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Fathia Maulida, Asih Setiarini, Endang Laksminingsih Achadi
Published: 27 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2sp.2021.19-29

Abstract:
Background: The program for giving Fe tablets is one of the efforts to overcome anemia based on WHO recommendations, one of the targets is the adolescent girl. Indicators of the success of this program are decreasing the incidence of anemia in adolescent girls and increasing adherence to iron tablets consumption. Objectives: This research aims to determine the implementation of the Fe tablets program for adolescent girls in 2019 in Pekanbaru City. Methods: This research uses a qualitative method which is then presented with a descriptive narrative. The data obtained are primary data obtained and collected by in-depth interviews with informants and secondary data by document review and then analyzed by content analysis. Results: The results showed that the implementation of the Fe tablets program for young women in Pekanbaru City has been running, but there are still many obstacles in its implementation so that the scope of success of this program has not reached the national target. Constraints in its implementation include the lack of coordination of cross-sectoral cooperation, the lack of provision of IEC media in socialization, and the low level of compliance of adolescent girls in consuming iron tablets.Conclusions: It is necessary to strengthen coordination and control in the implementation of the Fe tablets program for adolescent girls in Pekanbaru City, it is necessary to increase the procurement of IEC media to support the success of this program and there is a need for improvement providing education to the adolescent girl and even parents or guardians on the knowledge about the importance of this Fe tablets program.Keywords: Fe tablets, adolescent girl, IEC
Sitti Patimah, Sundari Sundari, Andi Imam Arundhana
Published: 27 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2sp.2021.1-9

Abstract:
Background: Stunting remains a major public health problem in Majene, Indonesia. School-based nutrition education is an effective strategy to reduce the prevalence of stunting in all settings. The teachers are the key to implementing the strategy in order to improve the students’ behavior and nutritional status.Purpose: The study aimed to explore the teachers’ perceptions about stunting.Method: A qualitative case-study approach was employed using two focus group discussions in four secondary schools. The study participants were teachers of biology, physical education and health science, and religious subjects or supervisor of school extracurricular activities. A total of 22 teachers were interviewed following the guidelines and were recorded using a camera and tape recorder. The transcription process was done using an inductive-interactive model.Result: The perceptions of teachers about stunting are varied. It might be due to teachers’ knowledge, value, and experiences, which also diverged. One teacher perceived that stunting is a mismatch between the child's weight and age, while another perceived genetics as the main cause. Interestingly, a teacher perceived that stunting is related to religion. Prayer has function as a spirit in creating a mindset towards food and drinks. Likewise, the prevention of stunting is also through worship and prayer during pregnancy. Low cognitive skill and productivity, illness, and detrimental to the state are the common impacts of stunting. In addition, teachers also mentioned that there are several agencies involved in the stunting intervention programs, including BPOM.Conclusion: There were variations of teacher perceptions about stunting definition, causes, impacts, prevention, and implementers of stunting programs.
Mellysa Kowara
Published: 27 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2sp.2021.10-18

Abstract:
ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Peningkatan cakupan ASI eksklusif dapat dilakukan dengan menerapkan 10 LMKM di fasilitas kesehatan. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian program 10 LMKM tahap 1 menunjukkan perlunya penguatan 10 LMKM terutama langkah 1 dan 2 sebagai prosedur pengelolaan kritis (Critical Management Procedural). Untuk menindaklanjuti temuan tersebut maka dijalankan Project BENEFIT untuk meningkatkan penerapan dari langkah-langkah tersebut. Proyek tersebut dilaksanakan pada tahun 2019 hingga 2020 di 5 kabupaten/kota di Jawa Timur yaitu Bondowoso, Jember, Probolinggo, Trenggalek dan Surabaya.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi implementasi penguatan 10 LMKM yang dilakukan melalui proyek BENEFITyang berfokus pada penguatan langkah 1 dan 2 di fasilitas kesehatan di Provinsi Jawa Timur dan bagaimana pengaruhnya terhadap penerapan langkah lainnya serta pencapaian dalam indikator menyusui. Metode: Studi crossectional dilakukan pada 720 responden yang terdiri dari 143 pimpinan fasilitas kesehatan dan 577 ibu nifas (untuk validasi data). Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang diadaptasi dari BFHI Unicef/WHO yang mengevaluasi penerapan keseluruhan langkah dalam 10 LMKM menggunakan aplikasi KoBo ToolBox pada periode Juli-September 2020. Hasil: Terdapat peningkatan dalam penerapan 10 LMKM terutama langkah 1 dan 2. Langkah 1 yaitu tersedianya kebijakan tertulis pemberian ASI eksklusif menunjukkan peningkatan kepatuhan yang signifikan (66,4 menjadi 72,82; α= 0,015). Sedangkan untuk tahap 2 (pelatihan dukungan menyusui bagi petugas kesehatan dan non-kesehatan) menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan dalam pelaksanaannya (69,5 menjadi 77; α = 0,015). Prosedur manajemen kritis berperan sebagai landasan yang mempengaruhi praktik dukungan menyusui di fasilitas kesehatan. Berdasarkan hasil monitoring dan evaluasi menunjukkan adanya perbaikan pada praktik dukungan menyusui selama perawatan ibu di fasilitas kesehatan seperti cakupan IMD (71,2%) baik pada persalinan normal maupun seksio sesarea, rawat gabung (69,1%) dan praktik menyusui bayi baru lahir. (73,5%). Kesimpulan: Intervensi BENEFIT yang berfokus pada penguatan langkah 1 dan 2 dalam 10 LMKM sebagai prosedur manajemen kritis mampu meningkatkan kepatuhan implementasi keseluruhan langkah 10 LMKM. Sebagai landasan untuk melaksanakan langkah-langkah lainnya, penguatan 10 LMKM terutama langkah 1 dan 2 terbukti dapat meningkatkan praktik dukungan menyusui di fasilitas kesehatan oleh seluruh staf.Kata Kunci: Menyusui, 10 LMKM, BENEFIT ABSTRACTBackground: 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (STSB) was implemented as an attempt to improve the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding in healthcare facilities. Results of the phase 1 Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) assessment necessitated further strengthening for steps 1 which is the availability of an exclusive breastfeeding policy and step 2 which entails training provision for maternal and child health officer. These two steps are regarded as critical management procedures which act as a foundation for the implementation of subsequent steps. To follow up on these findings, Project BENEFIT was implemented to improve steps 1 and 2. The project was carried out between 2019 and 2020 in 5 districts in East Java, namely Bondowoso, Jember, Probolinggo, Trenggalek and Surabaya. Objectives: This objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the BENEFIT project and how it affects the implementation of other steps as well as how it impacts breastfeeding indicators.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 720 respondents consisting of 143 health facility leaders and 577 post-partum mothers to validate response. Data was collected using a questionnaire adapted from Baby Friendly Hospital Initiation (BFHI) guidelines by World Health organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) using the KoBo ToolBox application between July and October 2020. Results: There was an improvement in the implementation of steps 1 and 2. A significant increase in compliance was found for Step 1 (66.4 to 72.82 α = 0.015) and step 2 (69.5 to 77.9, α = 0.15). Subsequent monitoring and evaluation also showed moderate improvement on breastfeeding support practice in health facilities such as coverage of skin-to-skin contact (71.2%) both on normal and section-caesarean delivery, rooming-in (69.1%) and the practice of breastfeeding newborn (73.5 %). Conclusion: The BENEFIT project assisted in the increased compliance for steps 1 and 2 STSB, which further improved breastfeeding support practices by all healthcare facility staff members for other steps. Keywords: Breastfeeding, 10 STSB, BENEFIT
Deasy Andesbrenta Sadikin
Published: 27 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2sp.2021.38-44

Abstract:
Background: Nutrition literacy is the ability to obtain, process, understand, and use nutritional and dietary information, as well as access to the services needed to make good nutritional decisions. Low nutritional literacy can have an impact on a poor diet and lead to the incidence of non-communicable diseases related to nutrition, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. College students are prone to develop poor eating habits if not supported by good nutrition literacy.Objectives: This study measured the difference in the proportion of nutritional literacy in regular active undergraduate students at the University of Indonesia based on the cluster of science, gender, paternal and maternal education level, pocket money, and media use.Methods: The study design used is a cross-sectional design with quota sampling method to get 130 samples of students from Health Science Cluster and 130 samples of students from Non-Health Science Cluster.Results: The results of this study showed that the majority of the University of Indonesia students in 2021 has an adequate level of nutrition literacy (62.7%). The results of the bivariate analysis also showed a significant difference in proportion to the level of total nutrition literacy based on cluster of science (OR = 6.7, p-value < 0.01), gender (OR = 2.25, p-value < 0.01), and media use (OR = 4.36, p-value < 0.01). In addition to these factors, there was also a difference in proportion between the level of interactive nutrition literacy based on maternal education level (p-value < 0.05)Conclusions: Students from non-health science cluster are at risk of having a lower level of nutrition literacy compared to students from health science cluster. There are differences in the proportion of nutritional literacy levels based on cluster of science, gender, maternal education level, and media use.
Intan Hidayah, Sandra Fikawati
Published: 27 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2sp.2021.30-37

Abstract:
Background: Food security is a condition when everybody has adequate physical and economical access to get nutritious and safe food to lead healthy and active life. COVID-19 pandemic can cause food security disruptions. This is because several people have lost their jobs and income so that they are no longer able to meet their food needs. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the dominant factor related to food security during COVID-19 pandemic in Depok City in 2020.Methods: This quantitative research used cross-sectional study. The data used was secondary data from the research entitled Situation of Family Food Security and Coping Mechanisms in COVID-19 Pandemic Situation in Urban and Semi-Urban Areas. The total of samples for this secondary study were 259 households who had pregnant mother, breastfeeding mother, infant or toddler. Sampling process from the primary research was carried out by purposive sampling. Researchers disseminated research information through social media and posyandu cadres and then conducted screening. Respondents who met the screening requirements would be sent an electronic mail or Whatsapp containing a research questionnaire. Data was analyzed using McNemar test, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression test.Results: This study indicated that 61.8% of households in Depok City experienced food insecurity. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that household income during pandemic, husband’s and wife’s education, the number of high educated people in household significantly related to household food security during COVID-19 pandemic. The dominant factor of household food security during the COVID-19 pandemic in Depok City in 2020 was wife’s education (OR=3.978) after being controlled by the wife’s occupation during pandemic, household income during pandemic, and husband’s education.Conclusions: Households with low educated wife were at risk to be food insecure 4 times higher than households with high educated wives.
Esti Trihanifah, Stefania Widya Setyaningtyas
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 326-332; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.326-332

Abstract:
ABSTRACTBackgrounds:Infectious diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis are often found in developing countries, not least in Indonesia. When infected, the body will experience hyper-catabolism so that the fulfillment of the needs of macronutrient intake is needed so as not to occur malnutrition especially in the intensive phase. Objectives: This study aims to determine and analyze the relationship between the level of energy and macro nutrient adequacy with the nutritional status of intensive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods:This study used a cross sectional research design with a sample of 32 respondents. The sample selection procedure used purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using a 2x24 hour food recall questionnaire. Data analysis using the chi-square test with SPSS software Results: Based on the analysis that has been done, the results show that the adequacy of energy p=0.001 (OR=17.0) and macro nutrients (protein p=0.000 (OR=17.0); fat p=0.0001 (OR=3.7) ; carbohydrates p=0.000 (OR=1.0)) is related to the nutritional status of patients with intensive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions: The tuberculosis patient is expected to increase the daily energy and macro nutrition substance to prevent nutrition deficiency for the patient.
Rieza Enggardany, Lucia Yovita Hendrati, Noran Naqiah Hairi
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 347-352; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.347-352

Abstract:
Background: Anemia is a condition characterized by low levels of hemoglobin (Hb) from normal limits. Anemia is still a public health problem. Data states that the prevalence of anemia in Indonesia in 2013 was 21.7%, with the number of sufferers known to be higher in women than men. The prevalence of anemia in the age range 15 to 24 years was 18.4%. Nutritional status shows the balance of nutrients due to the consumption, absorption, and use of nutrients that come from food in the body. A person's nutritional status can be said to be deficient if the body lacks intake of one or more essential nutrients for the body. One of the indicators for assessing a person's nutritional status is the Body Mass Index (BMI). Inadequate nutritional status will affect the nutritional status of iron in a person' s body so that it can be interpreted that nutritional status is one of the factors of anemia. Consuming foods with good nutritional value, especially foods that contain high iron will also affect the nutritional status of these adolescents so that the risk of suffering from anemia will decrease.Objective: This study aims to analyze the relationship between body mass index and anemia among young women in Indonesia.Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. The data used are secondary data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 5. The population of this study was all Indonesians who participated in IFLS 5. The sample used in this study amounted to 3,525 respondents. IInclusion criteria of this study included female, aged 10-18 years, unmarried, having complete data regarding body weight, height and hemoglobin measurement results. If data related to the measurement results of hemoglobin, body weight, height are incomplete, they will be excluded.The statistical test was used is a chi-square test.Results: There was a relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and anemia among young women in Indonesia (p = 0.034 <0.05).Based on the odd ratio analysis using the normal Body Mass Index (BMI) group as a comparison, it is known that young women with underweight BMI categories have a 1.198 greater risk of experiencing anemia than girls with normal BMI categories.Conclusion: There is a relationship between BMI and anemia in adolescent girls. It is important for young women to always pay attention to daily iron intake by eating foods that are rich in iron or taking blood-booster tablets (TTD) to avoid anemia.
Izzati Nur Khoiriani, Afifah Yasyfa Dhiyanti, Rizal Fakih Firmansyah,
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 395-407; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.395-407

Abstract:
ABSTRACTBackgrounds: Carbohydrate intake is a major determinant of blood glucose stability in patients with type 1 diabetes. Carbohydrate counting as a meal planning approach for patients with type 1 diabetes is known to have flexibility in controlling blood glucose by regulating the amount of carbohydrate intake and insulin dose, yet a good understanding about carbohydrate counting practices is still needed in order to achieve blood glucose control targeted blood glucose control. Objectives: this article aims to review the result of previous studies relating to effect, impact and benefits in metabolic control, anthropometry, also impact and practices of education relating to carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes. Discussion: Carbohydrate counting has an impact on HbA1c, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes-related quality of life and type 1 diabetes therapy satisfaction. Effects of carbohydrate counting depends on age, diet management, ability to calculate ideal insulin requirements, provided education, patient readiness to apply carbohydrate counting, family support, and additional interventions provided to support improved metabolic control. The use of Automated Bolus Calculator (ABC) with carbohydrate counting and FIIT simultaneously was thought to be able to support the effectiveness of type 1 diabetes mellitus therapy. Conclusions: Carbohydrate counting can improve metabolic control in children, adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes. It is necessary to emphasize continuous education by registered dietitian using media in estimating the portion of food and insulin doses, also involving parents to improve the accuracy of carbohydrate counting in children and adolescents.The combination of Automated Bolus Calculator (ABC) and Flexible Intensive Insulin Therapy (FIIT) is known to increase carbohydrate counting effectiveness in type 1 DM therapy.
Azrimaidaliza Azrimaidaliza, Fathia Juwita, Zulkarnain Agus
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 353-359; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.353-359

Abstract:
Background: Stunting prevalence is quite high in West Sumatra Province, including Padang City. Parenting factors and nutritional status play a role in children's development.Objective: This study aims to determine the association between parenting and stunting status with the development of children aged 12-36 months.Method: Design study was cross sectional with the population being children aged 12-36 months who lived in the Pauh Public Health Center working area in Padang City with a total sample of 86 children. The sample was taken by using simple random sampling. Data on development of children were collected using KPSP, parenting data by a structured questionnaire, and stunting data through measuring child height. The data is processed by the SPSS program and displayed univariate, bivariate and multivariate data.Results: The results showed that parenting, especially eating patterns and stunting status were related to the development of children aged 12-36 months. The factor most related to the development of children aged 12-36 months is the stunting status of the child (POR = 4.368; 95% CI = 1.781-10.711; p value = 0.001)Conclusion: It should be noted that a balanced diet in accordance with the needs of children in addition to improving health, hygiene and psychosocial parenting mainly for stunting children so that the child's physical growth and development are normal.
Nikmah Utami Dewi, Rian Diana
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 387-394; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.387-394

Abstract:
Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death after heart disease globally (total death 9.6 million). Cancer prevalence is increasing in Indonesia from 1.4 per 1000 people in 2013 to 1.79 per 1000 people in 2018. Diet is linked with cancer prognosis, particularly carbohydrate intake which stimulates insulin signals that can be potent mitogens.Purpose: This literature review aims to examine sugar intake and cancer incidence.Method: This literature review (traditional review) using the keywords “cancer”,” sugar”, “carbohydrate”, “insulin” and “hyperinsulinemia” in the Sciencedirect database and Google search engine. The inclusion criteria were peer-review articles or documents from credible national and international institutions, the literature uses English or Bahasa (Indonesian Language). The exclusion criteria were that the literature had similar content or redundant with other literature.Result: Sugar increases insulin resistance which enhances the levels of bioactive IGF-I that contribute to raising the risk of cancer. Prolonged hyperinsulinemia reduces the production of growth-promoting factors such as IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 which normally bind to and inhibit the action of IGF-I with resultant increases in the levels of free, bio-active IGF-I, and concomitant changes in the cellular environment that favor cancer development, proliferation, and metastatic cancer cells.Conclusion: The mechanism of insulin and IGF-1 stimulate and accelerate cancer cell proliferation may explain the relationship between sugar intake and cancer incidence. Adopting a balanced diet, changing or decreasing sugar intake with healthier food coupled with increased physical activity reduces the risk of cancer.
Nandia Firsty Dhorta,
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 370-376; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.370-376

Abstract:
Background: Nutritional problems, such as over-nutrition and under-nutrition, will raise the risk of non-communicable diseases. Adolescence happens to be one of the most important phase in life since it is a transition phase to adulthood so that nutritional status at this phase could define the health status in adulthood. The limitation of outdoor activities during the pandemic has been done as an effort to break the chain of the Covid-19 virus spread causes decline in physical activity, increase in sedentary behavior and stressful events in the form of a negative body image. Changes in physical activity and the presence of a negative body image, especially in adolescent girls, will likely cause changes in nutritional status and increase the risk of nutritional problems in both over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Objective: To analyze the relationship of body image and physical activity of female students in State Senior High School 2 Surabaya (SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya). Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study, with a total sample of 61 female students of SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya, aged 15-17 years who were randomly selected using the simple random sampling method. The study instruments were BSQ-16a, IPAQ-short form, personal data including body height and body weight which were designed online. Data analysis were cross tab analysis and the fisher’s exact test using IBM SPSS Statistics v23. Results: There were seven out of ten (70.5%) students that had a negative body image; most of them had normal nutritional status (77%), but the prevalence of overweight (14.8%) was high and the levels of physical activity varied (light=32.8, moderate=31.1%, strenuous=36.1% ). In addition, there was a correlation between body image (p = 0.011) and physical activity (p = 0.006) with nutritional status of female students in SMA Negeri 2 Surabaya. Conclusion: Negative body image and lower physical activity or sedentary behavior contributed to overweight and obesity in female students of State Senior High School 2 Surabaya (SMA negeri 2 Surabaya).
Perez Wahyu Purnasari, Citra Primavita Mayangsari, Conita Yuniarifa
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 341-346; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.341-346

Abstract:
ABSTRACTBackgrounds:Iron supplementation has not been able to maximize the reduction of anemia in children. Iron consumption that is not sufficient for daily needs and low iron absorption and lack of diversity of food sources of iron are the main causes of anemia in children. The absorption ability of macro and micro-nutrients is strongly influenced by the histological features of the ileum. Improvements in the histological features of the ileum by administering probiotics and zinc in cases of malnutrition are expected to improve absorption function, so that absorption of nutrients, especially iron, can be better Objectives: To assess the effect of probiotics and zinc on hemoglobin levels in malnourished rats. Methods: The experimental study, using 30 rats aged 8 weeks, body weight 180-200 g, divided randomly into 5 groups. Group N was given a standard diet, groups M, PZ, P, and Z were given a low calorie diet for 14 days to make malnourished. The treatment was started on day 15 to 28, group M was still given a low calorie diet, groups PZ, P, and Z were given a standard diet and supplementation. PZ group was given a combination of probiotics and zinc, P group was given probiotics, and Z group was given zinc. On the 29th day, all blood samples were checked for Hb levels using spectrophotometry. Results:There was a significant difference in hemoglobin levels between the malnourished group and the treatment group (p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin levels in probiotic group were significantly higher among the other treatment groups and the combination group indicated significantly lower hemoglobin levels. Conclusions: Probiotic and zinc administration significantly influence hemoglobin levels in malnourished rats.
Dilla Dayanti, Windi Permatasari, Icha Khaerunnisa, Sri Winarni
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 360-369; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.360-369

Abstract:
Backgrounds: White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is widely cultivated by Indonesian people due to its delicious and nutritious taste. Pleurotus ostreatus contains 18 amino acids that make up the body and antioxidants, including phenolic compounds and ergothioneine. Ergothioneine as a strong antioxidant is an amino acid derived from histidine which has sulfur groups such as cysteine and methionine. The increase in histidine indicates the activity of ergothioneine.Objectives: This study aims to determine the amino acid content of histidine as a predictor of ergothioneine amino acid in the drying and frying process of white oyster mushrooms.Methods: The extraction method used in this study was maceration with 90% ethanol for drying samples and 70% ethanol for frying samples analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).Results: The results showed that the histidine content increased with the longer drying time, and decreased with the longer frying time. Drying with a variation of 2 days, 3 days, and 5 days were 674788,802 mg/L; 615302.747 mg/L; and 1946113,494 g / L respectively. Frying with a variation of 2 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes were 500435,148 mg / L; 232428,391 mg/L; and 0.000 mg / L. On the other hand, the methionine content decreased with the longer drying time, and increased with the longer frying time. Drying with a variation of 2 days, 3 days, and 5 days in a row were 6673,283mg/L; 6671,920 mg/L; and 1876,358 mg / L. Frying with a variation of 2 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes were 2296,698 mg / L; 1243,911 mg/L; and 34764.534 mg/L.Conclusions: the study concludes that the content of histidine as the highest ergothioneine predictor is at drying for 5 days and frying for 2 days.
Kong Pun Pun, Nithiah Thangiah, Hazreen Abdul Majid
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 377-386; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.377-386

Abstract:
Introduction: Malaysia suffers from obesity problems with nearly a quarter of the children and adolescents being overweight or obese. Validated methods are needed to measure the trend of overweight and obesity easily.Objective: The study investigates the precision of Malaysian late adolescents' self-reported height and weight compared to direct-measured methods.Methods: About 114 young adults aged 19-20 years old participated in this cross sectional study in 2019. Self-reported and direct-measured anthropometrics including height and weight were gathered through phone calls and study instruments. The obtained height and weight values calculates BMI and determines classifications.Results: The ICC value were excellent between reported and measured weight (ICC= 0.94; 95% CI=0.91-0.96), height (ICC= 0.95; 95% CI=0.83-0.98) and BMI (ICC = 0.89; 95% CI=0.78-0.94) were found. Additionally, good agreement observed from B & A plots indicated that the differences between both independent measurement variables were minor and most of the differences were within the area of the limit of agreement at the population level for their anthropometric measurements. The Cohen’s Kappa showed substantial agreement of BMI calculated from reported weight and height (ҡ = 0.61; 95% CI= 0.48-0.74), boys (ҡ = 0.67; 95% CI=0.43-0.91) and girls (ҡ = 0.58; 95% CI=0.43-0.73).Conclusion: This validation study concluded that self-reported height and weight were in agreement with direct-measured methods. This technique can be utilized to assess the anthropometric status of Malaysian late adolescents for population studies.
Ratna Kuatiningsari, Fatqiatul Wulandari, Ade Lia Ramadani, Qonita Rachmah
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 320-325; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.320-325

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which if not done properly, can cause microvascular and macrovascular disorders. Indicators of the accuracy of diabetes management in this scientific article include education, self-management (improving diet, increasing physical activity, and self-efficacy), and monitoring of HbA1c levels. Mobile devices have the potential as a tool for diabetes mellitus management in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0.Purpose: to provide the latest information regarding the effectiveness of using mobile devices in controlling risk factors for diabetes mellitus.Method: This study is a literature review study. The electronic databases used are Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Directory of Access Journals (DOAJ). Inclusion criteria: original research, a journal of at least 80% indexed by Sinta (Indonesian journal) and indexed by Scopus (international journal), published year 2010-2020, intervention using a mobile device, has an output of HbA1c levels, self management (diet, physical activity, and self efficacy), and the level of knowledge. Exclusion criteria: reference with secondary data.Result: This study used 16 scientific articles. A number of 12 studies (75%) reported the use of mobile device applications in controlling risk factors for diabetes mellitus had significant measurement results in controlling HbA1c levels in 10 studies (83%) and 2 studies were not significant (17%). Outcomes in the form of self-management were reported by 9 studies with details of the significant results of dietary improvement in 5 studies (83%), increased physical activity in 5 studies (63%), and self-efficacy in 4 studies (67%). The increase in knowledge was reported by 4 studies with significant results (100%).Conclusion: Mobile device-based digital intervention is quite effective in controlling diabetes mellitus risk factors to control HbA1c levels, increasing self-management (improving diet, increasing physical activity, and self-efficacy) and knowledge.
Astri Purwanti, Sugiarto Sugiarto, Dono Indarto
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 313-319; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.313-319

Abstract:
Background: Fruit-infused water (FIW) contains antioxidants and potassium as a antihyperglycemic and antihypertension via inhibition or break the chain of radical reaction but has not been proven in patients with MS.Purpose: To evaluate the effects of FIW on blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with MS.Method: This is a Randomized-Control Trial with pre-posttest control group design. 24 patients of Cakranegara Health Center who fulfilled the criteria were randomly divided into control (given counseling only) and treatment (counseling + FIW consists of apple, cucumber, pineapple and strawberry in 250 ml water for 14 days) groups. Blood pressure and FBG were measured before and after intervention. Chi Square was used for descriptive analyze, whereas T-test, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon was used for differences in means.Result: In the treatment group (n=11), systolic and diastolic mean levels were decreased by 5,4 mmHg (p=0,140) and 0,9 mmHg (p=0,792) respectively. However, FBG levels were increased by 9,2 mg/dL (p=0.929). There were no differences on systolic (p=0,448), diastolic (p=0,835) and FBG (p=0,599) between two groups.Conclusion: FIW consumption are unable to improve blood pressure and FBG levels on metabolic syndrome. Keywords: Fruit-Infused Water, Blood Pressure, Fasting Blood Sugar Level, Metabolic Syndrome
Nural Erzurum Alim, Zehra Nur Beşler, Gözde Çalışkan, Kerim Kaan Göküstün
Published: 25 November 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 333-340; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i4.2021.333-340

Abstract:
Background: Body dissatisfaction is more common in adolescents and its prevalence is increasing in developed and developing countries. These situation is associated with unhealthy dieting behaviors. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between thinness expectations, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes and behaviors in interpersonal interaction.Method: This study was conducted on 372 university students. The survey form was prepared using the Google Surveys Program. In the questionnaire form, there are sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, Interpersonal Outcome Expectancies for Thinness (IOET), Nutritional Changes Process Scale (NCPS), and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ).Result: There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total scores of the IOET, BSQ, and NCPS scales according to gender (p > 0.05). According to the NCPS scale sub-dimensions, it was determined that the means scores of dramatic relief and social liberation were higher in females than males (p < 0.05). However, the mean scores of reinforcement management, stimulus control, interpersonal control systems, and substance abuse were lower in females than males (p < 0.05). In addition, when the distribution of thinness was examined in the relationships with family, other family members, teachers, friends, colleagues, and foreigners according to gender, it was determined that there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The findings show that there were moderate and strong positive correlations between the total score of BSQ and NCPS, and IOET total scores, respectively (p < 0.05).Conclusion: According to the study results, body shape is important in interpersonal relationships among university students and body dissatisfaction may be related to eating behaviors.
Bernie Endyarni Medise
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.27-33

Abstract:
Background: Indonesia comes in the fifth for the greatest number of preterm births. Preterm infants may inflict various complication as the result of underdeveloped immunity, affecting their growth and development in the long run until they reach adult phase. Such complications could be prevented through adequate nutrition fulfillment. Purpose: This article aimed to elaborate the characteristics of growth and development of premature babies, long term effect on the development and the impact of immunity and gut health of preterm infants in supporting their growth and development. Methods: References cited in this article were obtained from the latest primary literature within the last 10 years. Discussion: The rate and ability of infants to perform catch-up growth depends on the birth weight and gestation age, at which the lower birth weight and lower gestational age had slower rate. Brain structures that of preterm infants differ compared to the term, and these changes give rise to various clinical outcomes, including long term emotional, behavioral changes, cognitive and executive functioning. Immature immune system in preterm infants reduces the protective ability by innate and adaptive immunity in overcoming pathogens compared to term infants, including gut microbiota prematurity which affects nutrition absorption and growth and development catch up ability. Appropriate and adequate nutrition supplementation has shown beneficial effects in promoting the growth of normal gut flora, which allow better absorption of nutrition and therefore enhancing growth rate and supporting the development of preterm infants. Conclusions: Optimal growth and development of preterm infants are supported by sufficient nutrition supplementation to support the growth of gut microbiota, facilitating the catch-up growth and development of premature infants and immune system maturity.
Nova Lidia Sitorus, Charisma Dilantika, Ray Wagiu Basrowi
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.34-42

Abstract:
Background: Immature immune system in preterm infants is associated with gut dysbiosis and poses significant health risks to their growth and development. Current guidelines for managing preterm infants focuses solely on macro- and micronutrients, whereas preterm infants’ gastrointestinal system requires optimalization to support nutrient absorption. Studies on the positive impacts of prebiotics as supplements have been conducted, but has not been implemented in Indonesia. Indonesian pediatricians’ perspective on these findings needs to be assessed. Objectives: To describe the perspectives of Indonesian pediatricians on the role of gut microbiota balance in supporting immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants, and the role of breastmilk and prebiotic-supplemented formula in optimizing gut microbiota balance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 114 Indonesian pediatricians using a previously-validated and previously-used questionnaire on the role of gut microbiota balance on preterm infants, as well as the role of breastmilk and prebiotic-supplemented formula in optimizing gut microbiota balance. Results: Most respondents agreed that gut microbiota balance supports immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants. Respondents also agreed that breastmilk contains nutrients that support gut microbiota balance and when breastmilk becomes unavailable, prebiotic-supplemented formula can be given as substitute. Conclusions: Indonesian pediatricians considered gut microbiota balance to be important for immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants, and breastmilk to be the most ideal source of nutrition for preterm infants in optimizing gut microbiota balance. When breastmilk is unavailable, prebiotic-supplemented formula can be considered as an alternative.
Rinawati Rohsiswatmo
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.1-13

Abstract:
Background: Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It is the most important predictor of adverse health and development infant outcomes that extend into the early childhood and beyond. It is also the leading cause of childhood mortality under 5 years of age worldwide and responsible for approximately one million neonatal deaths. It is also a significant contributor to childhood morbidities, with many survivors are facing an increased risk of lifelong disability and poor quality of life. Purpose: In this article, we aimed to describe features of preterm infants, what makes them different from term infants, and what to consider in nutritional management of preterm infants through a traditional narrative literature review. Discussion: Preterm infants are predisposed to more health complications than term infants with higher morbidity and mortality. This morbidity and mortality can be reduced through timely interventions for the mother and the preterm infant. Maternal interventions, such as health education and administration of micronutrient supplementation, are given before or during pregnancy and at delivery, whereas appropriate care for the preterm infants should be initiated immediately after birth, which include early breastfeeding and optimalization of weight gain. Conclusion: Essential care of the preterm infants and early aggressive nutrition should be provided to support rapid growth that is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. The goal is not only about survival but making sure that these preterm infants grow and develop without any residual morbidity.
Ariani Dewi Widodo
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.14-20

Abstract:
Background: Gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem consisting of abundant microorganisms, plays a role in preterm infants’ immunity, growth, and development. Dysbiosis or disruption of the gut microbiota can precipitate various diseases, such as allergy or autoimmune disorders in premature infants. Purpose: This study aimed to review gut microbiota in preterm infants and its role in supporting the infants’ immunity, growth, and development. Discussion: Bifidobactericeae is the predominant microbiota in GI tract of preterm infants. However, various factors can influence this gut microbiota e.g., genetics, lifestyle of the mothers (smoking, diet, use of antibiotic, obesity), birth mode, type of feeding, and environmental factors. Gut dysbiosis can result in impaired immune system which predisposes the preterm infants to infections, even fatal adverse event. Furthermore, the growth and development might be affected as well as lead to various neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Human milk is a prebiotic source which can stimulate the growth of Baifidobactericeae and Bacteroidetes. If the human milk is inadequate or unavailable, the recommended interventions for gut dysbiosis in premature infants are probiotics, prebiotics, or both supplementations (synbiotics). The administration of prebiotics and probiotics associates with lower morbidity and death rates in preterm infants, as well as shorter duration of hospital stay and duration to achieve full enteral feeding. Conclusions: Immunity as well as growth and development of preterm infants are affected greatly by gut microbiota The less diverse microbiota in preterm infants’ gut predispose them to various health problems. Hence, this problem should be managed properly, one of which is prebiotic and probiotic supplementation Keywords: Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Premature, Immunity, Growth, Development
Zakiudin Munasir
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.21-26

Abstract:
Background: After birth, preterm infants face numerous challenges, including short and long-term morbidities, to survive and grow well with impaired immune and gastrointestinal systems. According to data from 184 countries, preterm birth rate ranges from 5-18%, accounting for 35% of all new born deaths. Purpose: This literature review aimed to summarize the evidence for the impact of prematurity on immune system development and the benefit of prebiotics on gut microbiota and immune responses. Discussion: Various studies in this narrative literature review showed that preterm infants have both qualitative and quantitative immune response deficits compared to term infants. Preterm newborns also have impaired intestinal immunity, underdeveloped intestinal mucosa barrier, and gut dysbiosis, which predisposes them to life-threatening infections. Early balanced gut microbiota in infants believed to be essential for adequate intestinal physiological functions and immune system maturation. The use of prebiotics, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human breast milk, has been found to decrease the risk of various infections and cognitive impairment. A previous study found that prebiotic oligosaccharides supplementation was well-tolerated, significantly increased Bifidobacteria growth, and reduced the presence of gut pathogens. Conclusions: There was robust evidence that breast milk and prebiotics supplementation may support the gut microbiome and immune system in preterm infants. However, different types of synthetic prebiotics offer different benefits, and the protective effect seems to depend on the supplementation duration and dosage.
Hesti Permata Sari, Lilis Permatasari, Widya Ayu Kurnia Putri
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 276-283; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.276-283

Abstract:
Background: Toddlers are a group that is vulnerable to experiencing nutritional problems. The nutritional status of toddlers is very dependent on the role of caregivers, especially mothers. Business women have less time together with toddlers so that it will have an impact on mothers' attention to the growth and development of toddlers, child feeding patterns, food diversity, and macro-nutrient intake of toddlers. Research in Padang states that business women have a 1,3 times risk of experiencing malnutrition in children. Purpose: Know the differences in child feeding patterns, food diversity, and macro nutrient intake in toddlers from business women and housewife. Method: The design of this study was an observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The research was conducted on medium socioeconomic housing in Banyumas Regency. The sample are toddlers aged 12-59 months as many as 78 toddlers, taken using total sampling techniques. Data were statistically tested using independent T tests. Results: The results of study showed no differences in child feeding patterns (p = 0.605), food diversity (p = 0.767), energy intake (p = 0.483), protein intake (p = 0.806), fat intake (p = 0.787) and carbohydrate intake (p = 0.337) in toddlers from business women and housewife. Conclusions: There were no differences in child feeding patterns, food diversity, and macro nutrient intake in toddlers from business women and housewife.
Adilah Anindito Difa Putri, Salsabila Naim
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 284-291; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.284-291

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Angka Kematian Bayi merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan utama di Indonesia. Pemberian ASI eksklusif kepada bayi merupakan salah satu cara efektif agar dapat menurunkan Angka Kematian Bayi di Indonesia. Cakupan ASI eksklusif pada tahun 2017 sebesar 52%, hal tersebut telah memenuhi minimal 50% dari target nasional namun cakupan ASI eksklusif menurun seiring dengan pertambahan usia anak.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi pemberian ASI eksklusif di Indonesia.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia 2017 dengan desain cross-sectional. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 1.435 yang terdiri dari ibu yang memiliki anak berusia 0-5 bulan terakhir yang masih hidup, tidak memiliki anak kembar, tinggal bersama anaknya dan masih menyusui. Analisis data menggunakan analisis bivariabel metode chi-square dan analisis multivariabel metode regresi logistik berganda.Hasil: Ibu yang memiliki anak yang berusia 0 – 1 bulan berpeluang 22,835 kali lebih tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif dibanding anak usia 4 – 5 bulan (OR 22,835; CI 95% 11, 033 – 47,261), begitu pula pada ibu yang memiliki anak yang berusia 2 – 3 bulan berpeluang tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif juga. Ibu dengan pendidikan tinggi 3,383 kali berpeluang lebih tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif dibanding ibu yang tidak sekolah (OR 3,383; CI 95% 0,999 – 11,461), hal yang sama berlaku pada ibu dengan pendidikan menengah dan pendidikan dasar yang memiliki peluang tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif juga. Ibu dengan tingkat status ekonomi atas berpeluang 1,670 kali lebih tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif dibanding ibu dengan tingkat status ekonomi bawah (OR 1,670; CI 95% 1,102 – 2,529), hal yang sama berlaku pada ibu dengan tingkat status ekonomi menengah yang memiliki peluang tinggi untuk ASI eksklusif juga.Kesimpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemberian ASI eksklusif antara lain: usia anak, tingkat pendidikan ibu dan status ekonomi.
Silvia Alfinnia, Lailatul Muniroh, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 223-229; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.223-229

Abstract:
ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Anak usia sekolah mengalami peningkatan kebutuhan gizi untuk tumbuh kembang. Di usia ini, anak-anak bisa memilih makanan maupun media bermain sesuai keinginan mereka. Aktivitas menggunakan layar yang berlebih serta perilaku makan yang buruk dapat memicu terjadinya obesitas.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan Screen Based Activity (SBA) dan perilaku makan dengan status gizi anak usia sekolah.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan desain penelitian cross sectional. Penelitian dilakukan di SDI Darush Sholihin Kabupaten Nganjuk. Besar sampel sebanyak 48 siswa yang dipilih secara proportional random sampling. Pengumpulan data meliputi berat badan, tinggi badan, kuesioner SBA, Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), serta food recall 2x24 jam. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman dan Kendall’s tau dengan nilai signifikansi 0,05.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan SBA (p=0,151), perilaku makan makanan pokok (p=0,101), perilaku makan lauk hewani (p=0,212), perilaku makan lauk nabati (p=0,829), perilaku makan sayuran (p=0,751) dan perilaku makan jajanan (p=0,109) dengan status gizi. Namun, terdapat hubungan perilaku makan buah (p=0,040) dengan status gizi.Kesimpulan: Konsumsi buah-buahan yang sering tanpa memperhatikan kandungan gula dan cara penyajian dapat memberikan risiko obesitas pada anak. Diperlukan pendidikan gizi kepada pihak sekolah maupun orang tua mengenai pembatasan SBA dan perilaku makan sehat terutama buah untuk mencapai tumbuh kembang yang optimal dan terhindar dari obesitas.
Ummi Khuzaimah, Yayuk Farida Baliwati, Ikeu Tanziha
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 196-210; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.196-210

Abstract:
ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Penghapusan malnutrisi dalam segala bentuknya, khususnya gizi kurang (stunting dan underweight) adalah suatu keharusan untuk alasan kesehatan, etika, politik, sosial dan ekonomi. Komitmen Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan (TPB) dipertimbangkan untuk dapat diarahkan kepada tindakan dan akuntabilitas untuk dapat menangani penyebab langsung dan tidak langsung dari segala bentuk malnutrisi.Tujuan: Menganalisis peranan Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan terhadap penanganan gizi kurang (stunting dan underweight) dan menyusun pemodelan hubungan keduanya.Metode: Penelitian menggunakan data sekunder. Unit analisis 27 kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jawa Barat selama tahun 2016-2017, dengan total 54 unit. Variabel dependen penelitian ini adalah gizi kurang (stunting dan underweight) pada anak usia 0-59 bulan, sedangkan variabel independennya yaitu pilar sosial, pilar ekonomi dan pilar lingkungan. Data penelitian diolah menggunakan pendekatan Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM)Hasil: Pencapaian pilar lingkungan dapat mendorong peningkatan capaian pilar sosial dan ekonomi sehingga secara langsung dan tidak lansung mampu menurunkan prevalensi gizi kurang dengan total 5,09%. Pencapaian pilar sosial dapat secara langsung meningkatkan pencapaian pilar ekonomi sehingga secara langsung maupun tidak langsung dapat menurunkan prevalensi gizi kurang dengan total 3,65%. Peningkatan pencapaian pilar ekonomi dapat secara langsung menurukan prevalensi gizi kurang sebesar 3.86%. Semua hubungan signifikan dengan t-statistik > 1,96 (α=0,05).Kesimpulan: Penurunan masalah gizi kurang (stunting (TB/U) dan underweight (BB/U)) pada anak usia 0-59 bulan dapat dipengaruhi oleh pencapaian indikator di masing-masing pilar TPB. Kombinasi pilar sosial, lingkungan dan ekonomi dalam penanganan masalah gizi secara bersama-sama menunjukkan penurunan prevalensi gizi kurang yang cenderung lebih tinggi dibandingkan hanya melalui pencapaian indikator pada satu/dua pilar TPB. ABSTRACTBackground: Tackling malnutrition in all its forms, especially undernutrition (stunting, underweight) is a necessity related to health, ethical, political, social and economic reasons. Commitment to the post-2015 framework, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is considered to be directed towards action and accountability to be able to address the direct and indirect causes of all forms of malnutrition.Objectives: To analyze the role of SDGs indicators in tackling undernutrition (stunting dan underweight) and to determine the undernutrition and SDGs modelling in West Java province.Methods: This study used secondary data. The unit analysis was 27 districts of West Java Province during 2016-2017, with a total 54 units. The dependent variable was undernutrition (stunting nd underweight) in children aged 0-59 months. The independent variables were the pillars of social development, the pillars of environmental development and the pillars of economic development. The data were analyzed using Partial Least-square-structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).Results: The achievement of environmental pillars can encourage increased achievement of social and economic pillars so it can direct and directly decrease the prevalence of undernutrition with a total of 5.09%. The improvement of social pillar can directly increase the achievement of economic pillars so that directly and indirectly can decrease the prevalence of undernutrition with total by 3.65%. The achievement of economic pillars can directly decrease the prevalence of undernutrition 3.86%. All the results were significant with t-statistic > 1.96 (α = 0.05).Conclusion: Reduced undernutrition (stunting and underweight) in children aged 0-59 months can be influenced by the achievement of indicators in each pillars of SDGs. The combination of social, environmental and economic pillars in tackling malnutrition shows a higher decrease in undernutrition’s prevalence than only through the achievement of indicators in one or two pillars of SDGs.
Annisa Salsabila Setya Budi, Trias Mahmudiono
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 211-222; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.211-222

Abstract:
Background: Aerofood ACS Surabaya as an international inflight catering service is required to have good food safety standards to ensure the quality of the products. The food safety system implemented by Aerofood ACS Surabaya on all its product is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), including the banana cake. HACCP needs to be applied to prevent the possibility of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food product that can cause foodborne disease.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to identify the application of HACCP system to banana cake in Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Methode: The method of this research is a qualitative descriptive method including field observation, interviews, and analyzes HACCP documents of aerofood ACS Surabaya.Result: There are 18 steps to produce banana cake until it can distributed to airlines and can be consumed by consumers: receiving of eggs, receiving of banana, receiving of dry goods (flour, sugar, baking soda, and oil), eggs storage, banana storage, dry goods storage, egg cracking, flour sifting, weighing, mixing, baking, chilling, shaping, packaging, storage of banana cake, setting in the tray, holding room, and delivery to plane. From 18 steps to produce banana cake, there are six critical control points: receiving of eggs, eggs storage, baking, cooling, storage of banana cake, and holding room.Conclusions: Physical, chemical, and biological contamination on banana cake can be prevented by paying attention to each steps, especially the critical control point. Aerofood ACS Surabaya has implemented the HACCP system properly and accordance with the established HACCP plan.Keywords: HACCP, food safety, airlines catering service, foodborne diseaseABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Aerofood ACS Surabaya sebagai perusahaan jasa boga penerbangan bertaraf internasional diharuskan memiliki standar keamanan pangan yang baik untuk menjamin mutu produk yang dihasilkan. Sistem keamanan pangan yang diterapkan oleh Aerofood ACS Surabaya pada semua produknya adalah Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), termasuk pada banana cake. HACCP perlu diterapkan untuk mencegah kemungkinan kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk pangan yang dapat menyebabkan foodborne disease.Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi penerapan sistem HACCP pada produk banana cake di Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Metode: Metode dari penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif yang meliputi observasi lapangan, wawancara, dan menganalisis dokumen HACCP Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Hasil: Terdapat 18 tahap produksi banana cake hingga produk dapat didistribusikan ke peswat dan dapat dinikmati oleh konsumen, yaitu penerimaan telur, penerimaan buah pisang, penerimaan bahan baku kering (tepung, gula, baking soda, dan minyak), penyimpanan telur, penyimpanan buah pisang, penyimpanan bahan baku kering, pemecahan telur, pengayakan tepung, penimbangan, mixing, baking, pendinginan, pembentukan, pengemasan, penyimpanan banana cake, penataan pada tray, penyimpanan pada holding room, dan delivery ke pesawat. Dari 18 tahap produksi banana cake, terdapat enam titik kritis yaitu penerimaan telur, penyimpanan telur, baking, pendinginan, penyimpanan banana cake, dan penyimpanan pada holding room.Kesimpulan: Kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk banana cake dapat dicegah dengan memerhatikan setiap langkah terutama titik kritis. Aerofood ACS Surabaya telah melaksanakan sistem HACCP dengan baik dan sesuai dengan HACCP plan yang telah ditetapkan.Kata Kunci: HACCP, keamanan pangan, jasa boga penerbangan, foodborne disease
Luh Putu Prema Wadhani, Nani Ratnaningsih
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 230-236; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.230-236

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Permasalahan konsumsi pangan yang tidak sehat saat ini menjadi prioritas utama yang perlu diperhatikan. Kemajuan dan perkembangan teknologi saat ini memberikan dampak pada perubahan pola konsumsi pada masyarakat perkotaan maupun pedesaan. Konsumsi pangan yang terjadi pada setiap indivdu dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor baik secara internal maupun eksternal. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil dan faktor determinan pola konsumsi makanan berisiko pada ibu Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian asosiatif dengan pendapatan survey pada bulan Januari - februari 2020. Sampel dalam penelitian ini yaitu ibu yang berada di Kecamatan gunungsari dan Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat yang diambil dengan teknik proportional random sampling sebanyak 110 sampel. Pengumpulan data determinan pola konsumsi makanan berisiko yang terdiri dari usia, pekerjaan, pendapatan, pendidikan dan pengetahuan dikumpulakan dengan menggunakan kuesioner dan data pola konsumsi makanan berisikoi dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan lembar food frequency (SQ-FFQ) selama 1 bulan terakhir. Data dalam penelitian ini dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis regresi logistik.Hasil: Sebanyak 75,5% ibu berusia 30 – 49 tahun, 69,9% ibu tidak bekerja, 61,8% dengan pendapatan < Rp. 1.500.000/bulan, 41,8% dengan pendidikan menengah, 77,3% ibu dengan pengetahuan konsumsi makanan berisiko yang baik dan 74,5% ibu dengan pola konsumsi makanan berisiko yang sering. Hasil analisis dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh pekerjaam (p=0,824), pendapatan (p=0,931) dan pendidikan (p=0,585) terhadap pola konsumsi makanan berisiko. Terdapat pengaruh usia (p=0,001) dan pengetahuan (p= 0,019) terhadap pola konsumsi makanan berisiko.Kesimpulan: Perlunya perhatian lebih terhadap faktor yang dapat menyebabkan tingginya pola konsumsi makanan berisiko sehingga meningkatkan konsumsi makanan yang sehat.
, Rifqi Ahmad Riyanto, Suherna Suherna
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 303-312; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.303-312

Abstract:
Background: Desirable dietary pattern (DDP) is a variety of food nutrition intake that is calculated based on energy (calory) consumption. A DDP index close to 100 has a meaning that the food intake varies. Badan Ketahanan Pangan RI (BKP) and Nutrisurvey have developed a DDP index calculation software. As an alternative, ddp package of R software can be also calculated ddp index.Objectives: To apply the ddp package of Software R in calculating and analyzing DDP of individuals both descriptive and inferential analyses and to compare the ddp package with the application of PPH Susenas and Nutrisurvey Software. Methods: This research applied survey and simulation methods. The survey was conducted on the 3rd-semester students of the Food Technology Department, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa via an online survey. They administered both closed questions about dietary patterns and opened questions of a list of their daily food intake. Calculation and analysis of the DDP applied in the valid data in the ddp package of software R. The DDP analyses were followed by both descriptive and inferential analyses including t-test and simple linear regression.Results: The ddp packaged required 7 minutes to input the menu data of each person per day. Compared to Nutrisurvey, it required only 5 minutes. There were different results between the ddp package and Nutrisurvey because a category of food could absent in the Nutrisurvey databases. The harmonization application of the DDP analysis Susenas, on the other hand, had similar results. Both descriptive and inferential analyses as a further analysis can be applied easily. The descriptive analysis showed that the majority of respondents had a low value of energy, protein, and carbohydrate, while the inferential statistic resulted in that the food expenditure more than 70% significantly affected the DDP score.Conclusions: The ddp package could calculate and analyzed the DDP very well and had an equal result with the harmonization application of the DDP analysis susenas. Although the application process of the ddp package required a longer time than that of Nutrisurvey, the databases of the ddp package were more precise and suitable for the DDP calculation and analysis in Indonesia.
Maura Tirta Nabila, A. Fahmy Arif Tsani, Ayu Rahadiyanti, Fillah Fithra Dieny
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 237-244; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.237-244

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Belum banyak penelitian yang membandingkan pengaruh diet tinggi serat larut air dan diet tinggi serat tidak larut air terhadap tingkat satiety.Tujuan:Menganalisis pengaruh pemberian diet isokalori tinggi serat terhadap tingkat satiety pada kelompok usia dewasa awal status gizi normal.Metode: Penelitian eksperimentaldengan rancangan pre-post group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 16 orang dewasa awal usia 20-23 tahun (10 perempuan dan 6 laki-laki) yang diambil secara consecutive sampling. Semua subjek diberikan 2 jenis diet isokalori dengan rasio serat larut air : serat tidak larut air sebesar 3:2 dan 1:3 dengan masing-masing wash out period selama 1 hari. Energi yang diberikan sebesar 20% dari total kebutuhan masing-masing subjek. Variabel yang diukur adalah tingkat satiety yang terdiri dari tingkat desire to eat, hunger, fullness dan prospective food consumption/PFC menggunakan kuesioner Visual Analogue Scale. Analisis statistik menggunakan paired t-test, wilcoxon, mann-whitney dan independent t-test.Hasil: Diet tinggi serat larut air memiliki efek lebih lama 1 jam dalam menekan hunger dan desire to eat dan memiliki efek lebih lama 30 menit dalam menekan PFC dibandingkan diet tinggi serat tidak larut air, namun kedua diet tersebut sama-sama baik dalam meningkatkan fullness hingga 3 jam setelah intervensi.Kesimpulan: Pemberian diet tinggi serat dapat menekan tingkat desire to eat, hunger, PFC dan meningkatkan fullness. Diet tinggi serat larut air mempunyai efek lebih lama terhadap tingkat satiety dibandingkan diet tinggi serat tidak larut air.
Muti'Ah Mustaqimatusy Syahadah, Mira Dewi, Rimbawan Rimbawan
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 292-302; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.292-302

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Latar Belakang: Tercukupinya kebutuhan akan asupan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda (polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) dan status gizi ibu hamil yang optimal diketahui memiliki peran penting dalam mendukung pertumbuhan dan perkembangan otak janin dan bayi. Studi menunjukkan bahwa asupan PUFA ibu hamil di beberapa daerah di Indonesia sangat rendah dan juga masih banyak ibu hamil yang memiliki status gizi kurang. Kedua masalah gizi pada ibu hamil tersebut diduga berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan otak janin yang dalam penelitian ini diestimasi dengan ukuran lingkar kepala.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis hubungan asupan PUFA ibu hamil dan status gizi pra-hamil dengan lingkar kepala bayi baru lahir.Metode: Analisis data sekunder menggunakan data hasil penelitian hibah BASF South East Asia yang telah dilakukan pada bulan April-Oktober tahun 2018 di Kota Bogor oleh tim SEAFAST CENTER IPB. Subyek merupakan ibu hamil dengan usia kehamilan trimester 3 dan merupakan kehamilan tunggal. Total terdapat 79 data ibu dan bayinya yang meliputi data asupan PUFA saat hamil, lingkar kepala bayi, karakteristik ibu, kondisi sosial-ekonomi ibu, dan IMT pra-hamil. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman.Hasil: Rata-rata asupan PUFA ibu saat hamil tergolong rendah (< 80% tingkat kecukupan) serta belum memenuhi rekomendasi asupan PUFA. Asupan PUFA ibu saat hamil berhubungan positif dengan lingkar kepala bayi namun tidak signifikan (p > 0,05). Lingkar kepala bayi secara signifikan memiliki hubungan positif dengan IMT pra-hamil (p = 0,010).Kesimpulan: Lingkar kepala bayi pada penelitian ini tidak memiliki hubungan signifikan dengan asupan PUFA ibu saat hamil, namun berhubungan signifikan dengan IMT pra-hamil.
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 251-259; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.251-259

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Background: Food for the Muyu tribe was an actualization of daily life over the belief in the religious dimension that is adopted and lived. This study aims to explore the food taboo among the Muyu tribe in Indonesia.Methods: The authors conducted the case study in Mindiptana, Boven Digoel, Papua. The study carried out data collection by participatory observation, in-depth interviews, and document searches. The authors carried out the report using an ethnographic approach an emically perspective.Results: Belief in the lord of wild animals, the lord of fruits and plants, and the lord of sago, was so thick that many spells appear to hunt and search for food in the forest, which was a form of recognition of the power of these. The Muyu tribe had restrictions on several types of food. Food can be taboo based on its physical form; meanwhile, because of Muyu people's belief that there was a bad quality inherent in these food ingredients. It was especially closely related to ritual practice for men as a process of undergoing initiation as a big man. The Muyu intended women taboo for mothers who are pregnant and breastfeeding. Abstinence for pregnant Muyu women was often related to the fetus in the womb. For children, especially for boys, it was almost the same as abstinence for adult Muyu men. This abstinence applies to boys who were prepared to be tómkót, especially when undergoing the initiation process.Conclusions: The food taboo applies to all Muyu people, both men, women, and children.
Cantika Zaddana, Almasyhuri Almasyhuri, Sara Nurmala, Tiara Oktaviyanti
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 260-275; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.260-275

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Latar Belakang: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) didefinisikan sebagai suatu kumpulan gejala metabolik yang timbul pada seseorang yang disebabkan adanya peningkatan kadar glukosa darah di atas nilai normal. Penderita DM tetap harus mengonsumsi pangan yang cukup agar kebutuhan zat gizi nya terpenuhi. Dalam rangka memenuhi kecukupan akan zat gizi didalam tubuh maka konsumsi pangan dibagi atas makanan utama dan selingan, namun penderita DM biasanya sulit untuk mendapatkan makanan selingan yang bergizi namun tetap dapat mengontrol kadar glukosa darahnya. Ubi ungu adalah jenis ubi jalar yang saat ini sudah banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Ubi ungu memiliki warna keunguan yang disebabkan oleh adanya pigmen antosianin yang dikandung didalamnya. Antosianin memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang mampu menghambat kerja radikal bebas serta meningkatkan sekresi insulin sehingga bermanfaat dalam pengendalian kadar glukosa darah. Ubi ungu merupakan sumber karbohidrat kompleks namun rendah akan protein, sehingga dibutuhkan bahan pangan sumber protein lainnya seperti kacang merah. Kacang merah merupakan jenis kacang-kacangan yang mengandung karbohidrat tinggi, kadar lemak yang lebih rendah, dan kandungan serat yang cukup baik. Selain mengandung serat yang baik dan nilai IG yang rendah, kacang merah juga mengandung protein yang cukup tinggi. Kemajuan teknologi pangan telah menghasilkan berbagai produk pangan yang praktis dikonsumsi seperti snack. Produksi snack sebagai makanan selingan semakin beragam, namun snack yang dibuat biasanya tinggi akan kalori, lemak, dan karbohidrat sederhana. Kombinasi ubi ungu dan kacang merah sebagai bahan baku pangan fungsional seperti snack bar dibuat dengan harapan dapat menghasilkan produk makanan selingan yang tidak hanya disukai namun memiliki manfaat lebih untuk kesehatan yaitu tinggi protein, kaya serat, dan rendah glukosa sehingga makanan selingan tersebut baik untuk dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat terutama penderita DM. Pengembangan produk pangan fungsional berbahan baku lokal seperti tepung kacang merah dan tepung ubi ungu juga sebagai upaya dalam mengurangi penggunaaan bahan impor seperti gandum di Indonesia.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula snack bar yang memenuhi persyaratan mutu, memiliki kandungan zat gizi (KH, protein, lemak), aktivitas antioksidan, gula pereduksi. serta senyawa aktif (antosianin dan serat) yang baik dikonsumsi oleh penderita DM.Metode: Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan desain eskperimen secara random acak lengkap. Formula snack bar dibuat menjadi 4 dengan rasio antara tepung ubi ungu dan kacang merah yang berbeda yaitu F1 (100:0), F2 (90:10), F3 (80:20), dan F4 (70:30). Parameter yang diteliti pada studi ini adalah daya terima (kesukaan) panelis, proksimat (kadar air, kadar abu, KH, protein, dan lemak), aktivitas antioksidan, gula pereduksi, kadar antosianin, dan kadar serat pangan dari snack bar yang paling disukai.Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil analisis diketahui bahwa snack bar F3 adalah formula yang paling disukai oleh panelis. Fomula terpilih (F3) memenuhi persyaratan mutu fisik dan kandungan zat gizi yang baik yaitu protein (7,823%), lemak (4,38%) dan KH (81,857%). Snack bar ini juga mengandung aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat yaitu (34,079 ppm), kadar gula pereduksi (3,56%), kadar antosianin (11,45 mg/kg), dan kadar serat (16,32%).Kesimpulan: Snack bar pada penelitian ini memiliki mutu fisik dan kimia yang sesuai dengan persyaratan mutu serta mengandung protein yang tinggi, lemak yang rendah, serta kandungan serat yang tinggi. Snack bar ini juga memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat karena kandungan antosianinnya yang tinggi serta mengandung gula reduksi yang rendah sehingga snack bar ini layak untuk dikonsumsi oleh penderita diabetes mellitus.
Grace Bella K Nussy
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 245-250; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.245-250

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ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Pada usia yang produktif dan sanggup untuk bekerja memerlukan asupan makanan yang bergizi dan aman. Pentingnya penyediaan asupan gizi di lingkungan kerja, PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Pabrik Tuban menyediakan layanan makanan dan fasilitas kantin bagi pekerja maupun pengunjung yang datang. Berdasarkan laporan tahunan BPOM tahun 2016 dan 2017, dilihat dari lokasi terjadinya KLB keracunan pangan terbesar ketiga terjadi di area kantor/ pabrik. Mencegah kejadian serupa salah satunya dengan menerapkan prinsip higiene sanitasi makanan pada kegiatan pengolahan makanan.Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel adalah untuk mengetahui dan mempelajari penerapan higiene sanitasi makanan mulai dari pemilihan bahan makanan sampai penyajian makanan yang telah dilaksanakan di kantin PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Pabrik Tuban.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan kualitatif berupa observasi dan wawancara.Hasil: Kegiatan pengolahan makanan terutama di lingkungan kerja penting untuk memperhatikan dan menerapkan higiene sanitasi makanan. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mencegah terjadinya permasalahan kesehatan serta bahaya lainnya yang diakibatkan oleh makanan dan kerugian lainnya. Berdasarkan Permenkes Nomor 1096 Tahun 2011 tentang Higiene Sanitasi Jasaboga, higiene sanitasi adalah upaya untuk mengendalikan faktor risiko terjadinya kontaminasi terhadap makanan, baik yang berasal dari makanan, orang, tempat dan peralatan agar makanan aman untuk di konsumsi. Terdapat enam prinsip dalam penerapan higiene sanitasi makanan, yaitu 1) Pemilihan bahan makanan, 2) Penyimpanan bahan makanan, 3) Pengolahan makanan, 4) Penyimpanan makanan jadi/ masak, 5) Pengangkutan makanan dan 6) Penyajian makanan.Kesimpulan: Kegiatan pengolahan makanan sebagian besar telah memenuhi dan beberapa aspek ada yang belum memenuhi. Kegiatan pengolahan makanan yang belum memenuhi prinsip higiene sanitasi makanan adalah penyimpanan bahan baku, pengolahan makanan dan penyajian makanan. Kata Kunci: higiene sanitasi, pengolahan makanan, kantin pabrik
Nurnashriana Jufri, Nurmaladewi Nurmaladewi, Fifi Nirmala
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 180-192; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.180-192

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Stunting dan penurunan densitas tulang merupakan salah satu masalah gizi yang umum diderita oleh remaja. Hal ini terjadi akibat kurangnya asupan zat gizi yang adekuat terutama vitamin D yang berfungsi untuk pertumbuhan tulang dan mineralisasi jaringan. Jumlah yang terbatas dari makanan dan faktor pigmentasi kulit menjadi penyebab terjadinya defisiensi vitamin D sehingga dibutuhkan upaya suplementasi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut.Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis efek suplementasi vitamin D terhadap pertumbuhan linier remaja.Metode: Penelusuran artikel pada tinjauan pustaka ini dilakukan menggunakan mesin pencarian melalui Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, ELSEVIER, Cambridge Core, dan WILEY. Artikel memuat teks penuh, berbahasa inggris dan tahun terbit mulai dari 2010 hingga 2020. Kata kunci pencarian yang dimasukkan adalah vitamin D supplementation, adolescent or teenagers, linear growth, dan Bone Mass Density (BMD).Hasil: Hasil skrining menemukan 12 artikel yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan diklasifikasikan berdasarkan luaran penelitian yaitu kadar serum 25(OH)D merupakan parameter biokimia yang merupakan luaran yang terdapat pada 10 artikel penelitian. Parameter biokimia serum kalsium sebanyak 6 artikel, densitas tulang sebanyak 8 artikel, dan tinggi badan 2 artikel.Kesimpulan: Suplementasi vitamin D yang diberikan pada remaja yang sehat maupun tidak sehat terbukti meningkatkan kadar serum 25(OH)D.Kata kunci: Suplementasi vitamin D, serum 25(OH)D, densitas massa tulang, pertumbuhan linier remaja. ABSTRACT Background: Stunting and decreased bone density are some of the common nutritional problems that remain by adolescents. This occurs due to lack of adequate nutrition, especially vitamin D which functions for bone growth and tissue mineralization. A limited amount of food and skin pigmentation factors cause vitamin D deficiency so supplementation efforts are needed to meet those needs.Objective: To analyze the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the linear growth of adolescents.Method: Searching for articles in this literature review was done using a search engine through Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, ELSEVIER, Cambridge Core, and WILEY. The article contains the full text, English language, and year of publication from 2010 to 2020. The search keywords entered are vitamin D supplementation, adolescent or teenagers, linear growth, and Bone Mass Density (BMD).Results: The screening results found 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria and were classified based on research outcomes, namely serum 25 (OH) D levels were biochemical parameters which were the results contained in 10 research articles. Biochemical parameters of serum calcium were 6 articles, bone density were 8 articles, and height were 2 articles.Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation given to healthy and unhealthy adolescents has been shown to increase serum 25 (OH) D levels.Keywords: Vitamin D supplementation, serum 25 (OH) D, bone mass density, adolescent linear growth.
Aprilia Kusumawardhani, Farapti Farapti, Mahmud Aditya Rifqi, Sri Adiningsih
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 127-132; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.127-132

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ABSTRAK Latar Belakang :Gizi olahraga merupakan aspek penting dalam mengatur asupan makanan dan komposisi tubuh untuk mencapai performa yang optimal. Studi epidemiologis menunjukkan sebagian besar asupan atlet tidak adekuat dan dapat mempengaruhi komposisi tubuh yang ideal.Tujuan :Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh pendampingan gizi olahraga terhadap komposisi tubuh dan asupan energi atlet bela diri.Metode :Pendampingan gizi intensif dilakukan selama empat bulan (Juni- September 2019). Pengukuran komposisi tubuh dilakukan 2 kali, yakni sebelum dan sesudah intervensi dengan menganalisis hasil pengukuran dari alat BIA (Bio Impadance Analyzer) tipe MBCA (Medical Body Compotiton Analyzer) 515/514 merk seca©. Variabel yang dianalisis diantaranya, total asupan kalori sehari diukur menggunakan instrumen Recall-24 jam, komposisi tubuh diukur dengan alat BIA yakni Fat Mass (FM), Fat Free Mass (FFM) dan Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM). Pendampingan gizi dilakukan oleh ahli gizi olahraga yang mengunjungi 24 responden setiap bulan dan memberikan materi pendidikan gizi, memberikan makanan sehat dan memberikan konseling permasalahan gizi atlet.Hasil : Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya peningkatan secara signifikan pada asupan energi total (1496,2±654,4 menjadi 1688,5±679,8, p= 0,002). Pada komposisi tubuh terjadi peningkatan pada FFM dan SMM yakni (56,57 ± 9,91 kg vs 57,01 ± 9,53, p = 0,032) dan (27,49 ± 5,58 vs 27,75 ± 5,31, p = 0,005) dan tidak ada perbedaan signifikan dalam variabel FM.Kesimpulan : Kesimpulan dari percobaan ini adalah pendampingan gizi secara intensif dapat meningkatkan asupan energi total, FFM dan SMM pada atlet bela diri. Kata Kunci : Komposisi tubuh, pendampingan gizi, asupan energiABSTRACTBackground :Sports nutrition is very urgent to improve nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to achieve an optimum athletic performance. Epidemiological studies showed most athletes lack of getting adequate intake and maintaining an ideal body composition.Objective :This study aims to analyze the effect of sport nutrition education on body composition and energy intake among elite combat sport athletes.Methods :Intensive sport nutrition was conducted for four months June until September 2019. Body composition was assessed for 2 times, before and after intervention using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), with seca© brand 515/514 type of stainless steel electrodes.Measurement of energy intake with recall 24 hours before and after the intervention. The variables studied were Fat Mass (FM), Fat Free Mass (FFM), Skeletal Muscle Mass (SMM) and energy intake.The professional sport nutritionist and dietitians visited 24 subjects every month by teaching nutrition education, bringing the healthy food, and facilitating the counseling about sport nutrition.Result :Energy intake increased significantly (1496,2±654,4 to 1688,5±679,8, p= 0,002). FFM and SMM increased significantly pre to post (56.57±9.91 kg vs 57.01±9.53, p=0.032) and (27.49±5.58 vs 27.75±5.31, p=0.005) respectively, meanwhile no significant differences in FM variable.Conclusion : Our findings indicate that intensive sport nutritionimproved energy intake, FFM and SMM among elite combat sport athletes. Keywords : Body compotition, sport nutririon education, energy intake
Zahroh Shaluhiyah, Ratih Indraswari, Aditya Kusumawati
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 105-114; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.105-114

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Background: Dietary habits formed during adolescence have been shown to track into adulthood. Establishing healthy eating behaviours among adolescents, therefore, has both short- and long-term health benefits..Objectives: This study aims to identify dietary habits among adolescent girls aged 15-19 in rural area and its influence factorsMethod: This is a quantitative study with cross-sectional approach, involved 93 adolescent girls aged 15-19 in Jatipurwo village who were selected randomly. Data was collected by enumerators using structure questionnaires that has been validated in other village before. Univariate, bivariate using Chi-Square and multivariate (logistic regression) were employed to analyze data.Results: The eating behavior of adolescent girls were categorized as unhealthy and unbalanced diet. It was shown with insufficient level of energy including low adequacy of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The average height of adolescents was 155 cm. Most adolescents have LILA less than 23.5cm. As Low socioeconomic family income tends to have eating habits with low nutritional value both in quantity and quality as well as food variations. Lack of food availability at the family level makes teens have poor diet. It is recommended that the need for increased food security at the family level and provide awareness to adolescents about healthy eating.
Natasya Putri Audiena, Marintan Laura Siagian
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 149-157; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.149-157

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Background : Child nutrition problem is still a major health problem in Indonesia. Toddlers are a period where children experience rapid growth and development, so they need a high nutrient. The problem of malnutrition can be identified from the children’s slow growth, one of which is in terms of body length or height. A condition where a children’s length or height is not optimal is called stunting. The incidence of stunting affected by several factors, such as infectious disease and bad hygiene practices.Method : The method of this study is observational research with case control research design. The sample of this study was grouped into two, case group and control group, with the number of each group is 28 respondents. The case group was a group of toodlers with stunting ages 24 – 59 months, while the control group was a group of toodlers ages 24 – 59 months with no stunting case. The study was conducted in Bulak Banteng Public Health work area from January - May 2019. Data collection was carried out by collecting questionnaire about infectious disease and hygiene practices which were carried out by interview and observation method. Results : The result showed that there was an influence between the incidence of infectious disease (p=0,000) (OR= -3.402), and hygiene practices (p=0,000) (OR= -2.442) on stunting.Conclusion : The conclusion in this study is that there is a significant relationship between infectious diseases and hygiene practices with the incidence of stunting in toddler aged 24-59 months (in Bulak Banteng Health Center, Surabaya).
Rany Adelina, Carissa Cerdasari, Rani Nurmayanti, Elok Widayanti
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 166-172; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.166-172

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Background: Problems that arise in students based on the results of the 2016 study indicate that more than 80% of students like to eat unhealthy snacks such as packaging snacks, fried foods, instant noodles, and meatballs. Where snacks contain high energy, carbohydrates, protein, saturated fat, and salt. The excess energy and nutrients intake are related to increasing the metabolic incidence of syndromes and the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Objectives: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of giving nutritional interventions to eating habits and anthropometric status of college students in Malang.Methods: The quasi-experimental design with 31 participants from college students in Malang. Nutrition interventions provided in the form of education related to healthy snacks and assistance in making healthy snacks. The instruments used were pretest-posttest, questionnaire, and semi FFQ. Data processing was carried out by descriptive statistical analysis and dependent t-test at a 95% confidence level.Results: There was a significant increase in knowledge related to healthy snacks for subyek penelitiants (p <0.01) indicated by the results of the pre-test and post-test. There was an increase in the influence with nutrition claims by 31% and there was a significant difference between before and after the intervention (p = 0.013). The results of a healthy semi FFQ snack for the fruit category experienced a significant increase after being given an intervention program (p <0.01), while the semi FFQ results for unhealthy snacks for the category of salted crackers, chocolate/candy, pudding, and market snacks tended to decrease in consumption although not significant. The prevalence of overweight and obese in participants before being given intervention was 29% and decreased after being given intervention to 22.6% even though there was no significant difference (p = 0.096).Conclusions: There is an increase in the influence of 'nutrition claims' and fruit consumption significantly. While the prevalence of obese tends to fall even though it is not significant between college students.
Alvia Anggreini, Deandrya Ardya R. Sutoyo, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 173-179; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.173-179

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Latar belakang: Obesitas merupakan masalah kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor salah satunya dari faktor diet. Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dapat memicu terjadinya masalah gizi lebih yaitu overweight dan obesitas. Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa jika dilakukan seseorang yang mengalami obesitas akan menyebabkan masalah kesehatan seperti penyakit metabolik.Tujuan: Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah adalah membahas pengaruh diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa terhadap obesitas.Metode: Penelusuran artikel berdasarkan literatur dalam 10 tahun terakhir (2010-2020) menggunakan database elektronik seperti Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, dan PubMed/Medline yang menganalisis pengaruh diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa terhadap obesitasUlasan: Hasil penelusuran penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dapat menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan, overweight, obesitas, meningkatkan lingkar pinggang, meningkatkan lemak dalam tubuh dan inflamasi pada jaringan adiposa. Dampak penyakit penyerta dari diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa yaitu Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, kerusakan hati, penurunan energy expenditure dan stress oksidatif pada ginjal.Kesimpulan: Diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan hingga masalah gizi lebih yaitu overweight dan obesitas. Dampak diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa dengan penyakit akibat obesitas yakni menyebabkan NAFLD (Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease). Penelitian terkait diet tinggi sukrosa dan fruktosa banyak dilakukan pada hewan coba. Penelitian selanjutnya diharapkan banyak dilakukan pada manusia juga, agar nantinya bisa dibandingkan dengan hasil penelitian dengan hewan coba, hasil tersebut sesuai dengan teori atau tidak.
Desiana Firdaus, Faisal Anwar, Ali Khomsan, Chica Riska Ashari
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 98-104; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.98-104

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Masa balita merupakan masa yang memerlukan asupan gizi optimal untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan serta mencegah terjadinya masalah gizi. Keragaman konsumsi adalah salah satu indikator yang digunakan untuk menilai kualitas konsumsi dan kebutuhan zat gizi. Kualitas konsumsi secara langsung dapat memengaruhi status gizi balita.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk megidentifikasi keragaman konsumsi balita dan menganalisis faktor yang berhubungan dengan keragaman konsumsi balita usia 24-59 bulan di Kecamatan Gunung Halu Kabupaten Bandung Barat.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross-sectional studi dengan 97 balita usia 24-59 bulan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan November hingga Desember 2019. Balita dipilih secara acak menggunakan teknik random sampling. Keragaman konsumsi didapatkan dari konsumsi makanan sehari sebelumnya dan dianalisis berdasarkan standar FAO yang terdiri dari 9 kelompok pangan tanpa jumlah konsumsi minimal. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan keragaman konsumsi dianalisis menggunakan model regresi logistik. Jika total skor keragaman konsumsi ≤4 diklasifikasikan sebagai tidak beragam dan >4 beragam.Hasil: Sebanyak 76.3% balita pada penelitian ini mengonsumsi makan yang tidak beragam dan didominasi oleh makanan tinggi energi. Tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara keragaman konsumsi balita dengan kejadian stunting. Status pekerjaan ibu (OR:4,63;95%CI:1,1-18,9), jenis kelamin (OR:5,1;95%CI:1,7-15,7), dan pengetahuan gizi ibu (OR:3,4,95%CI1,1-10,3) berhubungan signifikan dengan keragaman konsumsi balita.Kesimpulan: Ibu yang bekerja, balita laki-laki, dan pengetahuan gizi ibu yang kurang secara signifikan menjadi faktor yang berhubungan dengan keragaman konsumsi balita yang rendah.
Martha Ria Wijayanti, Sri Adiningsih, Qonita Rachmah
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 115-120; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.115-120

Abstract:
Background : Abdominal obesity is obesity characterized by the accumulation of excess fat in the abdominal area. The risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease may increase due to abdominal obesity. One of the factors associated with abdominal obesity is imbalance between energy intake and physical activity. Several studies have stated that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of obesity with the tendency to consume high calorie foods to provide energy for activities.Objectives : The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between skipping breakfast, level of physical activity and obesity in nutrition students at Public Health Faculty, Airlangga University.Methods : This research is observational analytic with cross sectional design. The population in this study were nutrition students at Public Health Faculty, Airlangga University. The number of samples was 60 people which selected by proportional random sampling method. Data were collected include the measurements of waist circumference, interviews using respondent's identity questionnaire and physical activity recall 3 x 24 hours. Data were analyze with Spearman correlation test.Results : Based on the results, it was found that 33.3% of the respondents were obese. The results of statistical tests shows a negative correlation between skipping breakfast and abdominal obesity (p = 0.000). The results of this study also showed that there is no significant correlation between the level of physical activity and obesity (p = 0.618).Conclusions : Skipping breakfast was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in the young adult students group. Therefore, it is better if the habits of skipping breakfast can be replaced with breakfast habits to prevent abdominal obesity.
Andi Asda Astiah, Syahrijuita Syahrijuita, Ika Yustisia
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 133-139; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.133-139

Abstract:
Background: The selection of the appropriate cooking oil by society will reduce high fat intake. Chicken oil as a new cooking oil that is starting to be used by some people as a substitute for palm oil, needs to be studied for its health effects.Objectives: This study aimed to see and compare changes in lipid profiles and liver histology in male Wistar rats fed with chicken oil and palm oil.Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 10) were separated into two groups randomly, namely the chicken oil group and the palm oil group. Each rat in the group was given oil at a dose of 1 mL/day. Before treatment, lipid profile levels were measured, and after four weeks of treatment, lipid profile levels and liver histology were examined.Results: Administration of 1 mL/day of oil in each group for four weeks diminished total cholesterol, HDL, LDL levels at the two groups also increased triglyceride levels in the two groups, but non-significant differences among groups. This research also showed the formation of hepatic steatosis in all groups, but still mild-moderate microvesicular steatosis, and non-significant differences among groups.Conclusion: The consumption of 1 mL/day of chicken oil for four weeks has a similar effect on lipid profiles and liver histology as the consumption of 1 mL/day of palm oil with the same duration. We propose further study by administering the intervention of chicken oil to rats for a longer time.
Anni Rahmawati, Fiastuti Witjaksono, Erfi Prafiantini
Published: 21 June 2021
Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Prevalensi penduduk dewasa di Indonesia yang obesitas mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun. Sementara itu, angka obesitas pada pekerja, terutama di perkotaan juga makin meningkat. Puasa intermiten dapat menjadi alternatif solusi dalam tatalaksana obesitas untuk menurunkan berat badan, sehingga parameter metabolik lainnya seperti resistensi insulin juga bisa menurun.Tujuan: Mengetahui efek puasa intermiten 5:2 terhadap perubahan berat badan resistensi insulin pada karyawan obesitas di JakartaMetode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan uji klinis acak terkontrol. Sampel penelitian ialah karyawan di Jakarta yang berusia 19-59 tahun,memiliki IMT ≥ 25 kg/m2, dan memiliki lingkar pinggang ≥ 90 cm. Sampel dibagi menjadi kelompok intervensi (n=25) dan kelompok kontrol (n=25). Kelompok intervensi diminta untuk berpuasa pada hari senin dan kamis selama 8 minggu, sementara kelompok kontrol melanjutkan pola makan seperti biasa. Tidak terdapat pembatasan kalori pada kedua kelompok. Pengumpulan data melalui proses wawancara, pengukuran tubuh serta pemeriksaan laboratorium. Analisis data untuk melihat perbedaan rerata antar kelompok dengan menggunakan uji t tidak berpasangan atau uji Mann-Whitney, sementara untuk melihat perubahan dalam kelompok menggunakan uji t berpasangan atau Wilcoxon.Hasil: Perubahan berat badan pada kelomok intervensi ialah -0,8kg (-5,1- 2,2), sementara perubahan berat badan pada kelompok kontrol -0,3kg(-7,9 – 2,8). Perubahan kadar HOMA-IR pada kelompok intervensi ialah -0,29 (-17,78 – 6,84), sementara perubahan kadar HOMA-IR pada kelompok kontrol -0,46 (-18,94 – 10,55). Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna rerata perubahan berat badan dan resistensi insulin pada kelompok yang berpuasa dibandingkan kelompok yang tidak melakukan puasa (p>0,05). Terdapat perbedaan berat badan pada kelompok intervensi dengan p = 0,026.Kesimpulan: Tidak terdapat perbedaan perubahan berat badan dan kadar HOMA-IR pada kelompok yang berpuasa dibandingkan kelompok yang tidak melakukan puasa, walaupun perbedaan berat badan pada kelompok intervensi turun bermakna. Perlu dilakukan promosi dan edukasi kesehatan secara berkala untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan mengubah perilaku karyawan akan gizi seimbang sehingga dapat mencegah terjadinya obesitas serta penyakit metabolik terkait obesitas.
Nisa Nur Isnaini Andari, Fillah Fithra Dieny, A.Fahmy Arif Tsani, Deny Yudi Fitranti, Nurmasari Widyastuti
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 140-148; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.140-148

Abstract:
Background: Based on the duration and intensity of the exercise, sports can b classified into two types: endurance and non endurance (strength and power). Endurance sports is a high risk sport with low diet quality, nutritional status (body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage), and haemoglobin level. Objectives: The aimed of this study is to analyze the differences of diet quality, nutritionl status, and haemoglobin level of female adolescent athletes in endurance and non endurance sports. Methods: An observational study with a cross-sectional design was conducted on 23 endurance athletes and 21 non endurance athletes in BBLOP Central Java, UNNES swimming and athletic sports club, and Salatiga atlhetic sports club. Subjects were selected by purposive sampling. BMI and body was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (Tanita DC-360). Haemoglobin level was assessed by cyanmethemoglobin method. Diet quality was measured by semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and diet quality index-international (DQI-I) form. Data was analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney. Results: The majority of nutritional status based on BMI and perventage body fat in endurance and non endurance athlete were normal. About 9,5% of non endurance athlete had anemia. There were significant difference in diet quality (p=0,029) and variety of protein source, iron, vitamin C, and empty calorie foods intake (p<0,001; p=0,028; p=0,045; p<0,001) of endurance and non endurance athletes, but no significant difference in body fat percentage (p=0,573) and haemoglobin level (p=0,714). Conclusion: There were significant difference on diet quality, variety of protein source, iron, vitamin C, and empty calorie foods intake between endurance and non endurance athletes.
Fillah Fithra Dieny, Iin Indartiningsih, Nuryanto Nuryanto, Ayu Rahadiyanti
Published: 21 June 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 121-126; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i2.2021.121-126

Abstract:
Background: Neck circumference could describe upper-body subcutaneous fat, correlated with obesity and diabetes mellitus.Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between percent body fat and neck circumference with fasting blood glucose in obese female college students.Methods: The study was cross-sectional, conducted at Diponegoro University in June-August 2019. 119 participants were female, aged 17-21 years selected using the purposive sampling method. Measurement of waist circumference was used as an indicator of obesity. Percent body fat was measured using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), and neck circumference was measured using a met line. Fasting blood glucose was examined after the subject fasted for 8-12 hours, the amount of blood taken was 5 cc. Data were analyzed with the Rank-Spearman correlation test.Results: As many as 84% of subjects had excess percent body fat. The median neck circumference was 32.5 cm. The median fasting blood glucose was 87 mg / dL. There was a significant correlation between percent body fat with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.231) (p = 0.012). There was no correlation between neck circumference with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.137) (p = 0.137).Conclusion: Percent of body fat had a significant relationship with fasting blood glucose, and the greater the circumference of the neck, the greater fasting blood glucoseKeywords: Obesity, Neck Circumference, Percent Body Fat, Fasting Blood Glucose
Agus Hendra Al Rahmad
Published: 19 March 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1.2021.31-40

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of obesity in the world is getting higher, so it becomes a severe health problem. Some factors that contribute to the problem of obesity are increased calorie intake, including the consumption of junk food and sedentary, and low physical activity. School teachers are one of the most crucial labor elements in improving the human development indeks.Objectives: The study aims to determine the risk factors for obesity in female teachers as well as some non-communicable health problems during the Covid-19 pandemic.Methods: This quantitative study uses a cross-sectional design, which was conducted on 270 female school teachers; the sample was taken by purposive sampling. Participants measured weight, height, waist circumference data. Blood pressure data were also recorded by participants, including data on diabetes, cholesterol, arthritis, coronary heart disease. While the BMI value data is calculated by the researcher Data collection using a questionnaire distributed from Google Form. Statistical analysis using test Chi-Square and Logistic Regression. Results: The results showed risk factors for obesity in female school teachers were age, waist circumference, consuming junk food, type of diet and physical activity (p< 0.05), with the main predictor being consumption junk food (OR= 3.2). Also, obesity in women is closely related to several non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and arthritis.Conclusions: The main risk factors that cause the high prevalence of obesity in female school teachers in Banda Aceh City are due to consumption habits junk food during the Covid-19 pandemic, and are strongly related to health problems such as hypertension and arthritis.
Netti Yaneli, Sandra Fikawati, Ahmad Syafiq, Syilga Cahya Gemily
Published: 19 March 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 84-90; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1.2021.84-90

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Untuk mendukung kebutuhan gizi yang tinggi saat menyusui, ibu menyusui membutuhkan lebih banyak energi dibandingkan ibu hamil. Namun, berbagai studi melaporkan bahwa konsumsi energi ibu menyusui justru lebih rendah dibandingkan ibu hamil.Tujuan: Mengetahui faktor yang berhubungan dengan konsumsi energi ibu menyusui yang rendah di Kecamatan Cipayung Kota Depok Tahun 2016.Metode: Penelitian ini menganalisis data sekunder dari penelitian eksperimental semu dengan pendekatan kohort prospektif di Kota Depok. Total sampel berjumlah 169 responden. Analisis data pada penelitian ini menggunakan uji chi-square dan uji regresi logistik ganda.Hasil: Konsumsi energi ibu saat hamil merupakan faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan konsumsi energi ibu saat menyusui setelah dikontrol dengan paritas dan usia ibu. Ibu yang mengonsumsi energi dalam jumlah kurang saat hamil berisiko 3,5 kali lebih besar untuk mengonsumsi energi dalam jumlah kurang saat menyusui.Kesimpulan: Konsumsi energi ibu hamil sangat penting diperhatikan karena selain diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan janin, sebagai cadangan lemak yang akan digunakan saat menyusui, juga untuk menjamin agar ibu mengonsumsi energi dalam jumlah cukup saat menyusui.
Annisa Lutfiah, Annis Catur Adi, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka
Published: 19 March 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 75-83; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1.2021.75-83

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Hati ayam merupakan sumber zat besi yang baik dan kacang kedelai adalah jenis kacang-kacangan kaya protein dan besi yang dapat diolah menjadi sosis sebagai snack ataupun lauk tinggi protein dan zat besi.Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis hasil mutu hedonik, daya terima, kadar protein dan zat besi pada sosis dengan substitusi hati ayam dan kacang kedelai.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini yaitu experimental murni dengan rangangan acak lengkap (RAL). Terdapat 4 jenis formula, yaitu formula kontrol F0 (ayam) dan 3 formula modifikasi F2 (35 g hati ayam dan 65 g kacang kedelai), F3 (45 g hati ayam dan 55 g kacang kedelai), F4 (55 g hati ayam dan 45 g kacang kedelai) dengan pengulangan 4 kali. Panelis penelitian terdiri dari 5 panelis terbatas dan 27 panelis tidak terlatih.Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil penilaian panelis terbatas pada uji mutu hedonik adalah formula F2, F3, dan F4. Hasil uji daya terima, formula yang paling disukai panelis tidak terlatih adalah formula F4. Kandungan protein dan besi pada 100 g sosis F4 yaitu 17,21 g dan 7,415 mg. Terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara F0 dan F4 pada karakteristik aroma (p = 0,045), kekenyalan (p < 0,000) dan rasa (p < 0,000).Kesimpulan: Formula dengan tingkat mutu hedonik terbaik terdapat pada formula F2, F3 dan F4. Formula dengan daya terima tertinggi terdapat pada F4. Satu porsi (33 g) dapat mencukupi 10 – 15 % dari kebutuhan protein dan besi pada remaja putri berusia 16 – 21 tahun.
Alvina Rachmatillah Jamil, Rahayu Astuti, Indri Astuti Purwanti
Published: 19 March 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1.2021.23-30

Abstract:
ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Anemia pada perempuan terjadi jika kadar Hb (Hemoglobin) < 12 gr/dL. kondisi ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh zat gizi antara lain : zat besi, protein dan vitamin C. Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera) merupakan tumbuhan kaya akan zat gizi, sehingga menarik diteliti.Tujuan: Mengteahui perbedaan kadar Hb berdasarkan kebiasaan konsumsi kelor di Dukuh Ngawenombo, Desa Ngawenombo, Blora, Jawa Tengah.Metode: Penelitian desain cross sectional ini melibatkan 70 subjek perempuan usia ≥ 20 tahun dipilih secara purposive sampling, pada kelompok konsumsi kelor terus menerus dan kelompok tidak konsumsi kelor sama sekali. Data yang dikumpulkan mencakup kadar Hb diukur dengan alat Easy Touch GHb, kebiasaan konsumsi kelor diukur dengan kuisioner dan asupan makanan diukur dengan metode recall 2x24 jam. Uji statistika yang digunakan : uji T-Independent, One Way Anova dan Kruskal Wallis. Uji kenormalan data digunakan uji kolmogorov smirnov.Hasil: Tedapat 30 orang (42,9%) mengkosumsi kelor dan 40 orang (57,1%) tidak konsumsi kelor. Terdapat 17 orang (56,7%) mengkonsumsi kelor sejak 3 tahun terakhir, 9 orang (30,0%) 2 tahun terakhir dan 4 orang (13,3%) 1 tahun terakhir. Frekuensi konsumsi kelor ≥ 3x per-minggu terdapat 26 orang (86,7%) dan < 3x per-minggu terdapat 4 orang (13,3%). Bentuk kelor yang dikonsumsi yaitu sayur kelor, teh kelor, dan kapsul kelor. Rata-rata kadar Hb perempuan konsumsi kelor 13,4gr/dL dan perempuan tidak konsumsi kelor 11gr/dL dan hasil uji perbedaan menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan (p=0,00).Kesimpulan: Terdapat perbedaan signifikan kadar Hb perempuan konsumsi kelor dan tidak konsumsi kelor. Kata Kunci: Kadar Hemoglobin, Daun Kelor, Perempuan ABSTRACT Background: Anemia occurs in women if the amount of hemoglobin is <12 gr/dL. Nutrients including: iron, calcium, and vitamin C greatly affect hemoglobin. The leaves of Moringa oleifera are rich in nutrients so they are interesting for study research.Objective: Knowing the difference in Hb levels in Hamlet Ngawenombo, Ngawenombo Town, Blora, Central Java based on the moringa consumption habits. Method: This cross-sectional design analysis included 70 female participants between the ages of 20 selected by purposeful sampling in the continuous Moringa consumption and the non-Moringa consumption. Data collected included Hb levels measured with Easy Touch GHb, Moringa consumption habits were measured using a questionnaire and food intake was measured using 2x24 hour recall process. The statistical tests used: T-Independent, One Way Anova and Kruskal Wallis. Normality test data used the Kolmogoro Smirnov test.Results: Moringa was consumed by up to 30 people (42,9%), and 40 people (57,1%) did not consume Moringa. Over the last 3 years, there have been 17 people (56,7%) consumed Moringa, 9 people (30,0%) last 2 years and 4 people (13,3%) last 1 year. There are 26 people (86.7%) in Moringa consumption frequency ≥3x/week and 4 people (13.3%) in Moringa consumption frequency <3x/week. Moringa's type that is consumed is vegetable, tea, and capsules. The average Hb levels of female Moringa consumption 13,4gr/dL and females non-Moringa consumption 11gr/dL and the results of the differential test showed differences (p=0,00). Conclusion: The Hemoglobin level of female Moringa consumption and non-Moringa consumption are different. Keywords: Hemoglobin Levels, Moringa Leaves, Women
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