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, Josef Bruers, Onno Van Der Galiën, Wil Van Der Sanden, Geert Van Der Heijden
Published: 5 October 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0410-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 5 October 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0416-z

Abstract:
Collagen membranes have some benefits include promoting wound healing through isolation, clot stabilization, wound stability, and hemostasis, enhancing primary wound coverage through its chemotactic ability to attract fibroblasts, and augmenting flap thickness by providing a collagenous scaffold. The purpose of this study was to compare primary and secondary healing and collagen membrane-based primary healing after surgical removal of partial impacted mandibular third molars, evaluating the incidence of postoperative complications and analyzing the swelling, mouth opening, and pain. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: the SC (Secondary closure) group, the PC (Primary closure) group, and the MBPC (membrane based primary closure) group. Data were collected on pain, mouth opening, swelling, and complications experienced by the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for the pain (p > 0.05), relatively. The swelling recorded on postoperative days 2 and 7 was lower in the SC group than in the PC (p = 0.046 and 0.00) and in MBPC (p = 0.005 and 0.002) groups, respectively. Mouth opening showed a statistically significant difference between the three groups at day 2 (p = 0.00). Wound dehiscence was shown in 6 patients in the PC (20%) group and 2 patients in the MBPC (6.7%) group. Dry socket was observed 3 patients in the SC group (10%), 2 patients in the PC group (6.7%), and no dry socket in the MBPC group. No cases of infection or postoperative bleeding were encountered. The secondary closure provides a marked advantage over the primary closure in terms of swelling and mouth opening. However, the absence of alveolitis in the primary closure using the collagen membrane and minimal wound dehiscence, suggests that membrane use may support primary healing in terms of wound healing.
Published: 31 August 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0413-2

Abstract:
This study investigated dental caries status and its associated factors among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2016. It comprised a questionnaire survey and a clinical examination. Kindergarten children aged 5 were recruited using a multistage sampling method. Parents of the participating children were asked about their children’s demographic information, sugary snacking behaviours, and oral health–related behaviours and about their own oral health knowledge. One trained dentist performed oral examinations on the children. Caries experience was measured using the dmft index. The relationships between the dmft scores and background information, sugary snacking behaviours, oral health–related behaviours and parental dental knowledge were studied using a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis. A total of 570 children were invited to participate, and 501 completed the oral examination (response rate: 88%). The prevalence of dental caries was 55%, and the mean dmft score was 2.7 ± 3.7. Decayed teeth (dt) constituted 93% of caries experience. ZINB analysis found that children who visited a dentist, who were taken care of primarily by grandparents and whose parental dental knowledge levels were moderate had higher dmft scores. Children who ate sugary snacks more than twice daily, had irregular dental attendance and lived in low-income families had a significantly higher chance of having dental caries. Dental caries was prevalent among 5-year-old Hong Kong children, and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. The caries prevalence of the children was related to their frequency of sugary snack intake, dental attendance and socio-economic background.
Published: 10 August 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0408-z

Abstract:
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects 15–25% of children and adolescents in the United States. The diagnosis of GERD in children is complex as reported symptoms or symptom profiles have been found to be unreliable. Frequently, the diagnosis must be confirmed by objective tests such as pH monitoring or histological evidence of esophagitis on an esophageal biopsy. Dental erosion has been shown to be associated with GERD as an atypical complication and has the potential to be a marker of GERD. The purposes of this study were to compare the frequency and patterns of dental erosion in children and adolescents with and without histologic esophagitis. Twenty-five subjects were recruited from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Information regarding potential GERD symptoms, food habits, and dental hygiene habits were obtained. Intra-oral photographs were taken, and a dental exam for erosion was performed. The results of a standard biopsy taken from the lower third of the esophagus during an endoscopy were used to divide subjects into either the control group or the GERD group (i.e. those with histologic esophagitis). Twenty-two subjects yielded 586 evaluable teeth. No significant difference was found between frequency or erosion patterns of those with and without histologic esophagitis. Dental erosions were more frequent in primary teeth. Dental erosions do not appear to be associated with histologic esophagitis indicative of GERD.
Published: 24 August 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0412-3

Abstract:
Children with a Cleft Lip and/or Palate (CL/P) have been reported to have poorer oral health than those without the condition. The consequences for these children can be particularly problematic due to implications for future treatments. Tooth brushing is an important behaviour contributing to children’s oral health, but is under researched in the CL/P population. The aim of the study is to explore the experience of maintaining tooth brushing among children in the United Kingdom (UK) with a CL/P and their parents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty-two parents and sixteen children with a CL/P (5-11 years), recruited at a cleft centre in the UK. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Three key themes were drawn from the qualitative data: first, parents of children with a CL/P generally had strong motivation to look after their children’s teeth but children’s motivation was inconsistent. Second, parents were primary enablers of children’s tooth brushing behaviour, often employing approaches adapted to their child’s characteristics to encourage tooth brushing. Third, a range of obstacles were encountered by parents and children in maintaining regular tooth brushing behaviours. They reported obstacles such as issues related to CL/P, ‘forgetting’ and childhood illness. The paper suggests that parents of children with a CL/P need support to enact their intention to maintain regular tooth brushing and prioritise tooth brushing within the context of demanding and dynamic family life.
Published: 18 August 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0400-7

Abstract:
Chlorhexidine is the gold standard of dental plaque prevention. The aim of the present study was to compare the plaque and gingivitis inhibiting effect of commercial products containing 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% chlorhexidine in a modified experimental gingivitis model. In three groups of healthy volunteers, experimental gingivitis was induced and monitored over 21 days and simultaneously treated with the commercial solutions containing 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% chlorhexidine. The maxillary right quadrant of each individual received mouthwash only, whereas the maxillary left quadrant was subject to both rinsing and mechanical oral hygiene. Compliance and side effects were monitored at days 7, 14, and 21. Plaque and gingivitis scores were obtained at baseline and day 21. The commercial mouthwash containing 0.2% chlorhexidine resulted in statistically significantly lower plaque scores than the 0.12 and 0.06% mouthwashes after 21 days use, whereas no statistically significant difference was found between the effects of the two latter. A commercially available mouthwash containing 0.2% chlorhexidine had statistically significant better effect in preventing dental plaque than the 0.12% and 0.06% solutions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02911766 . Registration date: September 9th 2016.
Published: 14 July 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0406-1

Abstract:
Early childhood caries (ECC) is an aggressive condition that can affect teeth of young children. This study aimed to evaluate genotypic diversity and phenotypic traits of S. mutans isolated from dental biofilms of children with different caries status in comparison with caries free (CF) children. Streptococcus mutans strains were isolated from supragingival biofilm samples of CF, ECC and severe-ECC (S-ECC) children and genotyped by arbitrary-primer polymerase chain reaction - AP-PCR. S. mutans genotypes were tested for their ability to reduce the suspension pH through glycolysis, to tolerate extreme acid challenge and by their ability to form biofilm. Response variables were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% of significance. There was an increase in the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms with the severity of dental caries. No differences in genotypic diversity and in acidogenicity of genotypes were found among CF, ECC and S-ECC children. S mutans strains with genotypes more characteristic for ECC and S-ECC children formed more biofilms than those identified in CF children. The strains isolated from S-ECC children were highly acid tolerant. Although S. mutans genotypic diversity was similar among the groups of children, phenotypic traits of S. mutans, especially the acid tolerance response, could explain the severity of early childhood caries.
Published: 14 July 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0407-0

Abstract:
To explore and analyse the association between biofilm and the genetic polymorphisms of scrA gene of EnzymeIIscr found in clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) from severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) in 3 years old children. Clinical strains of S. mutans were conserved from a previous study. Thirty strains of S. mutans from the S-ECC group and 30 strains of S. mutans from the caries free (CF) group were selected. Biomass and viability of biofilm formed by the strains were evaluated by crystal violet and alamar blue assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from the S. mutans isolates. PCR was conducted to amplify scrA gene. After purified and sequenced the PCR products, BioEdit sofeware was used to analyse the sequence results. A chi-square test was used to compare the results. Compared to the CF group, the biomass of S-ECC group was higher (P = 0.0424). However, the viability of the two groups showed no significant difference. All 60 clinically isolated S. mutans strains had a 1995 base pair (bp) scrA gene. Forty-nine point mutations were identified in scrA from the 60 clinical isolates. There were 17 missense point mutations at the 10, 65, 103, 284, 289, 925, 1444, 1487, 1494, 1508, 1553, 1576, 1786, 1822, 1863, 1886, and 1925 bp positions. The other 32 mutations were silent point mutations. No positions were found at active sites of ScrA. The statistic analyse showed no significant missense mutation rates between the two groups. There was no association between biofilm and genetic polymorphisms of scrA from S. mutans with S-ECC in 3 years old children.
Kyung A. Chun, Kee-Yeon Kum, Woo-Cheol Lee, Seung-Ho Baek, Hae-Won Choi,
Published: 11 July 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0396-z

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yuan-Yuan Kong, Jian-Mao Zheng, Wen-Juan Zhang, , Xue-Chao Yang, Miao Yu, Su-Juan Zeng
Published: 11 July 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0398-x

Abstract:
In the present study, we explored the link between vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI gene polymorphisms with deciduous tooth decay in Chinese children. Our study included 380 Chinese children aged 4–7 years, whose DNA sample was collected from the buccal mucosa. VDR gene polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP. The adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated that BsmI containing the Bb genotype was linked with the increased risk of deciduous tooth decay (OR = 1.856, 95% CI = [1.184, 2.908], p = 0.007). However, VDR polymorphisms ApaI, TaqI and FokI were not associated with deciduous tooth decay (ApaI: OR = 0.839, 95% CI = [0.614, 1.145], p = 0.268; TaqI: OR = 1.150, 95% CI = [0.495, 2.672], p = 0.744; FokI: OR = 0.856, 95% CI = [0.616, 1.191], p = 0.356). Our results showed that VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with the risk of deciduous tooth decay in Chinese children aged 4–7 years. However, the specific mechanism remains to further verify through experiment.
Published: 11 July 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0401-6

Abstract:
Periodontal disease associates with systemic diseases but corresponding links regarding apical periodontitis (AP) are not so clear. Hence our aim was to study association between AP and the prevalence of systemic diseases in a study population from Sweden. The subjects were 150 patients from a randomly selected epidemiological sample of 1676 individuals. 120 accepted to participate and their basic and clinical examination data were available for these secondary analyses where dental radiographs were used to record signs for endodontic treatments and AP. Periapical Index and modified Total Dental Index scores were calculated from the x-rays to classify the severity of AP and dental infection burden, respectively. Demographic and hospital record data were collected from the Swedish National Statistics Center. T-test, chi-square and univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regressions analyses were used for statistics. Of the 120 patients 41% had AP and 61% had received endodontic treatments of which 52% were radiographically unsatisfactory. AP patients were older and half of them were smokers. AP and periodontitis often appeared in the same patient (32.5%). From all hospital diagnoses, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were most common, showing 20.4% prevalence in AP patients. Regression analyses, controlled for age, gender, income, smoking and periodontitis, showed AP to associate with CVD with odds ratio 3.83 (95% confidence interval 1.18–12.40; p = 0.025). The results confirmed our hypothesis by showing that AP statistically associated with cardiovascular diseases. The finding that subjects with AP also often had periodontitis indicates an increased oral inflammatory burden.
, , Jesper Reibel, , , Anne Marie Lynge Pedersen
Published: 29 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0393-2

Abstract:
To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher salivary concentration of total protein and sIgA than cases without contact allergy and healthy controls. Forty-nine patients (42 women, aged 61.0 ± 10.3 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects underwent a standardised questionnaire on general and oral health, assessment of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing. Nineteen patients had oral lichen planus, 19 patients had oral lichenoid lesions and 11 patients had generalised stomatitis. 38.8% had contact allergy. Xerostomia was significantly more common and severe in patients (46.9%) than in healthy controls, whereas the saliva flow rates did not differ. The patients had higher sIgA levels in unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva than the healthy controls. The total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the unstimulated saliva samples whereas it was higher in the chewing stimulated saliva samples from patients when compared to healthy controls. The differences were not significant and they were irrespective of the presence of contact allergy. Xerostomia is prevalent in patients with oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis, but not associated with salivary gland hypofunction, numbers of systemic diseases or medications, contact allergy, age, or gender. Salivary sIgA levels were higher in patients than in healthy controls, but did not differ between patient groups. The total salivary protein concentration was lower in unstimulated saliva samples and higher in chewing-stimulated saliva samples in patients than in healthy controls, but did not differ between patient groups. Our findings do not aid in the discrimination between OLP and OLL and these conditions with or without contact allergic reactions.
Published: 29 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0395-0

Abstract:
This study aimed to assess the difference in serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with periodontitis and in periodontally healthy individuals and evaluate the changes in circulating leptin and adiponectin after periodontal therapy. Leptin and adiponectin are the most generally studied adipokines that function as inflammatory cytokines. Although the association between periodontitis and serum levels of leptin and adiponectin has been studied extensively, the results were not consistent. A systematic search of the Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to September 2016 was conducted. The studies were screened and selected by two writers according to the specific eligibility criteria. The quality of included cross-sectional studies was assessed using the quality assessment form recommended by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies. The meta-analyses were conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. A total of 399 manuscripts were yielded and 25 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Significantly elevated serum levels of leptin and decreased serum levels of adiponectin in patients with periodontitis were observed in the subgroup analysis of body mass index (BMI) <30. The overall and subgroup analyses showed no significant change in the serum levels of leptin in patients with periodontitis after periodontal treatment. The subgroup analysis of systemically healthy patients showed no significant change in serum levels of adiponectin in patients with periodontitis after periodontal treatment. The present meta-analysis supported elevated serum levels of leptin and decreased serum levels of adiponectin in patients with periodontitis compared with controls in the BMI <30 population. In systemically healthy patients with periodontitis, serum levels of leptin and adiponectin do not significantly change after periodontal treatment.
Published: 21 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0390-5

Abstract:
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been largely used in dentistry. Nevertheless, there is lack of evidence regarding CBCT accuracy in the diagnosis of early periodontal lesions as well as the correlation between accuracy and lesion size. The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of CBCT and conventional intraoral radiographs in detecting different-sized interproximal bone lesions created in pig mandibles. The hypothesis was that CBCT accuracy would be superior to radiographs in detecting incipient bone lesions. Twenty swine dry mandibles were used, totalizing 80 experimental sites. Four groups were created according to exposure time to perchloric acid 70–72%: controls (no exposure), 2-hour exposure, 4-hour exposure, and 6-hour exposure. Standardized CBCT and conventional intraoral radiographs were taken and analyzed by two trained radiologists. The presence of lesions in the dry mandible was considered the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in detecting different-sized bone lesions were calculated for CBCT and intraoral radiographs. Accuracy of CBCT ranged from 0.762 to 0.825 and accuracy of periapical radiography ranged from 0.700 to 0.813, according to examiner and time of acid exposure. Inter-examiner agreement varied from slight to fair, whereas intra-examiner agreement varied from moderate to substantial. CBCT performance was not superior to that provided by conventional intraoral radiographs in the detection of interproximal bone loss.
Published: 19 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0389-y

Abstract:
Collaboration between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers has the potential to improve oral health care for people in rural and remote communities, where access to oral health services is limited. However, there is limited research on collaboration between these professional disciplines. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers from rural and remote areas of Queensland and to identify strategies that could improve collaboration between these disciplines from the perspective of dental participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2013 and 2015 with visiting, local and regional dental practitioners (n = 12) who had provided dental services to patients from eight rural and remote Queensland communities that did not have a resident dentist. Participants were purposely recruited through a snow ball sampling technique. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of QSR Nvivo v.10. Four major themes emerged from the data: (1) Communication between dental practitioners and rural primary care providers; (2) Relationships between dental and primary care providers; (3) Maintenance of professional dualism; (4) Strategies to improve interprofessional relationships (with subthemes: face to face meetings; utilisation of technology; oral health training for primary care providers; and having a community based oral health contact person). Participants observed that there was a lack of communication between the dental providers who saw patients from these rural communities and the primary care providers who worked in each community. This was attributed to poor communication, the high turnover of staff and the siloed behaviours of some practitioners. Visiting dental practitioners were likely to have stronger professional relationships with hospital nursing, administrative and allied health care staff who were often long term residents of the community. The findings suggest that there was little relationship between the dental personnel and primary care providers. Interprofessional collaboration between dental care providers and non-dental rural primary care providers in the rural and remote communities sampled could be improved by having regular face to face meetings between practitioners from across the health disciplines, providing oral health education to primary care providers, establishing and maintaining effective communication and referral pathways, and exploring a greater role for tele-dentistry.
Correction
Eizaburo Kobayashi, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Anton Sculean, Vivianne Chappuis, Daniel Buser, Benoit Schaller, Ferenc Dőri,
Published: 13 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0388-z

Ayuko Takada, , Satoru Horioka, Yasushi Furuichi, Yasunori Sumi
Published: 6 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0382-5

Abstract:
Ultraviolet (UV) light is used for phototherapy in dermatology, and UVB light (around 310 nm) is effective for treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In addition, it is known that UVC light (around 265 nm) has a bactericidal effect, but little is known about the bactericidal effect of UVB light. In this study, we examined the bactericidal effects of UVB-light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on oral bacteria to explore the possibility of using a 310 nm UVB-LED irradiation device for treatment of oral infectious diseases. We prepared a UVB (310 nm) LED device for intraoral use to examine bactericidal effects on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sauguinis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and also to examine the cytotoxicity to a human oral epithelial cell line (Ca9–22). We also examined the production of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide from Ca9–22 cells after irradiation with UVB-LED light. Irradiation with the 310 nm UVB-LED at 105 mJ/cm2 showed 30–50% bactericidal activity to oral bacteria, though 17.1 mJ/cm2 irradiation with the 265 nm UVC-LED completely killed the bacteria. Ca9–22 cells were strongly injured by irradiation with the 265 nm UVC-LED but were not harmed by irradiation with the 310 nm UVB-LED. Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide were produced by Ca9–22 cells with irradiation using the 310 nm UVB-LED. P. gingivalis was killed by applying small amounts of those reactive oxygen species (ROS) in culture, but other bacteria showed low sensitivity to the ROS. Narrowband UVB-LED irradiation exhibited a weak bactericidal effect on oral bacteria but showed low toxicity to gingival epithelial cells. Its irradiation also induces the production of ROS from oral epithelial cells and may enhance bactericidal activity to specific periodontopathic bacteria. It may be useful as a new adjunctive therapy for periodontitis.
Published: 5 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0384-3

Abstract:
It has been suggested that dental caries should be regarded as a chronic disease as many individuals repeatedly develop new caries lesions. How this is perceived by caries active patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported attitudes and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The questionnaire included items regarding patient-reported oral health; attitudes towards caries and efforts to prevent them; and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. Questionnaire data were supplemented with data on caries and caries prophylaxis from patients’ dental records. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on items related to patients’ perceptions of problems to see whether scales could be created. Experiences, perceptions and dental records of CA and CI patients were compared. The overall response rate was 69%. Dental records confirmed that CA patients had significantly more decayed teeth per year and a longer period of caries-active time than CI patients. Factor analysis resulted in 3 distinct scales measuring problems related to caries; 1) caries-related information; 2) negative experiences; and 3) negative treatment/staff attitudes. A fourth scale measuring perceived problems related to caries was also created. The CA group reported significantly more problems related to caries and dental treatment, received significantly more caries-related information, and reported significantly more negative treatment experiences compared to CI patients. Caries prophylaxis methods need to be improved in order to better meet the needs of caries active patients and to create a more positive experience with dental care.
, Kaline Romeiro, Luciana Gominho, , Larissa Costa, Diana Albuquerque
Published: 2 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0387-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 2 June 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0386-1

Abstract:
There have been inconsistent conclusions regarding salivary abnormalities and their effect on oral health of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the flow rate and selected biochemical parameters of unstimulated whole saliva in correlation to oral health in JIA children. Thirty-four JIA patients and 34 age- and sex-matched controls not affected by JIA (C) were divided into two groups: with mixed and permanent dentition. DMFT/dmft, gingival and simplified oral hygiene indices were evaluated. Salivary flow rate, pH, lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary protein concentrations and peroxidase activity were assessed. The salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the total JIA group (0.41 ml/min) as compared with the C (0.51 ml/min) and in the permanent dentition of JIA children (0.43 ml/min) as compared with the C (0.61 ml/min). A significantly lower pH was observed in total (6.74), mixed (6.7) and permanent (6.76) dentition of JIA groups in comparison to the C (7.25, 7.21, 7.28 respectively). The specific activity of peroxidase was significantly higher in JIA patients (total 112.72 IU/l, mixed dentition 112.98 IU/l, permanent dentition 112.5 IU/l) than in the C group (total 70.03 IU/l, mixed dentition 71.83 IU/l, permanent dentition 68.61 IU/l). The lysozyme concentration in JIA patients (total and permanent dentition groups) was significantly higher than in the C group. There were no significant differences in lactoferrin and salivary protein concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences in oral status between JIA patients and C, respectively: DMFT = 5.71, dmft = 3.73, OHI-S = 0.95, GI = 0.25 and DMFT 5.71, dmft = 3.73, OHI-S = 0.85, GI = 0.24. The specific activity of peroxidase in the unstimulated whole saliva was inversely correlated with the GI index, whereas the salivary lysozyme concentration was inversely correlated with the dmft index in JIA patients. In the course of JIA occur a reduction of the resting salivary flow rate and a decrease of saliva pH. In spite of this, no differences in the clinical oral status between the JIA children population and the control group were found. The mobilisation of salivary peroxidase and lysozyme contributes to the maintenance of healthy oral tissues.
Published: 26 May 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0379-0

Abstract:
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA) is a derivative of progesterone and is used as an oral contraceptive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CMA on odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and related signaling pathways. Cell viability was determined by the water-soluble tetrazolium (WST)-1 assay. Odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using odontogenic marker genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1). Mineralization of hDPCs was evaluated by ALP staining and alizarin red staining. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was examined by Western blot analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in cell viability between the control and CMA-treated groups. Our analysis of odontogenic marker genes indicated that CMA enhanced the expression of those genes. CMA-treated hDPCs showed increased ALP activity and formation of mineralized nodules, compared with control-treated cells. In addition, CMA stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of ERK and resulted in inhibition of downstream molecules by the ERK inhibitor U0126. These findings suggest that CMA improves odontogenic differentiation and mineralization of hDPCs through the ERK signaling pathway.
Published: 25 May 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0373-6

Abstract:
Angiogenin is a key molecule in the healing process which has been successfully applied in the field of regenerative medicine. The role of angiogenin in dental pulp regeneration is unclear. Here we aimed to reveal the impact of the hypoxia mimetic agent L-mimosine (L-MIM) and hypoxia on angiogenin in the dental pulp. Human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) were cultured in monolayer and spheroid cultures and treated with L-MIM or hypoxia. In addition, tooth slice organ cultures were applied to mimic the pulp-dentin complex. We measured angiogenin mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Inhibitor studies with echinomycin were performed to reveal the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 signaling. Both, L-MIM and hypoxia increased the production of angiogenin at the protein level in monolayer cultures of DPC, while the increase at the mRNA level did not reach the level of significance. The increase of angiogenin in response to treatment with L-MIM or hypoxia was reduced by echinomycin. In spheroid cultures, L-MIM increased angiogenin at protein levels while the effect of hypoxia was not significant. Angiogenin was also expressed and released in tooth slice organ cultures under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in the presence of L-MIM. L-MIM and hypoxia modulate production of angiogenin via HIF-1 differentially and the response depends on the culture model. Given the role of angiogenin in regeneration the here presented results are of high relevance for pre-conditioning approaches for cell therapy and tissue engineering in the field of regenerative endodontics.
Published: 25 May 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0380-7

Abstract:
Fixed orthodontic appliances render teeth cleaning arduous, thus when orthodontic treatment is associated with inadequate oral hygiene practice, development of white spot lesions (WSLs) imposes a significant risk on the dentition. Salivary reservoir of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and fluoride counteracts demineralization and encourages remineralization providing protection against caries challenge. The investigation of the factors leading to WSLs’ development is mandatory for appropriate prevention strategies planning. The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence, pattern of distribution and contributing factors to WSLs’ development, among orthodontic patients attending orthodontic departments in teaching institutes in Khartoum. This cross-sectional descriptive, analytical clinical based study was carried out among fixed orthodontic patients attending teaching institutes in Khartoum State. All patients visiting the clinics for their follow up during a 3 months period and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as a guide for standardized visual caries assessment. Saliva samples were collected from a sample of patients and the levels of calcium and phosphorus were measured. Patients were interviewed regarding their oral hygiene habits (frequency of tooth brushing, use of interdental brushes and mouth washes). Frequency distribution tables as well as graphs, Pearson’s correlations and Spearman’s correlation were used in the statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of WSLs was 61.4%. The prevalence for each tooth was: 48.1% in the canine, 32.3% in the lateral incisor, 31.6% in both the central incisor and the first premolar, 27.2% in the second premolar and 8.9% in the first molar. No significant relationship between WSLs prevalence, age and gender or oral hygiene measures was found. There was no significant difference in calcium and phosphorus level between participants with WSLs or those with sound teeth (p-values for calcium and phosphorus were 0.154 and 0.567 respectively). Within the limitations of this study it was found that WSLs among fixed orthodontic patients represented an issue of concern. High prevalence of WSLs was recorded among orthodontic patients in Sudan, indicating a need for more stringent prevention programmes and oral hygiene practices prior to initiation of orthodontic treatment.
Published: 19 May 2017
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 17, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0374-5

Abstract:
We describe development of the Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ), a battery of measures assessing common potential predictors, mediators, and moderators of ECC. Individual-, family-, and community-level factors that are linked to oral health outcomes across at-risk populations are included. Developing standard measures of factors implicated in ECC has the potential to enhance our ability to understand mechanisms underlying successful prevention and to develop more effective interventions. The Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4), funded by National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, developed the BRFQ, which was used across four randomized trials to develop and test interventions for reducing ECC in at-risk populations. Forty-five investigators from across the centers and NIDCR were involved in the development process. Eight “measures working groups” identified relevant constructs and effective measurement approaches, which were then categorized as “essential” or “optional” common data elements (CDEs) for the EC4 projects. Essential CDEs include 88 items, with an additional 177 measures categorized as optional CDEs. Essential CDEs fell under the following domains: oral health knowledge, oral health behavior, utilization/insurance and cost, parent/caregiver dental self-efficacy, quality of life, caregiver and family characteristics, and child characteristics. The BRFQ makes available a battery of measures that support efforts to understand population risk factors for ECC and to compare oral health outcomes across populations at risk. The BRFQ development process may be useful to other clinical research networks and consortia developing CDEs in other health research fields. All the trial that used the BRFQ were registered at Clinicaltrial.gov NCT01116726 , April 29, 2010; NCT01116739 , May 3, 2010; NCT01129440 , May 21, 2010; and NCT01205971 , September 19, 2010.
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