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Results in Journal Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention: 191

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Muhammad Da'i
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 6, pp 35-41; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev6iss2pp35-41

Abstract:
The initial research of Jati Belanda leaves extract (JBE) showed the inhibition of breast cancer cell growth (T47D). The phytochemistry screening showed that JBE contain flavonoid, alkaloid, polifenol, and volatile oil. The development of anticancer drugs need the molecular mechanism investigation in order to produce cancer-targeted drugs. The objective of this research is to determine the molecular mechanism of JBE cytotoxicity effect towards cancer cell lines. This research began with cytotoxicity asssay in vitro of JBE towards some cancer cell lines by MTT method. JBE was given in some variety of concentration. The result of this study showed that JBE do not contain tirosid, and contain flavonoid in the concentration of 0,976%. The result of cytotoxicity assay towards MCF-7, HeLa, T47D and Vero showed IC50 value 36,50; 58,02; 53,36; 1806,22 dan 2451,65 µg/mL respectively. It is concluded that JBE have a strong potency to inhibit the growth of WiDr cancer cell line.Keywords : jati belanda, T47D cells, cytotoxicity
Chanif Mahdi, Untari H., Padaga Padaga
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 8, pp 1-8; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev8iss1pp1-8

Abstract:
Empirically, fermented milk product has been proven to improve and cure for several certain diseases. Bioactive peptides were produced through a fermentation process in goat milk promotes many benefits on body health. The present study revealed that goat milk was fermented using starter commercial 3% to produced yoghurt increased protein content significantly. By using SDS- PAGE, showed that the decomposition of protein fraction was better than the fresh goat milk. Results then were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and found out that there were three kinds of bioactive each peptide consisted of 16 amino acids and were protected from the action of the protease enzyme. Goat's milk yoghurt was treated per oral in mice after hypercholesterolemic diet for 14 days with dose range of 300 mg/kg; 600 mg/kg; and 900 mg/kg for 4 weeks (28 days). The results demonstrated three type of bioactive peptides performed activity as anti-hypercholesterolemia on mice models which showed highly significant (P
Ika Rahmawati Sutejo, Kiky Martha Ariesaka, Fuad Adi Prasetyo, Mudzakkir Taufiqurrqhman, Ain Yuanita Insani, Brilliant Givya Ariansari
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 7, pp 93-98; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev7iss3pp93-98

Abstract:
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths each year. Doxorubicin is a well-known chemotherapy drug which frequently used in treating various types of cancer. However, doxorubicin posesses several side effects including cardiotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and immunosuppression. One of the natural product that can be used as an adjuvant of doxorubicin to reduce the toxic effects is garlic chives (Allium tuberosum). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Allium tuberosum based on hematological profile, levels of CD4+, CD8+, and MDA serum of male Wistar rats which induced by doxorubicin. The hematological profile was analyzes by blood smear, levels of CD4+ and CD8+ were conducted by flowcytometry and levels of MDA serum were determined by spectrofotometry. The results showed that the etanolic extract of Allium tuberosum (EAT) increased neutrophil and lymphocyte, percentage of CD4+ cells (p
Ni Nyoman Yuliani, Jefrin Sambara, Maria Hilaria, Harlinda Harlinda
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 7, pp 68-73; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev7iss2pp68-73

Abstract:
Indonesia has biodiversity potential to be developed as medicinal plants, such as basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum L.). Basil was reported to have a very high antioxidant activity in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum L.) infusion to liver based Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) value in each dose. 18 rats were divided into 6 groups., control group, negative control group treated with CMC Na 0.5%, positive control group treated with Curcuma 3.6 mg / 200gBB, groups of 4-6 consecutive given a 80 mg dose infusion basil / 200 gBB, 160 mg / 200 gBB, 320 mg / 200 gBB for 8 consecutive days, on the day of the 4th and 8th all treatment groups induced by toxic doses of paracetamol (500 mg / 200 gBB) except the normal control group 1, The research data in the form of enzyme activity of AST and ALT were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric ANOVA, and Friedman test with the level of trust then followed by SNK test and Bnj test. The statistical test result with a 95% of level of trust that shown basil infuse with a dose of 80mg / 200gBB, 160mg / 200gBB, 320mg / 200gBB have hepatoprotective effects in rats induced by paracetamol 500mg / 200gBB. Based on the result of changes in average levels of AST on the fourth day and the eighth day of the three treatment infusion, infusion at a dose of 160 mg / 200gBB most effectively reduce average levels of AST and a group that has the average AST closest to the control group is positive, but infusion at a dose of 320mg / 200gBB the group that has the closest average ALT positive control group.Keywords : hepatoprotective, Ocimum sanctum L, Paracetamol
Rahmawaty Rachmady, Laely Muntafiah, Fahmi Rosyadi, Imroatus Sholihah, Sri Handayani, Riris Istighfari Jenie
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 7, pp 1-5; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev7iss1pp1-5

Abstract:
Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) plays critical role in the initiation of breast cancer cell proliferation. Inhibition of HER2 overexpression is a promising strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. One of the potential natural substances that possess cytotoxic in cancer cells is Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.). Ethanolic extract of secang heartwood containing brazilein and brazilin shows cytotoxic effect on various cancer cells. Thus this research aims to determine the proliferative inhibition activity of secang heartwood ethanolic extract (SEE) through HER2 expression on MCF-7/HER2 positive. Cytotoxic activity of SEE on MCF-7/HER2 positive cells was observed by MTT assay, meanwhile the inhibition activity of HER2 on MCF-7/HER2 cells was determined by immunofluoresence assay. Furthermore, to confirm the possible mechanism of brazilein and brazilin for its cytotoxic activity was studied through molecular docking using PLANTS software. Based on this study, SEE exhibited cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/HER2 positive cells with IC50 value of 25 µg/ml, and EES also inhibited HER2 expression, indicated that the antiproliferative effect of SEE was possible through the inhibition of HER2. Docking score of brazilein, brazilin, and native ligand on HER2 were -77; -73; -120 respectively, showed the affinity of brazilein in HER2 was lower than affinity of native ligand, but they had specific amino acid to interaction. Hence, SEE can be developed as one of promising chemopreventive agent from natural products.Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan L., cytotoxic, immunofluorescence, molecular docking, MCF7/HER2 cells
Herawaty Ginting, Aminah Dalimunthe, Julia Reveny
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 7, pp 9-16; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev7iss1pp9-16

Abstract:
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is an annual plant of the Brasicaceae family. Watercress has efficacy in the treatment of a hypo-allergenic, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, and treatment of tuberculosis.The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of watercress. This study aims to observe the histopathology liver , kidney , heart mice and to determine the LD50. Test animals used were 40 male mice and 40 female mice were divided into 8 groups. Group 1 as the control group were given Na – CMC 0,5 % b/v and groups 2-8 were given ethanol extract of watercress herb with a doses of 0,5; 5; 50 ; 500 ; 1000 ; 2000; and 4000 mg/kg bw . LD50 test is determined by the number of deaths in the test group during the 14 days of treatment in the form of one administration of the test materials. Histopathological results at the highest doses showed necrosis and hydropic degeneration of the liver, serosis the kidneys, and the heart inflammation with myofibril irregular heart. LD50 test demonstrated the practical test material is not toxic because no test animals died.Keywords: acute toxicity, Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Ethanolic extract
Fikriansyah Fikriansyah, Mentari Widiastuti, Nindi Wulandari, Prisnu Tirtanirmala, Retno Murwanti
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 6, pp 53-57; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev6iss2pp53-57

Abstract:
The usage of doxorubicin (DOX) as an anticancer drug in cancer patient may cause several side effects. One of that is cardiotoxicity by inducing the expression of nitric oxide synthase which may release nitric oxide (NO) resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiac. DOX needs to be combined with antioxidant since it could supressed ROS in the cardiac and reduce cardiomyopathy. Kelor (Moringa oleifera) is known as the source of antioxidant. This study aim to observe the treatment effects of ethanolic extract of kelor (EEK) on histopathology profile and concentration of NO in rats cardiac. The result from the hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that EEK improved the histopathology profile of rats’ cardiac. Compared with the DOX-only treatment, the structure of cardiac muscle cells treated by ethanolic extract of kelor is more well-arranged and the cells’ nucleus still visible. Concentration of NO was measured by cardiac puncture method. The result showed that the concentration of NO was decrease in line with increasing dose levels of EEK in combination with DOX. But at rats only given with EEK, the concentration of NO is quite high. In conclusion, EEK could be a cochemotherapy agent by reducing the cardiotoxicity effect of DOX.Keywords : doxorubicin, Moringa oleifera, nitric oxyde, histopathology
Beni Lestari, Laeli Muntafiah, Ziana Walidah, Riris Istighfari Jenie
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 8, pp 85-93; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev8iss2pp85-93

Abstract:
Metastatic process becomes a major problem in advanced cancer cases. Natural compounds found in several plants in Indonesia have a potency to be developed as chemoterapeutic agent which are targeted to metastatic process. Jure leaves (Nerium indicum) which contain oleandrin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmannii) reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cells, but their activities on metastasic process have never been explored. This research aims to reveal and to compare their anti-metastatic effect toward 4T1 breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of jure leaves extract (JLE) and cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was obtained by MTT assay. Metastatic process mainly on cell migration was examined by scratch wound healing assay while MMP-9 expression that described the invassion process was observed by gelatin zymography assay. Molecular interaction between their active compounds and MMP-9 receptor was predicted by molecular docking. The result showed that treatment with JLE and CEO inhibited the growth of 4T1 cells with IC50 value of 125 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, JLE performed inhibitory effect of cell migration better than CEO. Meanwhile, both JLE and CEO decreased MMP-9 protein expression. Thus, JLE and CEO have potentials to be developed as an anti-metastatic agent and JLE could be more effective.Key words: Nerium indicum, Cinnamomum burmannii, anti-metastasis, scratch assay, gelatin zimography
Meirizky Zulharini S., Amalia Miranda, Lina Permatasari, Hilyatul Fadliyah, Riris Istighfari Jenie
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 8, pp 9-14; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev8iss1pp9-14

Abstract:
NF-κB is a transcription factor and if activated, it induces apoptosis inhibition. Phalerin from Phaleria macrocarpa fruits expected to inhibit NF-κB activation. This research is to investigate anticancer mechanism of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits extracts (EBMD) in NF-κB pathway. Molecular docking assay was performed to determine phalerin affinity to IKK. Cytotoxic activity was observed by MTT assay. Double staining was performed to determine the apoptotic cells. Docking score of phalerin to IKK is -60. The IC50 value of EBMD is 629 μg/mL. Apoptosis profile shows (shown that) many cells undergoing apoptosis after treatment. Thus, EBMD potentially inhibits activation of NF-κB pathway and triggers apoptosis on HeLa cells.Keywords : NF-κB, Phaleria macrocarpa, sel HeLa, Bcl-2, IKK, molecular docking
Layung Sekar Sih Wikanthi, Nindi Wulandari, Yuni Fajar Esti, Nur Fitra Sari, Ratna Asmah Susidarti
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention, Volume 8, pp 27-31; doi:10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev8iss1pp27-31

Abstract:
DNA damage usually happens due to the several chemical materials that induce genotoxic effect in normal cells. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO), which contains cinnamaldehyde as its major compound, has been reported to possess antioxidant activity to prevent DNA damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of CEO on doxorubicin-induced Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells. The cytotoxic effect of CEO was determined by MTT assay with the parameter of IC50 while the genotoxic effect was carried out by micronucleus (MN) assay by using acridine orange fluorescent staining with the parameter of MN/1000 cells reduction number. Based on MTT assay, CEO showed cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 30 μg/ml and for MN assay, 3 μg/ml (1/10 IC50) of CEO decreased the percentage of micronucleus per 1000 cells up to 94,55%. Thus, the result can be summarized that CEO does not induce genotoxic and has the potency to prevent DNA damage caused by doxorubicin on CHO-K1 cells.Keywords: genotoxic, cinnamomum essential oil (CEO), micronuclei assay, in vitro
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