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, A. Tihane, R. Oaddi, , K. Bouabid, A. Ihlal
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1182-1191;

This paper analyses actual performance of three grid-connected photovoltaic systems based on different silicon technologies, installed at the faculty of sciences of Agadir. The outdoor facilities consist of 2.04 kWp of mono crystalline (m-Si), 1.86 kWp of amorphous (μcSi/a-Si:H), and 2.04 kWp of multi crystalline (mc-Si) silicon PV systems. Datasets were collected during one entire year under real measured irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. The performance of these roof mounted PV systems was conducted on daily and monthly bases. Parameters like annual specific yield, system efficiency, and performance ratio were evaluated and found to be 1827 kWh/kWp.year, 20.9% and 80.2% for amorphous, 1863 kWh/kWp.year, 21.3% and 80.7%, for mono crystalline and 1895 kWh/kWp.year, 21.7% and 82.2% for multi crystalline.
Chunhua Zhao, Siyu Zheng, , Yangjun Zhang
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1221-1229;

Due to the existing huge biogas resource in the rural area of China, biogas is widely used for production and living. Cogeneration system provides an opportunity to realize the balanced utilization of the renewable energy such as biogas and solar energy. This article presented a numerical investigation of a hybrid energy-driven organic Rankine cycle (ORC) cogeneration system, involving a solar ORC and a biogas boiler. The biogas boiler with a module of solar parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) is employed to provide heat source to the ORC via two distinct intermediate pressurized circuits. The cogeneration supplied the power to the air-condition in summer condition and hot water, which is heated in the condenser, in winter condition. The system performance under the subcritical pressures has been assessed according to the energy–exergy and economic analysis with the organic working fluid R123. The effects of various parameters such as the evaporation and condensation temperatures on system performance were investigated. The net power generation efficiency of the cogeneration system is 11.17%, which is 25.8% higher than that of the base system at an evaporation temperature 110°C. The exergy efficiency of ORC system increases from 35.2% to 38.2%. Moreover, an economic analysis of the system is carried out. The results demonstrate that the profits generated from the reduction of biogas fuel and electricity consumption can lead to a significant saving, resulting in an approximate annual saving from $1,700 to $3,000. Finally, a case study based on the consideration of typical rural residence was performed, which needs a payback period of 7.8 years under the best case.
, K.S Joseph, S Payamalle, S Betageri, R Gudodagi, S Mesta, S Kodli
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1178-1181;

In the present study crude Garcinia gummi-gutta seed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Due to the high acid value (29.73 mg KOH/g) the oil was converted to biodiesel by using acid catalyzed esterification process. Further, biodiesel properties of the sample were evaluated, which fulfilled the biodiesel specifications laid by ASTM D6751, EN 14214 and IS 15607. The biodiesel possessed excellent cetane number (66.09) and a high flash point (158°C). In addition, the calorific value (41.03 MJ/kg) was very close to diesel fuel. The results suggest that the G. gummi-gutta can be an alternative source for diesel and can be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel in India.
, , Spyros Arvanitis, Christian Rammer, Michael Peneder
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1192-1208;

We contribute to the existing research about policy-induced technology adoption in several ways. First, we suggest a new survey design to measure the energy-related policy environment. Second, we simultaneously estimate the policy effects for the adoption propensity and the adoption intensity simultaneously and, third, we compare the policy effects in the three countries, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Based on a representative sample of firms for all three countries we find that policies essentially promote the adoption of technologies and they are practically ineffective for the intensity, which poses a great challenge to future policy designs. Voluntary agreements or demand-related factors are among the most important drivers for the adoption propensity of green energy technologies. Given the current institutional framework in the surveyed countries, subsidies are more effective in Austria, taxes are more effective in Germany, and demand-related factors are relatively more effective in Switzerland.
Rajangam Vinodh,
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 12, pp 756-765;

The goal of this work is to develop a novel composite membrane from quaternized polysulfone (QPSU) and silica (SiO2), to fabricate alkaline membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and to subsequently test the MEAs in 5 cm × 5 cm single cell configuration using Pt/C and Ag/C as anode and cathode catalysts, respectively. The composite membranes were characterized in terms of water absorption, ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity. The physicochemical studies Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and universal testing machine (UTM) were used to investigate the relation between the structure and performance of the composite membranes. The results show that the SiO2 was compatible with the QPSU membrane. The thermal stability and ionic conductivity of the QPSU/SiO2 composite membranes were higher than that of quaternized polysulfone (QPSU) membrane. The maximum performance was achieved for 10 wt.% SiO2 with power density of 149.6 mW/cm2 at current density of 440 mA/cm2.
, John McClatchey
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1141-1149;

Using meteorological and electricity demand data for a 4-year period, electricity demand in Shetland was modeled to provide an estimate of the demand over a 30-year period from 1 January 1981. That modeled demand was then compared to estimated wind power output over the same period using the WAsP model. The wind farm output was estimated for a range of sizes of wind farm up to the consented 370 MW Viking Wind Farm in Shetland. Some wind power was available for 94% of the time and the 370 MW wind farm would meet 100% of demand for nearly 80% of the time. The statistics of single and accumulated deficits were calculated for a range of wind farms and estimates of the amount of additional generation capacity and additional power requirements were assessed. The study suggests that with storage, wind power in Shetland could meet all electricity demand in Shetland at around £130 to £150/MWh (excluding subsidy) and with a grid connection allowing the sale of excess power, those costs could be reduced.
Shuokr Qarani Aziz, Sazan Mohammed Ali
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1156-1162;

This study aimed to characterize raw municipal and dairy wastewaters. The quality of the collected wastewaters was determined by measuring 30 quality parameters, such as phenols, oxidation-reduction potential, oil and grease, total organic carbon (TOC), manganese, total viable count of bacteria (TVC), salinity, and biodegradability. Results were compared with wastewater disposal standards. This study also aimed to describe the potential application and performance of biological trickling filters (BTFs) in municipal and dairy wastewater treatment. Detailed reviews of trickling filter models were explained. Results revealed that two wastewater samples exceeded standard limits. The raw municipal and dairy wastewaters need treatment prior to disposal to the natural environment. Additionally, BTFs are efficient municipal and dairy wastewater treatments.
, K. Hazarika
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1150-1155;

Variation in drying material and their biological differences, coupled with heat supply method in different dryers, makes mathematical modeling of drying complicated. Attempt was made to simulate a drying process and to identify best suitable model out of six selected drying models, for drying of ginger slices in a solar-biomass integrated drying system designed and developed for spice drying. Moisture content data were converted into the moisture ratio (MR) expressions and curve fitting with drying time for the selected drying models was analyzed. Sigma Plot software was used for nonlinear regression to the data obtained during drying and for modeling of drying curves. The suitability of the models was evaluated in terms of statistical parameters such as coefficient of determination (R2), mean percentage error (P), and standard error estimate. Drying air temperature was in the range of 47–55°C and air velocity was between 1.0 and 1.3 m s−1. Ginger slices were dried from 88.13% to 7.65 ± 0.65% (wb) in 16 h. Trays were interchanged in a predetermined matrix sequence from 4 h onwards when moisture content was reduced to 60–70% (wb), for uniformity in drying. Highest value of R2 (0.997), lowest value of SEE (0.020), and P value < 0.0001 established Page model as the best suitable model for the developed drying system. The predicted MRs were in good agreement with the experimental values and the effective moisture diffusivity for ginger was found to be 2.97 × 10–7 m2 s−1.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1130-1140;

Seaplanes have become an important tool along with rapidly developing technology in modern transportation for many countries related to sea. Considering the environmental evaluation for these aircraft, decreasing fossil fuels consumption and energy efficiency are important points for sustainability. For this purpose, in this study, first, the energy and exergy analyses based on the real data of a turboprop engine used in seaplane taken as the reference were performed. Then, new indicators developed for the sustainable propulsion index were examined and evaluated separately. The analyses were made for an altitude of 9000 ft and three different dead state temperatures of −33°C, −3°C, and 27°C. According to the analyses, while the average energy efficiencies were found to be 34.7%, 37.8%, and 40.7%, the average exergy efficiencies were found to be 19.24%, 21.25%, and 23.20%, respectively. In addition, the improvement potential due to irreversibility and entropy production for each case was also calculated and the results of the sustainable emission index were found to be very low. At the end of the study, the results were evaluated and some suggestions for the effective use of energy in the seaplanes were made.
Deepika Kushwaha, Ishita Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar Mishra
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1110-1118;

Present investigation was done to evaluate various algal genera found in water bodies of Varanasi city. The potential of any biomass for biofuels (bioalcohols, biohydrogen, etc.) production depends on the quantity of extractable sugar present in it. Acid (H2SO4) and alkali (NaOH) pretreatment were performed, and H2SO4 was chosen due to its nearly double yield as compared with alkaline pretreatment. Response surface methodology was utilized for the optimization of operating parameters such as treatment temperature, time, and acid concentration. Sugar yield up to 0.33 g/g of dry biomass was obtained using cyanobacterial biomass of Lyngbya limnetica, at 100°C, 59.19 min, and H2SO4 concentration of 1.63 M.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1093-1099;

The rapid decrease of energy resources has accelerated studies on energy efficiency. Energy efficiency refers to the effective use of energy, in other words, completing a specific task to the required standard by using less energy. Exergy is an effective instrument to indicate the effective and sustainable use of energy in systems and processes. Transportation is an important part of human life. The studies on energy saving and the effective use of energy in different areas around the world have also increased for transportation systems and vehicles. With the more effective use of fuel, there will be potential benefits for the environment as well as a reduction in operating costs. This study includes energy and exergy analyses as well as a sustainability assessment by using C8H16 as a fuel at different engine powers (150–600 SHP (shaft horse power)), for the piston-prop helicopter engine. The maximum exergetic sustainability index was found at the power that provided the maximum energy and exergy efficiency. As a result of this index, the lowest waste exergy ratio, the lowest exergy destruction factor, and the lowest environmental impact factor were obtained. The highest exergy destruction and the highest exergy loss value were obtained at maximum power (600 SHP).
Anjan Deb, Jannatul Ferdous, Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, , Wasikur Rahman
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1063-1072;

In this study, castor oil (CO) has been investigated as a potential source for biodiesel production in Bangladesh. Castor oil has been extracted from the seeds by mechanical press and the Soxhlet extraction method. Maximum oil content of 55.7% has been found by the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties such as free fatty acid (FFA) content, kinematic viscosity, saponification value, and density of the oil have been measured by different standard methods. The FFA content and viscosity have been found considerably higher such as 33.5% and 253 mm2/s, respectively. Biodiesel has been prepared using a three-step method comprising of saponification of oil followed by acidification of the soap and esterification of FFA. The overall yield of FFA from CO is found to be around 89.2%. The final step is esterification that produces fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and a maximum 97.4% conversion of FFA to biodiesel has been observed. The effect of the oil to methanol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and time has been investigated for esterification reaction and optimized using the response surface methodology. 1H NMR of crude castor oil and castor oil methyl ester (COME) was studied and analyzed that confirms the complete conversion of castor oil to biodiesel. Finally, the biodiesel, produced under optimum conditions, was characterized using the various standard method and found comparable with petro-diesel and biodiesel standard.
Biswajit Kamila, , , Prabir Basu, Bharat Regmi, , Bishnu Acharya
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1119-1129;

A two-dimensional (2-D) model is developed to predict the torrefaction behavior of a large wet biomass particle. Although one-dimensional (1-D) model is found to be adequate for L/D ≥ 6, the necessity of using 2-D model at lower L/D ratios and higher torrefaction temperature is established. Errors up to 18% are observed in predicted mass fractions between 1-D and 2-D models. The center temperatures differed more, up to 96%, between z = 0 and z = L/2 in 2-D model which is not captured by the 1-D model. The model predictions agree well with the experimental results of the present authors and others. The evolution of the temperature profile is found to govern the mass fraction profile. At higher reactor temperature, three distinct zones are visible in the contour plots: peripheral fully torrefied zone, intermediate torrefying zone, and core with unreacted virgin biomass zone. Simulation studies show the formation of two symmetric annular hot spots at the ends, which move inward axially and subsequently merge at the center, the rate being faster for smaller L/D ratio. However, 1-D model does not provide such insight. The effects of reactor temperature, particle size, the residence time, and the initial moisture content on the torrefaction behavior are investigated.
, Ahmet Koca, , , Mehmet Şekerci
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1073-1080;

Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources, but it is not available every time and every season. Thus, storing of solar energy is important. One of the popular methods of heat storage is use of phase change materials (PCMs) which have large thermal energy storage capacity. In this study, the heat storage tank in a domestic solar water heating system was chosen as control volume. The experiments were performed in the province of Elazıg, Turkey, in November when solar radiation was weak due to cloudy sky. The heat storage tank of the system was modified to fill PCM between insulation and hot water part. A few PCMs which are Potassium Fluoride, Lithium Metaborate Dihydrate, Strontium Hydroxide Octahydrate, Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate, Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate, and Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate were analyzed to proper operating conditions using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and the best PCM was obtained with the Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate and Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate mixture. Thus, eutectic PCM was obtained and used in a heat storage tank of the solar water heating system. Energy and exergy analysis of heat storage tank was performed with and without the PCM. Energy and exergy analysis has shown that the heat storage tank with the PCM is more efficient than without the PCM and the maximum exergy efficiency was obtained as 22% with the heat storage tank with the PCM.
, Abla Chaker, Zeroual Aouachria, Ming Tingzhen
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 971-982;

The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a power generator which uses solar radiation to increase the internal energy of the air circulating in the system, thereby transforming the useful gain of the solar collector into kinetic energy. The produced kinetic energy then can be converted into electrical energy by means of an appropriate turbine. In this paper, four locations in Algeria (Constantine, Ouargla, Adrar, and Tamanrasset) were considered as case studies to describe the SCPP mechanism in detail. Numerical simulation of an SCPP which has the same geometrical dimensions was performed to estimate the power output of SCPP in these regions. Using the CFD software FLUENT we simulated a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a SCPP with the standard k-ε turbulence model. The simulation results show that the highest power output produced monthly average value 68–73 KW over the year and the highest hourly power produced in June is around 109–113 KW.
, Angelo L´abbate
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1034-1047;

The increasing capacity of distributed electricity generation brings new challenges in maintaining a high security and quality of electricity supply. New techniques are required for grid support and power balance. The highest potential for these techniques is to be found on the part of the electricity distribution grid. This article addresses this potential and presents the EEPOS project’s approach to the automated management of flexible electrical loads in neighborhoods. The management goals are (i) maximum utilization of distributed generation in the local grid, (ii) peak load shaving/congestion management, and (iii) reduction of electricity distribution losses. Contribution to the power balance is considered by applying two-tariff pricing for electricity. The presented approach to energy management is tested in a hypothetical sensitivity analysis of a distribution feeder with 10 households and 10 photovoltaic (PV) plants with an average daily consumption of electricity of 4.54 kWh per household and a peak PV panel output of 0.38 kW per plant. Energy management shows efficient performance at relatively low capacities of flexible load. At a flexible load capacity of 2.5% (of the average daily electricity consumption), PV generation surplus is compensated by 34–100% depending on solar irradiance. Peak load is reduced by 30% on average. The article also presents the load shifting effect on electricity distribution losses and electricity costs for the grid user.
Mehmet Bilgili,
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1048-1056;

The operation of modern horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) includes a number of important factors, such as wind power (P), power coefficient (CP), axial flow induction factor (a), rotational speed (Ω), tip speed ratio (λ), and thrust force (T). The aerodynamic qualities of these aspects are evaluated and discussed in this study. For this aim, the measured data are obtained from the Sebenoba Wind Energy Power Plant (WEPP) that is located in the Sebenoba region in Hatay, Turkey, and a wind turbine with a capacity of 2 MW is selected for evaluation. According to the results obtained, the maximum turbine power output, maximum power coefficient, maximum axial flow induction factor, maximum thrust force, optimum rotational speed, probability density of optimum rotational speed, and optimum tip speed ratio are found to be 2 MW, 30%, 0.091, 140 kN, 16.11 rpm, 46.76%, and 7, respectively. This study has revealed that wind turbines must work under optimum conditions in order to extract as much energy as possible for approaching the ideal limit.
, Azami Zaharim, Sohif Mat,
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1057-1062;

Studies of wind direction receive less attention than that of wind speed; however, wind direction affects daily activities such as shipping, the use of bridges, and construction. This research aims to study the effect of wind direction on generating wind power. A finite mixture model of the von Mises distribution and Weibull distribution are used in this paper to represent wind direction and wind speed data, respectively, for Mersing (Malaysia). The suitability of the distribution is examined by the R2 determination coefficient. The energy analysis, that is, wind power density, only involves the wind speed, but the wind direction is vital in measuring the dominant direction of wind so that the sensor could optimize wind capture. The result reveals that the estimated wind power density is between 18.2 and 25 W/m2, and SSW is the most common wind direction for this data.
, Micheal Kumar, Peniel Pauldoss
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1027-1033;

This work aimed to prove the effects of adding different proportions of ethanol with diesel (DE) and ethanol–water mixture with diesel (DEW) in a single-cylinder diesel engine on the performance, emissions, and combustion parameters. The blends were stabilized by tetra methyl ammonium bromide (TMAB) as the additive. The study was conducted at two operating conditions initially on a normal diesel engine and in the second case the engine piston, valves, and cylinder head coated with zirconia (ZrO2) alumina (Al2O3). The results showed that the addition of 10% ethanol with diesel performed almost equivalent to neat diesel with 29.2% BTE and a 17.7% decrease in smoke and an 11.4% increase in NOx emission at peak load compared to that of the base fuel. Modified engines with thermal barrier coating (TBC) performed superior to normal engines with 4% and 5.5% increase in BTE, respectively, for DE- and DEW-type fuels with reduced exhaust emissions. A 5% addition of water with diesel–ethanol blends favors a higher proportion of ethanol to be employed in diesel engines.
D. Rozanna, T. G. Chuah, A. Salmiah, Thomas S. Y. Choong, M. Sa'ari
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 1, pp 495-513;

International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 1, pp 451-465;

Exergy can play a key role in developing appropriate and beneficial energy-related policies relating to education and awareness. Two main areas where exergy can have an impact on policies are discussed in this article: public education and awareness and student education. The former is more general, but is supported by the latter. Regarding public education and awareness about exergy, it appears that the public is often confused when it discusses energy, and needs to be better educated about exergy if energy issues and problems are to be addressed appropriately. Regarding the education of students about exergy, it appears that the coverage of exergy in thermodynamics education is often insufficient and inappropriate. Better coverage of exergy is needed to improve thermodynamics education and to make it more interesting to students, and a basic level of “exergy literacy” is needed among engineers and scientists—particularly those involved in decision making.
T. V. Ramachandra, S. Vamsee Krishna, B. V. Shruthi
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 1, pp 407-428;

, Fang-Ta Liu, Guan-Wei Ho, Yan-Ru Lin
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 983-995;

Most of the energy conversion in industrial devices and equipment is completed by the motor. The acquirement of motor parameters becomes very important for designing the motor drives. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a motor measurement system. Through the processing of an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) microcontroller, the various parameters of motors such as input voltage, input current, input power, motor speed, and motor torque can be obtained. Consequently, the torque constant, load torque, viscous friction, and the inertia of the motor are calculated and achieved. The motor parameters can be commanded and displayed in the designed human interface of a PC via USB communication. The hardware system designed in this system includes an ARM microcontroller, an inverter, a voltage sensor, a current sensor, a torque sensor, and power supply. The software programming is developed under the Visual Studio 2012 environment development platform using the C language. Finally, the prototype of the motor measurement system is completed and verified. The experimental results for the motor parameters and torque/speed characteristic are demonstrated and show the feasibility of the complete designed system.
, Metin Gürü
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1005-1010;

In this study, economically favorable CoCl2 catalysts at four different amounts were supported on activated carbon (AC) for NaBH4 dehydrogenation. Supported catalyst could achieve hydrogen release for 2,060 cycles, which is equivalent to 103 days of uninterrupted operation. Slow and continuous hydrogen release was observed in all experiments. Even 1 g of NaBH4 can carry 1.2 L of hydrogen, and in hydrolysis process, it liberates 2.5 L of hydrogen that indicates the decomposition of water. EDX analysis and reverse burette measurements show that CoCl2 could be homogeneously distributed on and permanently joined to the support surface. Kinetic investigation of the dehydrogenation reaction fits zero order kinetics, and activation energy was calculated to be 48 kJ/mol.
Yajun Lv, Weizhun Jin, Yan Yang, Haibin Zhang, , Fangyi Ding, Weibing Zhou
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 916-924;

This paper aims to reveal the heat transfer mechanism of low-temperature phase change material (PCM) and design PCM heat storage device in building heating environment. Firstly, low-temperature binary PCMs of lauric acid and stearic acid are prepared, and their thermal properties are investigated by DSC. Then, shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage units are conducted, and heat transfer experiments are carried out to analyze the heat transfer mechanism of PCM. The results demonstrate that natural convection plays an important role in heat transfer process, and the heat storage efficiency of PCMs can be significantly enhanced by increasing the fin width and improving the inlet heat transfer fluid (HTF) temperature. Furthermore, some proposals are put forward to guide the design of PCM storage device in building heating environment.
Jin Zhang, Qiang Yang, , Xiaofei Song, , Junhao Zhang,
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1011-1019;

Electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats incorporated with capric acid was studied to fabricate form-stable phase change materials (PCMs) for storing/retrieving thermal energy. Electrospun CA nanofibrous mats with different porous structures and specific surface areas were firstly prepared through regulating the volume ratio of mixture solvent of acetone/dichloromethane (DCM). Effects of different volume ratio of mixture solvent and mat thickness on the morphological structure, specific surface area, and absorption capacity of CA nanofibrous mats were systematically investigated. The results indicated that CA nanofibrous mats were highly porous on the surface; hence, they were capable of absorbing a large amount of capric acid. The maximum absorption capacity of CA mats via electrospinning with volume ratio of acetone/DCM being 5/5 was ~95.8 wt%, due to its higher specific surface area of ~17.1 m2/g. The specific surface area and capric acid absorption capacity of CA nanofibrous mats increased with the increases of mat thickness. As the thickness of nanofibrous mats increased from 10 to 85 μm, the corresponding specific surface area and capric acid absorption capacity of mats increased respectively from 7.2 to 29.0 m2/g and 92.1 to 98.5%. Morphological structures, as well as the properties of thermal energy storage and thermal insulation of the fabricated form-stable PCMs, were studied by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and measurement of freezing times, respectively. The results indicated that the resulting form-stable PCMs could well maintain their phase transition characteristics and demonstrated great thermal energy storage capability and temperature regulation ability.
, , Yi Li, , Zhigang Li
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 996-1004;

Recently, researches on pump as turbine (PAT) have been one of the hot issues in fluid machineries. Of these hydraulic turbines, multi-stage PATs are widely used in industrial fields. However, most attentions have been paid on performance of the single-stage PATs and the turbines themselves. In this paper, a potential multi-stage PAT system with load pump was investigated numerically and experimentally. The match relations between PAT and load pump were explored by theory, and an analytical method to predict performance of PAT system was proposed in addition. Computational fluid dynamics method (CFD) was adopted to study the performance characteristics of PAT under a constant rotation or certain head. The operational rules of multi-stage PAT system were analyzed in both constant and variable speed that confirmed the prediction of system performance. The results could give guidance to choose a proper load pump and promote efficiency of PAT system.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 15, pp 45-52;

Generation of biodiesel from microalgae has been extensively investigated; however, its quality is often not suitable for use as fuel. Our investigation involved the evaluation of biodiesel quality using a native isolate Chlorella sorokiniana MIC-G5, as specified by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), after transesterification of lipids with methanol, in the presence of sodium methoxide. Total quantity of lipids extracted from dry biomass, of approximately 410–450 mg g−1 was characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR. After transesterification, the total saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were 43% and 57%, respectively. The major FAMEs present in the biodiesel were methyl palmitate (C16:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), and methyl linoleate (C18:2), and the 1H NMR spectra matched with criteria prescribed for high-quality biodiesel. The biodiesel exhibited a density of 0.873 g cm–3, viscosity of 3.418 mm2 s−1, cetane number (CN) of 57.85, high heating value (HHV) of 40.25, iodine value of 71.823 g I2 100 g−1, degree of unsaturation (DU) of 58%, and a cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of –5.22°C. Critical fuel parameters, including oxidation stability, CN, HHV, iodine value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, density, and viscosity were in accordance with the methyl ester composition and structural configuration. Hence, C. sorokiniana can be a promising feedstock for biodiesel generation.
Taslim Akhtar, , , , Chan Kim Wei
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 1081-1081;

Jongdeuk Ahn, Jong-Gyu Kim, In-Yong Seo, Jae Hoon Roh, Seung Heon Song, Jeonghun Song, Seung Jin Song, Yungpil Yoo, Sidoek Oh, Ho-Young Kwak
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 961-969;

An ideal off-grid island can become 100% energy-sufficient if one installs renewable energy systems such as solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine (WT) systems. However, the intermittent and uncertain nature of the power supply from renewable energy systems hinders a 100% autonomy level (AL) without an infinite energy storage capacity. The thermoeconomic installation limit (TEIL) of a PV/WT hybrid energy system was studied using hourly weather data and the energy demand profile for off-grid islands. An appropriate battery size for the TEIL was also determined. Given the current installation cost of the hybrid energy system and the battery unit, the AL for a PV/WT hybrid energy system at the TEIL is calculated to be approximately 70%. Above the limit, the size of the energy storage unit and, correspondingly, the total annual cost of the PV/WT hybrid energy system increase sharply.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 951-960;

Waste from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for Helianthus annuus L. production may be a viable solution to obtain biodiesel. This study achieved two objectives: assess the agronomical viability of waste (wastewater and sludge) from the Alcázar de San Juan WWTP in central Spain for H. annuus L. production; use H. annuus L. seeds grown in this way to obtain biodiesel. Five study plots, each measuring 6 m × 6 m (36 m2), were set up on the agricultural land near the Alcázar de San Juan WWTP. Five fertilizer treatment types were considered: drinking water, as the control; treated wastewater; 10 t ha−1 of air-dried sewage sludge; 20 t ha−1 of air-dried sewage sludge; 0.6 t ha−1 of commercial inorganic fertilizer. Soil, irrigation water, sewage sludge, crop development and fatty acid composition in achenes oil were monitored. The 20 t ha–1 dose of sewage sludge proved effective to grow H. annuus L. with similar results to those grown with a commercial fertilizer. However, precautions should be taken when irrigating with wastewater because of high salinity and nutrient deficiency. Sunflower oil was composed mostly of linoleic and oleic acid. The remaining fatty acids were linolenic, estearic, nervonic, palmitoleic, and palmitic.
, Raguru Pandu Kumudini Devi
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 934-950;

A new optimal power flow model for wind, solar, and solar-thermal bundled power scheduling and dispatch is proposed, incorporating the deviation incentive/penalty charges for renewable energy introduced in India. The multiobjective function is solved using the flower pollination algorithm; the scheme is successfully tested on the IEEE 30-bus and Indian utility 30-bus systems. The forecasting error constraints introduced in renewable energy scheduling and dispatch are demonstrated to be beneficial in several aspects. Solar-thermal bundling is shown to create win-win situations for thermal and solar generators. The effectiveness of the flower pollination algorithm in solving optimal power flow models is proved.
, , Abdelowahed Hajjaji
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 839-844;

This paper presents potential energy savings by installing high-efficiency motors instead of existing ones and their impact on greenhouse gases emissions reductions. This research study of the energy efficiency of electric motors has been performed in a typical thermal power plant. In the literature, the focus has been mainly on separate and away electric motors from operating facilities. The important advantage of this paper over other studies is that it uses the actual motors’ efficiency in the evaluation. The gains both in terms of electrical energy savings and in terms of financial economy by using high-efficiency motors have been discussed. As a result, the energy saving can be expected as 12.6% at the operating rate. This excellent result also reduces greenhouse gas emission by 1,423 tons every year. The analysis of the data provided an overview on energy losses often generated by the degradation and rewinding of electrical motors. This study represents very encouraging results that will help energy managers of industrial plants to become more involved in energy efficiency strategies.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 10, pp 763-774;

Melon seed oil was successfully converted into biodiesel fuels via alkali catalyzed transesterification. Transesterification parameters such as base concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst type, and step multiplicity were investigated. The results indicated that (0.75% KOH w/w of oil, a 6: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature of 60°C, and a duration of 1 h) where the optimal experimental conditions for the transesterification. The Fourier transform infra red spectra of the biodiesel was also specified and found differs greatly from that of the parent oil confirming the formation of biodiesel. Properties of the produced fuels were determined and found enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Besides, the optimal biodiesel sample was blended with petro diesel in various volume percentages. However, the results showed that biodiesel had slight influence on the original properties of petro diesel.
, Sylvia Kgokong, Shin Yabuta, , Tidimalo Coetzee, Takafumi Konaka, Charles Mazereku, Yoshinobu Kawamitsu,
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 908-915;

Jatropha has gained interest as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Nevertheless, its oil production decreases significantly in frost- and drought-prone regions. In this study, we characterized the flowering pattern of Jatropha in Botswana in the 2014/2015 season. Extensive springtime pruning synchronized Jatropha regrowth in summer and effectively stimulated growth after frost damage. Flowering started in February 2015 and peaked in April and May. Wide variations in flowering frequency were observed among different Jatropha accessions. Trees flowering in February and March produced fruit in May, but most trees only flowered in April and May and did not yield fruit because of cold snaps. These observations suggested that harvesting seed before wintertime is the key to improve Jatropha production in the Botswana climate. This study highlighted the importance of inducing early flowering by developing new agricultural managements. These may include frost cover and sun shades to prevent stress-induced damage, canopy control by pruning, optimization of fertilization practice, and/or introduction of superior Jatropha varieties.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 889-898;

This article investigates the impact that the electricity tariff reform is likely to have on investments in renewable energies (i.e., photovoltaics) and the adoption of energy efficiency measures (i.e., installation of heat pumps and efficient home appliances) in the residential market in Italy. The study develops detailed cost comparisons and simulations considering two different investment scenarios (before and after the reform) to conclude that the reform will: (i) have a negative impact on investments in photovoltaic systems; (ii) favor the adoption of energy efficiency measures, such as efficient home appliances.
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 831-838;

In this study, cobalt supported oil palm shell activated carbon (Co/OPS-AC) and ZSM-5 zeolite (Co/ZSM-5) catalysts have been prepared for dry reforming of methane. Cobalt ratios of 6.0 and 14.0 wt% were deposited via wet impregnation method to the OPS-AC and ZSM-5 catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption--desorption isotherms, BET surface area, SEM, FESEM-EDX, TPR-H2, and TPD-NH3. The dry reforming of methane was performed using a micro reactor system under the condition of 10,000 ml/h.g-cat, 3 atm, CH4/CO2 ratio of 1.2:1.0 and temperature range from 923 K to 1023 K. The gaseous products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and further quantified to determine the conversions of CH4 and CO2, and the yields of CO and H2. Experimental results revealed both catalysts exhibited lower conversions of CO2 and CH4 with the increase in temperature from 923 K to 1023 K. The reduced conversions may be due to the formation of carboneous substance on the catalyst known as coking. Comparatively, Co/OPS-AC gave higher conversions of CO2 and CH4 as well as higher yields of H2 and CO as it has a higher surface area than Co/ZSM-5 which subsequently rendered higher activity for the reforming of methane. With the increasing cobalt loadings and reaction temperature, OPS-AC(14) catalyst exhibited improved activity and H2/CO ratio. Based on these results, cobalt supported OPS activated carbon catalyst was suggested to be more effective for CO2 and CH4 conversions.
, Adrian Sescu
International Journal of Green Energy, Volume 14, pp 845-860;

Simulation, modeling, and limited observations have shown that wind farms have an impact on the near-surface atmospheric boundary layer as turbulent wakes enhance vertical mixing of momentum, heat, and moisture. The few observational datasets that do exist lack high spatial resolution due to their use of a limited number of meteorological sensors or remote sensing techniques. This study utilizes an instrumented small unmanned aerial system to gather high-resolution in situ field measurements in order to differentially map near-wake changes to relative humidity. Observations show that downstream relative humidity is differentially altered in the vertical, spanwise and downstream directions.
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