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Jain Namita, Malik Sonia, Prakash Ved
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 067-071;

Introduction: PCOS is a common cause of female infertility. Although PCOS patients are characterized by producing an increased number of oocytes, they are often of poor quality, leading to lower fertilization, cleavage, and implantation and higher miscarriage rates. Aims: The present study aims to identify the effect of various PCOS phenotypes on oocyte competence in an ART cycle. Settings and design: A retrospective observational study. Methods and material: The study group included 102 women with PCOS as a main cause of infertility. Data was collected over a period of one year (2017-18). These women were divided into four groups on basis of PCOS phenotypes (A-D) and the relevant clinical data and the ART outcome were noted. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Data presented as mean ± SD which was compared using the ANOVA test. A p - value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 102 PCOS women, 23.52% women had phenotype A, 11.76% had phenotype B, and 45.09% and 19.60% had phenotype C & D respectively. Good quality embryos formed (p - value 0.01) were lower in Group B vs. other groups. However, clinical pregnancy rates were comparable in all groups. Conclusion: The reproductive potential of women with PCOS varies with the oocyte health and it largely depends on PCOS phenotype. Women with PCOS phenotype B might have poor IVF/ICSI outcomes with regard to the number of oocytes retrieved and embryos formed. PCO morphology might carry an advantage with regards to the number of oocytes retrieved and better quality embryos. It seems that hyperandrogenism in combination with chronic anovulation is associated with poor oocyte competence and hence, a negative impact on embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to further support it. Key messages: Oocyte competence in various PCOS phenotypes.
, Youssef Esraa M
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 061-066;

Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cause of cancer mortality in females. There were an estimated 300,000 new cases of OC diagnosed worldwide in 2018, corresponding to 3.4% of all cancer cases among women. The high mortality rate of OC attributed to asymptomatic growth of the tumor leads to its diagnosis at advanced stages. About 85% - 90% of OC are epithelial including serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Aim: To study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of FOX A1 and p53 in epithelial OC and its association with prognostic indicators such as age, tumor size, stage, grade, and histological type. Materials and methods: The study included 52 cases with EOC from the pathology department, faculty of medicine, Aswan, and Sohag Universities, in the period from January 2017 to December 2019. This study involved 52 patients with OC and a median age of 53 years. Different histological types were included as 37 serous, 12 mucinous, 1 case endometroid 2 cases clear cell OC. The study cases were classified into 22 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 20 Grade III. About 22 cases were at stage I, 9 at stage II, 11 at stage III, and 10 at stage IV. Tissue sections were stained using the IHC technique with FOX A1 at a dilution of 1:100 and p53 at 1:100. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between FOX A1 expression and advanced patient's age, high grade, advanced stage, ruptured capsule, and ascites, regardless of tumor laterality. No significant association was found between p53 immunoexpression and the same clinic-pathological parameters although p53 was associated with serious type. Conclusion: FOX A1 immunoexpression in EOC is considered a poor prognostic factor in EOC. FOX A1 could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in EOC.
Merse Fekadu, Kelbiso Lolemo,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 055-060;

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is common during pregnancy since the overall iron requirement is greater than non-pregnant women and is associated with adverse outcomes. Iron deficiency (ID) is a state of insufficient iron to maintain normal physiological functions of tissues and leads to anemia. Objectives: To assess factors associated with the utilization of Iron with Folic acid supplement Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal care at Government Health Facilities and Family Guidance Clinic in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 412 health providers who are working at public health institutes in Hawassa city from March to April 2015. Pretested Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. The data was entered into Epi-data and analysed by SPSS version 26.0. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to see the significant association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be computed to measure the strength of the association, p - value of ˂ 0.05 will be considered a statistically significant. Results: A total of 412 pregnant women who came to attend ANC at least for the second time were interviewed in seven health facilities. Our study showed that 333 (81%, 95% CI: 77.2 - 84.8) pregnant women reported taking IFA supplements and high compliance was 37.7% (95% CI: 32.5 - 42.9). In multivariable analysis, side effects and low acceptance of the supplement were significantly associated with compliance to IFA supplementation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a relatively better level of compliance towards IFA supplementation compared to other national data. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding how to manage the side effects of IFA supplements during ANC. Further research has to be done on the acceptability of the supplements.
Singh Vaishali, Nath Paras
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 051-054;

Introduction: Induction of labour is a common obstetric intervention, occurring in approximately 25% of term pregnancies in developing countries. Pharmacological and mechanical methods commonly used are prostaglandin preparations (PGE1 and PGE2) and various intracervical catheters (single or double balloon), respectively. Material and methods: Study was conducted in Siliguri District Hospital, Siliguri, Darjeeling, west Bengal. 100 antenatal woman admitted in obstetrics ward with pog more than 37 weeks were taken for study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. 50 were induced with cerviprime gel and 50 with intracervical foley catheter. Statistical analysis done. Results: Mean interval between treatment initiation and delivery was not statistically significant, tachysystole was more common in group B women, rate of LSCS and NVD was similar in both groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that Foley’s catheter (mechanical) and prostaglandin E2 gel [pharmacological] both are effective agents for preinduction cervical ripening which substantially improve the bishops score and increase the chances of successful labour induction. There is no significant difference in their efficacy, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome.
Mekonnen Adane, Shewangizaw Zewdu
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 044-050;

Background: WHO and UNICEF recommend breastfeeding to be initiated within an hour of birth. However, timely initiation of breastfeeding remains low in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors with cesarean and vaginal deliveries in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, 2021. Methods and materials: Comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2021 to February 2021 in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. 322 mothers within three days of delivery at the postnatal ward of the respective public hospitals were selected. A multi-stage sampling method was employed with the final participants being recruited by systematic random sampling. Data was entered to Epi data Version 4.6 and analysis was performed by SPSS Version 26. A Binary and multivariate logistic regression statistical model was used. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association. Result: Timely breastfeeding initiation was 79 (51.2%) and 123 (80%) for cesarean and vaginal deliveries. With a vaginal delivery, pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 5.50, 95% CI: 1.83 - 16.57) was significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding. Multiparity (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.02 - 4.50), support from health care workers (AOR = 2.602, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.82), and pre-lacteal feeding (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.13 - 5.75) were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding with cesarean delivery. Conclusion: The rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding differs according to the mode of delivery. Cesarean delivery, as compared to vaginal delivery, was associated with a lower rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding.
Pd Gupta
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 042-043;

Sleep and menstrual cycle both are normal physiological processes in women’s life but they are regulated by different centers. Sleep is a daily rhythm whereas the menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days. During this period the estrogen peaks twice. We have shown earlier that there is an inverse relationship between estrogen and the hormone melatonin which aids sleep. Because of this menstruating women will have sleep disorders.
Prakash Pooja, Khadka Shanti, Silwal Muna, Chandra Ayush
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 036-041;

Background: Breast self-examination is the most important screening method for early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Females assess their breasts regularly to detect any abnormalities to seek instant medical attention. Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the knowledge on breast self-examination among female adolescents of Nepal. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-structured questionnaires among female adolescents of Model Multiple College, Dhanusha. The sample size was 120 participants. Probability proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from October 28th to November 12th, 2013. Data were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 120 participants 67.5% participants had knowledge about breast cancer and 40% had knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE). Most of them (94.2%) had a poor knowledge of BSE followed by 5.8% of participants with a moderate level of knowledge of BSE. The mean knowledge score was 18.7 ± 3.5. The majority (66.7%) of participants were from science faculties. More than half (51.7%) of participants stated source of information on BSE was health personnel. Only 25% of the respondent had a family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: The study revealed that most (94.2%) of the participants had poor knowledge of breast self-examination. There is further need for awareness and health education on breast self-examination.
Lecourt Anne, Labrosse Julie, Peigné Maeliss, Vinolas Claire, Laup Laetitia, Sifer Christophe, Grynberg Michael, Cedrin-Durnerin Isabelle
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 027-035;

Purpose: Adding dydrogesterone (DYD) to vaginal micronized progesterone (VMP) and postponing embryo transfer in order to improve outcomes in patients with low progesterone (P) levels in hormonally substituted cycles prior to frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET). Methods: Endometrial preparation comprised sequential administration of vaginal estradiol until endometrial thickness reached 7 mm, followed by transdermal estradiol combined with 800 mg/day VMP. Our previous analysis of serum P levels on FET day showed that the optimal P level was > 11 ng/mL for live birth. Serum P was measured on day1 (D1) following exogenous VMP introduction in the evening. When P levels were > 11 ng/mL, FET was performed “in phase” on day-2, day-3, or day-5 depending on embryo stage at cryopreservation (n = 139 cycles). When P levels were < 11 ng/mL, DYD 10 mg three times a day orally, was added to VMP and FET was postponed by one day (n = 237 cycles, 63%). The primary endpoint was the comparison of live birth rates (LBR) between the two groups. Results: Mean serum P level on D1 was 10.2 + 3.7 ng/mL. Characteristics of patients in both groups were similar for age, body mass index, endometrial thickness prior to P introduction, quality of transferred embryos, and embryo transfer stage. Regarding the primary endpoint, LBR was similar between the VMP+DYD group and the VMP group (26.1% vs. 27.3%, NS). Conclusion: These results suggest that adding DYD to VMP and postponing the transfer in patients with low P levels in hormonally substituted FET cycles might optimize outcomes.
Gomes Richmond R
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 022-026;

In pregnancy, the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) is increased fivefold when compared to nonpregnant women of the same age, and PE is one of the leading causes of death during pregnancy. However, the diagnosis of PE among pregnant women is complicated by concerns regarding radiation exposure. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a wide array of presentations and a predilection to affect women of certain ethnic backgrounds. The hallmark of the disease is multisystem involvement, dispersed in time and severity. Usual pulmonary involvement includes pleuritis, pleural effusions, pneumonitis, shrinking lung syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and alveolar hemorrhage. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively unusual presentation of SLE. We report the case of a 20-year-old primi at 21 weeks gestation with an acute PE with central chest pain and shortness of breath. The absence of overt signs and symptoms and traditional risk factors prompted a fragmentary workup. This led to the detection of antibodies sensitive for SLE, in the absence of overt signs and symptoms. We revive the concept of latent lupus, a condition construed as early lupus. We firmly suspect direct causation between SLE and PE. Further studies are needed to establish pathogenesis to facilitate early diagnosis and prevent morbidity and mortality from PE. Due to persistent hypotension, thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase was administered and the clinical and hemodynamic response was excellent, with no maternal or fetal hemorrhagic complications. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is sometimes camouflaged by the physiological changes that occur in pregnancy and diagnosis is often delayed by a reluctance to expose the fetus to ionizing radiation.
Nazari Zeinab, Mortazavi Leila, Gordani Noushin
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 019-021;

Background: Cervical choriocarcinoma is a malignant trophoblastic neoplasm that arises from pluripotent gonadal germ cells. Various manifestations are expected including vaginal bleeding and symptoms related to metastasis. Here, we report a case of primary choriocarcinoma in a post-menopausal woman. Case presentation: A 67-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound and laboratory results were normal except for a β-hCG titer of 14850 IU/L. Hysteroscopy revealed a polyp in the posterior wall of the cervix. hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed due to suspected choriocarcinoma. The β-hCG titer decreased immediately after surgery. However, the β-hCG titer increased again one month after surgery and treatment was continued with weekly methotrexate administration. Conclusion: Manifestations such as vaginal bleeding is very important in post-menopausal women. Although there are no specific guidelines for the treatment of choriocarcinoma in these patients, hysterectomy following chemotherapy based on response to treatment and β-hCG titration is favorable.
Karpa Monica, Thakur Sita, Singh Kamal, Sharma Jyoti, Chaudhary Harsha
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 013-018;

Background: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia have remained a major global public health threat in contributing significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Based on the inverse relationship between serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and plasma renin activity found previously, it is speculated that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be a negative endocrine regulator of renin production in vivo. During pregnancy, vitamin D may play a role in implantation and placental function potentially due to angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory effects. Vitamin D deficiency can affect the health of both mother and fetus by increasing the production of inflammatory cytokines and stimulating the activity of T-regulating cells. Vitamin D is emerging as a promising agent for pre-eclampsia prevention. Aims and objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the vitamin D levels in pre-eclamptic and healthy non-pre-eclamptic pregnant women in labor and find out the relationship between vitamin D levels and pre-eclampsia. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on pregnant women with pre-eclampsia in labor. For each case with pre-eclampsia, one uncomplicated, normotensive pregnant woman in labor was taken as control. On admission to the labor room detailed history, physical examination followed by thorough obstetrics and systemic examination was done. Required investigations were done including vitamin D and calcium levels. Maternal and fetal condition was monitored during labor/cesarean section, mode of delivery, maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded. After delivery, 2cc of cord blood was collected in a serum tube and sent for vitamin D levels. Data was collected and analyzed statistically using Epi-info version 7.1. Results: It was observed that the patients in both groups were comparable with respect to demographic and obstetrics characteristics except for significantly high BP in group I. Vitamin D deficiency (i.e. < 20 ng/ml) was significantly more in group I as compared to group II and the difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the mean maternal calcium levels were significantly lower in group I in comparison to group II (p < 0.0001) i.e. the mean maternal calcium level in group I and group II were 8.03 ± 0.94 and 9.19 ± 0.67 respectively. It was also observed that the level of 25-OH-D in neonates of preeclamptic women was significantly lower than for those of the normal pregnant women (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in all parts of the world. Pregnant women and neonates are highly vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. Preeclampsia is indeed associated with lower vitamin D levels and the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia involves vitamin D and calcium metabolism through their role in immunomodulation, angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects. From the present study, it was observed that vitamin D and calcium levels were significantly lowered in women with pre-eclampsia as compared to those of the normotensive pregnant women. So early detection of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies may be helpful in preventing occurrence of PET and its complications.
L Foumsou, A Kouamé, Nl Danmadji, Bm Gabkika, S Damthéou, H Aché
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 009-012;

Introduction: Preeclampsia constitutes a public health problem in our region. According to the WHO, it is the third cause of maternal mortality after severe hemorrhages, infections and is responsible for morbidity and high fetal mortality. The aim of this study was to improve on the management of severe preeclampsia at the University Hospital Center of Mother and Child (UHCMC) in N’Djamena. Patients and methods: It was a prospective and descriptive survey of 3 years duration, from January 01st, 2017 to December 31st, 2019. Included in our study were, all patients admitted for severe preeclampsia and agreed to participate in the study. Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic studies were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Results: During the study period, 13599 pregnant and parturients were admitted to the Gynecology-Obstetrics department of the UHCMC, among whom 406 cases of severe preeclampsia, with a frequency of 2.9%. The patients were young (23.2 years), married (96.3%), primipara (61.3%), referred (64.3%) without antenatal care in 47.9% of cases. Functional signs were dominated by headaches with 34.0% of cases. The proteinuria was ≥ 3 crosses in 83.7% of cases. Patients had received magnesium sulfate in 98.3%, the delivery mode was cesarean in 64.0% of cases. Principal morbidity was eclampsia (40.8%) and fetal was prematurity (36.4%). Maternal lethality was 11.1% and fetal mortality was 19.9% cases. Conclusion: Severe preeclampsia is frequent in the UHCMC in N’Djamena. It is responsible for high maternal and fetal mortality. The practice of quality antenatal care, could prevent the occurrence of complications and improve the maternal-fetal prognosis.
Rachaneni Suneetha, Enki Doyo, Welstand Megan, Heggie Thomasin, Dua Anupreet
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 001-004;

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a non-invasive treatment for overactive bladder (OAB). PTNS involves peripheral neuromodulation that uses electrical stimulation to target the spinal cord roots, mainly S3, which controls bladder function. Neuromodulation is postulated to be the effect of cross-signaling between sympathetic and parasympathetic post ganglionic nerve terminals and synapses, causing alteration of nerve signals involved in the voiding reflex. de Groat, et al. described this neurophysiological process and the neural circuits involved in controlling the lower urinary tract [1]. Stimulation of peripheral nerves and subsequent “cross-talk” at the level of the postganglionic neuroeffector junctions can modulate transmission and facilitate detrusor inhibition [2].
Crowley Clare Margaret, Gill Noelle, Geisler Minna
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 005-008;

Aims: To examine patient satisfaction of an outpatient operative hysteroscopy performed by both doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. Secondly, compare satisfaction, complications, and failure rate of these procedures performed by doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. Methods: In this retrospective study, the charts of 80 women who attended the service over one year were examined. Women were included if either an endometrial polyp or submucosal leiomyoma required removal using an endoscopic morcellator. All women had signed a consent form for the procedure. Results: In total 67/80 (84%) patients were satisfied with the service. Nurse hysteroscopists completed most procedures 59/80 (74%). Satisfaction ratings were not recorded for 13/80 (16%) consultations, completed by doctors. There was no difference in satisfaction and complication rates between doctors and nurse hysteroscopists. A total of five patients required repeat endoscopic morcellation, three completed by doctors and two completed by nurse hysteroscopists. For this group, satisfaction and complication ratings did not change. Conclusion: High patient satisfaction and low complication rates were found. Nurse hysteroscopists performed more procedures, providing a safe and useful service. Few patients required repeat morcellation procedures.
Abdollahpour Sedigheh, ,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 101-105;

Introduction: Although worldwide maternal and neonatal mortalities have decreased, but Achieving sustainable development goals remains an unfinished agenda and global challenge. This study aimed to predict neonatal and maternal index based on development and demographic indicators. Methods: In this ecologic study, the dependent variables were Maternal mortality ratio (MMR), Neonatal mortality rate (NMR), and Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) and the independent variables were Gender gap index (GGI) and its four components, human development, life expectancy, total fertility rate, and population growth. Data conducted using international secondary data published data bases of health metrics from 2016 to 2018 in 149 countries from WHO (World Health Organization), World Economic Forum, UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). Data analysis was performed using correlation model in Stata version 14.1 software. Results: In this study, economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with MMR. Human Capital Index, Educational attainment, and Life expectancy are negatively associated with NMR. Economic participation and total fertility rate are positively and educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy are negatively associated with U5MR. Discussion: To reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality rate, it is important to pay attention to indirect causes such as equal conditions for men and women to demographic and population indices such as economic participation, educational attainment, Human Capital Index and life expectancy.
Chrysoula Kaparelioti, Eleni Koniari, Vasiliki Efthymiou, Dimitrios Loutradis, George Chrousos, Eleni Fryssira
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 096-100;

In vitro fertilization is one of the most common and effective procedure for thousands of couples worldwide who want to have a child and are unable to do so for various reasons. Diverse studies show that couples who conceive naturally after one year of trying had newborns with an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with couples who conceived before completing one year of trying. Children from assisted reproduction (AR), have a 30% increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight, compared with children from infertile fathers. Regarding the conflicting results the present study aimed to record the frequency of genetic, congenital anomalies in children and adolescents who had examined in the last decade to the Clinical Genetics Clinic of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens whose mothers had undergone assisted reproduction. The research process was conducted at the "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital based in Athens. However, the cases that were studied came from all over Greece. Initially, the researcher recorded the cases that came to the clinic of Clinical Genetics and whose conception occurred after technical assisted reproduction. After telephone communication and the consent of the parents, a live appointment was scheduled. In this meeting-interview all the provisions of the investigation and the protocol were asked and some elements of the medical history of the cases were confirmed. The total sample included 230 children and adolescents. The resulting data were recorded on a printed form/questionnaire. Then, they were registered electronically in the program SPSS 25.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) with a specific unit code for each case/patient, followed by the processing and statistical analysis of the data as well as the recording of the results. The gender of the participants was male for 118 participants (51.3%) and 112 females (48.7%). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of maternal, paternal (at the time of delivery) age was equal to 36.38 (5.94) and 39.94 (6.58) respectively. The observed abdormalities were 35.53% psychomotor retardation, 23.68% facial abnormalities, 23.68% spinal cord abnormalities, 21.05% morphological abnormalities, 20.61% short stature, 19.74% developmental disorders, 19.30% heart disease, 16.67% neurological diseases, 14.47% genetic syndromes, 11.40% genital abnormalities, 8.33% limb abnormalities, 7.46% dermatological abnormalities, 6.14% eye abnormalities, 6.14% hypothyroidism, 5.70% endocrine disorders, 5.26%otolaryngology abnormalities, 2.63% disease of kidney, intestine, 2.19% vascular malformations. Regarding the karyotype chromosome analysis by G-banding technique, from the 230 children in: 24 (10.43%) a pathological result was found, in 158 children (68.70%) it was found normal (46, XX or 46, XY by case) without other findings, while in 48 children (20.87%) the test was not performed for various reasons. Regarding the results of molecular analysis (DNA) from the 230 children, in 50 (21.74%) a pathological finding was found, in 56 children (24.35%) no abnormalities were found and in 124 children (53.91%) no molecular analysis was performed for various reasons. In conclusion, the sample of this descriptive study is characterized as uniform in terms of the method of assisted reproduction since 96.24% had followed the classic IVF. Full-term pregnancy was associated with the appearance of malignancy and head morphological abnormalities (64.6%), normal pregnancy was associated with genetic syndromes (18.2%) and facial abnormalities (11.1%). It is recommended the screening oocyte and sperm donors in order to help protect the safety and health of donors, recipients, and future offspring. The present study confirms the association of the presence of congenital anomalies after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, the absolute risk of developing severe dysplasias after an IVF procedure is limited.
Assefa Endalkachew Mekonnen, Janbo Adem, Ghiwot Yirgu
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 081-091;

Objectives: We analyzed the indications of cesarean section (CS) using Robson Ten-Group. Classification Systems (RTGCS) and comparison between private and public health facilities in Addis Abeba hospitals, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Facility-based retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 2411 mothers who delivered by CS were classified using the RTGCS. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for cleaning and analyzing. Binary logistic regression and AOR with 95% CI were used to assess the determinants of the CS. Results: The overall CS rate was 41% (34.8% and 66.8% in public & private respectively, p < .0001). The leading contributors for CS rate in the private were Robson groups 5,1,2,3 whereas in the public 5,1,3,2 on descending order. Robson group 1 (nulliparous, cephalic, term, spontaneous labor) and group 3 [Multiparous (excluding previous cesarean section), singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation& spontaneous labor], the CS rate was over two-fold higher in the private than the public sector. Women in Robson groups 1, 2, 5 & 9 are two and more times higher for the absolute contribution of CS in private than public. The top medical indications of CS were non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS, 39.1%) and repeat CS for previous CS scars (39.4%) in public and private respectively. Mothers who delivered by CS in private with history of previous CS scar (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.2), clinical indications of maternal request (AOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-27.98) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.6-10.7), induced labor (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and pre-labored (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0) were more likely to undergo CS than in public hospital. Conclusion: The prevalence of CS was found to be high, and was significantly higher in private hospitals than in a public hospital. Having CS scar [having previous CS scar, Robson group 5(Previous CS, singleton, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks’ gestation) and an indication of repeat CS for previous CS scar] is the likely factor that increased the CS rate in private when compared within the public hospital. Recommendation: It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS, encouraging vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Policies should be directed at the private sector where CS indication seems not to be driven by medical reasons solely.
Tang Toon Wen, Jessie Phoon Wai Leng
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 092-095;

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is uncommon tumour arising from the female reproductive tract. Incidence of LMS in pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 10 cases reported thus far in medical literature. We present a case of myomectomy performed during elective caesarean section for breech presentation, due to its easy accessibility and well contracted uterus. Subsequent histology revealed LMS on final specimen. Patient subsequently underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. No chemotherapy was given as she opted for close clinical- radiological monitoring instead. This case report highlights the importance of discussion with patients regarding the risk of occult malignancy in a fibroid uterus. Appropriate management of uterine leiomyosarcoma in pregnancy remains unclear. Consideration of removing an enlarging leiomyoma during caesarean section might be ideal in view of its malignant potential, just like in this case; however, location of the tumour and risk of bleeding needs to be weighed. Ultimately, management of such cases needs proper discussion between obstetrician and the patient.
Shiddo Danyah, Danyah Shiddo, Hilmi Nour
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 073-080;

Introduction: It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation still remains to be a serious problem for large proportion of women in most sub-Saharan Africa countries including Sudan, with a high prevalence of 88%. Objective: The main objective was to identify the factors associated with FGM among daughters of reproductive aged woman. Materials and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers, the total sample was collected in ACTH based on the number of reproductive age mothers with at least one daughter older than 5 years. A structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data obtained was analyzed by the use of the SPSS software. Results: Out of 200 mothers, 113 (56.5%) had at least one circumcised daughter. Knowledge about genital mutilation (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.13-15.37), attitude (AOR = 48.53, 95% CI: 14.45-198.69) and mothers circumcision status (AOR = 14.03, 95% CI: 2.81- 95.45) were the most significantly associated with FGM. Furthermore, having good knowledge, positive attitude, high socio-economic status, being literate, being of Christian religion and living in urban area had lower odds of having a circumcised daughter. Conclusion: In this study, more than half of the mothers had at least one circumcised daughter. Mothers’ knowledge, attitude, circumcision status, socio-economic status, age, residence, educational level and religion were significantly associated with female genital mutilation.
Jangra Isheeta, Chauhan Aditi, Prabha Vijay
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 033-039;

Earlier in our laboratory, the role of various individual sperm impairing microorganisms on sperm parameters and female infertility has been elucidated at higher doses. As, multiple bacterial species tend to exert more pathogenic effect in comparison to single organism hence, present study was carried out to evaluate that if consortia of these sperm impairing organisms can lead to infertility in female mice at sub fertility dose. For this, impact of individual bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and consortia of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined on the motility, viability of mouse spermatozoa and fertility outcome. The results showed that the individual bacterial strains of E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae could led to immobilization of spermatozoa by agglutination and P. aeruginosa led to immobilization of spermatozoa without agglutination. Also, all of them led to 100% sperm death in 45 min of incubation. In case of consortia of bacterial strains, the results showed sperm agglutination in all the cases and they were able to induce 100% sperm death at 30 min of incubation time. Further, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the impact of individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains on the fertility outcome in female Balb/c mice. For this, female mice were administered intravaginally with 101 cfu/20µl of individual bacterial strains or consortia of strains for 10 consecutive days or PBS. The results showed that both individual bacterial strains and consortia of bacterial strains were able to efficiently colonize the mouse vagina. Further, control group receiving phosphate buffer saline and groups receiving individual bacterial strains showed all the pregnancy related changes viz. abdominal distension, string of pearls on palpation as well as delivery of pups on completion of gestation period and delivery of pups. The histological examination of reproductive organs viz. uterus and ovary, of the female mice receiving PBS or individual bacterial strains showed the formation of corpus luteum in the ovary and the formation of decidua’s in the uterus, indicative of pregnancy. However, mice receiving consortia of bacterial strains did not show any pregnancy related changes throughout the experiment. Thus, these results indicate that the presence of consortia of sperm impairing microorganisms in vaginal milieu is efficient in provoking infertility even at subfertility doses.
Rafiq Shagufta, Abbasher Ibrahim, Denona Branko, Anwar Sadia, Ahmad Ammara, Aziz Bushra
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 066-068;

The lumbar epidural analgesia is commonly used for labour analgesia. The “loss of resistance to air” LORA technique is commonly used for recognition of epidural space. One of the rare complications of this technique is Pneumocephalus (PC). We want to present a case of Pneumocephalus which the mother developed during epidural analgesia in labour. The patient complained of severe headache immediately after attempt at epidural catheter insertion. The symptoms progressively worsened following delivery. A postnatal anaesthetic review was performed and an urgent CT scan of the brain was arranged that showed pneumocephalus. A conservative management pathway was followed with liberal analgesia, oxygen inhalation and keeping the patient mostly in supine position. Her symptoms regressed in severity over the next three days and subsided after one week. We believe that the amount of air used for LORA should be minimized; LORA should not be used after dural puncture and the use of normal saline would alleviate the risk.
Ade-Ojo Idowu Pius, Ipinnimo Oluwadare Martins
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 069-071;

Primary umbilical cutaneous endometriosis is a rare umbilical endometrioma that affects women who are within the reproductive age group. It may be associated with infertility and severe dysmenorrhea and can be difficult to diagnosed in an asymptomatic patient. We report a case of a 38-year-old nulliparous with seven years history of infertility and severe dysmenorrhea. Her hormonal profile assay and hysterosalpingogram results were normal while her husband semen analysis was also within normal range. She complained of monthly bleeding from a painful rubbery multilobate cutaneous nodule on the umbilicus of one year duration. She was diagnosed of cutaneous endometriosis. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and she had surgical excision with good outcome.
E Peters Grace, N Ononokpono Dorathy, U Willson Nsikanabasi, I Oko Nnabuike, Ej Peters
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 060-065;

Background: Obstetric fistula is a condition that results from obstructed labour, which occurs when the baby cannot pass through the mother’s birth canal because it either does not come head first or is too large for her pelvis. Prompt medical intervention, often including Caesarean section, permits a safe delivery for both mother and child. Despite this possibility, yearly, thousands of women across the country receive no such aid and their labour is a futile agony lasting between three and five days, with uterine contractions constantly forcing the baby, usually head first, against the organs of the pelvic and unyielding pelvic bone resulting in Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF). The main thrust of this study was to examine how health system factors affect health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Akwa Ibom and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. Methods: Qualitative and descriptive research approaches were adopted for the study and a total sample of two hundred and sixteen (216) respondents comprising of one hundred and fifty (150) post fistula repair operative patients and sixty six (66) health workers were purposively selected using simple random techniques. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis and tables of frequency. Results: The respondents views showed that availability of treatment centre and quality of health care services influenced health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula in Nigeria. Conclusion: The study indicated that health seeking behaviour of women with obstetric fistula is a major challenge in Nigeria. Establishment and proper equipment of obstetric fistula treatment centres as well as subsidization of the cost of treatment to allow women with this health problem to access health care services are strongly recommended. Therefore, government at all level and non-governmental organizations need to educate the women and create awareness on the causes and dangers of VVF.
, Jain Bhoomika, Mhapankar Sabrina, Kumar Sushil
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 040-043;

Episiotomy is a most commonly performed minor procedure. There are various type of episiotomy suturing, in this study two most common types of episiotomy suturing techniques were compare in terms of healing rate. This study concluded that the continuous method of episiotomy suturing is although faster, cosmetically better and associated with less post-operative pain but it heals significantly better than interrupted method of suturing.
, Jain Bhoomika, Mhapankar Sabrina, Kumar Sushil
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 044-049;

Pre eclampsia and IUGR are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pre eclampsia is a multisystem disorder, in normal pregnancies trophoblastic invasion transforms high resistance spiral arteries into low impedance uteroplacental circulation. This uteroplacental circulation remains incomplete in pre eclampsia and IUGR. This study is to correlate the Doppler Findings with the Fetal Outcome in pre eclampsia patiens, and helps decide appropriate time for delivery with least perinatal morbidity.
M Sena-Martins, V Tadini, Bg Bolsonaro, C Mariani-Neto, Abn Pires, Ll Lucato, An Soares, Jc Xavier, Bacb Teixeira, Sl Faro, et al.
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 050-054;

Puerperal acute uterine inversion is a rare obstetric condition observed as a serious complication during the third stage of labor. Reported as one of the causes of postpartum haemorrhage, it commonly requires quick diagnosis and surgical treatment in order to reduce morbidity and lethality. The authors describe a case of uterine inversion with hypovolemic shock after home birth, brought to Hospital Leonor Mendes de Barros. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of acute uterine inversion and its management and a review of aetiology, predictive and risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.
, Fouillet Catherine, Bodeau Nicolas, Nizard Jacky
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 025-032;

Internet has become an important part of our life, including during pregnancy where it is broadly used to find information (84%). The aims of this study were (1) to describe the proportion of women using Internet Social Networks (ISN) concerning their pregnancy, during pre or postpartum hospital stay, (2) to define how ISN users refer to their pregnancy and delivery on these social networks, (3) to compare anxiety level, social sustain level, sociodemographic characteristics of the both population (4) and to determine profiles of the ISN users with multiple correspondence analysis. Methods: 399 questionnaires were distributed in the postpartum wards of two academic hospitals in Paris, and 258 fully filled were retrieved. Tools: Anxiety scale (STAI- A and B), Cutrona Social Provisions Scale, sociodemographic and obstetrical questionnaire. Results: 76% (n = 195) were ISN users. We compared ISN users versus ISN non users women. Demographically, the two populations were comparable. Anxiety scores were similar in both groups, whereas social support scores showed a statistical difference in social integration. In the global population, 84% use Internet for information concerning pregnancy; this rate is higher for ISN users than ISN non users (tendency 0.058). ISN were used in priority for sharing with relatives, and 10% with other pregnant women. Concerning pregnancy, patients posted in priority the birth announcement (28%), the pregnancy announcement (23%), and the newborn’s pictures (12%). 6% posted their fetuses’ ultrasound pictures. Three clusters of ISN users were extracted with statistically different social support scores (p = 0.019) and comparable anxiety scores. The third one, with at risk profile, used ISN as social support. For all women, but specifically for younger and more socially fragile women, Internet gives to professional new perspectives to develop information and prevention tools during the perinatal period.
M Klimatsouda, C Donoudis, G Kontopoulos,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 020-024;

Borderline Ovarian Tumors (BOT) tend to present more frequently nowadays, especially in younger women. Furthermore fertility preservation and laparoscopic management is often desired and therefore appropriate counselling is challenging and the treatment selection must be made on evidence based medicine. Adnexal mass could be a random finding when a typical gynecologic examination is performed. The diagnostic algorithm for possible BOT is the same as for any ovarian tumor, but the treatment options and techniques may vary based on patient’s willing to preserve her fertility or not. Laparoscopic or laparotomy approach has similar results although intraoperative findings and frozen section may redirect the primary treatment planning. When an initial conservative approach is chosen, a secondary approach including total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with staging should be considered. Hence a full counselling is recommended before any primary approach.
Sayed Sayed Mohamed, Khalifa Ahmed Khedr, Abd Allah Shehata Nesreen Abd El Fattah, Am Eweis Mohamed, M Shawky Sherwet
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 055-059;

Objective: To observe the predominance of fetal anomalies in pregnant women in a multi-centric setting. Methods: This prospective observational study included 20225 pregnant women who came for antenatal care in University Hospital and fetal medicine units from 2016 to 2019. Fetal anatomical scanning was done for all participants. Results: One hundred eighty-three cases had fetal congenital anomalies, yielding a prevalence of around 0.9%. Third of cases had positive consanguinity, this increased in cases of skeletal and thoracic anomalies. The presence of past history of anomalies was evident in 8.2% mostly with skeletal and heart anomalies. History of drug intake was only verified in 1.6% of cases. Sixty-three women out of 183 (34.4%) were diagnosed to have anomalies in fetal nervous system. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis are recommended for early detection of congenital anomalies and counselling.
Muralidhara Krithika, Dhareshwar Shashank
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 019-019;

31 year old female presented with abdominal pain and respiratory distress in the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Her blood workup revealed a lipemic sample (Figure 1) due to markedly elevated serum triglycerides of 8178 mg/dl (Glycerol Phosphate Oxidase method). Total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein were elevated at 1701 mg/dl and 788 mg/dl respectively. There was no family history of lipid disorders. Diagnosis was consistent with gestational hypertriglyceridemia with acute pancreatitis (Serum Amylase-50 U/L, Serum Lipase- 96 U/L), though genetic tests to rule out pre-existing primary hypertriglyceridemia was not feasible. In view of the life threatening condition, she was initiated on Insulin-Dextrose infusion and offered one session of Plasma Exchange. Figures 2,3 depict membrane plasma separation with the obtained effluent as lipemic plasma. Her serum triglycerides showed a declining trend and was discharged in good health (serum triglycerides at discharge-651 mg/dl).
Zamaniyan Marzieh, Gordani Noushin, Bagheri Paniz, Jafari Kaveh, Peyvandi Sepideh, Hajihoseini Mojtaba, Taheripanah Robabeh, Moradi Siavash, Peyvandi Salomeh, Alborzi Arman
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 015-018;

, Lalchandani S
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 4, pp 003-006;

Aims: To audit the use of cervical dilators, local anaesthetic, and failure rates in outpatient hysteroscopy over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. To review the experiences of women attending the outpatient hysteroscopy clinic (OHC) over a two-year period in University Hospital Kerry. Methods: Retrospective data review was carried out. Green-top Guideline No. 59: Best Practice in Outpatient Hysteroscopy, published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG), was the standard used for comparison. Results: Two hundred and twenty women were seen over a two-year period. The average age was forty-eight. The most common complaint being of menorrhagia/irregular bleeding per vaginum (PV). Local anaesthetic was used in just under one third of cases of which half required cervical dilatation. Most women reported experiencing mild to moderate levels of discomfort however most would opt for an outpatient hysteroscopic procedure again if required. Discussion/Conclusion: Outpatient hysteroscopy is a well-tolerated and safe procedure. Suitability for outpatient hysteroscopy is not predictable based on parity of menopausal status. Women would elect to undergo outpatient hysteroscopy again if required and this is likely due to several reasons including convenience and lack of requirement for general anaesthetic.
Gulshan Ravneet
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 151-157;

Miscarriage is a frequent outcome of pregnancy, with major emotional implications to the couple experiencing such an event. Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. On the other hand recurrent miscarriages are post implantation failures in natural conception. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Many surgical and non-surgical interventions are used in the management of threatened and recurrent miscarriages. In this review, we present available evidence-based guidance on the incidence, pathophysiology, investigation and clinical management of recurrent miscarriage and threatened miscarriage, focusing mainly on the first trimester of pregnancy and primary healthcare settings. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice.
, E García García, Ja Gobernado Tejedor, Ce Badillo Bercebal, D Viruega Cuaresma, Ji González Martín
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 145-150;

Objectives: Tension-free vaginal tapes are the gold standard of the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); however, long-term recurrence of SUI after this surgery has been a matter of problem. Here, we attempted to determine the incidence of its recurrence and to identify the risk factors of 4-year-recurrence of SUI after this surgery. Methods: Of all patients undergoing this surgery (n = 341, 2015-2019), 71 patients were met the study inclusion criteria. Of 71, SUI recurred in 8 patients, with the recurrence rate being 11.3%. The following three were identified to be independent risk factors: older age, history of delivery of macrosomic baby (>4 kg), and the presence of mixed urinary incontinence. The frequency of recurrence in cases with mixed incontinence amounted for 19.5%. Recurrence was 22 and 50% for women with macrosomic delivery once and more than twice, respectively. Conclusion: Advanced age, macrosomic delivery and mixed urinary incontinence have shown to be independent risk factors of recurrence of SUI after tension-free vaginal tape-obturator at 4 years. Key message: Stress urinary incontinence can recur so investigate possible risk factors is a priority. Our paper relates recurrence with: advanced age, fetal macrosomia and mixed incontinence.
, Sabry Mohamed
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 175-181;

Introduction: Chronic endometritis (CE) is a common cause of infertility in asymptomatic patients and its diagnosis and treatments improved assisted reproduction technique outcome in most of the specialized centers. Diagnosis of CE in endometrial biopsy by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain is hard to identify chronic inflammatory cells from the stroma and the use of plasma cells-specific stains is helpful. Aim of the work: Evaluation of the use of CD138 in the identification of plasma cells in endometrial biopsy of patients with previous IVF trial failure. Material and methods: Hysteroscopic and curettage endometrial biopsies from fifty-five females with previous IVF trial failure were stained with H&E and CD138 immunostaining for detection of plasma cells. Results: Plasma cells were identified in 52.7% of cases by H&E and in 6/55 by CD138 immunostaining. CD138 is more sensitive in detecting plasma cells in endometrial biopsy than H&E stain. There was a significant statistical correlation between CE and abnormal uterine bleeding, abortion and primary infertility (p > 0.5). Conclusion: Diagnosis of CE is helpful in infertility patients with IVF trial failure to improve the outcome of the maneuver. CD138 is more sensitive for plasma cells specially in endometrial biopsies than H&E.
, Kamal Reem, Al-Shammari Mohammed Thani, Swaraldahab Mohamed, Swaraldahab Hassan
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 167-174;

Trans-radial uterine artery embolization (UAE) is acknowledged as a non- invasive, cost-effective and safe procedure for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. However, it is associated with the recurrence of symptoms like abnormal uterine bleeding and pressure symptom in some patients. This is a comparative study of our data with other international data, in the context of percentage reduction in fibroid size, accompanying controlling factors, short and long term follow up data analysis of the first two years was done. Careful pre-procedural counseling of future possibility of fibroid recurrence and means of management should be stressed. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study at the Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The study was done from 1st November 2017-31st October 2019, on symptomatic patients diagnosed with fibroids, who refused surgical treatment. The outcomes included: fibroid site, size and anatomical position, patients’ symptoms, general condition, and early and delayed complications. These data were compared with those from other international studies. Results: The study involved 23 patients (mean age: 39 years). The average percentage reduction in fibroid volume was 49%. There were no major complications and no recurrence of symptoms during the covered period. Data analysis revealed a poor correlation between the overall percentage reduction of fibroid size with fibroid number, age of patients’, and body mass indices. Conclusion: Despite poor correlation, we provided preliminary data of the first two years out of the total five-year projected period of the study where it showed effectiveness and relative safety of radial - UAE for fibroid.
Hazari Komal Sundeep, Paulose Litty, Kurien Nimmi, Mohammad Hozaifah, A Elgergawi Taghrid Faek, , Hassan Amar
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 158-166;

Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray. The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure. COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome. The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
S Lakshmanan, M Saravanan, P Senthil, N Sharma
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 123-126;

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) like exposure in the mid cycle for inducing the oocyte maturation is the very crucial step in the success of ICSI treatment. Introduction of LH surge endogenously by GnRH-agonist for final oocyte maturation induction, may be more physiological compared with the administration of HCG. Since GnRH agonist would induce FSH surge also along with LH surge, as happens in natural cycle. However, the effects of giving HCG trigger for inducing only LH surge and giving GnRH agonist trigger for inducing both LH and FSH surge, in patients treated for ICSI with GnRH antagonists need more research. Sub fertile patients planned for ICSI, meeting the requirement of inclusion criteria, were started with recombinant FSH from day 2 of menstrual cycle. GnRH antagonists were started from day 6 of stimulation. FSH dose was adjusted according to the individual response. Trigger was planned when the lead follicle reaches 24 mm. For triggering, 100 patients were randomized to receive Recombinant HCG trigger and Triptorelin acetate trigger. Oocyte retrieval was done 36 hours after Recombinant hCG Trigger and 35 hours after Triptorelin acetate trigger. The oocyte maturity rate was assessed by the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved.
S Mahalakshmi, A Sakthi, L Saravanan,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 132-135;

Aim and objectives: Endometrial Window of Implantation (WOI) is open in the midsecretory phase wherein the markers of invasion and cell adhesion are manifested .The primary objective was to find out the predictive value of Endometrial thickness and profile as a prognostic factors for embryo transfers during ART. Materials and Methods: Endometrial thickness assessment was performed with grey scale ultrasound on the day of transfer just before thawing the embryos in patients undergoing Frozen embryo transfer cycle after endometrial preparation. Results: The mean age and standard deviation of study population was is 33.26+5.95.Out of 69 patients there was clinical pregnancy in 33 patients , miscarriage in 10 patients and ongoing pregnacy in 23 patients. So the implantation rate was 47.83% (33/69), early miscarriage rate (pregnancy ending before 12 weeks) was 14.49%(10/69) and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 33.33% (23/69). Endometrial thickness < 6 mm had comparable implantation rates but low ongoing pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The ultrasound morphological and vascular grading of endometrial thickness and vascularity is useful to synchronise Day 5 embryo transfer and window and implantation thereby minimizing the loss of good embryos in nonreceptive endometrium.
Lakshamanan Saravanan, Mahalakshmi Saravanan, Ramya Harish,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 127-131;

Aim and objectives: The primary aim was to measure the sperm DNA damage and to study the magnitude of sperm DNA damage. Secondary objective was to study the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on Day 5 Blastocyst expansion (graded 1-5). Results: There is an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation with an increase in age. Increased sperm DNA fragmentation is also associated with abnormal motility and morphology in semen samples. However, there is no reduction in expansion or grade of blastocyst. Conclusion: Sperm DNA fragmentation testing is a useful investigation in unexplained infertility. However, Sperm DNA fragmentation has no significant association with Day 5 embryo grade in ICSI cycles. Thesis work of Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine student: Dr. Ramya Harish
Yu Jian-Chun, Zhang Mei-Hua, Yu Ling, Zhai Li-Ping, Song Xia, Dong Fang-Di,
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 142-144;

The aim of this study was to develop a novel four-spherical intrauterine contraceptive device (4-SIUD) with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) for human, and to evaluate the contraceptive effect. The 4-SIUD composed of 4 mesh spheres and 5 support arms. The shape of 4-SIUD was like a “T”. The height (H), upper width (D) and thickness of the 4-SIUD for macaques were 0.8 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.3 cm, and for human were 4.5 cm, 4.0 cm and 0.8 cm, respectively. The 4-SIUD was inserted into 5 macaques and pregnancy was not observed at 12 months. Three women used the 4-SIUD for 12 months, uterine perforations, expulsion, pain, and pelvic inflammatory did not occur. The results suggested that the 4-SIUD is appropriate for rhesus macaques and human use, and has a good contraceptive effect.
Kitenge Jacques Ngoy, , Kinenkinda Xavier K, Kakudji Prosper L
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 136-141;

Introduction: Uterine rupture is one of the peripartum complications, which cause nearly about one out of thirteen maternal deaths. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mortality among women with uterine rupture in referral hospitals of Lubumbashi, in the south east part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from December 1st, 2012 to 31st, 2016 on uterine rupture. During the study selected 158 women were included by using exhaustive sampling method. Data were checked, coded and analyzed into STATA version 12. Chi-square test was used to identify the predictors of maternal and perinatal mortalities in women with uterine rupture and 95% Confidence Interval of odds ratio at p - value less than 0.05 was taken as a significance level. Results: The overall prevalence of uterine rupture was 0.49%. The average age of the patients was 29.5 ± 6.2 years and 71.52% of them were between 20 and 34 years old; more than 60% had a parity ≥4 (average parity: 4.7 ± 2.5). 81.17% of the cases had a fully ruptured uterus and 51.17% of the uterine ruptures were located in the lower segment. Repair of the pregnant ruptured uterus was performed in 93.04% of the cases and hysterectomy in 5.06%. Maternal and perinatal mortalities were 8.86% and 72.04% respectively. Regarding maternal mortality, no parameter showed a significant association with maternal death. As for perinatal mortality, parity ≥4, complete rupture and segmento-corporeal lesion were significantly associated with perinatal death (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Uterine rupture remains one of the causes of maternal and perinatal mortality in Lubumbashi. The place occupied by uterine ruptures in obstetric activity requires joint and urgent action by all stakeholders in the health system in order to combat this scourge, witness to poor quality obstetric care.
Roseingrave Ruth, Lalchandani Savita
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 121-122;

Ms X is a 34 year old para 1 woman who presented at 26+5 weeks’ gestation with fever, neurological symptoms and history of a viral illness. She was treated empirically for bacterial meningitis and transferred to a tertiary maternity hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for enteroviral ribonucleic acid (RNA), confirming viral meningitis. Ms X improved clinically and was discharged after six days. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Thorough history, examination and workup is vital for timely treatment. Prognosis in viral meningitis is excellent with no clear adverse fetal or neonatal outcomes.
Gojnic Miroslava, Vilendecic Zoran, Dugalic Stefan, Pantic Igor, Todorovic Jovana, Perovic Milan, Kovac Mirjana, Djunic Irena, Miljic Predrag, Dotlic Jelena
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 3, pp 103-108;

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