously reported the anti-tumor effects of STING through accumulation of M1-like macrophages in tumor tissue treated with a STING agonist. However, myeloid cells express SIRPα, an inhibitory receptor for phagocytosis, and its receptor, CD47, is overexpressed in various cancer types. Based on our findings that breast cancer patients with highly expressed CD47 have poor survival, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanisms of combination therapy with the STING ligand cGAMP and an antagonistic anti-CD47 mAb using E0771 mouse breast cancer cells. Anti-CD47 mAb monotherapy did not suppress tumor growth in our setting, whereas cGAMP and anti-CD47 mAb combination therapy inhibited tumor growth. The combination therapy enhanced phagocytosis of tumor cells and induced systemic anti-tumor immune responses, which rely on STING and type I IFN signaling. Taken together, our findings indicate that coadministration of cGAMP and an antagonistic anti-CD47 mAb may be promising for effective cancer immunotherapy.
Chia-Hao Lin, Mei-Chi Chen, Ling-Li Lin, , , ,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210021

Abstract:
IL-27 controls a diverse range of immune responses in many disease settings. Here, we identify intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) as one of the major IL-27 cellular sources in the gut-associated tissue. Unlike IL-27 secreted by innate immune cells, gut epithelial IL-27 is dispensable for T-bet+ regulatory T cell (T reg cell) differentiation or IL-10 induction. Rather, IEC-derived IL-27 specifically promotes a distinct CD8αα+CD4+ intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) population that acquires their functional differentiation at the intestinal epithelium. Loss of IL-27 in IECs leads to a selective defect in CD8αα+CD4+ IELs over time. Consequently, mice with IEC-specific IL-27 ablation exhibited elevated pathogen burden during parasitic infection, and this could be rescued by transfer of exogenous CD8αα+CD4+ IELs. Collectively, our data reveal that in addition to its known regulatory properties in preventing immune hyperactivity, gut epithelial IL-27 confers barrier immunity by inducing a specific IEL subset and further suggest that IL-27 produced by different cell types plays distinct roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.
Zsófia Agnes Bittner, Xiao Liu, Maria Mateo Tortola, Ana Tapia-Abellán, Sangeetha Shankar, Liudmila Andreeva, , , , , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201656

Abstract:
Activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a critical mediator of inflammation, is controlled by accessory proteins, posttranslational modifications, cellular localization, and oligomerization. How these factors relate is unclear. We show that a well-established drug target, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), affects several levels of NLRP3 regulation. BTK directly interacts with NLRP3 in immune cells and phosphorylates four conserved tyrosine residues upon inflammasome activation, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, BTK promotes NLRP3 relocalization, oligomerization, ASC polymerization, and full inflammasome assembly, probably by charge neutralization, upon modification of a polybasic linker known to direct NLRP3 Golgi association and inflammasome nucleation. As NLRP3 tyrosine modification by BTK also positively regulates IL-1β release, we propose BTK as a multifunctional positive regulator of NLRP3 regulation and BTK phosphorylation of NLRP3 as a novel and therapeutically tractable step in the control of inflammation.
Vishwas Mishra, Avipsa Bose, Shashi Kiran, , Idrees A. Shah, Pooja Chaukimath, Mudasir M. Reshi, Swarna Srinivas, Anaxee Barman,
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210479

Abstract:
Activating mutations in receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), the target of gastrointestinal peptide hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins cause early-onset diarrhea and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GC-C regulates ion and fluid secretion in the gut via cGMP production and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. We characterize a novel mouse model harboring an activating mutation in Gucy2c equivalent to that seen in an affected Norwegian family. Mutant mice demonstrated elevated intestinal cGMP levels and enhanced fecal water and sodium content. Basal and linaclotide-mediated small intestinal transit was higher in mutant mice, and they were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Fecal microbiome and gene expression analyses of colonic tissue revealed dysbiosis, up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes, and misregulation of genes associated with human IBD and animal models of colitis. This novel mouse model thus provides molecular insights into the multiple roles of intestinal epithelial cell cGMP, which culminate in dysbiosis and the induction of inflammation in the gut.
Claire Pujol, , Livia Parodi, Priscilla Thomas, , Dario Saracino, , Marijana Croon, Milica Popovic, Manon Valet, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210846

Abstract:
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms remains sparse, and therapeutic options are lacking. We characterized a mouse model lacking the Cyp2u1 gene, loss of which is known to be involved in a complex form of these diseases in humans. We showed that this model partially recapitulated the clinical and biochemical phenotypes of patients. Using electron microscopy, lipidomic, and proteomic studies, we identified vitamin B2 as a substrate of the CYP2U1 enzyme, as well as coenzyme Q, neopterin, and IFN-α levels as putative biomarkers in mice and fluids obtained from the largest series of CYP2U1-mutated patients reported so far. We also confirmed brain calcifications as a potential biomarker in patients. Our results suggest that CYP2U1 deficiency disrupts mitochondrial function and impacts proper neurodevelopment, which could be prevented by folate supplementation in our mouse model, followed by a neurodegenerative process altering multiple neuronal and extraneuronal tissues.
Chris D. Hermann, Benjamin Schoeps, Celina Eckfeld, Enkhtsetseg Munkhbaatar, Lukas Kniep, , Nils Wirges, , Daniel Häußler, , et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210911

Abstract:
Sex disparity in cancer is so far inadequately considered, and components of its basis are rather unknown. We reveal that male versus female pancreatic cancer (PC) patients and mice show shortened survival, more frequent liver metastasis, and elevated hepatic metastasis-promoting gene expression. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) was the secreted factor with the strongest male-biased expression in patient-derived pancreatic tumors. Male-specific up-regulation of systemic TIMP1 was demonstrated in PC mouse models and patients. Using TIMP1-competent and TIMP1-deficient PC mouse models, we established a causal role of TIMP1 in determining shortened survival and increased liver metastasis in males. Observing TIMP1 expression as a risk parameter in males led to identification of a subpopulation exhibiting increased TIMP1 levels (T1HI males) in both primary tumors and blood. T1HI males showed increased risk for liver metastasis development not only in PC but also in colorectal cancer and melanoma. This study reveals a lifestyle-independent sex disparity in liver metastasis and may open new avenues toward precision medicine.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211482

Abstract:
Therapeutic discovery for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has been hindered by a lack of preclinical mouse models that recapitulate human disease. In this issue, Pieters and colleagues (2021. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20202280) establish a novel mouse model of MCL driven by overexpression of cyclin D2 and identify fetal-derived B1a cells as putative cell of origin for MCL.
, Boas Felmy, , Sanne Kroon, Dorothée Lisa Berthold, Giverny Ganz, Ioana Sandu, Toshihiro Nakamura, , Yang Zhang, et al.
Journal of Experimental Medicine, Volume 218; https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210862

Abstract:
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) NF-κB signaling regulates the balance between mucosal homeostasis and inflammation. It is not fully understood which signals tune this balance and how bacterial exposure elicits the process. Pure LPS induces epithelial NF-κB activation in vivo. However, we found that in mice, IECs do not respond directly to LPS. Instead, tissue-resident lamina propria intercrypt macrophages sense LPS via TLR4 and rapidly secrete TNF to elicit epithelial NF-κB signaling in their immediate neighborhood. This response pattern is relevant also during oral enteropathogen infection. The macrophage–TNF–IEC axis avoids responses to luminal microbiota LPS but enables crypt- or tissue-scale epithelial NF-κB responses in proportion to the microbial threat. Thereby, intercrypt macrophages fulfill important sentinel functions as first responders to Gram-negative microbes breaching the epithelial barrier. The tunability of this crypt response allows the induction of defense mechanisms at an appropriate scale according to the localization and intensity of microbial triggers.
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