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Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p75

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 15, No. 3, June 2021
Nargiz Hajiyeva, Ali Karimli
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p71

Abstract:
The paper focuses on the economic opportunities of renewable energy resources (RES) in Azerbaijan's liberated territories. Armenia illegally exploited energy and other natural resources in Nagorno-Karabakh and its surrounding areas during its 30-year occupation. As a result, it is not surprising that the establishment of a "green energy" zone in the territories has been given high priority in the post-liberation period. Traditional energy sources are currently the most common source of electricity generation in the world. In this regard, the world's ever-increasing energy demand accelerates nation-states' gradual transition to green energy. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources is increasing in many countries, including the United States. In Nagorno-Karabakh and seven neighboring regions, the state is focusing on the production and effective use of renewable energy resources. As a result, ensuring harmony in the gradual use of renewable and traditional energy resources will be essential to the country's socioeconomic development, environmental sustainability, and energy security. The economic analysis of renewable energy potential and the establishment of a “green energy” industry are conducted in the article.
Hind Abdelmoneim Khogali
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p45

Abstract:
On 18 March 2020, the World Health Organization announced that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had reached global pandemic status. The Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia implemented a COVID-19 lockdown that lasted for four months. After the period of restrictions ended, people were supposed to return to their normal social lives; however, the lockdown had a psychological impact on people without them being aware of it. This research aimed to study the effect of COVID-19 on social life, mainly focusing on six public activities: visiting shopping malls, mosques, open spaces, interior space, psychological effect, and occupational aspects. The Method survey was distributed during lockdown including the six focus areas and collected using Google Forms. Also, a computer program simulation (ENVI-MET) was used to study and develop an outdoor environment. The research focuses on the outdoor environment to find solutions on a sample used Al Rouda Park in Riyadh. The results demonstrated that people are slowly returning to their social lives during the COVID-19 pandemic by steadily visiting shopping malls, mosques, and open spaces and half of respondents stay at home fearing COVID-19. The research concluded that people should apply health procedures during ongoing time in studied locations and should manage the elaborated psychological effects. 
Azam Ali Khademi, Mahsa Najafi, Shahrzad Khoram Nejadian, Babak Moghadas
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p31

Abstract:
This study was an attempt to examine the quality indicators of Haraz River water inflow and outflow of water of fish farms. This study aimed to prove and assess the water pollution status of Haraz River and investigate the impact of fish farms on river water quality. Sampling was performed in two seasons of summer and autumn of 2015 in seven stations of river water and inflow and outflow of farms water. Quality pollution index includes (temperature, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, electrical conductivity, BOD, COD, PH Were measured. Comparison of the results with the allowable values of Iran code and waste water standards showed that the factors in all samples and both seasons were in the allowable range and the rate of these indicators in autumn is higher than the summer. The amount of ammonia, carbon and total phosphate in summer is higher than the autumn. The findings of the results reveal that the proper quality and cleanliness of Haraz River water in the study area show that the activity of farms doesn’t have a significant effect on the quality index of Haraz River water.
Hani Alkhaldi, Malek Alkhutaba, Mohammad Al-Dlalah
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p17

Abstract:
This study aimed to build self-confidence for high school students in Al-Mafraq Governorate in Jordan following the Item Response Theory (IRT). The scale included its initial version (50) items. To ensure the external validity of the scale, it was reviewed by several experts. According to the experts’ feedback, some items should be deleted or modified. The final version of the scale included (44) items. The scale was further applied to an experimental sample of (310) male and female students to verify psychometricians’ characteristics. Finally, the scale was administered to a sample of (1060) male and female high school students in Al-Mafraq Governorate. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using statistical programs (SPSS and WINSTEPS). The most important results were the following: the self-confidence measure was one-dimensional, which means it measures only a single dimension. The results further revealed identical to the partial estimation model, and the index of average matching of individuals and the external and internal items approached zero, and the standard deviation approached the correct one. The estimated values of the distinct thresholds for the scale items showed a clear discriminatory ability and the emergence of particular threshold scores on the scale. After deleting the paragraphs that did not fit the study's model, the scale's final version included 39 items. The results also showed that the transfer values of logistical capacity units were within (-2.88 -2.77), within the IRT's accepted range.
Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p1

Abstract:
Fish and products are considered a food of nutritional quality that constituents a part of the human diet, produced and commercialized worldwide. Tilapia is one of the main fish for aquaculture production destined for human consumption in different presentations: refrigerated, frozen, fillet, cured, canned, among others. Fish, in addition to being a highly nutritious food, is also sensitive to deterioration and contamination along the food chain, being able to be contaminated mainly by microorganisms that are casual agents of consumer illnesses. Clostridium botulinum and spores can contaminate foods such as fish and products whose germination, growth and generation of botulinum toxin puts the health of consumers at high risk of acquiring botulism disease, which is of importance in public health due to its incidence and high fatality rate. This review describes in a general way the aspects related to fish and tilapia, foodborne diseases such as botulism, the causal agent, in addition to sanitary regulation, control and prevention of contamination of food products to protect food safety, and consumer’s health.
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p112

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 2021
Hussien H. Almistareehi, Nashwan A. Nashwan
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p96

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the impact of a digital educational story based on sports on developing alphabetical learning skills among Jordanian pre-school kids in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study sample consisted of (29) pre-school kids from the leaders' international schools, "The International Curriculum," which is affiliated to Al-Qweismeh District's Directorate in Amman. The study used an Experimental approach; the study sample chosen by intention randomly was divided into two groups: experimental group (14) kids: (7) girls and (7) boys, and control group (15) kids: (7) are boys, and (8) are girls. To achieve the study's goal, the researchers built a guide for the teacher to implement the experiment; they also built a pre-and post-test consisting of (16) items and provided the Arabic language teacher with digital educational stories based on sport learning the alphabet. The stories include the alphabet lessons: (letter al-ba, letter al-da, letter al-ha, letter al-ain), from the "curriculum in the Arabic language” for the academic year 2020/2021. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of students of the experimental group, which studied the digital educational story in each Alphabet learning skills: Pronunciation, Abstraction, and writing, in the combined skills, and the absence of statistically significant differences attributed to gender, interaction in testing the skills of learning the alphabet together, and in each of the skills of learning the alphabets: (pronunciation, abstraction, writing). In light of the findings mentioned above, the researchers proposed a set of recommendations that include Arabic language curricula guides in digital educational programs based on sports to be used in learning and teaching processes in teaching Arabic.
Gem Prasad Gurung, Suman Kumar Shrestha
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p88

Abstract:
Nature, culture, and education are interrelated to each other to maintain the beauty, peace, and habitability of the earth planet for all living creatures. But it’s being a hidden subject in concerned authorities. Nepal is rich in natural biodiversity as well as cultural diversity. Education is the main medium to handover the (cultural) knowledge of nature conservation to their generation. Hence this study aims to explore the deep relationship between nature (environment), culture, and education. As per the nature of research objectives, qualitative research methodology has been adopted. The reviewed literature is related to the world's perspectives and practices to maintain interrelation among nature, culture, and education. Hence, this study can contribute to making people aware of environmental conservation by exploring the relationship of our nature, human culture, and education. From the study, all the concerned environmental justice communities, agencies, and institutions would endeavour to link their particular significant roles for nature conservation.
Ao Gai
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p73

Abstract:
To improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a Formula One (F1) in Schools race car, the original model of the car is evaluated and compared with a new design. The ideas behind the new design are supported by research about aerodynamics. Different potential designs are created with CAD software Fusion 360 and evaluated within CFD software Solid Edge 2020 with FloEFD. Empirical data shows how specific changes to the structure of race cars can improve aerodynamic efficiency by decreasing their aerodynamic drag. The experimental data and methods of this study can provide help and guidance for teenagers participating in the F1 in Schools competition program to solve the aerodynamic performance problems of racing cars and thereby increase youth interest in STEM programs, as well as their opportunities to learn about engineering and enter engineering careers.
Prastiwi Prastiwi, Sumani Sumani, Minardi Slamet, Suntoro Suntoro, Supriyadi Suntoro
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p63

Abstract:
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a very important food crop because the result is used as a staple food for residents in Indonesia. Higher food fulfillment leads to the increase of rice production of the Mojogedang sub-district. Paddy fields that have high soil fertility will produce good rice productivity. Rice fields in Mojogedang Sub-district are managed with organic systems and conventional systems, the management of different fields of rice field certainly affects the level of fertility in the paddy fields so it is necessary to evaluate the soil fertility index. The survey area consists of 10 points with organic and conventional management systems. The parameters taken include chemical and biological properties of soil, including; pH, redox potential, C-organic, CEC, base saturation, P available, available K, N Total, C/N ratio, and total microbial. The data obtained by performed analysis of the main component principal component analysis (PCA) using statistical applications. Then after complete the calculation of The Soil Fertility Index (SFI) at each point and management system. The results of statistical analysis obtained soil Fertility Index on organic management systems have a class of 4 or very high and in conventional management systems have a class of 3 or High. The value of the index obtained is strongly influenced by the K indicator available where the indicator has a noticeable effect on the various management systems. Increased soil fertility index due to the use of manure that can improve plant nutrients and applied for long periods.
Gastón Sanglier, Carmen B. Martínez Cepa, Inés Serrano Fernández, Aurora Hernández González, Juan Carlos Zuíl Escobar
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p45

Abstract:
The research conducted in this study was applied to multidisciplinary groups of Higher Education belonging to different degrees using the methodology proposed by the Design Sprint (DS) tool for the achievement of different challenges/objectives in a very short time. The methodology used is an adaptation of the one proposed by the DS, carried out in five non-consecutive stages/sessions focused on students of the first two years of different degrees of the CEU San Pablo University. The students, in general, have valued very positively the collaborative work in small groups, the time management and the administration of work under stress. The abandonment of the different challenges was set at 32%. A high level of commitment has been appreciated among the students to reach the proposed challenges, however, the work of the mentors as guides, becomes essential in the first courses of the different degrees in a general way. The application of the SD methodology provides students with an increase in their performance, in their ability to work in teams and to adapt in the best possible way to the demands of a society that is increasingly demanding new technologies. Students have increased their ability to reflect, transform and innovate in the different objectives/challenges/projects demanded by the new circumstances and social strategies. The support of good mentors, critics and specialists in the different areas to be addressed is necessary to offer students a better learning experience.
Emeka P. Ukaegbu, Frank O. R. Akamigbo
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p36

Abstract:
Study evaluated predictive accuracy of USDA Soil Taxonomy Classifications of Soils of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Data from 0 – 20cm and 30 – 60cm depths of 9 profiles, each representing a map unit, were used to determine coefficients of variation (CV) of soil properties over whole area sampled (control), within Great group class and series. There was progressive reduction in CVs from high to low categories, with the properties doing so irregularly. Average CVs for the various levels were 59.58% (over whole area), 56.97% (Great group), 50.77% (series) at topsoil, while at subsoil they were 38.15% (whole area), 31.53% (Great group), 25.19% (series). At topsoil, predictions of K & OC improved by 36.16% on the average at Great group, while it did for Clay, K, OC by 43.71% at series. At subsoil Silt, Mg, CEC, OC, TN improved by 34.17% at Great group on the average, while Clay, Silt, Mg, CEC, OC, TN, av.P did by 47.49% at series. Predicted properties, which were found to correlate with others, influence soil productivity. Sand and pH were virtually unaffected by classification. Study highlights a technique for evaluating predictive accuracy of soil classification using small sample size as well as the essence of detailed characterization of the soils.
Kimia Ghasemi, Mostafa Behzadfar, Mahdi Hamzenejad
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p24

Abstract:
This article, through comparison, analyzes evolutions in architecture and school concepts and the relation between them in classic and modern periods in Iran, and by relying on persistent traditional Islamic schools architectural design patterns, provides an atmosphere, conforming to physical and spiritual needs in schools. The research method used in this article is descriptive-analytical and is conducted through library study in order to get familiarized with persistent social components in these schools, to use in new schools. In this research, after evaluating traditional schools, some factors, such as flexibility, central courtyard and the presence of natural elements in there, annular formation of classrooms and appropriate atmosphere for discussions and the transformation process of the interior and exterior relations are introduced which we can use in designing new schools, in order to fully improve the quality of the atmosphere in modern schools.
Hussam Hosni Al-Qassim
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p9

Abstract:
This study aimed to find out the degree of practicing career roles among faculty members at Palestine Technical University - Khudouri and Al-Huson University College from their point of view, and knowing the effect of study variables (university, college, years of experience, academic rank) on the degree of practicing career roles. The study was conducted in the first semester of the academic year (2021/2020), when a stratified random sample was chosen from (149) faculty members, i.e., 30% of the study population, which is teaching staff at Palestine Technical University and Al-Huson University College who numbered (497) individuals, and to achieve this goal, a descriptive approach appropriate to the nature of this study was used. A questionnaire consisting of (30) items was designed and distributed in three areas: teaching, scientific research, and community service. The validity and reliability of the study tool were verified. The stability factor was (0.91). The study reached the following results: The field of teaching got the first place in practice, then the field of scientific research, and finally the field of community service, as the study showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the averages of the sample members' estimates attributable to the variables (university, college, years of experience, and rank The academy, and the study recommended the necessity of holding training workshops, and meetings for faculty members at Palestine Technical University and Al-Huson University College, to transfer skills, exchange experiences and knowledge, in addition to developing creativity and solving problems in order to serve the local community, in addition to strengthening the relationship between the university and the local community. By providing the necessary scientific research and educational and cultural activities that help in developing the local community.
Derar Eleyan, Muath Sabha, Amna Eleyan, Jaafar Abu Saa
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p1

Abstract:
This paper introduces a conceptual platform for bringing students and teachers together in a social media consortium. The results extracted from the questionnaire used in this paper exhibits that the majority of the students support and are eager to see this idea live and willing to play an active role and show full commitment. This consortium encompasses students and teachers from both school and university. This platform prepares the students, fosters and enables them to a smooth transition from school to university, as well as improving the students’ communication skills and academic performance by using mentoring, tutoring and coaching techniques. As a case study of social media, Facebook was used as a communication and interactive tool amongst group members. The theme behind this platform is to construct academic group from final year school students with first year university students to exchange experience and transfer knowledge. This group has school teachers as well as university teachers. Each group has a mentor, coach and tutor. Each of them will play a specific role throughout the group, which will be highlighted in this paper. The outcomes were useful and interesting for students, their parents and teachers involved. It was a great experiment and recommended to widen it to involve more students and teachers.
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p160

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 15, No. 1, February 2021
Lina Fuad Hussien
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p152

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the asymmetry in cost behavior (cost stickiness) and to identify the impact of CEOs' compensation on the degree of cost stickiness behavior. The study population consists of the public shareholding companies listed on the ASE, which number (56) industrial company. Data were collected from (35) industrial companies for the period (2009 - 2019). To measure the degree of costs stickiness, The Model of Weiss (2010) was used. The Model of Weiss (2010) takes into account the costs and changes in the level of activity (sales) for the last four quarters of the company, Weiss (2010) model constructs the difference in logarithmic ratios of changes in cost. The study found that the CEO's compensation in Jordanian industrial companies consists of two forms. The companies pay fixed salaries or performance-related bonuses. The study found that the form of compensation that is paid to the CEO affects the behavior of managers. The results indicated that the performance-related rewards are accompanied by a decrease in the level of cost stickiness, and the compensation paid in the form of fixed salaries are accompanied by a high level of cost stickiness. The study recommends that companies should understand the role of the compensation form in administrative decisions, especially with regard to resource modifications, as management motives in relation to resource modifications must be taken into account because of their clear and direct impact on the cost structure of companies.
Mohammad Z. M. Alotaibi, Mohammad F. E. Alotibi, Omar M. F. Zraqat
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p143

Abstract:
This study aims to identify the impact of information technology governance in reducing cloud accounting information systems Risks in Kuwaiti telecommunications companies. The study population represented by all Kuwaiti telecommunications companies, which number (3) companies. The sampling unit consisted of workers in the upper and middle management of Kuwaiti telecommunications companies. The researcher distributed (327) questionnaires electronically, the researcher retrieved (291) questionnaires, of which (269) were valid for statistical analysis. The results indicated that the relative importance of all dimensions of information technology governance. The results demonstrate the importance of the role of information technology governance in reducing cloud accounting information systems risks. Also, that all information technology governance dimensions (Align, Plan and Organize, Build, Acquire and Implement, Deliver, Service and Support, Monitor, Evaluate and Assess) affect the cloud accounting information systems risks reduction in Kuwaiti telecommunications companies.
, Mingxin Guo, Chanel Fortier, Xiaoyan Cao, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p108

Abstract:
Conversion to biochar may be a value-added approach to recycle defatted cottonseed meal, a major byproduct from the cotton industry. In this work, complete slow pyrolysis at seven peak temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C in batch reactors was implemented to process cottonseed meal into biochar products. Elemental analysis, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and quantitative solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize raw meal and its derived biochar products. The biochar yield and organic C and total N recoveries decreased as the peak pyrolysis temperatures was elevated. However, most of the mineral elements including P in cottonseed meal were retained during pyrolysis and became enriched in biochar as a result of the decreased mass yield. The spectral data showed that pyrolysis removed the functional groups of biopolymers in cottonseed meal, producing highly aromatic structures in biochars. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, alkyl structures decreased progressively in the biochar products and became negligible at higher temperatures (550 and 600°C). Quantitative analysis of FT IR data revealed that the values of a simple 3-band (1800,1700, and 650 cm-1)-based R reading of the biochars were linearly related to the pyrolysis temperature, and showed strong correlations with decreasing aromaticity and increasing alkyl, aliphatic C-O/N and carbonyl signal intensities in the 13C NMR spectra. Therefore, the cheaper and faster FT-IR measurement could be used as a routine conversion indicator of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass instead of the more expensive and time-consuming NMR spectroscopy.
Budi Supriyatno
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p95

Abstract:
The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a Special Region at the provincial level in Indonesia which is the fusion of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and the Paku Alaman Duchy. The Special Region of Yogyakarta is located in the southern part of the Indonesian Island of Java, and is bordered by the Provinces of Central Java and the Indian Ocean. Specialties of the Special Region of Yogyakarta must also play a role as an autonomous region implementing decentralization. However, the problem is that the policies, implementers and implications of decentralization have not been able to improve the welfare of the people. This can be seen from the level of income gap in the Special Region of Yogyakarta getting higher. Even the gap in the Special Region of Yogyakarta is above the national figure. The Government of the Special Region of Yogyakarta is expected to be able to encourage and run activities programs that are focused on people's welfare. Development must be directed to create jobs and increase community income so that people's welfare increases. This study aims to measure the effect of decentralization policies on improving the welfare of the people in the Yogyakarta Special Region Government.
Abdul-Raouf Hamid Al-Yamani
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p78

Abstract:
This study aimed to reveal the level of emotional intelligence and its dimensions: self-awareness, emotional management, empathy, and social skills, as well as revealing the significant differences in the degrees of emotional intelligence and its dimensions that are attributed to experience, educational level, and social status among kindergarten administrators in Amman. A scale of emotional intelligence was prepared to ensure validity and reliability to achieve the objectives of the study, and it was applied to a sample of (136) female managers. After using the arithmetic averages, the one-way analysis of variance, and the (T) test, the results are as follows: - The level of emotional intelligence of the female managers was high. - Significant differences were found in the overall degree of emotional intelligence and its dimensions attributable to more experienced managers' experience. - There were no significant differences in the overall degree of emotional intelligence and its dimensions due to the educational level. - There were no significant differences in the overall degree of emotional intelligence and its dimensions due to social status.
Areen Mohammed Alghzewat Alkhawaldeh
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p63

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the level of emotional organization strategies among educational counselors in government schools according to the variable (gender and years of experience), and the study sample was chosen randomly, as the sample reached (93) female and male counselors, of whom (41) were male and (52) female counselors, the researcher used the scale of the emotional organization strategies, which were developed for the purposes of this study, where the results showed that the level of the emotional organization strategies was "average" among the study sample individuals on the scale as a whole and the sub-dimensions, as the levels of emotional organization as a whole are higher for males as well as for those with more than ten years of experience and in the light of the results revealed by the study, the researcher recommends the need to take care of the counselors by exposing them to training guidance programs to develop emotional organization strategies that increase their professional and self-efficacy to face professional and life pressures.
Manal O. Suliman, Abdulrazzaq Jawish Alkherret
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p53

Abstract:
Many researchers have been interested in studying the effect of adding local natural materials or construction waste on the properties of poor subgrade soil. However, changes in size and strength of expansive soils can cause extensive damage to the geotechnical infrastructure. This damage is often repeatable and latent in the long term, and is a critical issue in highway subgrade engineering. This paper examines the effect of adding both Fine Silica Sand (FSS) and Granite Cutting Powder Waste (GPW) materials on the welling characteristics of expansive soils. Atterberg limits, free swell index, and rate of swell of the mixtures were used as a key to assess properties of a group of expansive soil samples after adding different percentages of the mentioned materials. The rates of additions were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60 and 70% of the weight of the soil samples. The test results showed that FSS and GPW significantly affect the expansive soil properties. However, adding 70% of both FSS and GPW reduced the swelling index from 58.3% to 6.6% and from 58.3% to 11% after 7 days of curing, respectively. This study suggests that the Fine Silica Sand and Granite Powder Waste can be used as stabilizers for expansive highly plastic soils.
Gem Prasad Gurung, Kamal Prasad Koirala
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p46

Abstract:
Women mostly involve in raring and caring natural resources in their daily life. This paper intends to explore the practices and perspectives of Nepali women on ecology conservation in relation to ecological, socio-cultural and religious perspectives. For environmental degradation, women's resource management plays a vital role in ecology conservation. As a qualitative research approach, field observation, focus group discussion, and in-depth interviews with women in the community were the methods of collecting necessary information. Nepali women involve in the collection and management of plant resources inappropriately. Therefore, their perspective and practice can play an important role to minimize the rapid degradation of the environment regarding with management of plant resources. The theoretical literature review consists of movements on environment conservation in the world and in Nepal. No doubt, the message of their contribution will be the lesson to the world for the protection of environment as well as to support and meet the slogan of “local act global think” to save the nature.
Gaston Sanglier, Eduardo J. Lopez, Sonia Cesteros,
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p32

Abstract:
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods, and especially, ultrasounds have gone from being a mere laboratory curiosity to an indispensable tool in the industry as a primary means of determining the level of quality achieved in its products (ASM, 1989; Barbero, 1999). This study will identify and apply the main physical phenomena of interaction of an ultrasonic wave in a composite material, to see if through this type of waves, you can detect defects of the type of porosity or delaminations in these materials. The percentages of reflected and transmitted waves in real cases of defects in the composite material will also be studied. It will be shown if the frequencies and intensities of the waves are adequate to find this type of defects or imperfections in the material. The theoretical study of the ultrasonic wave seeks to help researchers in the development of equipment that uses the methodology of immersion ultrasound for the inspection of materials in the search for 'defects' and to understand the physics of the test.
Feryal Abdel- Hadi Shanikat
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p12

Abstract:
The current study aimed to develop a list of professional tendencies and verify the implications of its validity and reliability and know the professional tendencies and impact of gender variables and the degree of disability on hearing-impaired people's professional tendencies. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed the list of Arabized professional tendencies of John Holland in a way that suits the characteristics of the hearing-impaired and using the previous literature and previous studies, where the indications of validity and reliability were extracted from the pilot study, then the study tool was applied to the final sample, which consisted of (118) hearing-impaired individuals from deaf schools and vocational rehabilitation centers in Jordan who are in the stage of professional selection in cooperation with my translators of sign language of schools and rehabilitation centers, where the study reached the indications of validity and reliability of the study tool, the study also found that there was no effect of gender and degree of disability variable on the professional tendencies of hearing-impaired people, as it came out with a set of research and educational recommendations.
Ala Ahmad Harahsheh, Worod Maarouf Al-Taani, Ghadeer Salih Khataybeh
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n1p1

Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the degree of the Irbid school principals ’practice of inspiring leadership and its relationship to the level of organizational energy of teachers from their point of view. The relational descriptive approach was used, and the study sample consisted of (350) teachers. The study tool was developed as it consisted of (50) paragraphs, distributed into two parts: Part One, Inspirational Leadership and consisting of (26) paragraphs, distributed into four areas, namely: self-confidence, challenge, change management, strategic vision (future), and the second part: Organizational energy, which consists of (24) paragraphs distributed into three areas (emotional energy, cognitive energy, and physical energy). The results of the study showed that the degree of the school principals of the Irbid schools for inspiring leadership was high, with an average score (3.75), and the level of organizational energy among teachers with a medium grade, with an average score of (3.58), and the existence of a statistically significant positive relationship between the degree of practice of school principals in Irbid Governorate for inspiring leadership and the level of organizational energy of teachers from a teacher’s perspective. The study recommend that school leaderships need to involve all concerned and responsible parties for formulating the school's goals, and then laying down practical mechanisms to achieve them. And encouraging innovation and creativity in order to build a second class of leaders who are able to be inspiring leaders by holding training courses and workshops to clarify this concept, due to its effective role in enhancing the organizational energy of teachers.
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p52

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 14, No. 12, December 2020
Tariq Hantash, Maarten Nauta, Mohammad N. S. Al-Sabi, Walid Q. Al-Ali, Hakan Vigre
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p43

Abstract:
As a part of evaluation the surveillance system of Salmonella in frozen imported poultry meat into Jordan, we conducted a study to estimate the limit of detection (LOD50% and LOD95%) of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis based on chromogenic media of Rapid’Salmonella method. Salmonella-free chicken meat samples was inoculated with 1 to 100 CFU of 11 wild strains that originated from frozen imported poultry meat and 2 reference strains. In the experiment, the observed lowest concentration for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis using Rapid’Salmonella method were from 1 to 50 CFU/25 g. Based on these results, probability of detection (POD) curve was estimated according to the model described in EN ISO 16140-4. From the estimated POD functions, the LOD50% and LOD95% was determined for the Rapid’Salmonella method. The LOD50% of the different strains varied from 0.9 to 21.2 CFU/25 g. The two reference strains and 9 wild strains had a LOD50% less than 2 CFU/25 g, one wild strain of Salmonella Enteritidis had a LOD50% of 6.8 CFU/25 g and another one had a LOD50% of 21.2 CFU/25 g. The majority of Salmonella strains has a LOD50% of 1-4 CFU/25 g in poultry meat, but also that there are some Salmonella strains which will first be detected at 10 CFU/25 g and higher.
Dan Shang, Yuan Wei Xiang, Yongxin Guan
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p34

Abstract:
In the background of the Belt and Road initiative, international exchanges and cooperation are increasingly frequent and the number of students studying abroad is on the rise. Foreign exchange students living abroad are easily influenced by the environment, field culture, discourse subject etc, so that it's common for their ideas to be impacted. Cultural adaptation and avoiding western cultural osmosis are extraordinarily important in the management of foreign exchange students. Field theory provides a new means to resolve this problem. By using questionnaire to collect data and through behavior event interview, understand the behavior of foreign exchange students in the use of new media. And then, design user portrait according to the data results and interview content and construct the field environment elements of online education.
Ethar Khalaf Ibrahim Alhumeisat, Samer Abdulmajid Hazeem AlBashabsheh
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p27

Abstract:
The current study aimed to identify the impact of transformational leadership on crisis management in the Cellular Communications sector in Jordan. This study relies on the descriptive and analytical approach for this study. The study population includes administrators working in Zain, Orange, and Umniah companies. A Convenience non-probability sample of 100 managers was taken to distribute the study questionnaire to them. Moreover, the study reached the following results: There is a statistically significant impact at (α ≤ 0.05) for transformational leadership with its dimensions (ideal effect, inspirational stimulation, intellectual stimulation, individual considerations) on crisis management in Jordan cellular communications sector. In light of the previous results, the researcher recommends the following: The necessity for the administration to use the information network security system to retrieve information before the crisis occurs. Senior management's necessity to benefit from its previous experiences to generate knowledge benefits the organization's employees—the need to create an organizational culture that promotes the useful application of transformational leadership.
Catalina Quintero-Lopez Quintero-Lopez, Victor Daniel Gil-Vera, Andrés Felipe Velez-Vásquez, Elizabeth Zapata-Lopez, Luisa Fernanda Sepulveda, Luis Eduardo De Angel Martinez
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p16

Abstract:
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) showed a broad executive function, as well as visual short-term, working memory (WM), and attention deficits. The inhibitory control and WM deficits may distinguish ASPD from other personality disorders. People with ASPD structure have deficiencies in the maturation of the prefrontal cortex which is evident in various neurocognitive problems, mainly in WM and social cognition (SC). In Colombia there is a high incidence of ASPD in young offenders, which makes the process of rehabilitation and resocialization more difficult. The aim of this paper was to develop a structural equation model (SEM) to identify the relationship between SC and intellectual quotient (IQ) in offenders with ASPD and make a comparative analysis by gender. A representative sample of 120 offenders was used (60 men and 60 women) of a Specialized Attention Center (SAC) in Medellin, Colombia. This paper concludes that there is a higher correlation between SC and IQ in women offenders with ASPD (σxy = 0.62) than in male offenders with ASPD (σxy = 0.54). Epidemiologists suggest that women have a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders, which can be explained by internalized behavioral management. In general, men show a higher prevalence of disorders associated with impulse control through externalizing behavioral management. This shows that ASPD has been studied more in men and that ASPD profiles in women are lacking due to its low prevalence. Based on the results of the model developed, a neurocognitive profile of men and women with ASPD is presented.
Budi Supriyatno
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n12p1

Abstract:
Surabaya City Government is part of the regional government system in Indonesia which adopts a decentralized system. In line with these various regulations, regional fiscal or financial management consists of three main components, namely Regional Revenue, Regional Expenditure, and Regional Financing. This study aims to calculate the fiscal potential of the City of Surabaya for the 2017-2021 period. Furthermore, to obtain and complete optimal results, research uses a quantitative approach. The results showed that the economic growth of Syria showed good performance. However, in terms of inflation, the numbers also continue to increase. It is recommended to the Surabaya City Government that inflation control must be carried out through various policies that can increase economic growth that can improve people's welfare.
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p59

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 14, No. 11, November 2020
Victor Daniel Gil-Vera, Isabel Cristina Puerta-Lopera, Catalina Quintero-Lopez
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p50

Abstract:
The continuous growth of ICT in the last decade is transforming the traditional model of teaching and learning based on face-to-face master classes. Today there are virtual online educational platforms that allow students and teachers to interact virtually and use multimedia resources from any mobile device or computer with Internet access. The transition from presence to virtuality can generate resistance to change, this situation must be analyzed to take strategies that allow the effective implementation of virtual educational platforms by teachers and students. The aim of this paper was to identify the aspects that influence the use behavior of learning management systems (LMS), based on data from an online survey sent to 250 students of systems engineering. This research analyzes the impact of five constructs; platform operation, planning and scheduling, teaching program contents, methodology and competencies of teachers, communication and interaction and allocation and use of media resources with use behavior. This paper concludes that the platform operation, planning and scheduling, communication and interaction, the allocation and use of media resources are the constructs that more influence the use behavior of LMS regardless teaching program contents and competencies of teachers.
Yunke Zhao
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p36

Abstract:
In December of 2019, an extremely infectious and deadly pandemic ambushed China. In Wuhan, the novel coronavirus COVID-19 suddenly broke out and spread rapidly to other countries. COVID-19 became a worldwide disaster, affecting not only physical, but also emotional health on a global scale. We wanted to record this change based on the sentiment analysis model and to examine the relationship between world events and the positivity of posts on social media. To analyze this relationship, we utilized a set of movie reviews as a training sample to construct a sentiment analysis model based on the Long Short-Term Memory neural network theory, and calculate the texts' sentiment score. We then analyzed the overall trend of the data, and discussed the reason behind the tendency. The principal result was that, as the pandemic progressed, online sentiment generally became more positive. We believe that this is because people gradually become more accustomed to life in the COVID-19 era.
Gaston Sanglier, Jose Miguel, Jose Antonio Penaranda, Y Gabriel Del Ojo
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p19

Abstract:
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) has gone from being a simple laboratory curiosity to an indispensable tool in the industry to determine the level of quality achieved in its products. The new concepts of Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) bring a more universal concept of quality compared to the past philosophy based on Quality Control as a group specialized in checking whether production works within certain specifications. Even so, NDTs have not lost interest, but have seen their interest increased due to automated inspection techniques. It has become a contribution to the structuring of quality as it allows to move from purely empirical criteria to other more objective and that constitute the link between design and evaluation (Ramirez et al, 1996). The work presented, although it does not propose new methods or techniques of NDT, has the interest of converging into a single object five conventional methods each of which provides partial information about their quality of manufacture and must synthesize the results in order to evaluate it. Furthermore, it shows a situation of the application of NDT in which these must be applied in the absence of reference standards, as they do not exist. This peculiar situation is completely different from the usual situation in the use of NDT in the industry, both in manufacturing processes and in maintenance inspections.
Adelaїde P. Ouedraogo, Agyemang Danquah, Jean-Baptiste Tignegre, Benoit J. Batieno, Herve Bama, Dieudonne Ilboudo, Jeremy T. Ouedraogo, Jonathan N. Ayertey, Kwadwo Ofori
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p9

Abstract:
Success of cowpea cultivation requires a strong understanding of production constraints in order to overcome them. It is thus useful to know whether smallholder cowpea growers use modern or indigenous means to overcome these challenges. We completed a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study to identify current cowpea production constraints and management practices in Burkina Faso. We interviewed 481 cowpea growers (219 women and 262 men) and used a mixed-method design of collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The results showed that water scarcity, damage due to insects, plant diseases, striga, lack of training, and marketing challenges are the main constraints to cowpea production. Among insects reducing cowpea yield, growers identified aphids as a major pest. However, growers often did not know the biology and incidence of insects in their fields. This study also identified local resistant cowpea varieties in various locations.
Mohammad Awad Shuibat
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n11p1

Abstract:
The research aims to study “education democracy " in terms of democratic practices in the educational process, developing a spirit of criticism, plurality of opinions, tolerance towards the opinions of others, respecting the decision of the majority and taking responsibility for the decision. In addition to the relationship between democracy and education, the relationship between democracy and education as a practice, and clarifying the goals of education for democracy, and clarifying areas of democratic awareness, the implications of education for democracy and procedures for developing democratic practices in education and the detection of obstacles to democratic practices in the educational process, and that is in the context of an applied analytical and scientific study based on the researcher's visit to Palestinian educational institutions and his knowledge of their reality, through which the researcher seeks to present what is hoped from the "education democracy" and how should it be applied to reality and what goals should these institutions seek to achieve?
Barbara Sun
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p59

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 14, No. 10, October 2020
Usman Abdulfatai, Adamu Uzairu, Gideon Adamu Shallangwa, Sani Uba
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p52

Abstract:
In this present investigation, simulated molecular docking study of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine compounds were investigated on the SARS-CoV2 enzyme to determine the types of amino acids responsible for the biochemical reaction at the binding site. A structure-based docking design technique was explored in designing a novel derivative of chloroquine for the treatment and management of new COVID 19 disease. To achieve this, the molecular docking simulation method was used to investigate the level of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (Drugs presently under clinical trial) interactions on SARS-CoV2 enzyme (a causative agent of COVID 19 disease). Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine which has been debated as drugs for the management of COVID 19 were subjected to molecular docking analysis, and the binding energies generated were found to be -6.1 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol respectively. Moreover, novel 2-((4-((7-chloroquinolin-4 yl) amino)pentyl)((methylamino)methyl)amino) ethan-1-ol as an anti-SARS-CoV2 protease was designed through the structural modification of hydroxychloroquine. The binding energy of this drug candidate was found to be -6.9 kcal/mol. This novel drug was found to formed hydrogen and conventional interactions with the binding site of SARS-CoV2 protease through amino acids such as Glutamic acid (GLU166), Glycine (GLY143), Phenylalanine (PHE140), Asparagine (ASN142), Histidine (HIS163), His (HIS172, HIS41, HIS163), Leucine (LEU41, LEU27), Glycine (GLY143), Glutamine (GLN189), Methionine (MET49, MET165), Serine (SER 46), Cysteine (CYS145) and Threonine (THR25). With this binding energy, this new drug candidate could bind better to the human SARS-CoV2 protease’ binding site. This research provides a clue for other scientists on various ways of designing and identify the types of amino acids that may be responsible for biochemical action on SARS-CoV2 protease.
Eliud Nalianya Wafula, Sylvia Injete Murunga
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p37

Abstract:
Phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria have a vital role in improving soil fertility and reverting adversely affected soil properties. These bacteria could contribute towards sustainable agriculture with a focus on reducing excessive use of commercial fertilizers. This study aimed at investigating autochthonous populations of phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing bacteria from Lake Ol’Bolossat sediments. The total microbial counts ranged between 4.8 x 103 to 8.5 x 105 cfu/ml. A total of 50 bacteria were isolated, 34 were obtained from Pikovskaya’s agar medium while 16 were obtained from Norris Glucose Nitrogen free medium. Based on morphological and 16S rRNA gene analyses, the isolates were clustered under the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Fictibacillus and Acinetobacter. Among potentially novel strains, four strains NFDA2, PKGBC1 (MT799539), PKGB5 and SCEC2 (MT799543) belonged to genus Bacillus, three strains NFGA1 (MT799529), NFGA4 and SCDB3 belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, two strains NFEB6 (MT799528) and NFDC5 belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, one strain PKHC3 (MT7995441) belonged to the genus Arthrobacter while one strain NFDC4, belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. Generally, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria were the most diverse and genera Bacillus, Fictibacillus and Pseudomonas were the most dominant, however, nitrogen-fixing bacteria were dominated by genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas.
Najla Abdulaziz Khonji, Saad M. A. Suliman
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p20

Abstract:
In this study, a mathematical model is formulated to select the optimal product mix of wells in terms of numbers and types of wells that helps to maximize profit. The optimization model comprises two main components, the first component is revenue which includes forecasting of production and oil price, and the second component is cost which includes capital and operating costs. In addition, the model considers all related constraints such as budget, production targets, surface facility limitations, drilling rigs availability and others. Time has influence on the model, since its output is not limited only to the types and numbers of wells to be drilled during the planned period, but also when each well to be drilled for the same plan. Actual planning data for three consecutive years is used for model testing. The results show that 42% to 47% cost saving can be achieved by using the model. The analysis shows that with every 10% increase in oil price, the profit increases by about 6%. Also, it shows that the number of rigs and the rig daily cost affect the profit tremendously, where by reducing these two parameters by 50% an increase of 66% in oil profit can be achieved. The study confirms that oil field operating companies can stand a better chance of maximizing their profit by using product mix optimization model to define the optimum schedule for the number of wells, type of wells and time of drilling.
Samira Alvandi
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p6

Abstract:
The increasing customization of products with greater variances and smaller lot sizes, has motivated manufacturers to adopt highly dynamic production planning. The production plans not only need to adapt to the production system state changes rapidly but also need to adopt energy reduction schemes to satisfy key sustainability performance indicators. The dilemma from industry point of view is to tackle multi-faceted problem of optimising economic and environmental performance. This research aims to overcome the multi-faceted objectives of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s) by providing a simulation-optimisation platform that creates the best possible production plans for optimum results. The applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated through a real-life job-shop environment with the focus on optimisation of energy as well as job tardiness.
Samah A. F. Jarrad
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n10p1

Abstract:
This paper aims to explore the role of Palestinian women in resisting both occupation and male dominance through keeping dairies that have acquired the quality of autobiographies and have been circulated widely. The main focus of this paper is Suad Amri’s autobiography Sharon and my Mother in Law in which she tries to highlight both the feminist and the resistance aspects of her life in Ramallah eventually becoming representative of the lives of all women in Palestine. The research concludes that the identity of the colonized is shaped by their collective memory which is affected by their resistance narrative. The results also show that through their writing, Palestinian women have managed to reclaim their creative space and to challenge the limitations imposed on them by both occupation and patriarchy. 
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n9p75

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 14, No. 9, September 2020
Sumani Sumani, Supriyadi Supriyadi, Siti Masiyah, Widya Aryani
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n9p69

Abstract:
Merauke Regency has 216.196 Ha of mangroves area which most of it was fed by the Maro River. The purpose of this research was to study the chemical, nutrient movement, and physiochemical properties by collecting the soil around the Maro River. 10 collected soil samples (0-20 cm depth) were analyzed using standard methods. The result showed that the average CEC of soils around River Maro is 15.95 cmol/kg. Organic matter and soil moisture content could be the contributor to enhance the CEC of soil. The average organic carbon was 1.34%, while the BOD and COD were 2.44 and 5.70 mg/L. Soil could have different mineralogical content which nutrient around Maro is decreasing due to waste disposal to the river, agricultural practice, and other human activities. Environmental management needs to reevaluate and studies about soil mineralogy strongly recommended.
Tarek Hossain Raju, Shakil Mahmud, B. M. Sazzad Hossain, Masrur Sabir Nafee, Sayeda Ariana Ferdous, Mohsin Patwary, Mohammad Nazmul Hossen, Shahadat Hossain
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n9p63

Abstract:
Textile Industries of Bangladesh confront the environment a huge threat. It produces a huge amount of sludge from effluent treatment plants that is a burden for industries for its high volume and proper treatment cost thereby a huge threat to the environment. The present study aims to characterize the solid sludge of textile industry in terms of pH, organic matter (OM), nutrient elements (N, P, K) and other metal elements through proper analytical methods. The average pH value of the sludge sample was 8.28 along with moisture content 60.64%. The average content of the OM of the studied sludge samples was 11.73% and the average values of N, P and K were 7.57%, 0.52% and 0.50%, respectively. The studied metal (Cr, Zn Mn, Cd, Pb, As and Cu) content of the sludge revealed that the toxic heavy metals Pb, Cd and As were not found in the samples. This study reveals that the amount of OM, N, P and pH is within the Waste concern compost standard (WCCS). The findings clearly show a potentiality of textile sludge as organic manure as they are rich in OM and plant nutrients and free from toxic heavy metals as well.
Majdi Jayousi
Modern Applied Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/mas.v14n9p37

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the school bullying behavior among adolescents in public schools in the Qalqilya Governorate from the teachers’ perspective in the first semester of the academic year (2018-2019). The study sample consisted of (240) teachers from the whole study population, which comprised 1200 teachers from public schools in the Qalqilya Governorate. The researcher used the descriptive research approach. A Questionnaire was used to measure school bullying behaviors. The questionnaire consisted of (30) sentences, divided into three domains. Its consistency and reliability were verified. the results of the study. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05) in the phenomenon of school bullying behavior among adolescents in public schools in the Qalqilya Governorate from the teachers’ perspective due to the variable of gender. There were no statistically significant differences at the significance level of (α ≤ 0.05) in the phenomenon of school bullying behavior among adolescents in public schools in the Qalqilya Governorate from the teachers’ perspective due to the variable of the school. The study recommended the need to focus on teacher, counselor and trainer professional development to deal effectively with students’ behavioral problems.
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