#### Results in Journal AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 45

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Mimi Sutrawati, Sempurna Ginting
Published: 1 December 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.2.82-87

Abstract:
Banana is a horticulture crop that has economic value and is widely cultivated in tropical countries. Banana production in Bengkulu province reached 259,748 quintals, then durian (110,387 quintals), tangerines (94,396 quintals) (BPS 2015). Banana bunchy top disease caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection is considered the most crucial virus disease affecting yield losses of a banana plantation in Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific. However, the incidence and molecular characters of BBTV has never been reported in Bengkulu. This research aims to characterize symptom variations, disease incidence, and disease severity of BBTV infection in Bengkulu and virus detection using molecular methods by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Disease incidence of BBTV was measured based on field symptoms. The disease survey was conducted in Bengkulu city, Bengkulu Utara district, and Rejang Lebong district. The study showed that the incidence of BBTV in Bengkulu City, Bengkulu Utara, and Rejang Lebong ranged from 0% to 100%. The most common symptoms observed in the field involved vein clearing, upturned leaf, chlorotic, and ragged margins, reducing petiole length, distance, lamina width, and stunting. Banana crops that are infected with BBTV in the vegetative phase will not produce fruit. In contrast, viral infection in the generative phase causes the formation of stunted fruit that is not suitable for harvesting. Thus, the potential loss of yield due to stunted disease can reach 100%. This study's results are the first reports of BBTV infection in banana crops in Bengkulu. Disease diagnosis will form the basis of disease control strategies in banana crops.
Soeng Chat Vichea, Endang Sulistyowati, Pao Srean
Published: 1 December 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.2.46-57

Abstract:
The objective of this research was to analyze profitability and correlation between KOICA milk shop and dairy farms in Selupu Rejang, Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu, Indonesia. Data driven were general condition, performance of Milk Shop, performance of dairy farms, and the correlation between KOICA milk shop and dairy farmer are evaluated. The methodology started by census that chosen only KOICA milk shop owner and dairy farmers who pooled the milk to KOICA milk shop. Data collected then tabulated and analyzed using Excel and Regression. The result showed that both KOICA milk shop and dairy all were gained properly benefit from dairy business. For the average, it was about IDR 6,557,057.75 per month equivalent to USD 493 as a profit in KOICA milk shop. The profit was depending on the milk production from dairy farmer only, if they couldn’t milk from dairy cow, KOICA milk shop won’t be able to earn money. The dairy farmers were also got IDR 3,620,311.09 (USD 272) per month as the average profit from milk, compost and calve. There was very high correlation between the milk produced by dairy farmers then processed by Koica Milk Shop and its profit was r : 0.99. The discovering of this research was very valuable information, and also important to whom it may concern in dairy business as well as dairy farmers and Government for applying or understanding to develop new strategies for reducing production costs and to increase the profit by using model of whom successful in dairy business.
Tri Agustina, Devi Silsia, Lukman Hidayat
Published: 1 December 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.2.58-69

Abstract:
This research aims to determine the performance influence of sachets on various sizes of bags and the weight of coffee to the characteristics of the brew of coffee bags. The study uses a completely random design with 2 treatment factors, the first factor of the volume of contents in the bag and the second factor of the packaging bag size. Analyzed With ANOVA dan when the effect is noticeable. It will be followed by using a DMRT at 5%. significant levels. The research at moisture and ash content is suitable for the raw material of coffee bags. Coffee Sari qualified SNI is on the treatment of the volume of 1/4 content and small bag size with a yield of 22.02% coffee juice. The results of the analysis on the missing coffee weight test were obtained the highest value found in the volume of the 1/3 content with a large bag size resulted in 2.73 grams of lost coffee weight. The lowest value is on the 1/2 content volume and the medium size is 0.17 grams. The sensory test was derived that the panelists preferred it to the size of a large bag and the appropriate volume of contents to fill the bag with a volume of 1/3.Keywords: Bag size and coffee weight, Coffee characteristics.
Published: 1 December 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.2.88-97

Abstract:
As a country with a vast natural forest, Indonesia has a big potential production of honey. Honey is nutritious food produced by bees that mostly inhabit in the forest. Bengkulu is one of such place produced honey. Honey is considered as healthy supplement by consumer. Therefore, in this research, it has been studied the segmentation of consumers of honey and identification of honey attributes. This research was conducted in June- July 2015. There were 96 responsents gathered from eight (8) outlets selling honey products in Kota Bengkulu. Results showed that the consumers were young adults (67%), women (62%), married (82%), S1 education (56%), Kota Bengkulu domicile (88%) with income range of Rp 2,100,000-5,000,000/month (62%). While the preference testing of honey products based on taste, aroma, and color had the score around 3.5- 3.7. This meant that respondents like the honey product.
Winda Septi Hade, Djamilah Djamilah, Priyatiningsih Priyatiningsih
Published: 1 December 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.2.70-81

Abstract:
Corn (Zea mays L) is a very important food and animal feed after rice. One of the important pests that attack corn plants is Spodoptera frugiperda J.E Smith. This pest is a new pest and is a major pest in corn. In pest control, farmers generally use synthetic chemicals. In an effort to reduce these negative impacts synthetic chemical, entomopathogenic nematode (NEP) was chosen as one of the more environmentally friendly control techniques. This study aims to obtain NEP isolates, population density and virulence against S. frugiperda. This research was conducted at the Plant Protection Laboratory, Bengkulu University from December 2019 to April 2020. This study used a Factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of NEP concentrations : 0 Jl / ml; 200 Jl / 1ml; 400 Jl / 2ml; 600 Jl / 3ml originating from Bengkulu and Kepahiang isolates. Each experiment consisted of 3 S. frugiperda larvae. The results showed that the NEP obtained from each region, namely the genus Steinermatidae. Population density of 9,005 NEP / 5ml in the Kepahiang area and 6,837 NEP / 5ml in the Bengkulu region. NEP virulence test against S. frugiperda larvae showed that 200 Jl / ml concentration was able to control S. frugiperda in maize , and can kill pests within 4 days. With an LC50 value of 163.5 Jl / ml in Kepahiang isolates and 186.5 Jl / ml in Bengkulu isolates.
Published: 27 August 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 13-21; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.1.13-21

Abstract:
Consumers’ preference level, especially on agricultural or food products, can be used as a benchmark measure or determine the market or shelf life of the product. This research aims to determine organoleptic quality through the level of people's preference for RGL citrus fruits coated with edible coating starch from cassava peel plus chitosan. Aplication of coating on the fruits and storage layout of this study was conducted following a completely randomized design (CRD) with 2 different factors; cassava skin starch concentration; namely 3%, 5%, and 7%; and chitosan concentration; i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%. The observed variables are the panelists’ preference level with organoleptic test on color, flavor, texture and taste of RGL orange that has been treated and stored at room temperature for 20 days. Research result indicates that the color of the orange that the panelists favored is absent; the level of panelist most prefer is neutral, if the starch is 3% with chitosan 0% (preference score 3.92); and if the starch 7% with chitosan 0.5% (score 3.44). The preferred aroma of orange is absent; the level of panelist highest preference on aroma is neutral, if the starch is 5% with chitosan 1.5% (score 3.12); and if the starch 7% with chitosan 0.5% (score 3.04). The texture of the orange is preferred to be absent; the level of panelist higherst preference on texture is neutral, if the starch is 7% with chitosan 0.5% (score 3.60); and if the starch is 3% with chitosan 0.5% (score 3.56). The taste of citrus fruits is preferred if the starch is 7% with chitosan 0.5% (score 4.00); and if the starch is 3% with chitosan 0% (score 3.44). Therefore, RGL citrus fruits can be stored at room temperature for up to 20 days, if it is coated with 7% cassava peel starch with 0.5% chitosan
Gustin Rizki Utariyanto, Ketut Sukiyono, Septri Widiono
Published: 27 August 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 29-37; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.1.29-37

Abstract:
This research aims to determine the factors that influence the probability of occurrence of poverty of households around Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat (Kerinci Sebelat National Park (TNKS) Lebong District. The location of this research selected purposively by categorizing the 6 villages into 3 typologies, namely, Sawah dominance, plantation Dominance, and rice fields and plantation. From each village, 20 households as respondents were selected randomly, so the total respondents were 120 households. Sayogjo poverty line was applied to determine household poverty status. In examining the factors that affect the probability of the household poverty, a logit model is applied. From the analysis, land area ownership is the main factor influencing the occurrence probability of poverty of households, while education level, number of family dependents, and household head age are not.
Published: 27 August 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-12; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.1.1-12

Abstract:
The present study was aimed to analyze the levels of technical and allocative efficiency of the usage of CPO production factors in PT. Sandabi Indah Lestari. The data being used was primary and secondary data. The data analysis to measure technical efficiency was Cobb-Douglas frontier production function and production elasticity value, while allocative efficiency was analyzed using NPMxi to Hxi ratio. The research result showed that fresh fruit bunch (TBS), indirect labor (TKTDL), and fiber (FB) had significant positive effect on CPO production in PT. Sandabi Indah Lestari, while direct labor (TKL), solar fuel (SR), CaCO3, and Nalco N 8507 (N8507) didn’t have significant positive or negative effect on CPO production in PT. Sandabi Indah Lestari. Fresh fruit bunch (TBS), indirect labor (TKTDL), and fiber (FB) were technically efficient (01).
Julian Rahmadi, M. Mustopa Romdhon, Reswita Reswita
Published: 27 August 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 22-28; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.1.22-28

Abstract:
One of the fish processing units in Bengkulu City is UD.XY, which is located in Sumber Jaya Urban Village, Kampung Melayu Sub-district, Bengkulu City. The seafood processing product is groundfish made of fresh mackerel. Analysis of production risk is an important aspect of ensuring the survival of a business. The production risk was 15% in one production, so the selling price lowered and reprocessing was impossible. The risk comes from the material, production process, and final product. The present study was aimed to analyze the production risk of groundfish. The analysis method was FMEA. The research result showed that the highest risk was poor fish supply, poor groundfish products, and competing groundfish products.
Emlan Fauzi, Linda Harta, Rahmat Oktavia, Sudarmansyah Sudarmansyah, Herlena Bidi Astuti, Jhon Firison, Andi Ishak, Shannora Yuliasari, Yudi Sastro
Published: 27 August 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 3, pp 38-45; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.3.1.38-45

Abstract:
Based on oil palm yield data in Bengkulu Province, it shows several regions with varying production numbers. For this reason, it is necessary to group the potential oil palm producing areas to find out which areas produce palm oil in large or small quantities. Production shared is usually done based on the name of the oil palm producing district. Therefore, a method is needed to facilitate the grouping of oil palm producing areas. With the clustering approach, the division of regional groups can be carried out based on planted area and production. Analysis K-Means makes it easier to group an area with the largest, medium and low yields of oil palm. From the analysis results, it can be seen that the priority areas for oil palm rejuvenation in Bengkulu Province are Mukomuko District with locations in Air Rami, Pondok Suguh, Teramang Jaya and Penarik Districts.
Bambang Sumantri, Melli Suryanty, Reki Susanti
Published: 21 January 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 77-85; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.2.77-85

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the structure of fishermen household income and expenditure. This research was conducted in March-April 2018 in Sekunyit Village. Research location is determined by purposive with Sekunyit consideration that in the village is one of the fishing villages in the Kaur district. Data processed using analysis of receipts and expenditures of households. The results showed the average amount of fisherman household income in Sekunyit Village was Rp. 8,606,594,59 / month. Revenue from the capture fisheries sector contributed the most (82.08%) to the fishermen household income. Meanwhile, the average expenditure of a fisherman's household in Sekunyit Village is Rp. 3,980,499 / month , where 69.24% was used to finance the capture fisheries business sector.
Ria Rachel Paranoan
Published: 21 January 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 71-76; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.2.71-76

Abstract:
Soil minerals and chemical properties play an essential role in agricultural, especially to know the availability of soil nutrient reserve. The objective of the study was to investigate soil chemical properties and mineralogical composition. of sand fraction in original area. The study was conducted in two stages. The First stage was in the field and the second stage was in the laboratory. The field study was at Original area PT. Khotai Makmur Insan Abadi, Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan. Soils were sampled from each horizon of the profile. The second stage was in the Laboratory. The chemical analysis was conducted in the Soil Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, Mulawarman University. The Mineralogical composition of fine sand fractions was conducted in Pusat penelitian tanah Bogor, with line counting method using Microscope Polaritation (MP). The results of chemical characteristics indicated that low to very low content of organic matter, soil reactions are acid throughout the horizon, very low to moderate base satration, low to moderate soil cation exchange capacity, high of Al saturation. Sand fraction composition was dominated by resistant minerals (quartz and opaque). On the other hand the easily weatherable minerals are not detected in the original area. One of the reason soil has low CEC is, because the composition of sand fraction in the soil dominated by quartz.
Published: 21 January 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 93-97; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.2.93-97

Abstract:
Ultisol is one type of soil that has several problems for plant growth. The main problems are poor physical properties such as high bulk density, low soil permeability, and low water retention ability. This research aim was to determine the effects of various application of biochar made of oil palm plants residue on bulk density and soil porosity of Ultisol soil. The research design used a non-factorial completely randomized design, consisting of 5 treatments, namely without biochar application (control), oil palm stem biochar, oil palm frond biochar, oil palm empty fruit bunches biochar and combination of biochar ingredients. Each treatment was repeated 4 times hence the number of experimental units became 20 units. The parameters observed included bulk density and soil porosity. The research results showed that biochar application significantly reduced the bulk density and significantly increased the soil porosity of Ultisol soil.
Meko Gustian, Rustikawati Rustikawati, Widodo Widodo, Catur Herison
Published: 21 January 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 56-70; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.2.56-70

Abstract:
Plant stress due to NaCl compound will have an impact on the reduction of plant growth and yield. Tolerant varieties are required to increase plant production in coastal areas since these areas are closely related to salinity. This study aimed to (1) determine the appropriate NaCl concentration for saline tolerance in maize stress selection, (2) determine the response of maize plant to salinity stress in nutrient culture, and (3) determine the response of new hybrid maize having adaptibility in coastal area. Two experiments were run from November 2017 until May 2018. The first experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Laboratory of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Bengkulu to determine the tolerance response of 25 new hybrid maize to salinity in nutrient culture. The second experiment was conducted on the coastal areas in Beringin Raya Village, Muarabangkahulu District, Bengkulu City to determine the response of new hybrid maize having adaptibility in a coastal areas. The concentration of NaCl at which level the LC50 was determined was found to be in 150 mM. This concentration was then used to test the tolerance of 25 new hybrid maize to NaCl stress. The hybrids of CT18, CT19, CT22, CT25, CT31, CT33, CT34, CT40, CT47, and CT50 showed good responses to the concentration treatment of 150 mM NaCl based on plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The hybrids of CT17,CT19, and CT20 showed good adaptibility on coastal area based on the length of cob, diameter of cob, seed weight per cob, and cob weight per plant. Among those three hybrids, CT17 and CT20 resulted low fresh weight and low shoot dry weight. The factors other than NaCl in coastal area maybe affect better response. However, CT19 proved as a hybrid which was consistently in a good response to salinity stress both in nutrient culture and in coastal growing area.
Rahmi Yuristia, Dodi Apriyanto, Ketut Sukiyono
Published: 21 January 2020
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 86-92; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.2.86-92

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze and select the most accurate forecasting for predicting cassava prices in Indonesia. The data used is monthly data during the period of 2009 to 2017. This predicting uses the forecasting model, such as Moving Average, Exponential Smoothing, and Decomposition. Selecting the models found by comparing the smallest values of MAPE, MAD, and MSD. Therefore, it concluded that the Moving Average model is the most appropriate to Forecasting the price of cassava. Keywords : Selection, Forecasting model, cassava, prices
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 26-32; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.26-32

Abstract:
Proper supply chain management in tilapia commodities in Toba Samosir Regency is needed to add value, maintain stock and quality, and can be easily reached by consumers/ communities. This study aims to determine the production process, analyze the actors involved, and analyze product flow, money flow and information flow in the tilapia fish supply chain in Toba Samosir Regency. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. Data analysis method is carried out in several steps: 1) Data Collection, 2) Data Reduction, 3) Data Display, 4) Drawing Conclusion and Verification. The results of this study are 1) Tilapia fish production process in Toba Samosir Regency is carried out with two systems, namely the first fish cultivation is done starting from the nursery and the second is cultivation for enlargement. 2) The actors involved in the supply chain system for the freshwater fish industry in Toba Samosir Regency are Fish Cultivators, Collectors, Diluents, Fish Processing Industries, Consumers. 3) There are product flow, money flow and information flow in the supply chain of the freshwater fishing industry in Toba Samosir Regency. Product flow flows from upstream to downstream, financial flow flows from downstream to upstream and information flows flow in both directions.Key words: Industry, Supply Chain, Tilapia, Toba Samosir Regency.
Ali Setia Iskandar, Yuwana Yuwana, Bambang Sumantri
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-12; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.1-12

Abstract:
This study studies to analyze the factors that influence general suppliers to choose FFB (Fresh Fruit Bunches) on quality and quality B and calculate the business expenses to be received. This research was conducted in the period August - September 2018 at PT. Sandabi Indah Lestari (SIL). The analytical tool used in this study is multiple linear regression analysis and risk analysis. Based on the results of the analysis, the factors that influence general suppliers choose to sell FFB at quality A and quality B at PT. SIL is the average factor of the weight of FFB supplied, the weight of FFB sorted, the distance to the plant and transportation costs, while the factors that do not significantly affect the long period of receiving FFB at the plant then for the risks received are known that the risk of selling FFB quality A is greater because of loss while FFB that sells quality B is smaller because it avoids losses.Keyword: Suppliers, FFB (Fresh Fruit Bunches), quality A and B, risk
, Prabin Neupane, Endang Sulistyowati
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 33-39; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.33-39

Abstract:
Goat farming is the good source of income for people living in countryside, Nepal. This occupation supports socioeconomic living of many people in developing countries. Gastro-parasitic infections in goats can decrease the meat supply in a country where demand of goat meat is ever increasing. The objective of this study was to identify the gastrointestinal parasites in feces of goats and impact of seasonal changes on their prevalence. This is a cross-sectional study done on 212 goats from Kapilbastu, Nepal. For this study, feces of goats were collected during summer and winter and observed microscopically to find the causative organisms. The result showed the helminths from trematode (22.22%), cestode (12.5%) and nematode (65.27%) caused heavy gastrointestinal infection in 144 microscopically positive samples taken from Kapilbastu, Nepal. The major helminths were Toxocara (16.66%), Oesophagnum (8.32%), Strongyloides (6.25%) and Trichuris (4.86%) among nematodes, Fasciola (15.97%) caused highest infection among trematode and Taenia (9.72%) among cestode. The prevalence of these infections was significantly higher during summer than winter. The higher prevalence of these helminths is the indication of supply contaminated food and water. Moreover, unawareness and ignorance about such diseases can increase the infection rate. Proper management of goat farm together with good cattle rearing training can increase the productivity.
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 40-45; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.40-45

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the relationship between floating net cage size, labor, feed, seeds and medicine with tilapia production in Toba Samosir Regency. The selection of the study area was carried out purposively because Toba Samosir district was a tilapia aquaculture area that had the largest harvest area in North Sumatra. The data used are secondary data and primary data obtained in the study area. The analytical method used is Chi-Square analysis using SPSS 18.0 software. The results of this research are floating net cage areas, labor, feed, seeds, and medicines used in relation to the production of tilapia fish in floating net cages in Toba Samosir District significantly. With the closeness of the relationship between the extent of Floating Net Cages, feed, medicine with a production of 78.7%, and the closeness of the relationship of seeds with production 89.2 and the closeness of labor relations with a production 70.4%.Keywords: Floating Net Cages, Production, Production Factors, Tilapia.
, Devi Silsia, A. Napitupulu
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2, pp 13-25; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.13-25

Abstract:
Siomay is a popular street foods in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. Due to its characteristics siomay sauce can be incorporated with RPO (RPO) for vitamin A fortification. The objective of the study were determining the effect of RPO addition to the characteristic of siomay sauce, and determining the preference of siomay sauce added with various amount of RPO. A four levels addition of RPO (0.0 g, 1.5 g, 3.0 g and 4.5 g) were added to siumay sauce. The physical characteristics (viscosity, emulsion stability), sensory evaluation (hedonic test and duo-trio test) of the sauce, and the retinol equivalent of fortified siomay sauce were evaluated. The result showed that viscosity of siomay sauce increased with increasing addition of RPO into the sauce. The hedonic test revealed that the overall preference of original siomay sauce added with 4.5 g of RPO was not significantly diferent from the controll. In addition, siomay sauce enriched with 4,5 g RPO could increase 325.22 ?g retinol equivalents (RE) or equal to 38.26 % of the RDA of vitamin A for lactating woman. The finding suggest that siomay sauce fortified with RPO could be used for combating Vitamin A deviciency.
Rimadhita Tiara Putri, Ketut Sukiyono, Eko Sumartono
Published: 8 July 2019
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 2; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.2.1.46-55

Abstract:
The need for beef in Indonesia tends to increase along with fluctuated beef prices. The existence of price fluctuations will be a risk for producers and consumers. Therefore, price information is necessary, especially the future beef price and price forecasting is the answer to the need. The purpose of this study is to analyze and identify the best forecasting models for domestic and international beef prices. The data used is monthly retail price data for domestic and international beef from 2013:1-2017:12. Four models used in this study, namely decomposition models, ARIMA, moving averages, and Single Exponential Smoothing are applied. The best forecasting method for forecasting domestic and international beef prices is the ARIMA model based on the lowest values of MAD, MAPE, and MSD.
Lisbeth Girsang, Ketut Sukiyono, Putri Suci Asriani
Published: 16 November 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 68-77; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.68-77

Abstract:
Crude Palm Oil is one of the agricultural export commodities which become a contributor of foreign exchange which is exported to Pakistan continuously but fluctuated from the year 1973 to 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of two things; the first is to identify the factors that influence the demand for Indonesia's CPO exports to Pakistan. The second is to analyze the relationship between the production of CPO, the international and domestic price of CPO, and the exchange rate of Rupiah toward the volume of Indonesian CPO exports to Pakistan both in the long and in the short term of time. This study used time series data (1973-2016). The analytical method used in this study was Error correction model (ECM) to examine the correlation of variables: Indonesian CPO production, the international and domestic price of CPO, the international price of coconut oil, the international price of soybean oil, Pakistan’s GDP per capita, the inflation in Pakistan, and the exchange rate of Rupiah toward the export variable of Indonesian CPO to Pakistan by using software E-Views 6.0. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the factor affecting the short-term demand of Indonesia's CPO exports to Pakistan is the international price of CPO which has a significant negative correlation, while the factor affecting long-term demand is the exchange rate of Rupiah toward the US$which has a significant positive correlation. There is no correlation between both Indonesian CPO production and domestic price of CPO toward Indonesia's CPO exports to Pakistan both in the short and in the long term. Andrew Hans Prima, Bintang Bintang, Hardy Guchi, Benny Hidayat Published: 16 November 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 93-99; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.93-99 Abstract: The criteria of P available on Inceptisol soil are low, so P fertilizer and mycorrhiza application is needed to increase P available on the soil. This research aim was to determine the growth of white corn plants by various P fertilizers and mycorrhiza application in Inceptisol soil at Lumban Lobu Village, Bonatua Lunasi Subdistrict, Toba Samosir District Sumatera Utara. The method used was Factorial Randomized Block Design with two factors and two repetitions. The first factor is the source of P consists of 7 treatments: P0 (control); P1 (TSP fertilizer); P2 (phosphate rock fertilizer); P3 (chicken manure); P4 (cow manure); P5 (guano fertilizer) and P6 (rice husk biochar) and the second factor is mycorrhiza with two treatments: M0 (0 g / plot) and M1 (30g / plot). Parameters observed were plant height, organic C content, soil H2O pH and degree of mycorrhiza infection. The research results showed that the application of P sources did not significantly increase the growth of white corn plants. The application of mycorrhiza significantly increased the degree of root infection and the interaction of P sources and mycorrhiza significantly increased the degree of root infection.Keywords : P Sources, Mycorrhiza, Inceptisol, White Corn. Elia Damayanti, Septri Widiono, Satria Putra Utama Published: 16 November 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 100-112; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.100-112 Abstract: Modernization in catch fisheries sector by mean machinary application for fishing could be devided into some phases. Every phases showed some production relation between the ship owners and their labours. In the Marxist tradition of thought, the study about these relationship could be gained by elaborate the mode of production. For more specific, this study were elaboratethe mode of production in every phases of modernization. Mode of production consisted force of production and relation of production. In this context, force of production was mean of production like ships, net and seine. While relation of production wasthe organization of fishermen, power and control by the owners to their labours. The study was conducted by using qualitative method so depth interviewed of some key informants had been main method in collecting datas. The results of the study indicated that fisheries modernization in research area held into four phases. We called them as period oflancang, trawl, bagan, and purseseine. Further more, the mode of production in every phases as follow namely, lancang was subsistence production, trawl was commercialist production, and bagan was commercialist production. While purseseine had has two mode of production, namely commercialist production for Bengkulu’s owner and capitalist production for Chinese’s owner.Keywords : mode of production, Pulau Baai, Lancang, Trawl, Bagan, and Purse Seine. , Shenny Oktoriana, Anita Suharyani Published: 16 November 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 85-92; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.85-92 Abstract: Cocoa Commodities, especially cocoa beans, have a great opportunity to be developed due to high market demand, this must be in line with the good quality of cocoa beans owned with the world market demand standards which means that at the farm level the cocoa farming must implement the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Handling Practice (GHP). This study aims to determine the effect of the characteristics of cocoa farmers on farmers' perceptions of fermented cocoa beans. The method used in this study is the survey method. The research location is Sui Duri Village, Sui Raya District, Bengkayang Regency. Data analysis using logit regression. The results showed that the five characteristics of the farmers, namely age, education, land area, number of family dependents and farming experience had a positive influence on farmers' perceptions, this indicates that farmers' characteristics are very important on the farmers' decision to adopt cocoa bean fermentation technology.Keywords: Characteristics of farmers, cocoa, perceptions, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Handling Practices (GHP) Niken Dwinora, , Bambang Sumantri Published: 16 November 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 78-84; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.78-84 Abstract: The purposes of this study were to 1) Calculate the amount of profit from the civet coffee processing business in Bandung Jaya Village, Kabawetan District, Kepahiang Regency. 2) To calculate the efficiency of the civet coffee business in Bandung Jaya Village, Kabawetan Subdistrict, Kepahiang Regency, with consideration that in Bandung jaya Village, Kabawetan Subdistrict, Kepahiang Regency has the most sought after sales of civet coffee. Sampling was done by using the Purposive Method. Because the researchers intentionally took the data in the Luwak Coffee business stamp well in Bandung Jaya Village, Kabawetan District, Kepahiang District, the data analysis used the R / C ratio and B / C methods. The results showed that the efficiency analysis of R / C Ratio showed that Luwak coffee business was very efficient because revenues were greater than the total production costs. The results of the B / C Ratio analysis showed that these business ws not feasible because income is lower than the total production cost. M. Mustopa Romdhon, Apri Andani, Wahyu Fitri Nasari Published: 16 November 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 62-67; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.2.62-67 Abstract: Citrus Nobilis, known as Siamese orange, is one of the strategic fruits commodities for West Sumatera because of its higher productivity, approximately 6 - 9 tons per hectare. However, this commodity faces a fluctuated demand both in domestic and international markets. This is a serious problem due to its impact on farm income as well as in its competitive advantage. The aim of this study was to analyze the comparative advantage level of siamese orange farming. Survey of 84 siamese orange farmers selected using simple random sampling is conducted to get orange farming data. The comparative advantage level is measured using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) approach. The results show that siamaese orange farming has a high comparative advantage. This showed by a value of social profitability was more than zero and domestic resource cost ratio was less than one. This comparative advantage could be sustainable by domestic resources utilization efficiently. The improvement of skills and the use of modern siamaese orange farming technology are recommended.Keywords: Comparative advantage, siamese orange farming, PAM Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Sigit Mujiharjo, Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 9-24; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.9-24 Abstract: In arid environment, limitations of crop productivity could be improved by soil management practices like soil conservation measures, tillage and reducing slopes through terracing on different cropping patterns. These patterns include area as Wheat-Maize (WMCP) and Wheat-Fodder (WFCP) in Kahuta (high rainfall climatic area), Wheat-Millet-Fallow (WMFCP) and Wheat- Millet-Lentil (WMLCP) in Khairimurat (medium rainfall climatic area) and Wheat-Fallow (WFCP) and Fallow-Groundnut (FGCP) in Pindi Gheb (low rainfall climatic area). In areas that have more crop water requirements the yield of these crops has been affected when the drought prevails. Our results evidenced that more average soil water content (ASWC) was available in high to medium height terraces in WMCP and low to medium in WFCP of Kahuta area. ASWC remained more in high to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Khairimurat during September. ASWC remained more in low to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Pindi Gheb during September and December. Equidistantly, soil water release curve also indicated that medium rainfall sites had more plant water availability as compared to high and low rainfall sites. Yield relationship to plant water availability revealed significance for intrusion of modified cropping patterns rather than existing cropping patterns on sustained basis. Finally, our study suggests that cropping patterns of high and low rainfall areas should adjusted by growing low water requirement crops in summer seasons to cope the drought period for the sustainability of agriculture under rainfed climatic conditions. Keywords : cropping patterns, Pothowar Plateau, soil water contents, soil water release curve, sloppy lands Darwati Susilastuti, Aditiameri Aditiameri, Ubuh Buchori Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 1-8; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.1-8 Abstract: Intensification on paddy is done one of them by setting the spacing. This study aims to examine the effect of spacing system on growth and paddy production. The research was conducted in Bojongmangu Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java Province. The study used an experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 1 factor that is planting system, namely tegel system 20 cm x 20 cm, tegel system 25 cm x 25 cm , jajar legowo 2:1 (25x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 full (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 free space (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, and jajar legowo 6:1 (25x12,5x 50) cm. Each treatment is repeated 3 times. The results showed that jajar legowo planting system 2:1 gives the number of panicles per clump, number of grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains and the average yield per hectare is highest, followed by jajar legowo 4:1 full planting systemKeywords: Jajar Legowo, Planting System , Syafnil Syafnil, Ilma Donna Astri Harahap Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 47-55; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.47-55 Abstract: This study aims to explain the effect of inlet position of a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) Pipe on the amount of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF Pipe. The main equipment used is nine pieces of SSF Pipe, each has 4 inches in diameter and 50 cm in length with Pantai Panjang Bengkulu’ssand as the filter medium. The inlet positions tested were 90°, 45° and 0°; repeated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD). The observed variable is the weight of the captured pollutant in the SSF at the distance of 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, and 40cm from the inlet. Results of the research showed that the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF decreased following a linear model as the distance from the inlet was increased. The number of pollutant particles caught also decreased with the decrease of inlet position slope. The inlet position significantly affected the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path; the position of 90° causes the highest amount of pollutants to be caught and significantly differs from that of the position of 45° and 0°. The position of 0° causes the least amount of pollutants to be captured that considered to be the best inlet position so far. It is important; however, to research whether inlet position of more than 180° could result in a much smaller amount of pollutant caught along the flow in the SSF Pipe.Keywords: SSFPipe, inlet position, particle caught in SSF, peat water filtration Sigit Mujiharjo, Syafnil Syafnil, Ilma Donna Astri Harahap Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 47-55; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.47-55 Abstract: This study aims to explain the effect of inlet position of a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) Pipe on the amount of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF Pipe. The main equipment used is nine pieces of SSF Pipe, each has 4 inches in diameter and 50 cm in length with Pantai Panjang Bengkulu’ssand as the filter medium. The inlet positions tested were 90°, 45° and 0°; repeated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD). The observed variable is the weight of the captured pollutant in the SSF at the distance of 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, and 40cm from the inlet. Results of the research showed that the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF decreased following a linear model as the distance from the inlet was increased. The number of pollutant particles caught also decreased with the decrease of inlet position slope. The inlet position significantly affected the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path; the position of 90° causes the highest amount of pollutants to be caught and significantly differs from that of the position of 45° and 0°. The position of 0° causes the least amount of pollutants to be captured that considered to be the best inlet position so far. It is important; however, to research whether inlet position of more than 180° could result in a much smaller amount of pollutant caught along the flow in the SSF Pipe.Keywords: SSFPipe, inlet position, particle caught in SSF, peat water filtration Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Endang Sulistyowati, Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 25-36; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.25-36 Abstract: This study was planned with hypothesis to quantify mineralization rate of wheat and groundnut straw spiked in Kahuta and Guliana soil series. Results revealed that groundnut and wheat strawspiked soils had increased quantum of microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), biomass nitrogen (Nmic) and biomass phosphorous (Pmic) and activities of enzyme dehydrogenase (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase (APA) than un-amended soils. Initially, the contents of soil Cmic, Nmic, Pmic, DHA, and APA increased gradually during 2-14th days of incubation (DAI), again increased significantly at 28th DAI and then decreased slowly at 60th DAI in all treatments under both series. Hence, the addition of groundnut straw mineralized better than to other organic sources in both soil series. These results suggested that groundnut straw must be incorporated in soil one month before sowing of crop to enhance crop yield under rain-fed dry farming.Key words: Crop Residues, Microbial Biomass, Soil Enzymes, Aridisol, Alfisols Nyayu Neti Arianti, Muhamad Harismanto, Agus Purwoko Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 56-61; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.56-61 Abstract: The research was aimed at analyzing poverty level of non-plasma oil palm farmer households and determining factors that influence their poverty occurrence probability. This research was conducted by surveying ninety non-plasma oil palm farmer households in Mukomuko District. The poverty level was quantified method by comparing household income with the World Bank poverty line, i.e. US$ 2/capita/day. Households were categorized into poor if their income is less than US $2/capita/day or Rp 26,908.00/capita/day (with an exchange rate of Rp 13,454.00 per US$), vice versa. To determine factors affecting the probability of poverty occurrence, the binary logistic model was applied. The results showed that the average non-plasma farmer household income was Rp 39,484.00/capita/day. With the level of exchange rate applied in this research, it was found that forty percent households were below the poverty line. Land variable negative and significantly affects the probability of poverty occurrence while the family size was positive significant. Other factors including education, age, and the existence of other jobs had an insignificant effect.Keywords: probability, poverty, oil palm, household
Lukman Hidayat, Hidayat Koto, Odi Andanu
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 37-46; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.37-46

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to analyze and calculates the income, added-value, and break even point of agroindustry that processing bananas into banana crackers and salai. Methods of data collection in this research were using observation and interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, qualitative and quantitative, for the value-added, income, Break Even Point (BEP) and Revenue Cost ratio (R/C). The results shown that the average of value added per kilograms for Salai Rp. 4.371,37, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp 2.944,00 and Rp 3.627,90. The income of salai, sweet and salted banana crackers per year’s are Rp. 29.566.251,-, Rp. 18.437.067, 96,- and Rp. 20.286.567,-. The average of BEP per month’s for salai is salai Rp. 1.415.636, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp. 988.966, and Rp.781.352. The Average of BEP, units or packs per month’s for salai is 145 packs, sweet banana crackers were 124 packs and salted were 98 packs. R/C of Salai was 1.66, sweet banana crackers were 1.49 and salted was 1.71. Added-value of banana Salai Rp. 743, 47 more than salted banana crackers, amounted to 1.471,37 compared to sweet banana crackers. Banana salai income greater Rp. 9.279.684 than salted banana crackers, amounting to Rp. 11.129.183 compared to sweet banana crackers.Keywords: Value Added, Income, Banana crackers, Salai, Break Even Point
Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Endang Sulistyowati, Muhammad Saud
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 25-36; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.25-36

Abstract:
This study was planned with hypothesis to quantify mineralization rate of wheat and groundnut straw spiked in Kahuta and Guliana soil series. Results revealed that groundnut and wheat strawspiked soils had increased quantum of microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), biomass nitrogen (Nmic) and biomass phosphorous (Pmic) and activities of enzyme dehydrogenase (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase (APA) than un-amended soils. Initially, the contents of soil Cmic, Nmic, Pmic, DHA, and APA increased gradually during 2-14th days of incubation (DAI), again increased significantly at 28th DAI and then decreased slowly at 60th DAI in all treatments under both series. Hence, the addition of groundnut straw mineralized better than to other organic sources in both soil series. These results suggested that groundnut straw must be incorporated in soil one month before sowing of crop to enhance crop yield under rain-fed dry farming.Key words: Crop Residues, Microbial Biomass, Soil Enzymes, Aridisol, Alfisols
Sigit Mujiharjo, Syafnil Syafnil, Ilma Donna Astri Harahap
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 47-55; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.47-55

Abstract:
This study aims to explain the effect of inlet position of a Slow Sand Filter (SSF) Pipe on the amount of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF Pipe. The main equipment used is nine pieces of SSF Pipe, each has 4 inches in diameter and 50 cm in length with Pantai Panjang Bengkulu’ssand as the filter medium. The inlet positions tested were 90°, 45° and 0°; repeated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD). The observed variable is the weight of the captured pollutant in the SSF at the distance of 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, and 40cm from the inlet. Results of the research showed that the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path in the SSF decreased following a linear model as the distance from the inlet was increased. The number of pollutant particles caught also decreased with the decrease of inlet position slope. The inlet position significantly affected the number of pollutant particles caught along the flow path; the position of 90° causes the highest amount of pollutants to be caught and significantly differs from that of the position of 45° and 0°. The position of 0° causes the least amount of pollutants to be captured that considered to be the best inlet position so far. It is important; however, to research whether inlet position of more than 180° could result in a much smaller amount of pollutant caught along the flow in the SSF Pipe.Keywords: SSFPipe, inlet position, particle caught in SSF, peat water filtration
Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Sigit Mujiharjo, Muhammad Saud
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 9-24; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.9-24

Abstract:
In arid environment, limitations of crop productivity could be improved by soil management practices like soil conservation measures, tillage and reducing slopes through terracing on different cropping patterns. These patterns include area as Wheat-Maize (WMCP) and Wheat-Fodder (WFCP) in Kahuta (high rainfall climatic area), Wheat-Millet-Fallow (WMFCP) and Wheat- Millet-Lentil (WMLCP) in Khairimurat (medium rainfall climatic area) and Wheat-Fallow (WFCP) and Fallow-Groundnut (FGCP) in Pindi Gheb (low rainfall climatic area). In areas that have more crop water requirements the yield of these crops has been affected when the drought prevails. Our results evidenced that more average soil water content (ASWC) was available in high to medium height terraces in WMCP and low to medium in WFCP of Kahuta area. ASWC remained more in high to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Khairimurat during September. ASWC remained more in low to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Pindi Gheb during September and December. Equidistantly, soil water release curve also indicated that medium rainfall sites had more plant water availability as compared to high and low rainfall sites. Yield relationship to plant water availability revealed significance for intrusion of modified cropping patterns rather than existing cropping patterns on sustained basis. Finally, our study suggests that cropping patterns of high and low rainfall areas should adjusted by growing low water requirement crops in summer seasons to cope the drought period for the sustainability of agriculture under rainfed climatic conditions. Keywords : cropping patterns, Pothowar Plateau, soil water contents, soil water release curve, sloppy lands
Lukman Hidayat, Hidayat Koto, Odi Andanu
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 37-46; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.37-46

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to analyze and calculates the income, added-value, and break even point of agroindustry that processing bananas into banana crackers and salai. Methods of data collection in this research were using observation and interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, qualitative and quantitative, for the value-added, income, Break Even Point (BEP) and Revenue Cost ratio (R/C). The results shown that the average of value added per kilograms for Salai Rp. 4.371,37, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp 2.944,00 and Rp 3.627,90. The income of salai, sweet and salted banana crackers per year’s are Rp. 29.566.251,-, Rp. 18.437.067, 96,- and Rp. 20.286.567,-. The average of BEP per month’s for salai is salai Rp. 1.415.636, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp. 988.966, and Rp.781.352. The Average of BEP, units or packs per month’s for salai is 145 packs, sweet banana crackers were 124 packs and salted were 98 packs. R/C of Salai was 1.66, sweet banana crackers were 1.49 and salted was 1.71. Added-value of banana Salai Rp. 743, 47 more than salted banana crackers, amounted to 1.471,37 compared to sweet banana crackers. Banana salai income greater Rp. 9.279.684 than salted banana crackers, amounting to Rp. 11.129.183 compared to sweet banana crackers.Keywords: Value Added, Income, Banana crackers, Salai, Break Even Point
Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Sigit Mujiharjo, Muhammad Saud
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 9-24; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.9-24

Abstract:
In arid environment, limitations of crop productivity could be improved by soil management practices like soil conservation measures, tillage and reducing slopes through terracing on different cropping patterns. These patterns include area as Wheat-Maize (WMCP) and Wheat-Fodder (WFCP) in Kahuta (high rainfall climatic area), Wheat-Millet-Fallow (WMFCP) and Wheat- Millet-Lentil (WMLCP) in Khairimurat (medium rainfall climatic area) and Wheat-Fallow (WFCP) and Fallow-Groundnut (FGCP) in Pindi Gheb (low rainfall climatic area). In areas that have more crop water requirements the yield of these crops has been affected when the drought prevails. Our results evidenced that more average soil water content (ASWC) was available in high to medium height terraces in WMCP and low to medium in WFCP of Kahuta area. ASWC remained more in high to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Khairimurat during September. ASWC remained more in low to medium height terraces under all cropping pattern of Pindi Gheb during September and December. Equidistantly, soil water release curve also indicated that medium rainfall sites had more plant water availability as compared to high and low rainfall sites. Yield relationship to plant water availability revealed significance for intrusion of modified cropping patterns rather than existing cropping patterns on sustained basis. Finally, our study suggests that cropping patterns of high and low rainfall areas should adjusted by growing low water requirement crops in summer seasons to cope the drought period for the sustainability of agriculture under rainfed climatic conditions. Keywords : cropping patterns, Pothowar Plateau, soil water contents, soil water release curve, sloppy lands
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 1-8; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.1-8

Abstract:
Intensification on paddy is done one of them by setting the spacing. This study aims to examine the effect of spacing system on growth and paddy production. The research was conducted in Bojongmangu Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java Province. The study used an experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 1 factor that is planting system, namely tegel system 20 cm x 20 cm, tegel system 25 cm x 25 cm , jajar legowo 2:1 (25x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 full (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 free space (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, and jajar legowo 6:1 (25x12,5x 50) cm. Each treatment is repeated 3 times. The results showed that jajar legowo planting system 2:1 gives the number of panicles per clump, number of grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains and the average yield per hectare is highest, followed by jajar legowo 4:1 full planting systemKeywords: Jajar Legowo, Planting System
Rehmat Ullah, Shehzada Munawar Mehdi, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmed Sheikh, Endang Sulistyowati,
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 25-36; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.25-36

Abstract:
This study was planned with hypothesis to quantify mineralization rate of wheat and groundnut straw spiked in Kahuta and Guliana soil series. Results revealed that groundnut and wheat strawspiked soils had increased quantum of microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), biomass nitrogen (Nmic) and biomass phosphorous (Pmic) and activities of enzyme dehydrogenase (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase (APA) than un-amended soils. Initially, the contents of soil Cmic, Nmic, Pmic, DHA, and APA increased gradually during 2-14th days of incubation (DAI), again increased significantly at 28th DAI and then decreased slowly at 60th DAI in all treatments under both series. Hence, the addition of groundnut straw mineralized better than to other organic sources in both soil series. These results suggested that groundnut straw must be incorporated in soil one month before sowing of crop to enhance crop yield under rain-fed dry farming.Key words: Crop Residues, Microbial Biomass, Soil Enzymes, Aridisol, Alfisols
Lukman Hidayat, Hidayat Koto, Odi Andanu
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 37-46; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.37-46

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to analyze and calculates the income, added-value, and break even point of agroindustry that processing bananas into banana crackers and salai. Methods of data collection in this research were using observation and interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, qualitative and quantitative, for the value-added, income, Break Even Point (BEP) and Revenue Cost ratio (R/C). The results shown that the average of value added per kilograms for Salai Rp. 4.371,37, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp 2.944,00 and Rp 3.627,90. The income of salai, sweet and salted banana crackers per year’s are Rp. 29.566.251,-, Rp. 18.437.067, 96,- and Rp. 20.286.567,-. The average of BEP per month’s for salai is salai Rp. 1.415.636, sweet and salted banana crackers are Rp. 988.966, and Rp.781.352. The Average of BEP, units or packs per month’s for salai is 145 packs, sweet banana crackers were 124 packs and salted were 98 packs. R/C of Salai was 1.66, sweet banana crackers were 1.49 and salted was 1.71. Added-value of banana Salai Rp. 743, 47 more than salted banana crackers, amounted to 1.471,37 compared to sweet banana crackers. Banana salai income greater Rp. 9.279.684 than salted banana crackers, amounting to Rp. 11.129.183 compared to sweet banana crackers.Keywords: Value Added, Income, Banana crackers, Salai, Break Even Point
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 1-8; doi:10.31186/agritropica.1.1.1-8

Abstract:
Intensification on paddy is done one of them by setting the spacing. This study aims to examine the effect of spacing system on growth and paddy production. The research was conducted in Bojongmangu Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java Province. The study used an experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 1 factor that is planting system, namely tegel system 20 cm x 20 cm, tegel system 25 cm x 25 cm , jajar legowo 2:1 (25x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 full (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, jajar legowo 4:1 free space (25 x12,5x50 ) cm, and jajar legowo 6:1 (25x12,5x 50) cm. Each treatment is repeated 3 times. The results showed that jajar legowo planting system 2:1 gives the number of panicles per clump, number of grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains and the average yield per hectare is highest, followed by jajar legowo 4:1 full planting systemKeywords: Jajar Legowo, Planting System
Nyayu Neti Arianti, Muhamad Harismanto, Agus Purwoko
Published: 26 May 2018
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 56-61; doi:10.31186/j.agritropica.1.1.56-61

Abstract:
The research was aimed at analyzing poverty level of non-plasma oil palm farmer households and determining factors that influence their poverty occurrence probability. This research was conducted by surveying ninety non-plasma oil palm farmer households in Mukomuko District. The poverty level was quantified method by comparing household income with the World Bank poverty line, i.e. US $2/capita/day. Households were categorized into poor if their income is less than US$ 2/capita/day or Rp 26,908.00/capita/day (with an exchange rate of Rp 13,454.00 per US $), vice versa. To determine factors affecting the probability of poverty occurrence, the binary logistic model was applied. The results showed that the average non-plasma farmer household income was Rp 39,484.00/capita/day. With the level of exchange rate applied in this research, it was found that forty percent households were below the poverty line. Land variable negative and significantly affects the probability of poverty occurrence while the family size was positive significant. Other factors including education, age, and the existence of other jobs had an insignificant effect.Keywords: probability, poverty, oil palm, household Nyayu Neti Arianti, Muhamad Harismanto, Agus Purwoko Published: 26 May 2018 AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 1, pp 56-61; doi:10.31186/agt.1.1.56-61 Abstract: The research was aimed at analyzing poverty level of non-plasma oil palm farmer households and determining factors that influence their poverty occurrence probability. This research was conducted by surveying ninety non-plasma oil palm farmer households in Mukomuko District. The poverty level was quantified method by comparing household income with the World Bank poverty line, i.e. US$ 2/capita/day. Households were categorized into poor if their income is less than US $2/capita/day or Rp 26,908.00/capita/day (with an exchange rate of Rp 13,454.00 per US$), vice versa. To determine factors affecting the probability of poverty occurrence, the binary logistic model was applied. The results showed that the average non-plasma farmer household income was Rp 39,484.00/capita/day. With the level of exchange rate applied in this research, it was found that forty percent households were below the poverty line. Land variable negative and significantly affects the probability of poverty occurrence while the family size was positive significant. Other factors including education, age, and the existence of other jobs had an insignificant effect.Keywords: probability, poverty, oil palm, household
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