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Abdul Baqi Omid
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i09.55

Abstract:
The Moguls conquered Khorasan and ruled there for many years. In this situation, enlightened people (Olama), spirituals, mystics, and Sufis recognized that war causes destruction and damage. Therefore, they turned to seclusion. This event increased the aspect of mystical and theosophical literature and created more and more mystical and theosophical phenomena. With respect to the Pashtu language, Theosophy and mysticism were added to its literature in the 7th century and remained till the 12th century. The Indian king, Babur, was well represented in Pashto theosophy and mysticism during the Mogul period. At the time, theosophy and mysticism had social, even religious, aspects that any ordinary person looking for a better sheikh or guru could easily identify. At this time, mysticism found its way and acceptability among Pashtuns, which caused them to create more mystic poems. Among the Cheshtia, Qadiria, Naqshbandia, Kebroia, and Roshania sects, there were considerable gurus (sheikhs) of Pashtuns who rewarded the valuable pieces of mysticism that contained distinct introspection and special attention to the inside of discipleship. Having a sheikh (guru) and using poetic language for declaring sensations and telling stories, standing against cruelty, humanitarianism, and pure and real love, mystics are very popular in Pashtu literature.
Mirwise Khaleqyar, Mohammad Qaseem Kashaf
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i09.54

Abstract:
Suprasegmental phonemes are the linguistic phenomenon which has phonemic value in a language. These features do not have a specific form as segments but have semantic relativity. As the numbers of suprasegmental features are not specified in Pashto Linguistics, but in most of the sources, stress, accent, intonation, syllable, pitch, and juncture are known as suprasegmental features. Rhythm is a type of intonation which has a specific value in the language. While changing intonation causes semantic changes. The accent is a phenomenon that takes place upon the segments, syllables and words and changes its meanings. In Pashto prose and verse, stress has its exact importance, which causes changes in the meaning of the sentence. Juncture is another suprasegmental phenomenon that causes changes in the context while reading it continuously or breaking it up into parts. The syllable is another suprasegmental feature which may be consisted of a single vowel or a vowel and consonant or consonants.
Zekrullah Faiq, Mohammad Taher Taher, Khwaja Zabihullah Sediqi
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i09.53

Abstract:
Job satisfaction and productivity are the main focus of most organizations. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity of lecturers in “Seyed Jamaluddin Afghan teacher training institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Descriptive and correlational methods were used to analyze the data. The population of the study was 200 lecturers of Seyed Jamaluddin Afghan teacher training institute out of which 131 were selected as a sample by a simple random method. To collect the data two standardized questionnaires, Smith, Kendall & Hulin’s (1969) job satisfaction questionnaire and the AGIO model 1980 manpower productivity questionnaire were used. The findings show that there was a meaningful relationship between the components of productivity and job satisfaction. There was no significant difference between male and female lecturers’ perceptions in terms of productivity. Furthermore, findings showed that lecturers with bachelor's degrees were more satisfied than lecturers with doctorate degrees.
Samuel Zubairu Josiah
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 385-395; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i08.42

Abstract:
The concept of women's subordination is one of the greatest and leading debates in the Christian circle in the last two centuries on gender issues, particularly among evangelical believers. To add to the heat of the debate is the emergence of the egalitarian evangelicals since the 1970s, who surprisingly take a departure from the traditional complementarian position of the pre-1970s. Both complementarians and egalitarians anchor their views on the nature of the relationship which exists in the Trinity. This has opened the door to a new interpretation of the Holy Scriptures as humanity witnesses changes in the cultures of the world as globalization brings its reality to be bare on the human race. This work has relevance in that much of what earlier writers have contributed on this subject has been in the area of Christian Service and leadership without a critical examination of its workability in a Christian home. Hence, the paper considers the two popular existing views of the complementarians and egalitarians and examines the idea of subordination from the two creation accounts in Genesis and Jesus' and Paul's views on this matter. The author responded to this subject by studying the perspective of one of the major evangelical denominations in Nigeria and beyond, Evangelical Church Winning All (ECWA). The historical and phenomenological methods were used in this research. The historical method was necessary to collect historical data, which formed the basis for the research, while the phenomenological method was used to interpret the historical realities of the time. The exegetical method was also used to determine the correct interpretation of the passage containing the relevant texts. The paper concluded with the view that the Egalitarian Perspective on women's subordination cannot strengthen Christian marriage since there is bound to be a struggle for leadership in a Christian home.
Alaa Abd Ulrazzaq
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 428-435; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i08.48

Abstract:
The topics of this paper deal with problems of political consensus in Iraq as one of the most controversial dilemmas of the Pluralist system in Iraq. Most societies that have lived for long periods under totalitarian and tyrannical regimes witness a number of obstacles and problems associated with democratic transformation or any transformation that leads to changing the character of the previous totalitarian regime. Any peaceful change or development can affect its political structures and institutions. Consequently, the obstacles to a real democratic transformation were more complex as a result of the presence of a set of political, social and economic structures that were not the product of the previous totalitarian regime but were the result of long periods of intellectual decadence and political tyranny and what was entrenched in society The Iraqi people have traditional values ​​and institutions that are no longer compatible in their existence with the contemporary paths of democratic systems.
Mohammad Rafee Banayee, Zekrullah Faiq, Eid Mohammad Mohammadi, Faizulhaq Faizi
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 457-467; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i09.43

Abstract:
The main objective of performance assessment is to manage to provide the necessary information about the personnel employed in the organization to be available to managers in order to make appropriate decisions to promote the quality and quantity of employee work. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the staff performance management system in the Ministry of Higher Education. This is descriptive research in terms of data collection method and in terms of purpose tactical research and in terms of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The statistical population of this study is all employees of the Ministry (720) the indicated assembly (72) was determined with a confidence level of 90 percent and a sampling error of 10 percent using Crecy and Morgan formulas. The most important findings of the research showed that Performance management in the Ministry of Higher Education has created a conducive environment for better performance among employees up to a limit, but this system has not produced the effective results that it was supposed to produce in improving employee performance, but there has been a series of problems and inadequacies, and evaluation performance management does not form the basis of the reward system in this organization, and the performance management of the work in this ministry is not so tangible that all employees have same the reception and have a theme opinion about it.
Vasileios Liondos
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 445-456; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i09.49

Abstract:
The present work–research uses the method of content analysis and bibliographic research. The subject of the research is Sustainable Education and the subject of Education in English Language Textbooks. The English Language Textbooks taught in the Greek Primary School in C, D, E and F Classes are examined. The topics related to the environment and sustainability issues are presented. Main activities are presented. Teaching scenarios, which further enhance the cultivation of students' sensitivity in relation to the environment, are proposed.
Rheychold J. Daymiel, Jovelyn Cantina, Van Ryan I. Alipoyo, Meynard O. Comecilla, April S. Patay, Joji T. Recamara
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 396-410; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i08.41

Abstract:
Language anxiety is thought to hinder language learning, and if the learners are truly anxious in class, they are probably not fully engaged, if at all. With the help of the Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale (FLSAS) and a free-speaking exercise, this study intends to ascertain the association between language anxiety and speaking performance among undergraduate and graduate students. Frequency count, percent, mean, and Kruskal Wallis were used as statistical techniques to total, tabulate, and further analyze and interpret scores. An extensive, unstructured phenomenological interview with the students was undertaken to ascertain the causes of their language anxiety, and the thematic analysis was carried out using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Students did less satisfactorily in speaking performances and were found to be moderately worried. Language anxiety and speaking abilities, particularly in vocabulary and comprehension, are significantly correlated. This is ascribed to error-causing factors such as the impact of the native language on the second language, lack of confidence, anxiety about communicating, and fear of being evaluated. This study concluded that speaking performance could be predicted using linguistic anxiety. Particularly in understanding and vocabulary, the worried learner frequently performed worse than the native speaker when speaking in English. According to this study, students who are really worried about language should receive training. Teachers can provide straightforward, captivating, varied, and entertaining oral tasks that will give pupils the chance to speak English freely.
H.A.S.U. Geethanjalee
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 436-444; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i08.46

Abstract:
The constitution is meant to protect that self in its dignity and worth. The prime function of constitutional political order has been and is being accomplished by means of the system of regularized imposed upon those who wield political power (Friedrich,1946). A constitution can be interpreted as a document including deep concepts, theories, value systems & identities that give a country authority and legitimacy, framed by consensus in a way that reflects the aspirations of the people in every country. A constitution is a guide and advisor in the governing process of a government. Solebury’s constitution was introduced in 1947 in the study of Sri Lanka’s constitution-making history. But it is a constitution given to Sri Lanka by the British, not a constitution created in Sri Lanka. In 1972, Sri Lanka’s first national constitution was drafted. The constitution was drafted with the participation of a constitution-making body led by Colvin R.de Silva. After that, in 1978, the second republic government constitution was introduced and since then, twenty amendments have been implemented for the constitution. Therefore, this article can try to understand mainly past, present and future norms and changes in constitutionalism in Sri Lanka with the concept of constitutionalism.
Shekeb Shamal, Zahid Najibi, Hafizullah Rasouli, Mohammad Fawad Basharpal
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 411-427; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i08.47

Abstract:
Distinguishing of the geologic age from sedimentary rock layers has been one of the important and basic tasks for geological sciences. The objective is to determine the geological age of the sedimentary layers within the Qala e Jafar of Yekawlang district of Bamiyan province by using fossils. In this study, more than 8 fossil specimens were collected and identified over the sedimentary layers of the study area. Different genus and species of Bivalves, Brachiopods, Echinodermata, Corals, and Gastropods were recorded and presented from Qala e Jafar sedimentary layers. Among them, three index fossils determined the relative age of strata, namely: Pholadomya and Carneithyris Subcardinalis. According to the guide fossils and using the assembly fossils aging method, the second sedimentary layer is aged Maastrichtian, and the third layer is aged Campanian. The specifications and living features of the recorded fossils derive a warm oceanic environment in the Late Cretaceous.
John Odo Onu, Priscilla Ebere Ugwuoke
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 215-225; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i04.20

Abstract:
The goals of the study are to examine the language and the linguistic features of Igbo traditional marriage songs and also to show the relevance of these songs in the lives of the Igbo people. A qualitative research design is used in this study. The Data of the study were gathered through library and fieldwork. In order to construct a working theoretical framework, journal articles, dissertations, and thesis were consulted. The researchers acquired data from the fieldwork through oral interviews, observation, and participation in traditional marriage rites in various regions of Igbo territory. The functionalist theory is used in analysing the data. The methods of data analysis showcased that these data were translated into English from Igbo. Equally, notes generated during the interview, observation, and participation were analysed descriptively. The study finds out that women use marriage songs to express their anxieties, worry, and uneasiness about venturing into the marriage. The study also reveals the joyous and happy occasion of Igbo traditional marriage. Also, Igbo thoughts are revealed in the joyful mood and dismal ambience established in some of their songs. The study also finds out that women use marriage songs to comment on the intricacies of reality in the married venture. The findings of the study finally show that Igbo marriage songs contain imagery, repetitions, humour, alliteration, satire, and allusion. These are linguistic features deliberately crafted to teach the bride and groom Igbo societal expectations from them.
Elham Hossain
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 332-340; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i07.37

Abstract:
In his book The Scandal of Translation: Towards an Ethics of Difference, Lawrence Venuti vehemently asserts that translation “…entails the creative reproduction of values,” and at the same time, it is usually seen with suspicion (1). He examines a bunch of reasons which instigate this suspicion. According to him, translation domesticates a foreign text and goes through a continuous inscription process in the stages of production, circulation and reception. While a foreign text is inscribed with linguistic and cultural values of the target readers, it runs into the risk of surrendering its individual tone and voice to the target readers’ interest and thus, the target text is re-written and reproduced in the local dialects and the framework of local discourses. It is a common belief that translation causes violence to the source text because intertextuality between two distinct languages, cultures and minds gives rise to a new space where it “suffers from an institutional isolation” (Venuti, The Scandal of Translation: Towards an Ethics of Difference, 2). If it is so, a lot of suspicion regarding the authenticity of translation immediately emerges out of this limitation. As translation contributes to the mobility and multiplicity of understanding, it goes hand in hand with ambivalence and destabilization in establishing communication while intertextualizing the source text with the target text. To reduce this ambivalence and bring about equivalence between the source text and the target text theoretical framework is followed sometimes knowingly and very often unknowingly by the translators. In Bangladesh, translation at present turns into a field of study and so it invites a critical evaluation. This paper seeks to explore from a Bangladeshi perspective how intertextuality impacts translation.
Akosua Agyemang, Agnes Naki Tei-Muno
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 378-384; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i07.40

Abstract:
Over the years, family and community ties in Ghana have been a major guarantor of support provision for older persons, especially those who reside in rural areas. While the support provided by family and community members has proved to be vital in enhancing the well-being of older persons, it is also clear that the ties that exist between these sources of support and older persons are gradually diminishing. This paper highlights some implications that come with the gradual decline of communal and familial bonds for older adults.
Samantha McIntyre
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 282-293; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i06.30

Abstract:
Approaching veganism through the lens of race and class provides an interesting perspective and alternate understanding of the meaning of the diet and accessibility for marginalized groups in the U.S. and the way U.S. capitalism affects its mainstream construction and value. The anti-hegemonic foundational principles of veganism are the antithesis to the hegemonic foundational principles of United States culture, causing great tensions in the perception of veganism. Attributes of Christianity reproduce and naturalize dominant ideologies that support speciesism and anthropocentrism, which work to normalize the manipulation and exploitation of non-human animal bodies and livelihoods. These tensions manifest in stereotyping as a method of delegitimizing the movements’ deeper purposes, making identity-making complicated. Positing veganism in the current capitalist framework adds another layer of nuance because of the methods in which products are available and marketed; understanding aspects of consumption and the breadth of the economic incentives involved aid in grasping the mainstreaming of veganism and the predominant media representations that center the white experience, resulting in the erasure of other cultural and racial experiences.
Stanley Naribo Ngoa
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 192-205; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i04.18

Abstract:
Nigeria, the proverbial giant of Africa, has in recent times, been beset with the politics of paternalism which has translated into heightened consciousness in ethnic nationalism and extremist immoderation, all too manifest in the now very dominant paradigm of fake news and hate speech. Amidst this threatening state of confusion, the nation-state witnesses its highest level of polarization among the citizenry and records a harvest of kidnappings, abductions, raping and ritual killings, all of which the government blames on fake news and hate speech. As part of its contribution in the attempt to mitigate and possibly proffer a solution to the twin monsters of fake news and hate speech, the Olusegun Obasanjo Centre for African Studies (OOCAS) at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Abuja organized a one-day Colloquium on Fake News and Hate Speech. This report, therefore, is a descriptive analysis that highlights the culture of impunity with which political elites incite and polarize the citizenry, especially on the contentious issues of religion and ethnicity. The paper applies the critical discourse analysis approach to evaluate the colloquium proceedings - the views, positions and propositions of discussants/participants and the ensuing communiqué that fake news and hate speech are largely products of mainstream and social media; with governments and political elites as the main culprits who exploit the volatile issues of religion, politics and ethnicity to polarize and incite. The paper concludes with nine communiqué recommendations including, that the mass media, especially the mainstream media, should invest more in the practice of investigative journalism and Nigeria’s governments, in general, should provide good governance, equity and justice to the citizenry; that, participants and discussants believe will curb the menace of fake news and hate speech.
Irina Barantsova, Olena Kotova, Margarita Vorovka, Andrey Protsenko, Anna Sukhanova
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 294-299; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i06.31

Abstract:
The article considers the content of the concept of “professional competenc” of a specialist through the competence that forms the basis for the development of standards for higher education and emphasizes the crucial importance of professional skills of future specialists. In the article, the authors follow the approach outlined in the Memorandum letter of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine regarding the development of components of the system of higher education. Competence is considered as an integrated characteristic of personality traits, the result of the preparation of a graduate of the university for the performance of activities in certain professional and socio-personal subject areas (competencies), which is determined by the required volume and level of knowledge and experience in a particular type of activity.
Jovelyn Maglangit Cantina, Prescilla Lacaya Alvarico
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 341-359; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i07.36

Abstract:
This study aims at analyzing the language variations between female and male comments on YouTube viral videos as to abbreviations, emojis, laughter variants, and spelling variants of personal pronouns, utilizing a mixed-method design. This study revealed that males tend to use abbreviations in their comments in the leisure domain. Females used more abbreviations in the information and knowledge domains and emojis in the two domains. The female users used haha, hehe, and jaja more frequently than male users in the leisure domain. Male and female users used the laughter variant more often in the leisure domain than in the information and knowledge domain. Women preferred to write the standard spelling of the personal pronouns "I" and "you." Moreover, both men and women used abbreviations to express their views immediately to speed up the typing of messages. Women were more familiar with positive and negative emojis than men. Language varies according to YouTube users' preferences in using the language when posting comments online, and the core social attributes influencing language use are social class, social networks, sex and gender, ethnicity, and age. Thus, infographic material with meanings and examples can be distributed to students and teachers.
Sachini Umasha
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 270-274; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.25

Abstract:
The covid-19 pandemic creates a severe threat to worldwide people’s lives and livelihoods. It is not just a health disaster but also an economic, social, and, most importantly, a gender-inequality crisis. Some gender-specific impacts occurred, such as increased violence towards women & girls. The research objectives identify the differences in gender stereotypes between families and the agrarian workplace, the key issues they face, and then provide recommendations to accelerate the advancement of gender equality through the agricultural sector. The research problem is, why did agrarian estate women become more vulnerable than men during the pandemic period? A research field based on the ‘Parawila Watta’ Tamil state (rubber & sugarcane cultivation) and people aged 15-50 category, both men and women. Information was analyzed using these qualitative and quantitative methods. Interviews and observations were used as primary and statistical data sources and national and international research as secondary data sources. SPSS software is used to analyze data. The research findings explained the increase of violence against agrarian women as covid-19 has exacerbated known problematic issues of family violence, financial problems, psychological problems, unnecessary pregnancies in the family and labour exploitation, salary issues, sexual violence and job insecurity in the agrarian workplace. According to the Patron-client relationship, the woman is the employee on the plantation and in the family. Therefore she becomes more exposed and vulnerable during the pandemic. Men worked in public spaces outside the estate while married women toiled in the agricultural sector, and many men lost their employment due to the epidemic. But they didn’t join to plantations & forcibly took the women’s daily wage. However, their daily wage of LKR 740 was also reduced due to the pandemic, which was insufficient to support her family. Finally, it’s clear that the agricultural women face several crises as employees in the workplace and in the family. Therefore, they can’t escape from the effects of patriarchy even in times of pandemics and discrimination from diverse factors against women living in agricultural estates.
F.N Ibemesi Hussain
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 82-87; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.8

Abstract:
Literature has been used and is still being used as a tool for solving societal problems in different nations at different times. Urban literature is a good example of literature that addresses and analyses societal problems. The European novel developed simultaneously with Western urban civilization (Ihekweazu 1992). Some critics argue that modernity finds adequate expression in the city novel as in novels like Zola’s Paris (1898), James Joyce’s Ulysses (1921), John Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer (1925) and Alfred Döbblins Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929) among others. Several of Cyprian Ekwensi’s urban novels also fall within the above list. This paper is more of a proposal on the achievement envisaged in the use of urban literature to solve some of our national problems. We, therefore, conclude with the proposition that if literature was used to solve societal problems in different places in the past, urban literature could be used to solve many of the problems in Nigeria today, particularly if targeted to address the problem of poor reading culture among Nigerians.
Ahmed Reza
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 172-182; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i04.17

Abstract:
The process of educating everyone regardless of age, gender, race and caste is called the open and distance learning method. The method has emerged as a popular and up-to-date medium in today's world because those who cannot participate directly in the classroom system can continue their lifelong learning in this method. Due to the use of this method, it has been possible to continue the education system even in the Covid-19 situation. However, developing countries are facing some problems in applying modern education technology in open and distance education. Problems Have been mixed and an outline of the solution to these problems has been presented. The analysis of the results shows that lack of necessary electricity, internet and technical infrastructure, and lack of necessary technical equipment and skills of teachers and students are the main problems of applying modern technology in open and distance learning in Bangladesh. Steps have been taken to outline the solution to these problems by providing necessary technical equipment and training to the research teachers and students, use of social media, etc.
Chike Okoye, Stella Okoye-Ugwu
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 250-260; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.26

Abstract:
This paper seeks to reveal Chinua Achebe’s verisimilitude in his colonial-era narratives: Things Fall Apart and Arrow of God. These two novels owe their roots to constructs and happenstances that range from myth and semi-myth to real-life events. These occurrences and scenes are congruent to Achebe’s fictional societies partly because of the artistry, believability, and binding force of the warps and wefts of the author’s story-telling craft and partly due to their realistic reality nature. Using the New Historicism critical theory, a re-interrogation of these seminal works will reveal a unique pan-Igbo albeit utopian world, where special characters, scenes, interactions, and revelations play a pivotal role in Achebe’s dream Igbo nation. This, in essence, is his new dream environment, a meta-tale hovering above the two linear plots of the narratives, implicit and ontologically joined but revealed by this paper.
Ifeanyi Ugwu, Nelson Torti Obasi
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 183-191; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i04.16

Abstract:
This paper seeks to examine the theatrics of Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God with a view to verifying their potential for the novel’s dramatic or stage adaptation. The paper is motivated by the assumption that the theatrics can be artistically synthesized to create a play script or performance that can be more aesthetically and ideologically appreciated than the novel. In view of this motivation and to inspire many effective adaptations of the novel, the following questions need to be addressed by the paper: What are theatrics? What impressions, performances, behaviours and effects exemplify the theatrics of the novel? How do these exemplary theatrics constitute a matrix for dramatic or stage adaptations of Arrow of God? While addressing these questions, the paper hopes to achieve its major objective of verifying the theatrics of the novel and suggesting how they can work together as a matrix for adaptations.
J.H.S.T. Jayamaha
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 360-366; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i07.38

Abstract:
Today Sri Lanka is facing a huge economic crisis and political crisis due to intemperate corruption. Ordinary people are not in a position to face this crisis. Therefore, to find a solution to this crisis, the youth population of Sri Lanka came forward. Still, they are playing a considerable role in Sri Lanka’s political sphere. On the 1st of April 2022, the protest started at the president’s residence in Mirihana. The protestors demanded the resignation of the president and Prime Minister from the government. They use slogans such as ‘Go Home Gota, Government without Rajapakshas, and Give us our stolen money.’ In this situation, three months ago, the youth population of Sri Lanka started a protest that is called ‘Aadaraye Aragalaya.’ This article enunciates the youth uprising movements in Sri Lanka and the objective of writing this article is to share the value of doing a democratic revolution to change world politics, especially in an undemocratic system. Sri Lanka used this democratic revolution to change the ruling system in 2022. The important fact is that for doing this protest, the population of youth is giving their support for a positive purpose. Therefore, this article intends to explore the definitions of youth and youth political participation, the youth uprising movements in world history, the History of the youth uprising movement in Sri Lanka, and finally cogitated the nature of the youth uprising movement against the Rajapaksa’s regime in 2022.
M.T.F. Bushra, S.M.M. Nafees, M.M.A. Abdullah, S.M.M. Mazahir
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 300-310; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i06.32

Abstract:
Waqf is an essential component of the Islamic economic instrument that is firmly considered to be capable of resolving socio-economic issues, primarily in the effort to eradicate poverty caused by a lack of income and work. Based on the analysis of the semi-structured interview, this study seeks to investigate the role of the Waqf Board of Sri Lanka and the challenges and issues arising in managing waqf assets. The review of the literature contributed to constructing its theoretical structure. The findings reveal several shortcomings in the administration of waqf assets, including insufficient skilled human resources, lack of utilization of waqf assets, unawareness of the community on waqf, misuse of the waqf assets, and shortage of transparency and accountability. Hence, the study proposes that the proper management of the waqf assets would be sufficient to meet most if not all the needs of the community to a significant extent. The findings will be beneficial to waqf managers and will help enhance waqf institution administration and management. The findings will be beneficial to waqf managers and will help enhance waqf management.
Yulia Nadolskaya, Larisa Epifantseva, Olena Khomchak, Irina Volkova, Irina Barantsova
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 321-331; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i06.35

Abstract:
The importance of forming communicative competence through the lens of nonfiction texts is considered in the article. Several directions are offered - exercises on forming the culture of publicistic speech of students in the process of learning German, and the effectiveness of using the basic communicative method of teaching a foreign language in higher pedagogical education. Communication is defined as communication, combination, transmission, and perception of information in interpersonal relationships that implies a communication process. The norm of communication depends on adherence to certain moral qualities and the culture of speech of the interlocutors, in our case students. Today, as ever, foreign language is becoming an effective factor in the socio-economic, scientific, technical, and cultural progress of society. In the article, nonfiction texts are also considered as one of the factors in the formation of nonfiction speech in student youth. The culture of nonfiction, after all, is the meaning of language and its use in the whole set of functional styles inherent in it. After all, according to the authors, the texts of newspaper and journalistic journalism most strongly encourage students to exchange ideas and opportunities for creative self-realization, formation of critical thinking, associative thinking, and spontaneous foreign language.
Olena Garmash, Irina Barantsova, Maxim Rutkovsky
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 367-377; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i07.39

Abstract:
The article is based on the idea that all the various external manifestations of the spiritual essence of a person are complicated by the lack of development of target objects, principles, and potential of cultural-educational and pedagogical means of harmonizing the interaction of people. The first place in it is asserting the dialogic style of life of the subjects involved in the cultural and educational space. The analysis of intercultural education as a social institution and sociocultural space for an individual’s socialization has made it possible to suggest that it has the potential to ensure the spiritual security of Ukrainian society, particularly regarding intercultural relations. The authors conclude that dialogue cooperation, as a certain humanitarian technology, should direct all educational discourses into the development of a dialogue of cultures and its orientation towards philosophical reflection in the educational process. Philosophical reflection approximates the notion of “intercultural dialogue” and other terms and even categories that function in scientific and academic life. The article stresses that communication space is often contradictory to determine at least the meaning of these concepts and release them from stereotyped connotations, falsifications and quasi-intellectual layers.
A.M. M. Aaqil, Muhaz Faizer, Rimaza Rizwan Moulana
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 311-320; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i06.33

Abstract:
Language is the medium which is used to express the ideas and thoughts of human beings. English is an international language that coordinates with all the sectors in Sri Lanka. Especially in the Educational sector. In the state universities of Sri Lanka, English language courses are being integrated as a common subject in most courses. Hence, the study aimed to identify the challenges faced by undergraduates in enhancing their English language skills. Based on Mixed methods, the primary data was collected through a closed-questionnaire distributed among 100 students out of 350 second-year undergraduates of the Faculty of Islamic Studies and Arabic Language of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka and semi-structured interviews of 30 of them. Secondary data contributed to constructing its theoretical structure. The major findings reveal the emergence of several issues regarding the speaking and listening skills due to the dominance of their mother tongue, Tamil language, other than writing and reading skills because of their involvement in improving such skills through various strategies.
A.Murat Tuncer
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 275-281; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.29

Abstract:
It is difficult to talk about real democracy in our history of the democratic system except for the first periods of the Democratic Party (DP) between 1950 and 1954. A few years after the 1960 Constitution was implemented and the first periods of Turgut Özal (Motherland Party -ANAP) between 1984 and 1989, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) period after 2002 until 2010. Turkey has been controlled by the Justice and Development Party (AKP) since 2002. After some reforms initially, the AKP government showed growing contempt for political rights and civil liberties. Following an attempted coup in 2016, the country’s authoritarian nature was established entirely, prompting a harsh crackdown on perceived leadership opponents. In 2017, constitutional amendments concentrated power in the hands of the President. As a result of the negativities experienced and the changes in the system, according to the 2021 Freedom House report, Turkey’s new category is “not freedom.” While President exerts tremendous power in Turkish politics, hopefully, opposition victories in the 2019 municipal elections demonstrated that presidential authority was not unlimited. There were several steps in Turkey’s transition from democracy to autocratic rule. These stages should be well understood and analyzed in the countries where democracies declined, and necessary precautions should be taken.
Oja Paul Egwemi,
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 261-269; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.24

Abstract:
Beyond the more popular indigenous movie industries from the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria; Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba, the Nigerian Movie Industry has witnessed the upsurge and establishment of more indigenous regional and ethnic movie industries. This development is born partly, out of the desire of indigenous Nigerian ethnic groups to tell their own respective stories; an effort towards sustaining the diverse culture which together, make one Nigeria, and also promote respective cultures globally. Adopting a qualitative design, this article examines the prospects and challenges of the Indigenous movie industry of the Igala ethnic group in Nigeria: Igawood in the quest for global relevance. The article projects that Igawood is an efficient tool for cultural integration, propagation, and sustenance, firstly, among people of the Igala ethnicity spread across the globe and also among other tribes of the world with an interest in the Igala culture. Among other challenges, the paper points at finance, the quest to make a profit, the star actor syndrome, relatively poor presence on satellite TV Networks, and lack of requisite technical know-how as factors militating against Igawood. The paper identifies the need for re-orientation and adequate technical training for players in the industry to meet up with the standard and global best practices.
Obiorah Ekwueme, Chidera Nwafor
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 241-249; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.23

Abstract:
The Judicial system in Nigeria, from the local to the federal level, needs to experience radicalism because perverted justice is gradually becoming the new order of the day. Radicalism is one phenomenon that has remained prominent across ages because it continues to take one form or the other in shaping the realities prevalent in any given generation. A radical artist is an aggressive personality because he/she boils with a burning passion for bringing some degree of change to a given society. He/she employs the most viable means available to make this dream come true no matter what it takes. Due to the strong positions artists occupy in our society today, revolutionaries among them activate their role as social critics, commentators, and changers to speak the language of radicalism through art. In its unusual approach, this paper tends to evaluate the role of some of such artists in contemporary African society with emphasis on Nigeria. This qualitative study draws its framework from the radical theatre aesthetics embedded in creative masterpieces with the ideology of motivating contemporary African artists to join in the crusade of using the surest means in bringing the desired change to our immediate society. This study, therefore, limits its scope to Sam Ukala’s Break a Boil as a revolutionary masterpiece, as it portrays the creative artist as one of the revolutionary artists of our time.
Norbert Oyibo Eze,
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 206-214; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i04.19

Abstract:
This paper examines the response of youths or the rising generation, to the socio-economic and political factors that ceaselessly widen the gap between the elite and the ordinary people, especially the youth and which tend to force the youth to resort to violence as a means of making their point or calling attention to the neglected leaders of tomorrow. While Look Back in Anger represents the anger period, a notable era in English Drama, Irobi’s play in English; Nwokedi, appears to suggest that the Nigerian youth seem to grope in a more devastating condition in a post-colonial Nigeria, where poor leadership has created all manner of socio-economic and political tension. The youthful generation in both plays embodied in the characters, Jimmy and Nwokedi, respectively violently demonstrate their resentment against the ruling class ideology and the social order it promotes. Their resolve points strongly to a revolution that a positive change may only quell. The paper submits that youths should, along with their agitations for a better society, give no holiday to developing new ideas and visions on which their ambitions will thrive. Leaders on all fronts are also cautioned to realize the destructive effects of bad leadership and avert uprisings from an angry citizenry by living up to their mandates.
Felix Ayanbode
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 226-235; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.21

Abstract:
The intersection of history and memory makes us understand that history is a product of memory and memory cannot exist without history. Although scholarship has not given much attention to it as it has to the Holocaust, Germany’s colonial past in Africa is something worth talking about. Coming in late in the colonial game, Germany still managed to acquire four colonies in Africa, namely: Cameroun, Togo, German East Africa (including present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania); German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia). However, another Holocaust took place in German South-West Africa, which Germans tried to sweep under the carpet, a Holocaust that should have gotten the same attention the Holocaust against the Jews got. The Herero genocide or Holocaust came as a popular revolution against the colonial masters. There are several reasons that led to that popular revolt which led to the genocide of 85% of the Herero population. A comparative analysis of the 1989 revolution in East Germany and the Herero revolution shows many similarities and differences.This paper seeks to answer the following questions: How similar or different are the contexts of the GDR and German South-West Africa revolutions? What and how have the power dynamics led to different outcomes? What role did race play in the outcome of the two revolutions? What role did memory play in the two revolutions? Using Uwe Timm’s fictional work Morenga, which is a colonial account of Germany’s colonial past from a contemporary German, this paper argues that the Herero revolution and the GDR revolution had a common purpose: liberty but a different outcome. Within the memory and postcolonial theory framework, I show the role race played in the different outcomes.
J.H.S.T. Jayamaha
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 236-240; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i05.22

Abstract:
This article intends to examine the economic and political crisis in Sri Lanka, especially considering the incident of Rambukkana. The first part of this article describes the background of the economic and political crisis in Sri Lanka, the commencement of protests throughout the country, and further discussed, why ordinary masses came on the street? And what are the reasons behind this situation? Secondly, this article examines the incident of the ‘Rambukkana’ shooting which happened on 19th April 2022. The end of this article indicates the debt trap and failed policies of the current government.
Douglas Gasva
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 26-37; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.3

Abstract:
This study explored the sentiments of educators on how primary school staff development programmes could be made more effective; in pursuit of educational excellence. The case study design within the qualitative research paradigm was adopted. A sample of 42 educators in Zimbabwean primary schools; comprising 36 teachers and 6 head teachers was used. Focus Group Discussions and Interviews were utilised to generate data. The major findings were that school management should consider teachers’ staff development needs as the major priority and that the relevant ministry should also support staff development programmes in order to promote their effectiveness. Accordingly, the researcher concluded that the efficacy of primary school staff development could be enhanced if all stakeholders would work together in order to ensure their effectiveness while educators should be made to realise the importance of staff development programmes as being part of their professional development.
Bukaliya Richard
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.1

Abstract:
This qualitative study investigated the psycho-emotional effects of extra lessons among urban day secondary school learners in Chegutu, Zimbabwe. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis was adopted to generate data from teachers, school inspectors, parents and learners. Results from the study show that participants expressed mixed feelings on the psychological and emotional roles of attending extra lessons learners. Some participants credited extra lessons for their confidence building among the learners, before going into a test or examination. Others viewed extra lessons as a source of depression among learners and strained learners physically because most of the time they were busy. The study recommended that extra lessons needed to be continued but under the guidance of the teachers and parents. Since learners had their morale boosted before taking a test or examination, learners need to continue getting involved in extra lessons.
Bukaliya Richard
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 13-25; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.2

Abstract:
This study investigated the role of extra lessons in the general administration of the secondary schools in Chegutu, Zimbabwe. The case study design was adopted. Interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis was used to collect data. Twenty-three participants, consisting of 8 teachers, 6 learners, 6 parents and 3 school inspectors were purposively sampled. Findings revealed that the general administration of schools was affected by extra lessons. Extra lessons helped in raising the school pass rates. They helped build a good image for the schools and assisted in the reduction of the teachers` workload. However, the lessons created a dent in teacher professionalism. Teachers were accused of neglecting formal schoolwork by creating a demand for extra lessons among learners. The lessons also contributed to indiscipline among learners. Relations between learners and teachers were also strained. The study recommended that extra lessons should continue as they reduced the workload for teachers and provided a conducive working environment at the school. It is prudent that MOPSE, school heads and parents monitor work given to learners during normal school hours to avoid the creation of artificial demand for extra lessons.
Douglas Gasva, Saziso Mukomana
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 38-50; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.5

Abstract:
This qualitative case study was scrutiny of documentary evidence of the effectiveness of staff development programmes in selected primary schools in Hwange District, Zimbabwe. Its population comprised of primary school heads and a sample of 5(n=5); obtained through Purposive sampling was utilised. Interviews complemented by document analysis were employed as data generation techniques. The major findings were that staff development is being implemented at the studied schools considering the presence of staff development records particularly plans and minutes. However, these records were available at some schools while others did not have them. Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that staff development at the schools is reasonably effective though their effectiveness could be enhanced through improved recording of the programmes. The researchers recommended that concerned authorities should ensure that school staff development is properly documented in a way that fosters its effectiveness and quality education.
Jura Florence
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 51-66; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i01.4

Abstract:
The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the student retention strategies at the Zimbabwe Open University. It utilised the qualitative approach to collect and analyse data. The data was collected through interviews. The study sample comprised sixteen participants, eight staff members and eight students. These were selected through purposive sampling since the study was qualitative. The findings show that ZOU had very lucrative strategies to manage student retention. Among them were management and leadership styles, peer teaching, mentoring and collaboration, orientation, and student-centred active learning. It also noted that ZOU had challenges in student retention which included resources, social influences, soft skills and teaching methods. The study concluded challenges faced by students were basically situational not institute based. Teaching methods like peer tutoring and collaboration were important as they created a conducive environment for learning. The study recommended that ZOU continuously trains its front desk employees and equip them with correct information. It was also recommended that the students be made aware of the learning styles in an ODL setup before taking up the studies.
Mukhlesur Rahman
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 108-114; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i03.38

Abstract:
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was a polymath and one of the most versatile and accomplished writers of his age. His fame transcended the national boundaries, especially after he had been conferred the prestigious ‘Nobel Prize’ in 1913 for his masterpiece “Gitanjali”. So, the Arabic-Speaking World was not supposed to be isolated in this regard. Subsequently, when Tagore received the Nobel Prize on 13th November 1913, the Arab World came forward to welcome and celebrate the news wholeheartedly because Tagore was not only the first Indian but the first Asian to receive the prestigious award. So, daily newspapers of several Arab countries expressed their excitement and enthusiasm soon after the Nobel Committee announced that Tagore had won the Nobel Prize and Egypt was at the forefront as we find that several reputed dailies and journals published the news such as the daily al-Ahram and the journals Saut al-Sharq, al-Hilal, al-Jinan and al-Muqtataf etc. Later, many Arabic writers and translators paid their special attention to his literary works. And many books, research papers and articles were written discussing his life, literature, philosophy and spirituality. As he was a renowned personality all over the world, much has been written and being written about him. His diversified works of literature are studied and researched. Journal articles and conference papers are written and presented nationally and internationally. Hence, I don’t intend to take up any of these aspects to discuss in this concise paper. As it’s clear from the title of the article, I would try to discuss and highlight how he has been received, read and revered in the Arab World through Arabic writings and translations of Tagoreana.
Gift Rupande
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 141-155; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i03.12

Abstract:
This article examines the psychology underpinning indigenous healing among the Maungwe People in Makoni District. It interrogates what indigenous healing is, the psychology used by indigenous healers in the management of diseases, health models used in indigenous healing, and how psychology relates to culture. Lastly, the study looks at the efficacy or myth of indigenous medicine. The population of the indigenous healers in Makoni was twenty-nine ZINATHA registered indigenous healers and herbalists. A sample of ten indigenous healers was used. A purposive sampling method and multi-sited ethnography were used. In-depth interviews and observations were the data generation methods used. Results showed that indigenous healers use various ways that have psychological implications for the patient, such as the use of animal skin or black, white, or red clothes thrown over their shoulders when they are carrying out their healing activities. Other indigenous healers put a special head-gear called “ngundu” on their heads. The “ngundu,” which has black feathers stuck around it, is worn when getting into “matare,” a process done by indigenous healers to ascertain why the patient is suffering from a certain disease. The use of divining equipment called ‘Hakata’ also has a psychological effect. The results also show that indigenous medicine is effective, as it has been used for centuries to treat various diseases. It was recommended that trainee indigenous medicinal practitioners should also master the psychological rituals which are used in the indigenous healing process.
Reza Rafiei Rad
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 115-126; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i03.37

Abstract:
Afghan contemporary women painters relying on the foundations of modernism and the legacy of visual tradition have found a great presence in contemporary art in this country. In this regard, these painters have created artworks in political and social contexts, women's issues, portraiture, inanimate nature, and figures. The question is how Afghan contemporary women's painters have used the rich country's assets in their contemporary painting? And what are their attitudes to this old treasure? This paper provides results using a descriptive-analytical method and using the library and archive resources. First, not only the attitude towards the past and the visual capital of painting, both for men and Afghan contemporary women's painters, are not reactionary, but it is also wealth for their contemporary works; it has been promoted visually. It was also found that the functions of painting in the works of these female painters can be seen in the application of elements such as colour (coordination), golden colour, divergence or use frame failure by plant images, the combination of plant designs, geometric, illumination or divination, and Calligraphy with painting, as well as the combination of naturalist painting with plant designs, as well as combining elements such as Simorgh, Islamic architectural designs, or flowers and chicken with oil paintings. It was also found that two types of socio-political approaches to expressing women's concerns and issues and paying attention to painting to revitalize the heritage of this land have attracted the most attention of the Afghan contemporary women painters.
Lissa Ndengo, Bukaliya Richard
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 156-171; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i03.15

Abstract:
The study investigated the proliferation of unlicensed ECD (Early Childhood Development) Centres in Marondera Urban Ward 4. A sample of ten unlicensed ECD operators was drawn from a population of forty unlicensed ECD operators. The study was prompted by the high proliferation rate of the unlicensed ECD Centres in Marondera Urban Ward 4 for the past five years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from the unlicensed ECD operators. Interviews were used to collect data from Marondera Urban Ward 4 councillors and Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education (MoPSE) officer at Marondera MoPSE provincial offices. The data was analysed and presented in tables, charts and narratives. The results show that the councillor and the MoPSE were aware of the problem of the proliferation of unlicensed ECD Centres in Marondera Ward 4. The findings ECD business was dominated by women in Zimbabwe and no wonder why women were running the majority of unlicensed ECD Centres in Marondera Urban Ward 4. Women are perceived as the gender that was afraid to commit offences or crimes, but results show that they were bold to commit offences. Due to the harsh economic environment in Zimbabwe, women and men were alike in committing offences to provide for their families and survivors. Operating unlicensed ECD Centres was operating an informal business. The economic environment, personal motivation, the ease with which the ECD Centres could be established, and the relaxation of law enforcement agents were the main drivers of the proliferation of ECD centres in Marondera Urban. The study recommended that MoPSE and other stakeholders in the registration of ECD centres should amend the current ECD Centre registration policy and procedures to suit the current economic environment without compromising the health and safety of the ECD pupils. The government should give incentives to registered ECD Centres that may motivate unlicensed ECD operators to get licensed. The MoPSE and local authorities should involve ECD operators when formulating policies.
Sukanto Roy, Said Rashid Al Harthy
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 127-140; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i03.28

Abstract:
International students (IS) who travel abroad for studies could be affected by various factors such as academic and social aspects that may influence the construction of their cultural identities. This study explored a group of international students' cultural identity construction in the environment of an American university. A focus group discussion investigated how the IUP (Indiana University of Pennsylvania) learning context influences international students' cultural identity construction. The data revealed that the major influential factors in the construction of international students' cultural identities were initial challenges and their life experiences. The data also indicated that this process of identity construction went through the stages of the acculturation model.
Anthony C. Nwanjoku, Eke Livinus, Zaki Muhammad Zayyanu
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 75-81; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i02.17

Abstract:
Far from being an entirely textual engagement, translation is a completely intellectual enterprise. Some translation practitioners and theorists have perhaps erroneously tended to postulate that translation involves the mere replacement of lexicons in one language with lexicons in another language. This position has led to the concept of source language text (SLT) and target language (TLT). In this article, we are not in any way condemning the idea of translation constituting a linguistic movement from one culture to another. All we intend to demonstrate is that our research so far shows that translating between languages of little or no cultural affinity is not as simple as people may think. The Igbo language has no cultural affinity with English and French. This singular fact translates them to an uphill task. The Igbo verb presents a difficult problem to translators working between Igbo and foreign languages, especially English.
Reza Rafiei Rad
Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.55559/sjahss.v1i02.20

Abstract:
Persian language in Iranian art has had many Functions a long time ago. This function has been revealed sometimes in imagery form for literary fiction in Iranian painting, and sometimes in ultra-modern in form of representation of words, letters and sentences in the works of Iranian contemporary artists, including Ghahve-Kaneh and Sagha- Kane style painting. After the 70s, line drawing also paid attention to values of words and letters too, among them some conceptual artists, with the pursuit practical background of language make different representations from words and letters in their works. What is necessary is that, Persian language is a treasury which has many capabilities for transmission of ideas and concepts. As for contemporary conceptual art, we can see that these capabilities have been neglected. This means that with Compilation of conceptual art and analysis of them. The question is, how can Persian allusions be involved in the structure of the creation of conceptual art? The findings of this descriptive-analytical study show that by doing this, with change substance in language, it means, word to art essence, ready one, produce, which follow construction of idea transmission of conceptual art, non-skillful being predetermination programing, non-subjectivity, also evidence and briefness.
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