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Ngakosso Antoine, Etokabeka Stanislas, Dih Arnold Gustave
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97004

Abstract:
This work aims to analyze the factors that explain the bank credit rationing to small and medium sized enterprises in Congo. Based on the survey made by the BEA (2015) involving 289 small and medium sized enterprises (SMSE) related to the access to credit very small and medium sized enterprises (SMSE) in Congo, we achieve this objective by using the logistic regression. As results of estimations, baking credit rationing in Congo is influenced by six variables such as: submission of all information required by the banker to the client, the capacity to present mortgage guarantee, choice of credit line, formal accounting management, to be registered near the chamber of commerce, and have invested early 12 months.
Diana Filimon, Gheorghe Huza, Maria-Nicoleta Turliuc
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 120-140; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98010

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to validate the Romanian version of the Internet Infidelity Scale (IIS), and to determine its psychometric properties in Romanian couple relationships. Specifically, IIS assesses the severity of 44 specific acts on both the Self Infidelity and the Partner Infidelity versions. Methods: 675 participants completed the Romanian version of the Internet Infidelity Scale (RVIIS), the Infidelity Scale (DIS), the Extra-Dyadic Behaviors Inventory (EBI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). We used the exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the structure and models fit for Self and Partner Internet Infidelity. The scale’s reliability, convergent and divergent validity were also tested. Results: The EFA and CFA analysis used for testing the matrix structure for Self and Partner Infidelity Scale revealed adequate models. An overall Cronbach’s alpha of .80 for Self-Infidelity Scale and .88 for Partner Infidelity Scale, showed good internal consistency. Positive levels of convergent validity for each scale revealed that the instruments measure what they have intended to measure. The good fit of the scales ensures a pronounced robustness of the construct. Conclusions: The validated Romanian version of the Internet Infidelity Scale (RVIIS) is a valid and reliable instrument in rating the severity of 6 specific behaviors on both the Self-Infidelity and the Partner-Infidelity questionnaire. Given the limited number of research on people involved in couple relationships in Eastern Europe thus far, it is essential to provide validated tools to develop research in these countries.
Lydia Montalbano
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 448-485; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98031

Abstract:
Digital advancement is moving at an unprecedented rate as compared to any other time in history. These improvements have effects on economies and societies altering the normal ways people interact and do business online. The process results in the accumulation and possible exposure of user data. The transformation has affected the policies in consumer and data protection law in place, but there is still a lot to gain on the enforcement side in the marketplace. Personal data are a new currency that drives the modern world, playing a central role in the current technological revolution. Consumer behavior patterns are now more predictable due to online ordering and data from IoT devices. Analysis of this collected data has resulted in ever more detailed profiles about individuals, which translates in greatly increasing conversion. This incentivizes software developers to equip their products and services with more and more advanced algorithms that can act on insights-based personal profiles. Usage of these algorithms can significantly influence consumer markets by altering purchasing trends. While it is evident that for example in Europe, today, consumers are increasingly becoming aware of the right to protect personal data, the impact of factors such as secret tracking, psychological profiling, can have consequences that many consumers can’t grasp. Moreover, prevalent market trends are thriving on data, but the process can create structural discrimination between consumers based on arbitrary assumptions. European empires during the 16th-century expanded their control by managing critical assets. However, presently, new technological empires are created by controlling the world’s data and deploying advanced AI’s which should be regulated. To establish a common, global framework of understanding, part of this study shall consider the consumer perception concerning tracking and surveillance. The socio-economic impact on society due to the so-called “filter bubble” created by these algorithms is subsequently be discussed together with the political and social destabilization that we are witnessing. This paper outlines how consumer laws relating to data protection, especially in Europe, are operationalized and what consumer protection is available within the digital markets. The paper concludes with the steps to systematically protect the fundamental right to privacy in the digital markets. This entails a hybrid approach that includes transparency by design and default, improved enforcement by authorities, and the possibility for consumers to proceed through class actions in order to safeguard their privacy in the existing legal framework.
Yujie Yao, Mingming Xiang
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 243-253; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99018

Abstract:
“Urban renovation and ecological restoration” is an effective means to control “Urban disease”, improve the living environment and change the urban development mode. This article from the perspective of “Urban renovation and ecological restoration” by Nanjing Jinling shipyard development problems, from the ecological restoration, cultural remodeling and function transformation and other respects, discusses the current Jinling shipyard area between industrial heritage protection and cultural inheritance update problem. Using field research, literature reading, case study and other methods, and put forward corresponding planning strategies and suggestions. Integrate the needs of people’s livelihood with urban industrial memory to realize the maximum protection, renewal and utilization of industrial heritage areas.
Marcus Crawford
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 254-270; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99019

Abstract:
Runaway youth are at heightened risk for violence, substance use, suicide, and other high risk concerns. Qualitative studies have examined youth choices to leave home, involvement living on the streets, and lived experiences as stigmatized youth; however, findings from these various studies have never been analyzed together into a single synthesis of information. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the qualitative data using Qualitative Interpretative Meta-Synthesis. The researcher completed a systematic search to locate studies focused on girls who were or had been runaways, extracting themes from 10 articles to create new overarching themes that encompassed each of the articles. Results showed six new overarching themes: power/control, stigma, physical needs, safety, belonging, and acceptance. The themes of physical needs, safety, belonging, and acceptance are discussed using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs paradigm. Together, the themes are constructed to discuss how helping professionals can be better prepared to help meet the myriad needs of runaway girls by utilizing the hierarchy of needs presented by Maslow. This research article provides a unique insight into working with a vulnerable population by weaving together the experiences and words of the individuals whose real-life narratives have shaped the discussion.
Uju Gloria Amaechi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 316-329; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99022

Abstract:
The Biafra government prioritized diversity, and collaboration in its public health policy initiative to meet the health needs of its population during the Biafra war. The policy helped to ensure that internal and external professionals delivered the health needs of civilians during the war. However, continuous blockage of food, firearms, and medical supply links to Biafra by the Nigerian government led to eventual starvation, malnutrition, and disease outbreak among Biafrans during the war. Besides, the diversity and collaboration health policy by the Biafra government boosted the effectiveness of operational staff because they worked closely with those from other nations to improve the health and wellbeing of the Biafrans. The study was conducted by carrying out a literature review on different historical and up to date sources such as archived data, journals, articles, books, and newspapers. The researcher recommended that the policies and interventions of the government, public health organizations and other humanitarian bodies helping in the warfare should be shaped toward improving the health and wellbeing of people affected by war.
Jun Zhou
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 663-672; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99049

Abstract:
With the development of big data and information technology, the possibility of enhance the control of exchange rate risk in Chinese multinational corporations is increasing. A large of papers have already discussed exchange rate risk management, however the methodology used in accounting remain to be elucidated. This thesis focuses on China Hainan Rubber Industry Group Co. Ltd, analyzes problems of exchange rate management in its financial statements from 2015 to 2019, calculates the impact of exchange gains and losses with different accounting methods, and then discusses the policy implication. We set up a model to explain the details of exchange gains and loss, then subdivide (A) actual exchange gains and losses and (B) financial accounting exchange gains and losses to reflect the enterprise’s business status, and verify the feasibility of this model for practical use. Finally, we provide new policy implications, such as suggestions for accounting entries with classified exchange gains and losses, strengthen enterprise communication management by using IT, and pay attention to the development trend of CNY’s internationalization.
Zhihong Li, Dingbang Wu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 563-571; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99041

Abstract:
The globalization is the needed path of the enterprise when its business has been developed to a certain stage since the global market connects more and more closely. Because of the influence from the politics, competition and culture, etc., the enterprise is bound to meet with multiple uncertainties or dangers. How does the enterprise cope with these risks? The enterprise must respond to this question beforehand. Therefore, the paper first exposes the current situations of the globalization and its functions to the business, next analyzes the evolution trend of the enterprise, then discusses some approaches to identify the risks during the business globalization, finally puts forward some tactics to deal with the risks for the enterprise to do the transnational business.
Richard Nii Ayitey Akoto, Mark Ofori Afayori, Eric Abu, Simon Acheamfoh Arthur
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 378-386; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99026

Abstract:
Ghana discovered oil in commercial quantities in July 2007 and production began in December 2010. Despite the rapid boom in economic activities over the last decade in the Western region of the country where the discovery and production has been taking place, the benefits of the investments of the oil revenue by government to the ordinary Ghanaian, have not been fully accessed. This research establishes the relationship between the petroleum revenue from the upstream sector collected by the government and the Human Development Index (HDI) of Ghana using simple regression analysis. Quarterly data of oil revenues from 2010 to 2018 were obtained from the Ministry of Finance while data on the livelihood of Ghanaians proxied by the HDI were obtained from the UNDP. The study revealed a weak negative relationship between petroleum revenue and HDI. It was also observed that an increase in petroleum revenue either showed little or no impact on HDI. This is against the usual notion that an increase in oil revenue should action an improvement in the livelihood of countrymen. Further probe revealed that the quality of spending was low even though government increased revenue and could not be seen in the livelihood of citizens. The study recommends government to focus on strengthening its Public Interest and Accountability Committee in exercising oversight responsibility on quality of spending to ensure value for money for the state and its impact for the citizens.
Siyu Liu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 426-432; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99030

Abstract:
With the widespread use of the Internet, online education is getting more and more attention. This paper collects online education literature collect in Web of Science from 2018 to 2020 and analyzes it in three aspects: co-author network, co-occurrence network, and co-citation network, showing the current status of online learning in China in recent years. Based on network education can fully display teaching information and resources, form special learning websites and virtual communities, and provide a collaborative learning environment for teachers and students. Through the monitoring and management of the subnetwork, students’ learning experience and status can be recorded. It is meaningful for understanding the research hot topics of online education in China and equally valuable for understanding the collaboration patterns and citation status of Chinese scholars in this field.
Christine Chepngeno Koskey, Dickson L. Makanji, Christine E. Wilkinson, George W. Eshiamwata
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 411-425; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99029

Abstract:
Human-wildlife conflicts (HWCs) may arise when expanding human populations and activities overlap or compete for space and resources with wildlife. They may also be due to growing wildlife populations that encroach on human settlements or other areas of human development. Forms of human-wildlife conflict include livestock predation, harassment, property damage, habitat loss due to human activities, and interpersonal conflict over wildlife issues resulting in injuries or mortalities. The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) is among animals involved in livestock predation for many reasons thus leading to conflicts with livestock owners. This study focused on the causes of human-hyena conflict and the socio-economic impacts of hyena predation on livestock. The study adopted a survey research design. Data were collected using an interview schedule and key informant meetings, targeting different segments of the community. Purposive sampling was employed in data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that poor park fencing is the major cause of human hyena conflict with a representation of 40% (125 respondents). Despite the fact that LNNP is fenced, community members still raise complaints about porosity. On the other hand, 60% of Soysambu Conservancy is not fenced, potentially giving hyenas freedom to move from the conservancy to the community. The total estimated cost that is lost to hyena predation in this region as per the responses received in the surveys is approximately $74,740 USD annually. A total of 1020 shoats were either wounded or killed. Our results suggest that one potential solution is to completely fence both protected areas and maintain the fences to reduce if not halt human-hyena conflicts and perceptions of hyenas as a conflict-prone species.
Ahmed Al-Kamel, Ghassan Al-Masbhi, Chen Jie
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 510-525; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99037

Abstract:
With the progress of social technology and the economy and the development of globalization, supply chain management has become the most important means to help enterprises obtain competitive advantages. This paper takes the impact of supply chain integration on enterprise competitive advantage as the research object. Therefore, the author combs the research literature of supply chain integration and enterprise competitive advantage and refers to other scholars’ composition mechanisms of enterprise competitive advantage. At the same time, the author conducted research on the service industry and constructs the supply chain integration enterprise competitive advantage model, based on the literature review and interview analysis results. The author puts forward a series of research hypotheses to test the correlation between the variables in the competitive advantage model. According to the research hypothesis and the characteristics of the service industry, the paper designs a questionnaire and carries on the research, uses statistical software to analyze the data of 133 valid samples, and verifies the feasibility of applying the model to the establishment of the service industry. The test results show that the competitive advantage model is valid for service industry. This study verifies the feasibility of applying the enterprise competitive advantage model to the service industry, which has certain reference value for enhancing the competitive advantage of the service industry.
Millicent Narh-Kert
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 499-509; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99036

Abstract:
Almost all pre-service teachers from Colleges of Education in Ghana, whether from the regular or distance mode, teach in the basic schools. This research employed survey to examine pre-service teachers’ evaluation of teaching (ET) on teaching and learning in the regular and distance modes of teacher education in Ghana. The analytical cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Four hundred and fifty-five (455) pre-service teachers of Accra College of Education and the College of Distance Education at Papafio Hills, both of University of Cape Coast were used as the sample for the survey. Questionnaire of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α) of 0.81 was used to solicit views regarding students’ evaluation of teaching and learning. Frequency and percentages were used to describe the data. They have the belief that tutors are competent in subject matter knowledge, pedagogy and assessment. Empirically, tutors’ knowledge of subject matter was rated ‘good’ by majority of distance (89.57%) and regular (51.17%) students. Organization of lessons by the college tutors was also judged as good by majority of the distance (73.07%) and regular (61.67%) students. Teacher assessment by college tutors was rated “good” and constructive by majority (66.0%) of the distance students, and a few regular students (36.8%). Similarly, pre-service teachers in the two colleges have positive self-efficacy in learning. Evidence from the study shows that, majority of the male (64.56%) and female (53.25%) students in the distance mode as well as female students in the regular mode (52.25%) did not find it stressful using mathematics and science textbooks to work on homework, except a few male students (48.41%) in the regular mode. Pre-service teachers have the belief that College of Education tutors in Ghana are competent in subject matter knowledge and pedagogy to teach in both regular and distance education programmes. Pre-service teachers in Ghanaian College of Education have self-efficacy in learning core courses in regular and distance education programmes. This study concludes that distance education programmes are equally effective and efficient means of education and training of pre-service teachers in Ghana just as the regular or traditional mode of teacher education and training. It is therefore recommended that, policy makers including the Ministry of Education and the National Council on Tertiary Education in liaison with Ghanaian universities should give similar attention to distance education just as it is done to the regular pre-service teacher education programmes in Ghanaian colleges of education.
Ghassan Al-Masbhi, Yulan Du
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 47-60; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98005

Abstract:
This paper examines the potential determinants of the exchange rate in Yemen. Different econometric tests were applied to examine the impact of the exchange rate on the inflation rate, the current account balance, GDP growth, and interest rate from 1998 to 2020. Findings show variables are stationary at first difference I(1). Johansen’s cointegration test approved the existence of the long-term relationship. According to the VECM test, the variables share a long-run relationship. There is also a short-run association of the exchange rate with inflation and interest rate. The Granger causality test implies that the exchange rate granger causes interest rate and inflation rate. Furthermore, diagnostic tests were performed to check the results’ reliability, which shows the findings are consistent. Moreover, the study also suggests that these findings contribute to policymakers and government officials’ understanding of the exchange rate fluctuation. It will also show the significant impact of the exchange rate on these variables in Yemen and other developing countries with a similar economic system. The research also provides suggestions to promote development sustainability in Yemen.
Weidong Li, Jingjie Zhao
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 186-196; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98013

Abstract:
Our study took 323 papers on visual culture in education field collected by CNKI as the research object. It extracted and counted the relevant data by Bicomb 2.0, and conducted cohesive subgroup analysis and co-occurrence analysis of key words by UCINET 6.0. Based on the analysis results, the knowledge map of visual culture research hotspots in the field of education is drawn. Finally, according to the data obtained above, the formal and content characteristics of the research literature are analyzed, which provides new ideas for the follow-up study of visual culture.
Jathla A. Mahmood
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 375-388; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98026

Abstract:
The current study aims at shedding light on horn honking as an effective channel of non-verbal communication that expresses far more meanings than just aggression and road-related messages. An overview of the use of horn honking in ten different countries is given. The overview shows that horn honking has indeed proven itself as cultural phenomenon essential in the daily lives of many people. The car horn is much more than a mere tool of warning for danger or complaining about some wrong. Many drivers use horn honking as a language, Morse codes, or a medium of communication to express a variety of meanings some of which reinforce social relationships. The overview is discussed from a cultural point of view. A recommendation for more attention to this neglected channel has been made. It needs to be listed as a channel of non-verbal communication or at least be considered as a sub channel of the physical environment.
Nazira Kolsarieva, Erkin Duisenov, Ravil Mazitov, Niiazbek Pazylov, Zhypargul Abdullaeva
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 128-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99009

Abstract:
The article presents a comprehensive theoretical and legal analysis of the category “political system” based on constitutional legislation in Central Asian (CA) governments. It is recognized that formation of governments in Central Asia during the transition period to a new democracy took place in the context of models transit focused on a theory of political transformation and modernization, explaining the sources, goals and direction of changes from totalitarianism to democracy. In the course of analysis, a wide toolkit of methodological vectors was used based on the leading scientists well established views, both far abroad, as well as Russian and domestic authors. The importance of knowledge about political systems that goes beyond the traditional framework recognized, conditioning the comparative studies of individual elements of the basic theory of law and applied disciplines, which makes it possible to augment certain knowledge in a universal theory used in most commonwealth of independent state (CIS) countries in scientific projects. In the context of the analysis, the definition of the political system is formed as an established system of the state, in which its constituent institutions are formed as a result of the long evolution of a particular government. Some aspects in the patterns of functioning of political systems were also considered including the study of theoretical and methodological issues affecting the concept development, the formation of political and legal relations. The structure of political systems is considered in the Central Asian governments’ example.
Guihong Shi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 367-374; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98025

Abstract:
Student management is an important part of college education and a key factor in determining the level of talent cultivation in colleges and universities. Under the people-oriented perspective, the management of college students should start from the needs of students, seek truth from facts, ensure that students have a good learning environment, help students form a reasonable career plan, and guide students to form scientific values. This is a people-oriented perspective. Under the key content of college student management. In order to better enhance the efficiency of college student management, colleges and universities should clarify the management responsibilities of student management, increase resource input in student management, strengthen student ideological and political education and guidance, ensure that the reasonable needs of students are met, and ensure that students are integrated The literacy is improved to ensure that the students’ values are formed smoothly.
Neema Adam Rubamande, Marcel Mukadi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 185-192; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.99013

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors enhancing positive performance of students from single parent families in secondary schools specifically Alfagems secondary school, the case study in Morogoro Municipality. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative research approach. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used. Primary data were collected from 50 respondents who were randomly selected through interview and questionnaires. The study result revealed that positive attitude of the students towards academic matters, positive social circle, self-motivating and encouraging, counseling and guidance services as well as setting high expectations and desires in life were found to be the influencing factors enhancing good performance of students from single parents. Basing on the study findings, the researchers recommend that parents should be responsible to their children in order to ensure the good welfare of their children. Schools at all levels should have strong guidance and counseling unit to help the students in need of special attention.
Wei Zhang, Junhong Tang
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 367-380; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97027

Abstract:
The TPACK framework describes the kinds of knowledge required by teachers for successful integration of technology in teaching. TPACK is the heart of good teaching and describes the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective technology integration. In this study, such teachers’ TPACK development strategies as Learning by Design Approach, Lesson Study, Microteaching, microteaching lesson study are analyzed after an analysis of the process of TPACK formation and its components. In addition, TPACK development models like SQD-model, TPACK-COPR, TPACK-IDDIRR and TPACK-COIR are also reviewed in this study. At last, further study on subject-dependent TPACK development in a comparatively large scale is put forward.
Sheng Xu, Weisi Li, Bin Cheng
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 326-333; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98022

Abstract:
University campus environment is the most one important factors influencing students’ daily activities, this article from the perspective of environmental behavior, respectively based on the part of the campus space environment, student traffic flow, and the campus guide identifies three aspects, analyzes the existing problems in the campus space environment and some improvement measures, hoping to design current campus environment design and construction to provide the reference.
Alessandra Natalini
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 255-284; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96020

Abstract:
The aim of this contribution is to explore the emblematic figure of Giuseppina Pizzigoni, pedagogue and teacher, who worked in Italy at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This pedagogist lived and worked as a teacher in a historical-cultural context characterised by the development of Positivism, a moment in which the need for greater scientific rigour in education was affirmed. The definition of the method and the object of study, the observation, the collection of data, the formulation of a hypothesis or a plan of action, as well as its application, and the verification of results, are at the basis of the scientific method. From this Pizzigoni derived the assumptions of her approach and method, starting from the diffusion, especially in America and Northern Europe, of the Pedagogical Activism and of the experiences of the New Schools, based on the centrality of the child, on the respect for his person and his integral development: physical, mental, affective and relational. This has made her approach highly topical and of great interest to researchers in recent years, especially because of what she says about the relationship between culture and nature in education. The “Fondo Pizzigoni” today constitutes a pedagogical heritage of enormous value and interest.
Yan Yang
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 298-315; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96022

Abstract:
Although there is a plethora of online learning engagement studies, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between learning engagement and academic performance in the context of online general education courses. Accordingly, this study takes an online general education course offered by a university in eastern China as an example, proposes a model for evaluating online learning engagement and specific metrics for the model, and conducts a cluster analysis of the online learning engagement of 422 undergraduate students who took the course as sample data through a clustering K-means algorithm. Based on the relationship between learners’ online learning behavioral engagement and academic performance, learners were classified into three categories: “active learners”, “go-with-the-flow learners” and “passive learners”. The study concludes that the classification of online learning engagement and academic performance is beneficial for teachers and administrators to grasp the whole learning process of learners in the context of online general education courses, clarify the types of online learning engagement and their characteristics, and provide data reference for students’ personalized learning support service system, thus promoting the establishment of a high-quality school-based general education course system.
Xinliu Wei
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 316-324; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96023

Abstract:
The development of micro and small companies has always been the focus of social attention. Due to the impact of the epidemic, the state has continuously issued a series of new tax policies, and the preferential strength for micro and small companies has increased unprecedentedly, which has effectively promoted the resumption and sustainable development of micro and small companies. Taking micro and small companies as the main research object, this paper investigates and analyzes the current situation of the implementation of the new tax break for micro and small companies, explores the existing problems, and puts forward effective suggestions for the implementation of the new tax break for micro and small companies, so as to promote the improvement of the new preferential tax policies for micro and small companies.
Gordon Bechtel
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 325-332; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96024

Abstract:
This article demonstrates that GDP FP-causes life expectancy at birth. The confirming fractional polynomial regression in Section 3.2 is run over the pre-pandemic period 1991-2018. During the subsequent pandemic, the American Center for Disease Control reported that life expectancy at birth in the USA dropped one year during the first six months of 2020, the largest drop since World War II. The drops in African and Hispanic life expectancy at birth during this period were 2.7 and 1.9 years (Aljazeera; Democracy Now, February 18, 2021). The USA is the worst COVID-19-effected population. It is now imperative to verify that life expectancy at birth is well predicted from GDP in all nations over 1991-2018. This pre-pandemic control for each nation will accurately calibrate its subsequent yearly survival drops due to COVID-19. This is especially important in light of the trade war between the United States and China, which has increased the need for the precise measurement of the human effects of this war.
Deepshikha Dash, Manjira Sinha, Saurav Ghosh
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 414-430; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97030

Abstract:
This study focuses on language comprehension skills of secondary students from rural India. Language skills are the most important factor to quality education followed by UN SDG-4. This study examines how socioeconomic status (SES) affects students’ language comprehension skills (L1 and L2) and Inductive Reasoning skills in pre- and post-pandemic situations. For quantitative analysis, advanced statistical techniques, such as two-way ANOVA have been utilized.
Chidiebube Emmanuel Obodo, Zhenan Xie, Benjamin Blandful Cobbinah, Kate Dazagbyilo Yakubu Yari
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 381-397; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97028

Abstract:
In Nigeria and other countries’ economies, small scale indigenous contractors perform a vital role that significantly impacts economic stability. The small-scale indigenous contractors contribute prominently to the economy by creating more noteworthy work openings, making higher creation volumes, growing conveys, and introducing progression and business capacities in the construction industry. In this research study, a total sample of 250 was used out of 400 small-scale indigenous contractors and other professionals in the construction industry in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study were generated using a questionnaire, and the collection instrument was validated and endorsed by different professionals in the construction industry before being administered to the respondents. In this study, primary data was generated to evaluate the factors affecting small-scale indigenous contractors in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. Different strategies were used to obtain the resulting outcome, which includes regression analysis, ANOVA (Analysis of variance), and descriptive statistics to analyze the relationship between the factors affecting the determinants of the construction project (Companys’ strength, project risk, and Competition) and the contractors’ decision to bid. The analysis showed that the company’s strength, project risk, and competition all positively affect the determination of the slight indigenous contraction’s willingness to bid for contracts in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The study showed that the company’s strength, project risk, and competition positively impact the contactor’s decision to tender for construction projects. This research analyzed and ascertained enough data and information to prove the essential factors influencing small-scale indigenous contractors’ decision to tender for construction contracts. The researcher recommends that contractors should execute the projects or works being handled by them promptly and efficiently, within the required time frame to which can reduce competition from another contractor to use that as an advantage for competition.
Lawrence Eron
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 398-413; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.97029

Abstract:
In-service tutor development on inclusive education provides an opportunity for preparing student teachers to educating all children. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of teacher educators’ capacity and commitment for quality training of student teachers towards inclusive education in Uganda. The study adopted a qualitative approach. Participants included tutors (N = 8), students with disabilities (N = 8) and students without disabilities (N = 56). Individual interviews were conducted with tutors and students with disabilities while focus group discussions were held with students without disabilities. Data was analyzed using themes generated from transcripts. Results of this study indicate increased support to a number of students with disabilities admitted in primary teacher colleges. It however noted the need for skills in functional assessment, braille and sign language, modifying methods and providing resources to accommodate individual disability. The study recommended increased mentorship, improved skills in functional assessment and continuous professional development in inclusive education. These findings identify modifications in teacher education intended to promote inclusive learning for children with disabilities and other special needs.
Wenlong Shi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98003

Abstract:
This paper based on the theory of marxist political economics “binary” thought, puts forward total contradiction movement in the process of social production is a new development pattern of “binary” theoretical basis, establishes a new development pattern of “binary” rely on “factor market”, “product marketing”, and needs to make full use of the domestic market on the basis of expanding the international market “market space”. At the same time, it definitely points out that “efficient market” and “efficient government” are the fundamental guarantee of the new development pattern of “double circulation”. The constraint conditions of constructing the new development pattern of “double circulation” are analyzed from four dimensions: economic system, innovation ability of market subjects, regional location and industrial structure. Finally, according to the realistic constraints of constructing the new development pattern of “double circulation”, the paper puts forward the concrete implementation path: in the top-level design of the economic system, the market should play a decisive role in the allocation of resources, and the government should play a greater role; in the aspect of cultivating the innovation ability of market subjects, we should implement the innovation-driven strategy and promote comprehensive innovation with scientific and technological innovation as the core. In terms of regional and regional cooperation and development, we will coordinate regional development internally and integrate into the global economy in an all-round way externally. At the level of industrial structure optimization and upgrading, efforts should be made to optimize the supply-side structural reform and strive to achieve a benign interaction between supply and demand.
Tharisara Chirasatienpon
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 108-119; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.98009

Abstract:
The major risk factors for young stroke patients were hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, waist circumference, and body mass index. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a young stroke prevention program for university lecturers via using a smartphone application. Research design was a quasi-experimental research one-group pretest-posttest design with using multistage random sampling. The study population were Kasetsart university lecturers (n = 21) with risk factors for stroke, age between 20 - 45 years old. The 13 weeks program involved sending each subject weekly via a smart phone application information on stroke education, nutrition management and basic knowledge of exercise. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the general characteristics, Inferential statistics to analyze the average scores pre-test and post-test, with stroke knowledge, weight, waist, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure level, attitude, and risk behavior were determined using a paired t-test statistic. The post-test results from the 21 respondents who participated indicated their knowledge level of stroke education was significantly higher than the pre-exposure, with mean pre-exposure and post-exposure scores of 7.81 and 9.10, respectively. Furthermore, body weight, waist size, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index, were significantly lower by the end of the program. However, no significant differences were found for attitude nor for the subject behavior regarding risk factors of a stroke. This program can act as the guideline to reduce the incidence of young stroke by reducing risk factors and managing stroke prevention for university lecturers with risk factors of stroke.
Christopher J. Cockshott, Gundi Kiemle, Paula Byrne, Mark B. Gabbay
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 291-313; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91021

Abstract:
An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to “Loss of Expectation and Disorientation”, “Waste, Failure and Blame”, and “Stigma and Shame”. Participants had experienced a “Fall from Grace”—a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
Zhizhong Kai
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 67-80; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91005

Abstract:
Different forms of psychotherapy often construct theories and techniques based on different epistemological frameworks. Because of epistemological conflicts, some psychotherapy seems incompatible with each other. However, the problems encountered in psychotherapy are complex and multifaceted, and each psychotherapy has shown its shortcomings. So many researchers and practitioners were trying to use a combination of treatment techniques and integrate various psychotherapy in a treatment plan. Integrating different schools of psychotherapy requires an epistemological framework that can accommodate different psychotherapy to help them develop their strengths and prevent conflict. This paper proposed an epistemological framework based on system theory and the uncertainty principle. Through this framework, this paper attempted to reinterpret some of the mainstream psychotherapy and identified the underlying factors that are effective in their treatment. Finally, this paper put forward the methods and directions of integrating these psychotherapies into an epistemological framework.
Odoma Samuel, Ngozi Obeta Anadi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 20-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91002

Abstract:
Religious motivated conflicts have become widespread in Nigeria, a nation considered by many to be one of the most religious nations of the world. Although it has been stressed that religion has the ability to bind people from different social backgrounds into a single moral community, the assertion came with a warning that, if not carefully handled, religion can equally disintegrate a society as much as it is believed to bind. This work chronicles religious practice and the corresponding conflicts in Nigeria, a nation that is clearly defined by its constitution as a secular state. Every segment of public life and policy is viewed through religious lens. Adopting the Functionalist perspective as base, the paper asserts that religious practice has become dysfunctional to the nation as a result of state’s preference for the duo of alien but popular religions of Christianity and Islam in a secular state. Although, religious conflicts in Nigeria is endemic in the northern part, the entire nation has suffered from the impacts of its abuses such as insecurity and poor economic performance. It is recommended that constitutionalism be enthroned in the country to allow for a clear separation of religion from public lives of the people.
Michael Galea, Josianne Scerri, Paulann Grech, Alexei Sammut, Daniela Calleja Bitar, Stephania Dimech Sant
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91003

Abstract:
The present COVID-19 pandemic threatens humanity in various ways, especially due to the unpredictable nature of its course and progress. The impact of COVID-19 on mental health varies from place to place, but it is widely felt all over. Moreover, the impact is more pronounced on vulnerable groups within every population. In this study, we focus on the pandemic impact on the elderly’s mental health in Malta. Data gathered from ongoing surveys from Richmond Foundation Malta, found in the public domain, highlight 1) the COVID-19 pandemic as increasingly seen as a bigger threat; 2) the handling of the pandemic by local health authorities first took a dip in general trust, only to recover at more recent times; 3) mixed results regarding intra-personal domain (with an increase in self-care tendencies, but also an increase in social isolation and loneliness); and 4) an increase in elderly’s quest for interpersonal contact.
Gulsara Kuldysheva, Sovetbek Minbaev, Shailoobek Paraidinuulu, Aigul Mirzaeva, Aktilek Atantaev, Mamazakirov Rustam, Kuldyshev Amanbek, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Elnura Toktobaeva
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 321-327; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91023

Abstract:
This article focuses on the formation and development of customary law in Kyrgyz society. The degree of customs, traditions, and legal systems created existing outside, and had significance on their basis, significantly higher than those of societies functioning within the framework of public education. The set of measures formed over time, which were focused on regulation of all aspects in the traditional Kyrgyz community life, represented by a large number of mutually independent tribes and clans, as a highly effective system capable of maintaining normal conditions of existence.
Liyang Zhang, Koichiro Aoki, Chieko Kato
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 364-377; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91027

Abstract:
Previous studies about stress suggested that stressors are associated with positive feelings when they are regarded as “challenge”. In such cases, the stressors can contribute to one’s mental health as eustress related to positive feelings and healthy physical states. This study conducted a questionnaire in the form of free description focusing on people’s awareness of stress and mental and physical stress responses. The purpose of this study is to clarify characteristics of stressful situations which lead to positive psychological change and development by analyzing descriptive data. Free description acquired from the questionnaire was analyzed by means of co-occurrence network and self-organizing maps. The analysis of the free-description revealed the characteristics of eustress and distress, stress regarded as threat or challenge, and thoughts, behaviors, and situations in the process of changing the evaluation of stress. From the results of analysis, it can be said that even in a stress situation that feels like a “threat”, the situation can be re-evaluated as a “challenge” by causing a positive psychological transformation that raises confidence in problem sol-ving.
Anwar Hossain Mridha
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 167-187; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91012

Abstract:
This article explores the impact of global culture on our lifestyle. Globalisation is inevitable and global culture is the commodification of culture and practice of any locality in the world. The study finds that print, electronic, online and social media promote global culture. The people are comfortable with the consequences of global culture as it happens slowly and convincingly. International institutions like UNESCO and other organisations, tourism, migration, trade and international processes have a great impact and influence on global culture. These organisations want to protect local culture and to work on cultural sovereignty. Though there are some negative impacts of global culture on our lifestyle, global culture also contains many ingredients of positive development, modernity and civilisation. Most of the data is mainly collected from secondary sources like journal articles, official records, media reports, books etc. As media personnel, some in-depth observations are used as a primary source.
Antonella Nuzzaci
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 103-119; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91008

Abstract:
Starting from a multidimensional approach to the concept of educational poverty, the objective of this contribution is to offer an overview of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic emergency on poverty levels in Italy. It is based on the analysis of data linked to economic poverty in the Italian context, taking into account social, educational, cultural, educational and extra-scholastic factors in an attempt to initiate as complete an analysis as possible of the phenomenon and its transformations as a result of the health emergency.
Scott Spreat
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 158-166; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91011

Abstract:
The current Direct Support Professional workforce crisis was considered from the perspective of supply/demand economic theory. It is suggested that the workforce crisis is largely caused by the inability of provider agencies to balance the demand for and supply of Direct Support Professionals by manipulating wages. Governmental fixed prices for supports and services are suggested as a primary contributing factor.
Prisca Tatiana Akourou Kiemi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 418-428; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96029

Abstract:
Today’s world is opening up to great bilateral trade. Cooperation agreements keep growing and the countries of the world are getting closer and closer. As part of education, world universities are filled with students of different nationalities, for all available professional training. Faced with different education systems, students experience adaptations and certain challenges, both on foreign lands and after their studies back in their country of origin. And these adaptations and challenges must also be recognized by the countries of origin. Thus, this study mainly deals with the issue of Gabonese students in Chinese territory, for higher studies, the equivalence of diplomas and integration into the labor market after graduation. It also offers some suggestions and recommendations to meet the challenges posed for a promising and better future for African youth and more particularly for Gabonese youth. But it is also with a view to improving cooperation relations between countries for a win-win cooperation.
Jingyuan Yang, Xiaolan Wang
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 385-396; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96026

Abstract:
With the development and maturity of higher education in China, the construction of university campus is also facing many problems, among which the research and design of campus node square cannot be ignored. Aiming at investigating students’ satisfaction, this paper establishes a satisfaction evaluation index system. Relevant data of each evaluation index were obtained by questionnaire survey. By means of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, this paper studies the relationship between the perceptual characteristics of four typical campus node squares in Qingyi Campus of Southwest University of Science and Technology and students’ satisfaction, which provides a reference for the humanized design of campus node space. The research shows that the four indexes of humanistic atmosphere, interest, ground pavement and atmosphere are the key points in the design and construction of campus node square. The four squares have different shapes. Except for the Light of Science and Technology Square, the satisfaction rate is 67%, and the other three squares are not satisfied by the majority of students. Finally, aiming at the problems of four squares, we put forward to optimize the layout, and improve the infrastructure and functional configuration, etc .
Frederick Betz
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 333-384; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96025

Abstract:
Methodologically, the grounding of social science theory needs to use empirical evidence from histories of societies. This is the methodological connection of the disciplines of the social sciences to the discipline of history. In this fourth paper of a series on the failed state of Syria, we next focus on its neighbor of Lebanon, also a failed state. In this research, we further extend the theory of “political association” to include the concepts in “nation-building”—as “top-down or bottom-up structures” and as “national leadership” or “coalition leadership”.
Charity Odumale Roberts, Kwasi Sarfo, Isaac Nyarko Kwakye
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 207-227; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96017

Abstract:
Everyone experiences stress in different life situations. In particular, occupational stress affects the performance of employees positively or negatively depending on their perception and the personality traits. This paper addresses how women in managerial positions in the Accra Metropolis manage the occupational stresses they experience in the discharge of their duties. The convenient purposive sampling technique was used to select 10 females from 150 women in managerial positions in government institutions in the Accra Metropolis. A structured interview guide based on Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised OSI-R was used to collect data from the 10 women and analysed using factor analysis. The study revealed that respondents managed their stresses by employing recreation, social support, and self-care. Even though, some of the women unknowingly adopted rationalization or rational-cognitive defence mechanisms to cope with the stresses they experience, none of them used popular stress reducing techniques such as yoga and physical exercise to cope with their stresses. The resilience of these women coupled with the formulation and implementation of formidable policies, provision of conducive working environment and the requisite resources by employers will go a long way to alleviate the women’s stresses while promoting their good health and productivity. This research paper addresses the strategies adopted by Ghanaian women in managerial position to manage their stresses and proposes that individual differences and religiosity of persons should be taken into consideration when counselling people on stress management.
Cletus Komudayiri Kantorgorje, Peace Chinwendu Israel, Peter Mwinwelle
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 154-168; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.96013

Abstract:
This paper employed the qualitative research approach to investigate the use of epistemic modality (EM) in four selected inaugural speeches of ex-presidents in the fourth republic of Ghana. It was underpinned by the interpersonal metafunction in Hallidayan’s (1994) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) theory which dovetails into the concept of EM. The analysis was done with the aid of corpus-based computer software—AntConc. The findings revealed a preponderant use of modal verbs with a frequency of 165 representing 84.2% while lexical verbs occur 13 times representing 6.6%. Adjectives and adverbs are minimally used with a frequency of 11 and 7 representing 5.6% and 3.6% respectively. The findings also revealed that Ghanaian presidents in the fourth republic dominantly use high values of EM to present themselves as bold, confident, committed and forthright in their utterances. Additionally, they were also communicatively sensitive as they use tentative markers when addressing sensitive issues. The study bears implications for pedagogy, theory and practice as it boosts the concept of EM and its appropriate use in political discourse.
Oleksandr Mozolev, Olesia Dolynska, Maryna Khmara, Inna Shorobura, Oksana Romanyshyna, Oleksandr Alieksieiev, Ludmila Kravchuk
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 97-108; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.910007

Abstract:
The objective of the article is to research the priorities in providing animation services during recreational activities for different age groups of tourists. The study involved 324 respondents who belonged to four age groups (1 group: aged 17 - 23; 2 group: aged 24 - 35; 3 group: aged 36 - 50; 4 group: aged 51 - 65). The main condition was the presence of experience of recreational rest in Ukraine and abroad. Methods: Analysis of scientific and methodological sources, surveys, questionnaires, method of expert evaluation, pedagogical experiment, statistical data of pedagogical observation, factor analysis. Results. It is established that the availability of quality animation activities ranks fourth among the priorities in choosing the place of health-recreation rest. Priorities in the choice of animation services for different age groups of tourists from Ukraine differ significantly. The most popular for all age groups are: concert and entertainment animation; animation for adults; children’s animation; exhibition animation; physical culture and health animation; show animation. The comparative analysis of the organization of animation services during the recreational rest of tourists showed that the most high-quality and interesting organization of animation activities is provided by hotels in Turkey and Egypt. Conclusions. The following main trends and changes in providing animation services have been identified: reduction of animation programs and cutdown of diversity in providing animation services; reducing the level of requirements for the content of animation programs; deterioration of the level of animation services in both national and foreign recreation areas.
Chun Yang, Lianhong Guo, Hongwei Wen
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 152-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.910011

Abstract:
The rapid development of private economy has made great contributions to the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In order to promote the development of private economy to a higher level, this paper analyzes the development of private economy in Guangdong Province in recent years, constructs the evaluation index system of regional private economy competitiveness from six dimensions of regional economic strength, business environment, profitability, innovation ability, development potential and corporate social responsibility, and determines the weight of each evaluation index by principal component analysis of private economy competitiveness evaluation model. The results show that the overall competitiveness of private enterprises in Guangdong Province is increasing year by year, the scores of each index are also increasing year by year, and some indexes fluctuate greatly. According to the score of each index, this paper puts forward the countermeasures to enhance the competitiveness of private economy in Guangdong Province, so as to promote the healthy and sustainable development of private enterprise economy.
Sampath Bandara, Thusitha Kumara, Sampath Dharmadasa, Ruwan Samaraweera
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 213-237; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.910016

Abstract:
Food is one of the basic necessities that play a major role in human life. Over the past two decades, food consumption patterns in many countries have changed rapidly. The concern of food security has emerged as a global food crisis in recent decades. These global changes probably affect Sri Lankan food consumption habits. Sustainability is an essential component and a precondition for long-term food security. Hence, this study used an in-depth non-systematic literature review on a global scale emphasizing the Sri Lankan context, to better understand the situation of changes in food consumption patterns using comprehensive household survey data in Sri Lanka. The study found out that income growth, urbanization, structural changes in the population on demographics, and several other socio-economic changes significantly influenced transformations in global food consumption patterns. Other than these, many significant differences are evident in food consumption patterns especially geographically, in urban, rural, and estate sectors in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan diet shows a tendency to shift from traditional cereal consumption to meat, fish, dairy products, and fast foods and processed foods, posing a significant threat concerning the future food security and sustainability of Sri Lanka. Therefore, the study recommended a critical analysis of changes in food consumption patterns in Sri Lanka.
Meiske Wisye Manopo, Adelaida Joroh, Vincentius Pantow
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.911003

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the public’s perception of investment products and to determine the public’s decision to invest. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach. This research is carried out on people in the city of Manado. The population in this study are people in Manado City who earn more than five million rupiahs, while the sample is 50 people. The method of collecting data is interview and observation. The results show that the people of Manado City clearly know what their reasons are for investing. The profit in the future is their purpose of investing, of course, considering inflation and considering the cost of education which is getting more expensive by the day. People already know how to manage finances by setting aside some of their income to invest, as evidenced by all of the respondents who have implemented investment instruments with their respective varied choices. Furthermore, the decisions of the people in Manado City to choose investments found the results of the community choosing various investment instruments such as property, gold, deposits, businesses, plantations, forex, foreign exchange, index, stocks, mutual funds, bonds. However, property and gold are the favorites of most people in Manado City.
Syed Abdul Rehman Khan, Adeel Shah
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 456-464; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.910032

Abstract:
The trade-in of used merchandise globally is high, as it allows the consumer to satisfy their needs at a lesser price. As the category grows over time, the quality requirement and assurance are also increasing and supported with relevant quality certification. For understanding the quality certification in used merchandise, the paper explores the evolutionary process of the phenomena. The research attempts to create an evolutionary game model encompassing retailers and consumers trading used merchandise. Further, the model used for the analysis assumes that retailers have examined and repair the (E and R) capability of the used inventory. The model suggests that purchase and selling prices do not affect the stable evolutionary strategy (ESS); however, the cost of quality certification significantly impacts the model. The E and R capability of retailers impact the transaction as it reduces the price of used merchandise. The transaction cost and utility of the merchandise are motivating factors for the used market. Based on the research outcomes, government regulators should participate in the used merchandise transaction by providing a low-cost quality certification. The governmental authorities should intercede to offer a fair environment for both retailers and consumers and earn revenue as a minimum fee on the transaction.
Mengyu Xing
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 339-350; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.910024

Abstract:
With the digital assets increase, Digital Asset Management (DAM) has become more crucial than ever before. DAM increases the efficiency of managing contents and helps maximize the value of content. This research through two case studies discovers the core elements necessary for effective DAM practice, including BBC Redux and The World Digital Library. Findings show that in selecting a DAM system, managing metadata and understanding user needs are the most necessary elements for effective DAM practice. In addition, this research highlights that in the process of DAM practice, every element interacts with the others. People still have to look at the DAM from a comprehensive perspective of a DAM ecosystem.
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