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Results in Journal Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan: 166

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Sujinah Sujinah, Aris Hairmansis, Priatna Sasmita, Yudhistira Nugraha
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 63-71; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p63-71

Abstract:
Padi merupakan tanaman semusim berumur relatif pendek sehingga efektivitas pemanfaatan radiasi matahari menjadi penentu produksi. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara umur dan produktivitas gabah, dihubungkan dengan hasil biomasa per satuan waktu dan indeks panen, dilakukan di dua lokasi pada musim hujan 2016/2017, yaitu di Sukamandi (Aluvial, 5 m dpl) dan Muara Bogor (Latosol, 250 m dpl). Percobaan pertama yaitu skrining hasil biomasa dan umur tanaman 27 genotipe dengan latar belakang genetik berbeda, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Percobaan kedua, pemupukan dengan tiga dosis pupuk N terhadap enam genotipe hasil seleksi dari percobaan pertama dilakukan di Sukamandi pada MH 2017/2018. Menggunakan rancangan percobaan split plot. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan terdapat interaksi nyata antara genotipe dengan lokasi penelitian untuk umur tanaman dan hasil biomasa. Korelasi antara hasil gabah dengan umur berbunga untuk kelompok tanaman berumur genjah tidak nyata, sedangkan untuk kelompok tanaman umur dalam korelasinya negatif sangat nyata. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan genotipe kelompok umur panjang cenderung mengakumulasi biomasa yang dicirikan oleh rendahnya indeks panen. Genotipe padi yang hasilnya tinggi adalah yang umur berbunganya genjah (75-85 hari) dan memiliki indeks panen tinggi. Dari percobaan pemupukan menunjukkan varietas memberikan respon yang berbeda terhadap dosis pemupukan untuk karakter bobot biomas kering dan hasil gabah. Genotipe B14671E-MR-39-3-2-2 dan B12411 MR memberikan respon positif nyata terhadap peningkatan pemupukan urea dari dosis 115 kg N/ha ke 207 kgN/ha, sedangkan varietas Inpari-32, Inpari-19, dan Inpari-43 tidak menunjukkan respon nyata. Informasi yang diperoleh berguna bagi peneliti pemulia tanaman dalam merakit varietas padi berdaya hasil tinggi.
Sagung Ayu Nyoman Aryawati, Heni Safitri, Anak Agung Ngurah Bagus Kamandalu, Wayan Sunanjaya, Anela Retna Kumala Sari
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 73-79; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p73-79

Abstract:
The stages of assembling new superior varieties are the adaptation test lines of hope that will be proposed. Adaptation test was carried out in SubakBengkel, Tabanan Regency and SubakBatanWani, Badung Regency, Bali in 2018. The purpose of this study was to determine the agronomic performance of some rice lines in the two locations in the Province of Bali. The study used a randomized block design (RBD) with four replications. Data were analyzed using SAS and DMRT applications.The results of the analysis showed that the lines of hope that were tried had a significant effect on all plant parameters observed. The highest rice productivity was produced by the BP20797d-SKI-1-2-7-1 line of hope, which was 9.20 tons GKG h-1, more 4.78 and 7.38% compared to Ciherang and Inpari 33 varieties.
Saeka Unoki, Trias Sitaresmi, Hiroshi Ehara, Yudhistira Nugraha
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 81-88; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p81-88

Abstract:
Iron toxicity affects the growth and yield of rice plant. Overcoming the damage of rice production by iron toxicity requires furthermore researches from laboratory to field levels. Here, we study responses of rice genotypes to iron toxicity between vegetative stage in hydroponic and whole grow stages in the pot. The first experiment was hydroponic experiment using twelve rice genotypes which were growth in the Yoshida Solution with addition of 0.2 % of agar. Three level of iron was given at 0, 500 and 700 ppm. The second experiment was the pot experiment using alluvial soil added with 3.000 ppm of ferrous combine with four levels of potassium and the control on Cilamaya Muncul (tolerant), Inpara 8 (moderate tolerant) and IR 64 (susceptible). In hydroponic experiment, even though the symptom appeared obviously, the leaf bronzing score (LBS) of tolerant and sensitive genotypes were not different. Physiological traits were significantly affected by Fe treatment in all varieties. Then symptom and physiological traits were significantly correlated. Through the pot experiment, it was confirmed the tolerance of each varieties. However, we couldn’t see the correlation between the LBS on hydroponic and soil at this time. And the heading delay was new finding, but it depended on varieties. We also could see the possibility of potassium application to inhibit iron toxicity but still we need to explore how it works. Kata kunci: iron toxicity, rice, hydroponic, soil
Siti Uswatun Hasanah, Sukrasno Sukrasno, Rika Hartati
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 113-118; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p113-118

Abstract:
Soybeans is a functional food containing higher isoflavone compared to that of other food crops. Genistein, daidzein and glisitein are components of soybean isoflavones. Genistein to function as a protective agent against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The content of genistein in soybean can be influenced by soybean varieties and plant maturities. This study was aimed to determine the genistein content of soybean varieties in Indonesia. The experiment was carried out at Biology Pharmacy laboratory of Indonesian School of Pharmacy and at Instrument Laboratory of School of Pharmacy, of Bandung Institute of Technology. Total of nine soybean varieties were used in the experiment. Extraction was carried out using heat treatment, and the extract yield was calculated on the base of grain soybean being used. The highest was 11.19% obtained from Dering 1 variety. The genistein was monitored using the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), but the result was not clear. Fractionation was performed using gravity column chromatography, and the fraction results were analyzed using a spectrophotodensitometer. Results showed that genistein content of Anjasmoro and Argomulyo soybean varieties, each was late and medium maturity, had high genistein content of 15.996 ± 2.51 µg/gram and 14.175 ± 2.03 µg/gram, respectively. In contrast, soybean varieties Detam 1, medium maturity, had low genistein content of 5.313 ± 4.77 µg/gram. This finding is important for the functional food industry in selecting raw material.
Teddy Wahyana Saleh, Jaka Sumarno, Ari Abdul Rouf
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 105-111; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p105-111

Abstract:
Produksi padi dan jagung dapat ditingkatkan melalui optimalisasi lahan dengan pola tumpangsari. Tidak optimalnya produktivitas padi dan jagung dalam pola tanam tumpangsari mungkin disebabkan oleh kombinasi varietas yang kurang tepat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi kombinasi varietas padi dan varietas jagung yang tepat dalam pola tanam tumpangsari, untuk memperoleh produktivitas yang tinggi. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Durian, Kecamatan Gentuma Raya, Gorontalo, pada MT 2018/2019, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok factorial, empat ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah varietas padi, yaitu P1 (Inpago-11), P2 (Inpari-42), P3 (Ponelo), dan P4 (Situbagendit). Faktor kedua adalah varietas jagung, yaitu J1 (Bima-20), J2 (NK-22), J3 (HJ-21) dan J4 ((JH-27), ditambah perlakuan padi monokultur dan perlakuan jagung monokultur. Ukuran petak 12,5 m x 12,5 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kombinasi padi varietas Ponelo dan jagung varietas HJ-21 memberikan hasil tertinggi, masing-masing 4,17 t/ha padi dan 8,32 t/ha jagung. Nisbah kesetaraan lahan tertinggi (2,24) dihasilkan dari kombinasi perlakuan tumpangsari padi varietas Ponelo dengan jagung varietas HJ-21. Padi varietas Ponelo adalah varietas local setempat, sehingga diharapkan mudah untuk diadopsi oleh petani.
Jumali Jumali, Dody D Handoko, Siti Dewi Indrasari
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 97-103; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p97-103

Abstract:
Rice grain drying using sun radiation has its problem during the rainy season, due to low radiation intensity. Box dryer using gas as its source of energy had been developed to overcome the problem during the rainy season. This research was aimed to study the effect of drying methods on physical, physicochemical, and organoleptic quality of some improved rice varieties. Seed of five rice varieties, namely Ciherang, Inpari 30, Inpari 32 (white grain rice), Inpari 24 and Inpago 7 (red grain rice), were planted at Sukamandi Research Station, Indonesian Center for Rice Research, following the Integrated Crop Management approach. The rice crops were harvested when the grain had ripen optimally, threshed using a threshing machine and the grains were dried using a box type dryer and using the sun radiation. The milled rice was analyzed for their physical, physicochemical, and organoleptic quality. Results showed that the differences of drying methods, namely sun-drying and box drying, affected the physical quality of rice grain. Box dryer for Ciherang variety yielded higher percentage of unpolished milled rice and the head grain rice was slightly higher than that of sun-drying. However, drying methods did not affect the physicochemical and organoleptic quality of the cooked rice. Box dryer is considered suitable for rice grain drying during the rainy season.
Elis Septianingrum, Zahara Mardiah
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 89-96; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n2.2020.p89-96

Abstract:
Selama penyimpanan, beras merah mengalami perubahan mutu fisik, kimiawi, maupun mutu rasa atau sensoris. Mutu fisik menjadi kriteria konsumen dalam memilih beras berkualitas, sedangkan karakeristik dan mutu rasa menjadi faktor akhir penentu keputusan konsumen untuk memilih beras yang dikonsumsi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi mutu sensoris varietas beras merah pecah kulit selama penyimpanan. Varietas yang digunakan yaitu Inpari-24 dan Inpara-7 yang dikemas vakum dan disimpan pada suhu penyimpanan 30OC (suhu ruang) dan 4OC (suhu penyimpanan dingin) selama enam bulan. Uji mutu dan hedonik dilakukan setiap dua bulan selama enam bulan terhadap atribut mutu sensoris, yaitu: warna, rasa, aroma, kepulenan, dan penerimaan umum. Hasil uji mutu sensoris menunjukkan selama enam bulan penyimpanan terjadi penurunan warna, dari sangat merah menjadi agak merah dan peningkatan kepulenan dari pera menjadi pulen hingga agak pulen, tetapi tidak terjadi perubahan kilap dan tidak terdapat perubahan aroma yang tidak disukai. Kepulenan dan rasa nasi berkorelasi dengan penerimaan umum terhadap nasi beras merah. Penyimpanan beras merah dikemas secara vakum pada suhu 30OC dan pada suhu 4OC memiliki tren perubahan dan nilai skor mutu yang tidak berbeda nyata. Penyimpanan beras merah pecah kulit dalam kemasan vakum pada suhu ruang (30OC) selama enam bulan cukup efektif mempertahankan mutu beras.
Mira Landep Widiastuti, Sri Wahyuni, Aida Fitri Viva Yuningsih, Holil Munawar Rohman, Ahmad Yajid
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 27-34; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n1.2020.p27-34

Abstract:
Seed quality testing is one of aspect control and quality assurance for certified seeds. The grain shape is one of the important parameter components tested in the seed certification process especially in the field. The common method used were using human/ analysts visual observation. It has a high degree of subjectivity and low efficiency. Observation of complex samples in the field requires an alternative observation that is more subjective and accurate. An alternative technology for identifying seeds during certification and production is identification based on digital images. The purpose of this study were to identify and classify rice seeds based on physical form using digital image analysis. A total of 20 varieties with various shapes have been taken with a microscope that connected to the camera and computer. The resulting image file was analyzed using imageJ 1.51k software and analyzed statistic to discriminate the seeds tested according to their group. Results from this study indicated that digital image analysis is able to identify and classify seeds. The grouping of seeds into long, medium and round seed categories based on perimeter, circularity, AR, and round parameters with successive correlation levels is 95.4%; 82.5%; 45.3% and 38.9%. This method is more sensitive to identifying seed characteristics than eye visualization of seeds whose physical size is outside the range of numbers specified in the description. For example Cisadane, Gilirang and Ketonggo seeds.
Sciprofile linkNafisah Nafisah Nafisah, Zairin Zairin, Satoto Satoto, Ali Jamil, Priatna Sasmita
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 9-16; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n1.2020.p9-16

Abstract:
Multi-environment experiment could reveal the performance and adaptation of the advanced breeding lines for specific or general environment. The objective of the present investigation was to analyze the pattern of Genotype x Environment (G x E) interaction for grain yield of 67 genotypes by Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model using the data generated from observational yield trial in three different coastal rice environment in Indonesia including one site in coastal of Eretan, Indramayu (West Java) and two sites in the coastal area of Mataram, West Nusatenggara during dry season of 2009. In each location, the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications, 5m2 plot size and 20 cm x 20 cm of planting space. Standard management practices for irrigation field were followed for all trials. The results showed the highly significant genotypic and G x E interaction. The genotype x environment (GxE) interaction influenced the relative ranking of the genotypes across environment. Genotype 62(IR76397-2B-6-1-1-1-1), G3(IR58427-5B-15), G61(IR76393-2B-7-1-1-3-1), G19 (IR73055-8-1-1-3-1), G26 (IR 77674-3B-8-2-2-14-1-AJY5), G38(IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-2-AJY4), G35(IR77674-3B-8-1-3-13-2-AJY2), G44(IR68144-2B-2-2-3-3), and G53(IR72593-B-18-2-2-2) produced higher yield compared to the overall mean, and showed low G x E interaction effect with low ASV (AMMI’s Stability Value) score presented the high yield genotype with high adaptability compared to the checks. G23(IR77674-B-20-1-2-1-3-6-4-AJY1,8.39 t/ha), G25 (IR 77674-3B-8-2-2-12-5-AJY2, 8.11 t/ha), G24(IR77674-3B-8-2-2-8-3-AJY4, 8.32 t/ha), G18(IR72049-B-R-22-3-1-1, 8.78 t/ha), produced high yield and indicated suitable for Eretan environment. Both the stable genotypes and the specific adaptation genotypes with the highest average yield compared to the checks will be further evaluated in prelimenary yieid trials in the several environments with the bigger size plot.
Yuni Widyastuti, Bayu Pramono Wibowo, Satoto Satoto
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 4, pp 1-7; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v4n1.2020.p1-7

Abstract:
Adoption of the hybrid rice varieties by farmers is often impaired by the high price of hybrid seed, due to low yields in hybrid seed production fields. Female outcrossing ability and female hybrid seed production ability, defined as the rate of filled spikelets of the male sterile line and as its grain yield under outcrossing, respectively, determine plant traits for hybrid seed yield. We identified an morphological characters and outcrossing rate ability of 6 hybrid rice combination that affect grain yield of hybrid rice seed production. The experiment conducted in 3 locations i.e. Subang, Malang, and Ungaran districts during dry season of 2016. Subang is the best location to hybrid rice seed production with the highest average of grain yield. Hipa 19 was the hybrid varieties having > 1 ton/ha grain yield highest that others. The important agronomic characteristics that affected of F1 grain yield i.e. plant height, number productive tillers, number of filled grains, exerted panicle rate, dan outcrossing rate. Correlations between number of filled grains, outcrossing rate, and grain yield were tight and highly significant. High yield potential and cost-effective for hybrid seed production can be achieved using hybrid rice with high outcrossing rate and suitable condition of an environment.
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