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Results in Journal The European Journal of Research and Development: 41

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Metin Gürler
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i3.105

Abstract:
Most economists agree that innovation is a key driver of economic growth, prosperity and human well-being. Patents are an important indicator of innovation output. This study aims to investigate the relationship between patents as an innovation output and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as an economic welfare. In the study 166 countries were analyzed and a high positive correlation between patent grants per million population and GDP per capita as 0.804. The inequality in income distribution in the world is also clearly seen in the distribution of patent grants. High-income countries have 61 percent of global income whereas they have 66.9 percent of total patent grants in the world. Low-income countries have 0.5 percent of global income whereas they have 0.3 percent of total patent grants in the world. Global average patent grants per million population is 221.3 in 2020. Patent grants per million population is 943.6 in high-income countries and 8.6 in low-income countries. Test results show that, the natural logarithm of patent grants per million population increase 10 percent, it causes approximately 4.1 percent increase in natural logarithm of GDP per capita. In other words, if patent grants per million population in the world increase 23.3, it causes approximately 523.1 USD increase in global GDP per capita in average.
Moses Yirimeah Ndebugre,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i3.102

Abstract:
Bluetooth is one of the several technologies to cater to indoor localization. It has the lowest power consumption and good accuracy performance. In the world of IoT, data from sensors and software help in giving meaning to physical objects connected to the internet. This paper uses data gathered using Bluetooth Low-Energy sensors in predicting an agent's location in an indoor environment. We propose a Bluetooth-based model that is divided into two parts: a Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) that trains on data transformed into images and ideas from Game Theory that uses the Markov Decision Process(MDP) to determine the exact location of the agent. The data to image transformation uses the Image Generator for Tabular Data (IGTD) algorithm, which considers the Euclidean distances between the access points in creating the images. The results show that the CNN trains well on transformed images and offers a solid approach to determining every beacon used for Bluetooth-based indoor localization. After a beacon is found, MDP finds the optimal policy to locate the access point under which the agent lies.
Hasan Uzer,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i3.104

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic outbreak first appeared in Wuhan, China, towards the end of 2019. As of November 2021, approximately 260 million people have been infected with the corona virus and more than 5 million people have died. There are many studies published on various topics related to the Covid-19 epidemic around the world. Anxiety and anxiety disorders, especially in this process, are some of the most common diseases. However, there have not been many studies on anxiety disorders in general surgery patients. The main purpose of this study is to examine the anxiety levels of a group of general surgery patients in our country during the Covid-19 epidemic and the frequency of their anxiety levels coming to the hospital. Demographic information form, STAI forms TX-I and TX-II were used as data collection tools in the study. According to the findings obtained as a result of data analysis, it was determined that there is a moderate negative correlation between STAI scores and income levels. In other words, patients with high income levels have low level of anxiety. According to the results obtained within the scope of the 95% confidence interval, the STAI scale parts and the total scale results were found to be statistically significant (p value < 0.05).
, Berkay Aydoğdu,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 241-268; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.64

Abstract:
In this study, the thermal energy performances and environmental effects of two different reinforced concrete structures, Pure Shear Wall (PSW) Building and Shear Wall-Frame (SWF) Building, were investigated in the climatic conditions of Elazig province. Thermal performance analysis for both buildings; was carried out with the TS 825 program. First of all, through this program, monthly and annual heating loads were determined for 11 different alternative building component scenarios of two different buildings. Subsequently, efficiency alternatives were created in accordance with the climatic conditions of the region and TS 825. Efficiency alternatives designed for both buildings have been analyzed together with their completely uninsulated and current states. Finally, buildings with reinforced concrete carrier systems, energy analysis methods and efficiency alternatives were compared and evaluated based on the results of the analysis. As a result, it has been observed that the building with the PSW system consumes more energy than the building with the SWF system when it is uninsulated and in its current condition.
Enes Efe, Seral Özşen
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.22

Abstract:
Biological signals that occur during sleep are recorded and classified by specialists. This process is called sleep staging. However, this is a very long and laborious process. Therefore, automatic sleep staging systems are needed. Nevertheless, automatic sleep staging studies to date have not provided satisfactory performance. The main reasons for this are inter-channel interference, electrode disconnection, and noise. In this paper, a new method (eye method) based on the Euclidean distance measurement method has been developed to solve the electrode disconnection or non-contact problem. This method was applied to three different datasets and detected all electrode disconnections with 100% accuracy. Thanks to this advanced method are aimed to increase the success of automatic sleep staging systems to be designed in the future.
Emre Yılmaz
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.25

Abstract:
Composite materials, obtained by combining two or more materials; It is defined as a new type of material with high strength, high rigidity and lightness. Composite plates are structural elements that are used in machines and structures under different loads, consist of at least two types of materials and can be produced in various constructions. In this study, elastic-plastic stress analysis of polymer matrix continuous fiber reinforced composite plate under axial load was solved with Airy Stress Function proposed as a 5th order non-uniform polynomial to solve the elasticity problem. Polyethylene matrix composite reinforced with steel fibers was taken as the plate material and the material was accepted as ideal elastic-plastic. Tsai-Hill Yield Criterion was used for the plastic solution. According to the results of the analysis, as the fiber angle increased in the composite plate, the plastic stress limit decreased, the increase in the fiber angle decreased the plastic stress limit, and the decrease in the plastic stress limit caused the residual stresses to increase.
Nurbanu Hınık, Özcan Çağırıcı,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 213-223; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.58

Abstract:
As the complexity of modern software systems increases, changes in software have become crucial to the software lifecycle. For this reason, it is an important issue for software developers to analyze the changes that occur in the software and to prevent the changes from causing errors in the software. In this paper, mutation testing as software test analysis is examined. Mutation tests have been implemented on open-source Java projects. In addition, for aviation projects, emphasis is placed on performing change impact analysis processes in compliance with the certification based on DO-178C processes.
, Mustafa Arda Ayden, Banu Altay
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 92-101; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.36

Abstract:
Today, automatic identification of individuals from biometric features is widely used in identification and authentication, security, and monitoring applications. Since facial recognition is a more user-friendly and comfortable method than other biometric methods, it has grown rapidly in recent years. However, most facial recognition systems are vulnerable to spoofing attacks. Therefore, face liveness detection (FLD) methods are of great importance. On the other hand, unlike traditional methods, deep learning techniques promise to significantly increase the accuracy of facial liveness detection systems and eliminate the difficulties of the real-world implementation of these systems. Therefore, in this paper, the application of some deep learning models to detect face liveness is reviewed and compared with each other.
Menderes Koyuncu, Baran Erkek
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 182-189; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.51

Abstract:
In the present study, three different walnut husk particles were applied as reinforced material used for manufacturing epoxy-based composites, and the influence of pumice powder content (20wt%) on the water absorption, and elongation at break properties of composites was investigated. Composites were prepared by hand lay-up method. Water absorption of the composites decreased with adding filler content. Finally, was concluded that pumice powder-filled is effective for improving the performance of walnut husk/epoxy composites. This behavior was found to relate to the efficient modification of the hydrophilic characteristics of walnut husk particles. However, The elongation at the break of composites significantly decreased with adding of the pumice powder.
Kadri Kurt, Melik Buğra Yeşil
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 459-465; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.92

Abstract:
The behavior of phase and group velocities of waves occurring in the ionosphere, which is considered collision-free, is the focus of this article. The phase velocities of the waves (ordinary, polarized waves) occurring in the ionosphere are larger than the speed of light, whereas the group velocities are less than the speed of light, according to the findings. The phase velocities are compatible with changes in electron density under acceptable conditions, however, the group velocities show an antisymmetric variation with the electron density. In the northern hemisphere, the extra-ordinary wave takes negative values, while in the southern hemisphere, it takes positive values.
Zeynep Kilci, Ramazan Ülkü Çetin
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 539-552; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.96

Abstract:
In this study, the physicochemical properties of 65 different milk samples produced and brought to the Vocational School laboratories for some basic analysis in Susurluk Region of Balikesir Province; in winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons were compared. In this context, 40 of the all milk samples were supplied from different milk collectors in the Susurluk region and the remaining 25 were supplied from milk production farms around Susurluk. Some analyzes were made to determine which are the pH and total acidity (%lactic acid), dry matter (%), fat (%), protein (%) and density (g ml-1) values ​​of the milk samples obtained. The analysis results are in line with the results of studies conducted in similar scope and the values ​​specified in the Turkish Food Codex
Nurdan Çağla Çamaş,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 338-351; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.78

Abstract:
Cities are warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to the urban heat island effect. The heat island effect occurs in urbanized areas in which structures such as buildings and roads are highly concentrated and green cover is limited. Extreme heat waves resulting from climate change also cause temperature increases in the urban environment. In addition, the urban heat island effect negatively affects the comfort of individuals living in cities and increases the amount of energy required for cooling, especially in warm climate regions. To reduce both the urban heat island effect and the need for cooling, it is necessary to consider wind movement during the urban planning process. Within this context, it is vital that spatial development decisions allow planned building groups to benefit from natural ventilation opportunities. The morphological features of buildings directly affect the available opportunities to use wind energy for passive cooling in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to determine which morphological parameters affect the building-wind relationship. This study presents an analysis of wind simulations made by modeling selected examples of actual residential areas to determine the effects of different morphological features on wind movement. Twelve residential areas located in the Karşıyaka District of İzmir Province were determined for analysis due to their distinct morphological characteristics. The results of the study revealed that the parameters that affect wind movement in urban areas are the array of the buildings, their density, the distances between them, their floor area ratio, and their height. With regard to the provision of wind movement, it was found that the detached housing type is the most advantageous for hot climate zones. In addition, increasing the distances between structures was found to have a positive effect on natural ventilation. However, when viewed at the scale of residential areas, building heights on wind movements in the residential areas depends on the other two parameters. The simulations created for this study show that all morphological features of the building group under analysis affect wind movement, both separately and in combination.
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 102-125; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.26

Abstract:
This article focuses on the production methods of contemporary style spaces, which are fundamentally different from traditional spaces, especially by exhibiting; flexibility, dynamism, and diversity themes in the formation of contemporary spatial relations as a conceptual tool. Space is naturally a unit with defined boundaries and we stand in the middle of this unit, thus, spaces have more or less boundaries, and when these boundaries become more transparent, permeable, and dynamic instead of rigid and fixed the spatial values of spaces increase and turn into flexible spaces. In this framework, spatial design is an organization that is; flexible and dynamic with various scenarios and necessities, it’s the art of space-making with both 2-d (two-dimensional) and 3-d (three-dimensional) tools and methods. Spatial design is creative and innovative, hence contemporary. By adapting spatial design; instead of traditional fixed walls, it is possible to obtain scenario-based, flexible, multi-functional spaces within an artistic value like stage-designs. In the article, first of all, the concept of spatial design has been introduced, based on a number of basic topics; the first is, the new space relations used in today’s interiors instead of the traditional corridor and cell space relation with ‘depth/density/integration’ space relations.  Secondly, contemporary style new space identifiers have been introduced, instead of traditional reinforced concrete walls. Contemporary style new spatial identifiers that are presented in the paper are; I/L/U type vertical panels, point-like dividers, level differences, furniture and convexity, material & texture difference (all 3 faces walls/floors/ceilings), color change, 3d space modules (spatial furniture), and finally ceilings & lighting. By this study, it’s mainly aimed to put forth the changing design principles of contemporary interiors that have developed recent years differently from the past. At this point, study brings out the research question -1 : What are the changing design parameters of today’s interiors? In addition, research question-2: What are new space definers instead of walls? As indicated by the hypothesis of the study, it is aimed to make a comparative analysis of interiors between periods, to reveal the differences and explain new methods for contemporary interiors. To demonstrate the changing design principles of interiors’ today; spatial design will be introduced with, new spatial relations, new space types, new space identifiers that creates todays; dynamic, flexible and multifunctional interiors. At this point, research question-3 appears as; ‘What is ‘expandability-flexibility- convexity’ and how each used with spatial design? Third question is very clearly shed a light to the hypothesis of the study and defines new spatial relations as; depth, density and integration. By using spatial tools, enclosed spaces that are syntax via corridor system leaves it’s place to spatial design, which creates sub-spaces with in a one big space without existing walls. At spatial design, there is no existing 4 walls, instead, sub-spaces are formed very quickly to the changing scenarios and necessary modifications easily so it’s flexible. On the other hand, spatial design, can adapt to time, with 7/24 logic, thus, some spaces can expand, get bigger time to time in order to react changing functions than shrink to it’s normal sizes after the activity. Thus, expandability tool supports flexibility by the way space adaptation. Lastly, integration tool, can be used to create modular spaces, through necessities, 1 module , 2 modules or 3 modules..etc. spaces can integrate easily by the help of light dividers and integrated spaces and activities can take place.As indicated above, hypothesis of the study is based on spatial design and it has 3 main research questions to define/answer the main problem. In the study, it’s aimed to demonstrate solutions for these 3 problems; 1)What are the changing design parameters of today’s interiors?, 2) What are new space definers?, 3) ‘what are ‘expandability-flexibility- convexity’ tools ?The methodology consists of two main parts, the first of which includes a comprehensive literature review on; space, spatiality, spatial relations and contemporary space identifiers and the definitions of;
expandability, flexibility, convexity. Secondly, area analyzes have been made on the contemporary interior designs, that are determined as the hypothesis of the study. Analyzes and findings are presented within the framework of ‘contemporary period spatiality’ versus ‘traditional spatial organization’ as a comparative design investigation. As a result, the aim of this study is; the introduction and presentation of spatial design as a method of contemporary space production techniques.
 
Memet Özdemir, Selim Hartomacıoğlu
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 475-490; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.94

Abstract:
Electromagnetic clutches are systems used in many applications like packaging machines, wire tensioning units, printing machines, etc. The main components of the electromagnetic clutch are coil, lining, body, armature, and rotor pulley. It becomes active when the system gives DC electric current to the coil. The magnetized body exerts an attraction force on the armature and transmits torque depending on the friction coefficient of the lining. In this study, magnetic and structural analyzes of the electromagnetic clutch are commercially used with a torque of 7 Nm were performed with a finite element-based Ansys software. As a result of the study, tensile forces, torque values, and magnetic flux density were obtained. The results were analyzed and data were created for future studies.
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.23

Abstract:
Images cannot always be expected to come in a certain standard format and orientation. Deep networks need to be trained to take into account unexpected variations in orientation or format. For this purpose, training data should be enriched to include different conditions. In this study, the effects of data enrichment on the performance of deep networks in the super resolution problem were investigated experimentally. A total of six basic image transformations were used for the enrichment procedures. In the experiments, two deep network models were trained with variants of the ILSVRC2012 dataset enriched by these six image transformation processes. Considering a single image transformation, it has been observed that the data enriched with 180 degree rotation provides the best results. The most unsuccessful result was obtained when the models were trained on the enriched data generated by the flip upside down process. Models scored highest when trained with a mix of all transformations.
, Oğuz Bulut
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 141-160; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.47

Abstract:
Reasons such as rapid population growth, urbanization, unconscious water use, environmental pollution, and changes in climate conditions increase water consumption, and water is consumed before completing its cycle in nature. This situation has directed the water producers to search for new resources in the face of increasing water demand and decreasing resources, but due to the high cost of the resource search, the water producers have turned to the understanding of reducing the high amounts of lost water and using water resources in a more planned and efficient manner.  Minimizing water losses in drinking water distribution networks is among these objectives.In this study, drinking water data between January 2014 and January 2020 in Erzincan was examined, and the SCADA (Supervising Control and Data Acquisition) system placed in the drinking water distribution network in March 2018 was evaluated by considering the pre and post-drinking water data in the system. First of all, the terms between January 2014 and March 2018 which means before the installation of the SCADA system were examined, the data of the amount of water produced and the data of water consumed by the subscribers was collected from the Municipal Waterworks Unit, these data were transferred to the Water Balance Table, the results was analyzed and the actual water loss rates in the system were estimated. As a result of this estimation, before the SCADA system was established, the total physical and administrative water loss rate was seen as 64%, while the physical water loss rate was 28%. After the establishment of the SCADA automation system after March 2018, the date of the amount of water produced received from the SCADA system and the amount of water consumed was transferred to the Water Balance Table and the total physical and administrative loss was seen as 37% while the physical water loss rate was 14%. According to these results, it was observed that the water loss rate approached the minimum level within a short period with the SCADA automation system.
Gülzade Artun,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 126-140; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.39

Abstract:
The need for water is increasing owing to the rapidly increasing world population, urbanization, industrialization, global climate changes, and intensive agricultural activities. While the importance of water is increasing day by day, the purification and reuse of water have become more and more essential. Reducing the pollutants at the source as much as possible and if it will be given to the receiving environment, giving the wastewater treatment in accordance with the current discharge regulations, are priority processes. Of the advanced separation methods, membrane separation technology is used to reduce water resource use and control environmental pollution and has advantages such as high separation efficiency, convenient operation, compact equipment, and energy-saving. Membranes are divided into two categories according to their structures: organic and inorganic membranes (or ceramic membranes). Compared to organic membranes, inorganic membranes have many advantages such as high thermal and chemical stability, good resistance to microbial erosion, easy regeneration and cleaning, high mechanical strength, and long-term stability in harsh conditions. The high cost of ceramic membranes is an important disadvantage. In recent years, it is seen that membrane production costs are reduced by using natural minerals such as kaolin, quartz, bauxite, diatomite, clay, limestone, dolomite, zeolite, and industrial wastes instead of the commonly used ceramic membrane raw materials. By using these raw materials, besides reducing the cost of ceramic membranes, it also contributes to lowering the temperatures required for their production. In this study, studies on ceramic membranes produced from industrial wastes (waste ash, sawdust, sewage sludge, construction and demolition wastes, waste diatomite, rice husk ash, sugarcane pulp ash, corn cob ash waste etc.) were examined.
Kadri Kurt, Melik Buğra Yeşil
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 466-474; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.93

Abstract:
The behavior of phase and group velocities of a left-polarized wave in the F-region of the ionosphere is studied in this paper. Despite the fact that the magnitudes of a left polarized wave's phase and group velocities in the F-region of the ionosphere are almost identical at low latitudes, they are schematically asymmetric under acceptable conditions. Under the same conditions, the group velocity changes in the same way as the electron density in this region; however, the phase velocity changes in the opposite direction. According to the findings, the left-polarized wave's group velocity and electron density have a linear connection. The phase velocity, on the other hand, cannot be said to be the same. Keywords: Ionosphere, The polarized wave, Group-phase velocity, Equatorial anomaly
, , Aylin Taşkaya
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 491-504; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.46

Abstract:
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are biopolymers in the form of carbohydrates produced by many microorganisms and secreted into the external environment. EPS protects the microorganism from drying, phagocytosis, and phage effects, and acts as a barrier in stress environments such as heat, light and sound. EPSs produced for industrial purposes are generally used in areas such as food, cosmetics, petroleum and chemistry. This study was aimed to investigate in addition to basic physical and chemical properties of R. pyridinovorans EPS, in vitro its biological activities such as antioxidant properties andantiproliferative activity. The antioxidant properties of EPS were determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical elimination.The antiproliferative activity of EPS on HT-29 and MCF-7 cell lines was determined by MTT assay. The results of study indicate that EPS from R. pyridinovorans have important biological activities. Further studies on structural and mechanism elucidation of the bacterial EPSs are still needed being carried out.
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 75-91; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.30

Abstract:
When two or more signals of different frequencies pass through a nonlinear system, intermodulation distortion (IMD) occurs, resulting in the formation of spurious distortion signals. IMD is most commonly found in active circuits of a radio system, but it can also be found in passive wireless components such as lters, transmission lines, connectors, antennas, attenuators, and so on, especially when transmit power is quite high. Passive intermodulation (PIM) distortion is the name given to the IMD in the latter scenario. With the evolution of radio systems and the scarcity of radio spectrum, PIM interference is being recognized as a potential stumbling block to a radio network's maximum capacity.This article classifies the PIM sources in BS radio systems into two categories, internal and external sources. Internal sources are the radio's passive components such transmission lines, connections, antennas, and so on. External sources, on the other hand, are passive items that are located outside of the BS antenna but inside the RF signal path, such as metallic and rusted objects in the antenna near eld. The high power current flowing through such passive devices can cause nonlinear behavior, resulting in IMD for both types of sources. Also, a review of PIM mitigation techniques is presented in the article.
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 269-286; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.65

Abstract:
Certain of logical and analytical fallacies in the inductive approach to teaching classical electromagnetics - as adopted in countless textbooks with pedagogical concerns - are outlined and criticized. They include the concept of point charge, derivation of boundary conditions by integration, definitions of perfect electric/magnetic conductors and work in presence of static fields in stationary media. These concepts and descriptions are clarified in the context of Hertzian Electrodynamics which serves as the main frame for describing macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena. Proper definitions and theorems for perfect electric/magnetic conducting media are provided and the origin of the formulas for work in presence of static fields are highlighted with reference to postulates and field equations of Hertzian Electrodynamics.
Seval Özgel Felek
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 62-74; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.29

Abstract:
In the process of designing and modeling industrial products, computer technologies are used intensively in the furniture sector, as in every sector. In the past traditionally produced furniture, today enables many different stages to be handled at the same time, through the calculation of variable parameters enabled by computer aided design Thus, designers can make all kinds of changes on their design in a short time. In this paper a parametric approach for rapid assembly design is presented. Rhinoceros software and Grasshopper plugin used for the parameterization process of components and Microsoft Excel used for implementation design. Furniture manufacturers, who will use the parametric design approach, will be able to respond quickly to the changing demands of their customers and will stand out among their competitors. As a case study, the author has chosen the wardrobe type furniture with several shelves, hanger section, drawer/s has two doors.
Sevil Çıkrıkcı Erünsal,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.27

Abstract:
3D printing (3DP) is a powerful platform for fabrication of complex or personalized geometries. Hydrogels as attractive candidates for wound dressing, soft implant, encapsulation of phenolic compounds, drug delivery, etc. could be manufactured by using different 3D printing techniques. In this study, encapsulation of pomegranate powder into PEGDMA gel by Stereolithography (SLA) printing was investigated and then antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of printed gels with varying shapes were examined to see the effect of different geometry and process conditions. According to the results, pomegranate based blend was successfully incorporated into gel matrix and printed with high printability ratio at optimized 3D printing conditions. UV induced gelation did not prevent existence of phenolic compounds and allowed retention of antioxidant potential  in printed samples. Obtained hydrogels represent promising biomaterials with great potential for the use in different applications such as antioxidant gel for tissue engineering, wound healing or as a nutraceutical carrier.
Nasir Sinani,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 505-520; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.95

Abstract:
The growth of 5G technology and the continuous success of deep learning for various computer vision tasks in healthcare, self-driving cars, visual recognition, and many other areas, brought new challenges in the field of wireless communication. Moreover, 5G-Beyond networks primarily rely on how to maintain line-of-sight (LOS) links between base stations and mobile users. As such, one of the main challenges in 5G-Beyond networks is how to proactively maintain the hand-over mechanism for mobile users before blockages prevent mobile users from communicating, so as to avoid the latency of searching the best beamforming for the best performance. Accordingly, vision-aided millimeter-wave (mmWave) beam and blockage prediction has opened the door for new research for proactive hand-off and resource allocation. The purpose of this paper is to study wireless beam tracking on mmWave bands using deep learning approach evaluated on the Vision-Wireless ViWi-BT dataset [1]. We present how to predict future beam sequences from previously observed beam sequences and images using a long short-term memory (LSTM) network as a base predictive method. As such, we utilize the soft attention mechanism to intelligently choose the most important features and thus we suggest replacing the softmax attention function with different periodic attention functions to eliminate the gradient vanishing problem.
Ali Tahir Karaşahin, Mehmet Karali
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.21

Abstract:
The necessity of active chassis control methods that can cope with the three typical unstable motion modes found in vehicle-trailer systems has emerged. Although there are studies aimed at preventing these instability situations mechanically, they cannot guarantee lateral stability. Active trailer braking system (ATBS) is used to solve this problem. In this study, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to be developed for the car-trailer system. The parameters of LQR are determined using the genetic algorithm (GA). The controller is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and experimentally validated in CarSim. It has been observed that the parameters to be determined by the genetic algorithm give better results than the parameters found by the trial-and-error method.
Gulcinay Basdogan Deniz,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 352-382; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.80

Abstract:
Van city has serious socio-economic cultural development problems. Despite these problems, Van's cultural and natural diversity, as well as its potential to be an important commercial center due to its geopolitical situation, are important for the solution of extant problems. In this regard, this paper strives to examine the challenges of Van from the cultural aspect. Accordingly; in Van, the investments determined by the actors affecting the development and planning process periodically (2003-2016) were evaluated vis-à-vis the classification of cultural economy and human development index. Content analysis was used in the research. The European Union (EU) is one of the international actors in Van and the national actors are; Ministry of Development, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, T.C. Prime Ministry General Directorate of Foundations, Eastern Anatolia Project (EAP) Regional Development Administration, Eastern Anatolia Development Agency (EADA) and Municipalities. It is seen that these are important actors in development policies and the investments they have made coincide with the strategies they have targeted. International actors prioritize social and human development investments within the framework of EU regional development policies. National actors however followed both a development model within the scope of industry, trade and services, which was predominantly based on the economic perspective, and a development model from the tourism perspective in the services class. Consequently, it is seen that development in Van is not directly evaluated from the cultural view, but evaluated together with tourism, culture is instrumentalized for tourism and cultural tourism is brought to the fore and cultural policies are developed from the tourism perspective.
, , Duygu Yavuzkasap Ayakta, Aysu Ildeniz
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 301-314; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.67

Abstract:
In 2021, exports of 12.9 billion dollars in the field of textiles in Turkey's exports have an important place in all export income. In the reports published on the textile industry, this figure is expected to increase even more in the coming years. As in other sectors, accurate estimation of sales revenues in the textile sector is very important for the future plans of companies. In this study, a deep learning model has been developed for demand and sales forecasting in the textile industry. In the method used, income will be converted to image data with Gramm Angular Fields of time series. Convolutional neural networks were used to classify these images.
Lütfiye Çetin Murat, Havva Ülgen Bekişoğlu
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 161-181; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.61

Abstract:
All over the world, climates are changing due to various reasons, and there is an increase in natural disasters. Increasing disasters bring economic, social and environmental losses along with loss of life. It is important to study the disaster architecture and develop recommendations due to climate change in countries such as Turkey, where the construction sector is constantly dynamic and developing. The aim of study is to evaluate traditional and modern housing properties in terms of climate resistance and to make housing design proposals to prevent the damage caused by disasters to structures. The scope of the study consists of the Talas district, Kayseri, which has become the center of Central Anatolia. The high rate of housing production, the frequent occurrence of natural disasters in recent years, and the greater damage to newly designed houses from disasters have been effective in determining the study sample area. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of disaster resilience, stability, concept and building elements in architecture.
Mert Şafak Kır, Marvan Vahbi, Merdin Danışmaz
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 521-538; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.90

Abstract:
There are innumerable events related to heat transfer that we experience or see in our daily lives. In this study, research and experimental calculations were made about multilayer plane walls, which are often made of different materials. There are so much application areas on heat transfer. In order to better understand heat conduction, we need to make an explanation of the thermal properties and heat transfer type of the materials used in the experiment. It is known that heat transfer occurs in three different ways (conduction, convection, radiation). In this study, a layered wall heat conduction mechanism was established by combining 6 different materials (Copper, St37 Steel, AISI 1050 Aluminum, Wood, Rock wool, Glass wool) with different pediments of 30*30 cm. Heat is produced by gradually applying voltage from the copper plate and the temperature between each plate is measured by temperature sensors with Arduino programming. In the Arduino assembly, one Arduino Unocard, 5 lm35 temperature sensors and 1 20*4 I2C LCD screen are used to take the measurement outputs. The LM35 temperature sensor produces a voltage between zero and 5 V from the analog output, and the temperature measurement is made by producing a value of 10mV for each degree Celsius. The right leg of lm35s with three legs is connected to GND on the breadboard for grounding, the middle leg is connected to the analog output on the uno board, the left leg is connected to the 5V input on the breadboard and 5 lm35s are connected in parallel on the breadboard. The sensors were placed in the middle of the plates and the measurements were printed and recorded on the LCD screen. The measurements in the experimental setup were analyzed by applying a stepped voltage of the same value to the layered wall designed from the same materials in the SolidWorks thermal program, the data were collected and compared with the theoretical calculations of heat transfer.
Abdullah Noor, ,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 421-428; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.88

Abstract:
Electromagnetic scattering by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) missile in uniform rectilinear motion is formulated and computed in X-band under the physical optics (PO) approximation. The missile dimensions are picked as 80 [cm] in length and 6.6 [cm] in radius as adapted from the well-known Soviet M-13 missile. We adopt a canonical structure simulated by a cylindrical body, an ellipsoid nose, and four planar tail fins. The surface of the missile is meshed using triangular facets. First, the formulation and computations are carried out for a stationary missile in MATLABTM and compared to simulations by the commercial full-wave simulator CSTTM. Good agreements that reveal the validity of PO formulation are observed. Finally, PO formulation and numerical results for a missile in uniform rectilinear motion are provided and discussed. These simulations are based on the principle of superposition of the formulas developed recently for scattering by a moving PEC flat plate.
Duygu Çınar Umdu, Ebru Alakvuk
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 287-300; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.66

Abstract:
We have 8 years to 2030, when the promises and targets of sustainable development and smart growth are expected to be achieved at the global level, the agenda items about sustainability remain urgent. Sustainable development and smart growth are more important than ever. The managers of the Sustainable and Smart concepts are local governments that own urban units and can make more critical decisions due to scale permits, rather than the changing policies of states. Considering the point reached, it can be observed that the concepts of the sustainable neighborhood, community and city are based on different foundations in the light of assessment tools and models, although the urban terminology that develops with the concept of sustainability is often used to support each other. It can even be said that its sustainable indicators are close to smart city criteria rather than sustainability criteria. In this study, sustainable neighborhood, community and city criteria, the mentioned urban units were determined, defined, and interpreted through 18 assessment tools, guidelines, standards, and models in total.
Neslişah Mamati, , Ali Rıza Parsa
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 190-212; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.57

Abstract:
The visibility and number of high-rise buildings, which have a direct impact on shaping the texture and identity of the city in which they are located, are increasing day by day. While developing technology, new construction techniques and high-strength building materials make it possible to increase the height of the building, each increase in height occurs difficulties and requires more engineering problems to be solved. When the distribution of loads acting on high-rise buildings and their effects on the structure are examined, it is seen that the core is designed as a center of rigidity in the structure to provide inertia against horizontal loads.In order to make the core design of the building effective and efficient, it will be a proper and correct approach to understand the center of rigidity function of the core to design and implement it from this point of view.This study aims to examine the core, which plays a primary role in providing inertia against horizontal loads acting on high-rise buildings, as a center of rigidity.First of all, the loads that are effective in the design were explained. It has been stated that the horizontal loads acting on the structure cause bending, shear and torsion. The interaction of wind load, which is a more critical load especially in high-rise buildings, with the building is emphasized. In order to facilitate the understanding of the core as the center of rigidity in high-rise buildings, its place in the structural system hierarchy was defined.It has been seen that core designing is a necessity in order to provide inertia against horizontal loads in high-rise buildings that becomes independent from its surroundings as the height and the loads acting on the structure increase. It has been seen that besides the core is designed as a service core within the building, the building shell is designed as a core also.
Kemal Furkan Sökmen, Aslıhan Çakır
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 383-399; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.86

Abstract:
This study was carried out to numerically and experimentally examine the thermal expansion of four different air hoses with the same geometric shape and dimensions, produced from rubber types with different raw materials, and to examine its effects on pressure loss. Hoses are manufactured from EPDM, ECO, AEM and NBR/CSM rubber compounds. The thermal expansion test was performed at 100°C and 140°C. Thermal and flow analyses and solid-fluid interaction (FSI) analyzes were performed with ANSYS 19.2 commercial finite volumes software. In the study, independence from mesh number was studied. k- Ɛ was chosen as the turbulence model. As a result of the study, the maximum expansion was observed in ECO material and in AEM, EPDM and NBR/CS materials, respectively. It has been determined by tests and analyses that air hoses made of AEM and ECO materials with a low modulus of elasticity have the highest values in diameter expansion. These deformation values caused the pressure value of 300 kPa to decrease to 298.5 kPa at 100 oC and to 298.41 kPa at 140 oC for AEM and decreased the 300 kPa pressure value to 298.1 kPa for ECO. It has been determined that the importance of material selection in air hose designs and the deformation due to the material will affect the pressure loss
Aslı Er Akan, Gülşah Doğan Karaman
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 53-61; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.28

Abstract:
Safety is one of the major issues for the construction industry which is a dangerous sector with fatality statistics. There are thousands of construction accidents all over the world that are the direct result of hazardous activities and working conditions. Safety management systems and policies are the key elements in order to increase safety awareness, improve working conditions, reduce human suffering, provide safety climate and culture etc. In this context, the Zero Accident Vision (ZAV) is a new approach that is founded on the premise that all accidents may be avoided. This review explores relationships between ZAV and construction safety with the aim of fostering further research.
Esra Akca, Tayfun Özçay, Yasin Dinç, Nermin Yalçı, Semra Erpolat Taşabat, Mehmet Ali Varol, Berk Kayı, Melih Yılmaz Öğütcen, Berk Öztürk
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 411-420; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.37

Abstract:
Together with the meaning and essence of data for the company nowadays; The variety of data also differs. One of these differentiating data types is sound. Borusan Makina ve Güç Sistemleri A.Ş. the data obtained from the Caterpillar construction machines of. The machine sound gives clues about many malfunctions. Artificial intelligence systems of the heard sound will be integrated into business processes. Every tone can be converted. With this, the properties and estimates of the sound grids are used. In this direction; While the incident is getting in the way of his business, an unfortunate project occurs with a similar visitor. The traditional will use a meaningful method by listening to the producer's sound and technology and innovation to develop easy blueprints of decisions that cannot be diverted to sound data. Thanks to the real-time model with short-term audio recording, it is instantly predicted whether there is a problem in the machine. Free from personal and technical comments; By examining the patterns of sound waves, it is aimed to be made without cancellation.
Ömer Akgüller, Mehmet Ali Balcı, Aysu Ildeniz, Duygu Yavuzkasap Ayakta
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 315-328; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.71

Abstract:
The image classification problem is a process that many machine learning methods are trying to solve. Graphs, which are combinatorial mathematical structures, are frequently used in machine learning problems. In this study, a method using machine learning based embeddings of weighted regional graphs for image classification problem is proposed.
Kemal Yağlı,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 445-458; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.91

Abstract:
In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, a preamble is added at the start of the OFDM data frame in order to find the correct frame starting point. In the receiver, the symbol starting point is estimated by a correlation-based timing metric that uses the periodic properties of the preamble. In this study, a novel preamble structure using the constant amplitude zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence is proposed. The performance of the timing synchronization algorithms has been compared with the proposed method in terms of mean squared error (MSE). The simulations are performed under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh multipath fading channels. The simulation results indicate that our proposed method provides better timing MSE performance for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values.
Emel Karakaya Ayalp, Mehmet Can Yılmaz, Feral Geçer Sargın, Baha Kuban, Gonca Akgül Mahrebel
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 400-410; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.87

Abstract:
The ongoing crisis has shown that incumbent food system has been facing challenges. For a resilient and sustainable food system, transitions which shift towards sustainability, attention to  public health and wellbeing as well as inclusiveness is compulsory. To overcome these challenges, driving a stepwise policy transformation, responsive and adaptive policy mixes and addressing citizens to drive sustainability are pivotal. This article represents two roadmaps which are designated for Nilüfer, Bursa. The roadmaps aim at including policy headlines/priorities as well as local needs and plural variations of collectivity to ensure a sustainable food system transition. The roadmaps are composed of two scalar levels one of which is macro-level; Nilüfer Food Policy Roadmap while the other is micro-level; Nilüfer Living Lab Roadmap
Doaa Salim Mohammed Musa, ,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 429-444; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.89

Abstract:
Directional Currents Method (DCM) is applied to various aperture and horn antennas including rectangular aperture antenna, circular aperture antenna, dielectric loaded rectangular aperture antenna and E- and H-plane sectoral horn antennas to investigate their radiation performances analytically over sea surface in microwave bands. First, the expressions of the hypothetical directional currents of these antennas are derived in free space and the total radiation patterns are generated by MATLABTM. Then, the same antennas are simulated by the commercial electromagnetic simulation software CSTTM and compared to check the parametric accuracy of DCM numerically. In the second step, these directional currents are employed in deriving the analytical radiation fields of the antennas under investigation over sea surface by incorporating Green’s functions based on Norton’s formulation. This is followed by CSTTM simulations to observe the parametric accuracy of DCM expressions for microwave radiation over sea surface.
Hayriye Demirtas, Mustafa Turkmen, ,
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 329-337; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.73

Abstract:
Aperture-based plasmonic nanoantenna design with dual-band resonance obtained in the region very close to the green wavelength in the spectrum between 400 nm and 700 nm, which can be used in non-invasive biological sensing applications in the future, is presented. In this circular aperture-based nanoantenna design, the effect of changing the material thickness and dielectric medium parameters on the antenna response is investigated. In the nanoantenna design using a double-layer conductive gold layer, both of thickness values are reduced to 5 nm.It is observed that this thickness value exhibits a very strong transmittance response compared to the thicker gold layer values used in the visible region. In this nanoantenna, which exhibits dual band properties at 508 and 551 nm wavelengths, the strongest transmittance peaks are obtained for 5 nm thickness of gold, 100 nm thickness of magnesium fluoride and the 100 nm radius of the circular aperture. In order to contribute to spectroscopic sensing applications, hot spots locations and near field enhancement distribution maps are also examined.
Ezgi Günay, Seher Güzelçoban Mayuk
The European Journal of Research and Development, Volume 2, pp 224-240; https://doi.org/10.56038/ejrnd.v2i2.63

Abstract:
Artificial intelligence and its sub-branch, machine learning technologies, have developed rapidly in recent years and their use for various purposes has seemed to be increased in various sectors from automotive to medicine, from law to marketing. Similarly, these technologies have begun to be used in the building sector and in the field of architecture. These technologies are being used in many fields in architecture such as feasibility studies, building design, project control, occupational safety, earthquake resistant building design and applications, energy efficient system design, construction with smart construction equipment, smart building design, and smart facade design. Despite this increasing use in the field, it has been determined by the literature review that the number of studies focusing on the use of machine learning in architecture, especially on building facades, is low. In this sense in the study, it is aimed to examine the relationship between artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies with architecture in the context of building facades. Initially in the study the topics and the historical process related to artificial intelligence and machine learning were explained, subsequently the use of technologies on the building facades was examined through examples. In this way, a guiding resource has been created for those who want to work on this subject in the future.
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