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Sajjad Kathem Ashour, Haider Abd Jabbar Al-Ammar, Yasmine Hamza Sharif
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 306-311; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.303

Abstract:
Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious illness that can harm both mothers and unborn children and may even be fatal. It contributes significantly to maternal fatalities in underdeveloped countries. PE, which affects 2%–3% of women who are pregnant after 20 weeks of pregnancy, is marked by proteinuria and hypertension. PE is a significant condition that plays a significant role in maternal fatalities in underdeveloped countries and is a significant cause of death for both mothers and newborns. Each year, around 60,000 maternal fatalities occur in the world. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured in pregnant women during the first trimester and second trimesters. IL-6 was necessary to establish serum biomarkers that can accurately predict the onset of preeclampsia. In a prospective cohort study that was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Antenatal Care Unit at Maternity and Pediatrics Teaching Hospital in AL-Diwaniyah – Iraq, 160 pregnant patients between the years of 20 and 40 who were normotensive and had gestational ages of 10 to 13 weeks were included in this research between August 2021 and May 2022. Bioassays for IL-6 were conducted after blood samples were obtained. At the end of the study, it was confirmed that for women with pre-eclampsia (n = 33, 22.0%) and those women with no pre-eclampsia (n = 117, 78.0 %), there was no significant difference in the level between the preeclampsia and no preeclampsia group (p > 0.05).
, Thaer M. Salman
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 249-253; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.257

Abstract:
In southern Basrah in Iraq, this research is aimed at measuring the concentrations of Boron 10B5. Measuring the water wells and water samples collected at 43 different locations were carried out using the Inductively coupled plasma/Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The concentration ranged from 0.2 mg/L (Al Marbad District) to 9.3 mg/L (Al Shuaiba farm 2). The study's findings are given and compared to those of other studies. These observations could be used to make an additionally unique contribution to the preservation and application of water quality standards to related organizations of radioactive contaminant-free samples required for humans if an incident of contamination occurs. Furthermore, 43 surface water samples were found to be more boron-like than detected levels. The increase in water flow outside the root level by the monsoon rain is responsible. This is due to acute boron contamination will therefore soon occur.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 259-263; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.264

Abstract:
Polycystic ovarian syndrome can be defined as an endocrine disorder that most affects the reproductive system of women of childbearing age; its causes are not exactly known. However, the majority of the experts agree that it is a multifactorial entity with multiple factors. Genetics is becoming increasingly important. In recent years, several genes that are involved in the pathogenic processes of this syndrome have been identified. Within these, the most important ones are the ones that encode steroidogenesis enzymes and insulin receptors, as well as other hormones that are associated with the actions of insulin and gonadotropins and their receptors. The results obtained included 1) women with PCOS had significantly lower levels of adiponectin compared to controls. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in both lean and obese women with PCOS compared to the control group. 2) PCOS women had significantly higher levels of LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio, and total testosterone compared to controls. 3) Both lean and obese PCOS women had significantly higher levels of LH, LH/FSH ratio, and total testosterone compared to the control group, however, FSH levels were significantly increased only in obese PCOS women compared to controls. 4) PCOS women had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol compared to controls. 5) Both lean and obese PCOS women had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol compared to controls. Only obese PCOS women had significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol compared to the controls. 6) The genotype analysis of FSHR gene polymorphism showed that the heterozygote Ala/Thr genotype was significantly more frequent in PCOS patients than in controls (64.1% versus 40%).
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 215-224; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.149

Abstract:
CdO nanoparticles show a strong peak of Plasmon absorption in ultraviolet-visible zone. A strong interaction exists between the surface of CdO nanoparticles and aryl mercaptan compounds. Aryl mercaptan compounds cause to aggregation of CdO nanoparticles linked to DNA/RNA and hence, lead to widening of peak Plasmon of CdO nanoparticles surface at 550 (nm) and emerging a new peak at higher wavelength. In the current project, this optical characteristic of CdO nanoparticles is used to time investigate of interaction between different aryl mercaptanes and CdO nanoparticles. The results were shown that aryl mercaptan compounds with shorter chain length interact faster with CdO nanoparticles. Therefore, a simple and fast method for identification of aryl mercaptanes with various chain length using red shift in surficial Plasmon absorption is presented.
Lina Saadi,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 241-248; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.252

Abstract:
The metal complexes of Azo dye; 4,4'-((methylene bis(3,l-phenylen)) bis (diazene-l,2-diyl)) bis(1,3-Benzenediol) are produced from 4,4`- methylenedianiline and Resorcinol were synthesized and characterized by using several analytical and spectral techniques. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by many chemo-physic methods like NMR, IR, UV-Vis, molar conductance measurement, analytical measurement, and melting point. The conditions of optimal reaction (for instance reagent concentration, pH etc) were studied and the analytical figures of merit such as limit of detection, linearity, sensitivity etc) were obtained.
, Azhar A. Al-Attraqchi, Amar Kasim Muhmmed
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 225-233; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.235

Abstract:
The study aimed to assess the frequency of invasive fungal infection in patients with respiratory diseases by conventional and molecular methods. This study included 117 Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from patients with respiratory disease (79 male and 38 female) with ages ranged between (20-80) years, who attended Medicine Baghdad Teaching hospital and AL-Emamain AL-Khadhymian Medical City, during the period from September 2019 to April 2020. The results in PCR versus culture methods in this study showed that out of 117 samples of fungal infections 30(25.6 %) were detected by culture method, while the 24(20.5%) samples were detected by PCR technique, the most commonly diagnosed pathogenic fungi is Candida spp. followed by Aspergillus spp. By considering the culture method as a gold standard against the PCR technique, the results show that the sensitivity and specificity of PCR were (86.6%) and (100%) respectively.
Marwa Husain Abdullah Mohi Al-Kahfaji
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 254-258; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.259

Abstract:
All across the world, skin diseases are rather frequent. The likelihood of pediculosis capitis (0.2-35 percent, 6.9-35 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to other parts of South Africa. ), pyoderma (prevalence range 0.2-35 percent, 6.9–35% in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of South Africa, tinea capitis (1–19.7%), scabies (0.2–24%, 1.3–17% in Sub-Saharan Africa), and viral skin illnesses (0.4–9%, mainly molluscum contagiosum,0-57 percent). A bacterial skin infection is the most frequent kind of skin infection. Numerous bacterial skin infections have been linked to necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever, erysipelas, erythrasma, abscesses, folliculitis, furunculosis, and impetigo. Additionally, ecthyma, furunculosis, and mycobacterium skin disorders are covered in this review. Recent studies have revealed modifications in the causes and remedies of bacterial skin infections. In the United States, the prevalence of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is rising.
, Hassan Hadi Kadhim
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 270-277; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.284

Abstract:
In this research, a new method was used to determine the amount of iron in water, by using the colour biosensor of the smart-phone device as a biosensor for the chromatic intensity of the samples images that are examined through a program (colour meter) downloaded to the phone. The concentration of the samples is measured from the value of the basic colours (red, green, blue) (RGB) for recorded video from a device (Galaxy J7 prime 2). An accessory for the mobile device is designed from plastic (black acrylic). In the form of a dark box from the inside equipped with a flow cell and a mirror reflecting the flash light emitted by the mobile device and a green filter complementing the red colour, and a micro switch connected to a smart-phone device via earphones, and the device is attached to the accessory by the device case. The calibration curve for this method was in the range of mg/L (1-8), the correlation coefficient (R2 ) was equal to (0.999), the limit of detection was in the amount of (0.2) mg/L, and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) for the concentration was (4) mg/L, for which the examination was repeated (10) times, and its value was (0.6 %), and the recovery value (Recovery%) was equal to (101.5 %).
Managing Editor Irapa
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.328

Abstract:
CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the authoritative version of an article or other published content. By applying the CrossMark logo, Springer is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking the CrossMark logo on a document will tell you its current status and may also give you additional publication-record information about the document. For more information on CrossMark, please visit the CrossMark site. The iRAPA content that will have the CrossMark logo is restricted to current and future journal content and is limited to specific publication types. For general author guidelines and information, please see: Authors' Guidelines. Correction and Retraction Policies iRAPA is committed to uphold the integrity of the literature and publishes Errata, Expressions of Concerns or Retraction Notices dependent on the situation and in accordance with the COPE Retraction Guidelines. In all cases, these notices are linked to the original article. More information on iRAPA’s guidelines can be found here: Publication Ethics Information on COPE Retraction Guidelines can be found here: Retraction Guidelines
R Kumaar Prathipati, V Harsha Shastri, Madhavi Kolukuluri, Radha Dharavathu, Donthireddy Sudheer Reddy, B N Siva Rama Krishna
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 207-214; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.84

Abstract:
The clustering of data series was already demonstrated to provide helpful information in several fields. Initial data for the period is divided into sub-clusters Recorded in the data resemblance. The grouping of data series takes 3 categories, based on which users operate in frequencies or programming interfaces on original data explicitly or implicitly with the characteristics derived from physical information or through a framework based on raw material. The bases of series data grouping are provided. The conditions for the evaluation of the outcomes of grouping are multi-purpose time constant frequently employed in dataset grouping research. A clustering method splits data into different groups so that the resemblance between organisations is better. K-means++ offers an excellent convergence rate compared to other methods. To distinguish the correlation between items the maximum distance is employed. Distance measure metrics are frequently utilized with most methods by many academics. Genetic algorithm for the resolution of cluster issues is worldwide optimization technologies in recent times. The much more prevalent partitioning strategies of large volumes of data are K-Median & K-Median methods. This analysis is focusing on the multiple distance measures, such as Euclidean, Public Square and Shebyshev, hybrid K-means++ and PSO clubs techniques. Comparison to orgorganization-basedthods reveals an excellent classification result compared to the other methods with the K++ PSO method utilizing the Chebyshev distance measure.
, Shayma Muhsen Ahmad, Dhea Sh. Zagheer
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 234-240; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.246

Abstract:
In this short review definition, mechanism, and recent developments of the Stetter reaction, in the period last ten years from 2011 to 2021 are presented. This reaction comprises N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed umpolung of aldehydes followed by their capturing with activated carbon-carbon double bonds (Michael acceptors). This work includes also progresses in the inter-molecular and intra-molecular versions and enantioselective transformations. Underscoring the recent advances in the applications of Stetter reaction in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems and total synthesis of natural products have been also introduced.
Mohammed Ali Mones, Haider Abd Jabbar Al-Ammar, Aqeel Raheem Al-Barqawi, May Jaleel Abed
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 264-269; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.276

Abstract:
Coronavirus is a new pandemic disease that began in Wuhan, China, and has since spread over the globe. The number of COVID-19 cases reported daily in Iraq has slowly increased. This study aims to investigate the effect of Covid-19 on the normal range of White Blood Cells (WBC), D-Dimer, and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH). This study looked at 65 patients who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Patients with mild symptoms and a normal CT scan for the chest were separated into three groups: those with mild symptoms and a normal CT scan for the chest, those with intermediate disease presenting with fever and cough, other respiratory symptoms, and those with severe disease. At the time of the study, all patients' data were collected from Al-Diwaniyah Teaching hospital admission for parameters of White blood cell count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and D-Dimer levels, from December 27, 2020, to April 1, 2021. The WBC count, D-Dimer, and LDH in the patients with COVID-19 were higher than that of the control group (8.15 X109/L versus 390 ng/ml and 593 U/L), respectively, and the difference was highly significant (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in WBC count and LDH among patients according to the severity (p > 0.05). A larger leukocyte count, D-Dimer, and LDH increased the risk of death. These signs can reliably predict a patient's prognosis while in the hospital. Our study's best lab marker was LDH.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 295-305; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.294

Abstract:
Barbiturates, which are derived from the medically significant substance barbituric acid also known as malonylurea or 4-hydroxyuracil, are employed as anaesthetics, sedative-hypnotics, anticonvulsants, and depressants of the central nervous system. In recent years, researchers have paid great attention to compounds and derivatives of barbituric acid, although the first barbituric acid was discovered in 1864 by Adolf Von Baeyer. Due to its great medical and biological importance and wide applications in polymerization catalysts, plastics and textiles, aqueous or oil inks, and polymers. The background, reactions, and methods of preparing barbituric acid have been studied over the last ten years.
Alaa M. Alrudainy,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 289-294; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.291

Abstract:
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) cause potato late blight disease and can infect of roots, tubers, and shoots of the plant. The majority of significant factors in determining the spread of the potato late blight is the cultivation of infected potato tubers and their presence as agricultural plant debris in the agricultural field. Mycelium, zoospores, Oospores, and sporangia, all these structures can make infection, also Oospores with their thick wall can survive for 3 to 4 years under low temperatures. P. infestans responsible to yield losses may arrive at 100% in optimum condition. There are two types of mating patterns for A1 and A2, and this depends on the spread of each type in different environments. This fungus also contains several genetic patterns that have been identified through molecular analysis. The different genotypes in this fungus led to new challenges to make an unstable guideline for the study of virulence and aggressiveness. Different strategies or methods were used to prevent or control late blight disease, included of chemicals, crop rotation, bio-agents, and resistant plants. There are many advantages or disadvantages to each strategy, but several studies mention that using resistant plants and fungicide together on conditions in suitable times and strategies led to perfect effect. This paper investigated in important factors in the spread of late blight disease, and some challenges in this fungus.
Amer A. Haamadi, , Hassan M. Abo Almaali
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 278-288; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i4.289

Abstract:
Gastric and ulcer peptic disease is a common disease in the community. Considering the close relationship between peptic ulcer and gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori increased markedly with age with the maximum colonization (81.5%) occurring in adults (40-60 years). H. pylori are bacteria that can cause an infection in the stomach or duodenum (first part of the small intestine). It’s the most common cause of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori can also inflame and irritate the stomach lining (gastritis). Untreated, long-term H. pylori infection can lead to stomach cancer (rarely). H. pylori multiply in the mucus layer of the stomach lining and duodenum. The bacteria secrete an enzyme called urease that converts urea to ammonia. This ammonia protects the bacteria from stomach acid. As H. pylori multiply, it eats into stomach tissue, which leads to gastritis and/or gastric ulcer. Symptoms include dull or burning stomach pain, unplanned weight loss and bloody vomit. H-pylori-caused ulcers are commonly treated with combinations of antibiotics. Usually two antibiotics are prescribed. Among the common choices are amoxicillin, clarithromycin (Biaxin®), metronidazole (Flagyl®) and tetracycline and Proton pump inhibitor: Commonly used proton pump inhibitors include lansoprazole (Prevacid®), omeprazole (Prilosec®), pantoprazole (Protonix®), rabeprazole (Aciphex®) or esomeprazole (Nexium®). and Bismuth subsalicylate: Sometimes this drug (eg, Pepto-Bismol®) is added to the antibiotics plus proton pump inhibitor combinations mentioned above. This drug protects the stomach lining. combination treatment is usually taken for 14 days. One newer medication, Talicia®, combines two antibiotics (rifabutin and amoxicillin) with a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) into a single capsule.
Mustafa M. Grafa, Hanan M. Ali
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 168-177; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.127

Abstract:
In this study, 2,5-dimethyl-4-((4-nitrobenzylidene) amino) phenol (A1), N,N'-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methanimine (A2) and 4,4'-(([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diylbis(azaneylylidene))bis (methaneylylidene))bis(2-methoxyphenol) (A3) were synthesised. Analytical studies were then carried on (A1), (A2) and (A3); the results of the solvent effect were displayed that the best solubility was in ethanol and DMSO of each, which is due to the fact that the effect of the dielectric constant is the main factor that can control the shift of the absorption beaks. The results were also indicated, that there is a slight deviation from the linear relationship in (A3) that may have related to the hydrogen bond between this base and the solvent. However, the results of the pH effect of (A1), (A2) and (A3) in a range of buffer solution were gave two isopiestic points just in (A3). Due to the ionization constant (pKa) and the protonation constant (pKp) were calculated by using the half height method. Further, the results were indicated the existence of the equilibrium schemes of which displays the suggested ionization of (A3) in acidic and basic medium. Further, the effect of the prepared Schiff bases (A1, A2, and A3) were studied on breast cancer cells type MCF-7 using five different concentrations of each. The results were showed high inhibition activities of each especially at high concentration, due recommend these bases as novel anti-cancer drugs.
Thaer M. Salman,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 164-167; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.174

Abstract:
The amount of uranium in soil samples collected from a variety of residential, industrial, and agricultural sectors in the southern Basrah governorate in southern Iraq was determined using the neutron activation technique for solid-state nuclear track detectors CR-39. According to the findings, uranium concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.65 ppm to 2.67 ppm. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 15 cm. The results were matched to publicly available data and determined to be within acceptable bounds.
Muhanad T. Almayyahi, Basil A. Saleh, Baqer A. Almayyahi
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 147-159; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.179

Abstract:
Nine copolyesters were prepared from a dicarboxylic acid, curcumin analogues (monocarbonyl) and phenophthalene dye in the mole ratio of 2:1:1 by direct polycondensation using triethylamine (Et3N) as the condensation agent. The dicarboxylic used is 2,6-Pyridine dicarbonyl dichloride acid. The curcumin analogues were prepared by acid catalyzed Aldol condensation reaction. These copolyesters were characterized by FT-IR. The fluorescence of the synthesized copolyesters was also investigated. Furthermore, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal stability of these copolymers.
Yazi Abdullah Jassim
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 160-163; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.178

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance occurs when microorganisms develop mechanisms that protect them from the effects of antibiotics. Resistant microorganisms are more difficult to treat, require higher doses or alternative therapies may be more toxic, as well as more expensive. Microorganisms that are able to resist many antibiotics are called multi-resistant. All kinds of microorganisms can develop this ability to resist; Fungi develop resistance against antifungals, viruses develop resistance against antivirals, protozoa develop resistance against protozoa, and bacteria develop resistance against antibiotics. Resistance arose naturally either through genetic mutations or through the transmission of resistance from one sex that has acquired it to another that has not yet acquired it, in particular. Accordingly, it is urgent to reduce the misuse of antibiotics by not using them only when they are really needed.
Mohammed G. A. Al-Khuzaie, , Ahmed Jalil Al-Safi
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 193-206; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.221

Abstract:
Isatin is a heterocyclic nitrogen compound that has attracted much interest in recent years due to its diverse biological and pharmacological activities. It can be used in many medical and biological applications, such as antidiabetic, antibiotic, and anticancer agents. The isatin molecule can also be prepared from different substrates by various methods, such as the methods of Sandmeyer, Stolle, Gassman, Meanwell and Hewawasam and others. On the other hand, the isatin molecule can undergo various chemical reactions, such as oxidation, Friedel-Crafts reaction, ring expansion, aldol condensation, and alkylation reactions. As a result of these reactions, several biologically useful biomolecules are formed, including 2-oxindoles, tryptanthrin, indirubins and others. Therefore, the aim of this review was to provide an overview of the synthetic methods of the isatin molecule and its derivatives and to examine the various chemical reactions it undergoes. In addition, a list of some of the recently documented biological activities of isatin derivatives was compiled, such as antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer, and other properties.
Abdullah H. Al-Saadoon, , Luma .H. Ali,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 117-125; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.240

Abstract:
Soil is one of the favorable habitat for microorganism. It considered being the home of wide range of them in particularly, bacteria and fungi. Southern Iraq is characterized by a multiplicity of ecosystem, which include desert, agricultural and marine areas, each of which has special composition that differs from the neighboring system, whether in terms of vegetation or various environmental factors. This in diversity, in turn, may lead to microbial diversity that can be used in different biotechnologies. Regarding that little is known about yeast diversity in such habitats, and therefore the current study aims to assess the yeast community in soil and sediments samples from Basrah and Dhi-Qar provinces, Southern Iraq. Thirty-one species belong to 19 genera were encountered. The isolated species consist of 16 species of Ascomycota and 15 species of Basidiomycota. The soil of Basrah and Dhi-Qar support the growth of diverse species belonged to the genera Aureobasidium, Cutaneotrichosporon, Debaryomyces, Filobasidium Geotrichum, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Meyerozyma, Symmetrospora, Torulaspora, Vishniacozyma, Pichia, Yarrowia, Cystobasidium, Galactomyces, Rhodotorula, Wickerhamomyces, Candida and Naganishia. One hundred and twelve fungal isolates were identified using the conventional methods depending on morphological characteristics. CHROMagar candida was used as differential culture medium. Iodine stain was used to differentiate ascospores and basidiospores. In addition biochemical method represented by VITEK was used as well as molecular identification. This study represents the first report of occurrence of yeast species in soil and surface sediment samples from Basrah and Dhi-Qar provinces, Southern, Iraq, with effect of some ecological factors on isolation yeast from different location.
Ahmed Salim Shantah Al-Sadkhan, Dawood S. Ali, Salah Sh. Alluaibi
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 110-116; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.245

Abstract:
A total of 130 overweight Iraqi women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the ages of the women ( 28 to 60) years, were divided into groups, group 5000 IU (65 women) as group A and control (65 women) as group B. were participants from The Specialized Center for Diabetes in Maysan Province and its related areas in the countryside and the city for this double-blind, randomized control trial (Maysan Province, Iraq). A placebo and 5000 IU of D3 daily were given to the participants for four months. Laboratory tests were conducted at baseline and four months to analyze serum levels. After four months of treatment, positive changes in total cholesterol, D3 levels, and LDL cholesterol. There was no statistically meaningful change in HDL and TG concentration, and there were no significant differences in age and place of residence. According to this study, vitamin D may help type 2 diabetics lower their total cholesterol and LDL concentrations.
FaheemA Jabbar, Azhar A. Al-Attraqchi, Dina Nabeel Alkhayyat
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 126-131; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.198

Abstract:
Opportunistic fungal infections due to the immune- compromised status of renal transplant patients are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality regardless of their minor incidence. Delayed in identification of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), will lead to delayed treatment and results in high mortality in those populations. The study aimed to assess the frequency of invasive fungal infection in kidney transplant recipients by conventional and molecular methods. This study included 100 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) (75 males, and 25 females), collected from the Centre of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation in the Medical City of Baghdad. Blood samples were collected during the period from June 2018 to April 2019. Twenty one out of 100 renal-transplanted patients were infected with pathogenic fungi, four of the patients were females and 17 were males. There is an observation of a high incidence of fungemia in patients with the abnormal value of blood urea according to PCR and culture results. Referring to fungal isolates the most prevalent was Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which account for 19 isolates out of 21 the other two isolates were Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Aspergillus flavus. The results of the current study show significant correlation between PCR and culture methods at (P<0.0009).
Zahraa A. N. Al-Yassiry, Basheer Al-Alwani
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 132-137; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.200

Abstract:
Various molecular methods could be utilized in order to investigate botanical diversity. Arbitrary primed DNA, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and sequence-tagged simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are all briefly reviewed. DNA-based approaches have recently been proved to be useful for crucial tasks, like specimen identification and targeted screening for expected or known invaders, according to a recent study. Prior to more ambitious applications, as extensive surveys of complex environmental samples and propagule pressure prediction, could be conducted, considerable technological obstacles should be solved. The aim of the current review was to estimate the molecular techniques used for assessing the genetic diversity of plants. The degree of variation among the plant species based on genetics is described as the genetic diversity of plants, evaluating the possible value regarding the current invasive species monitoring methods.
May Jaleel Abed, Ahmed Ebrahim Hamzah, Kasim Kadhim Alasedi
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 178-192; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.126

Abstract:
Six derivatives of novel triazoles were produced from some substituted benzoic acid with thiocarbazide via method of grinding. The produced Chemicals were described via 1HNMR, IR, and 13CNMR spectra examinations. Produced derivatives of C2H3N3 were examined and assessed as reducing of corrosion in 0.5 M HCl for low-C steel utilizing procedure of losing weight. It was noticed that such chemicals had an encouraging act as reducer counter to mild steel corrosion of in solution being acidic. Reducing of maximum action was assessed at various concentrations and temperature of effector. Competence of corrosion reducer surpassed 96%. The exceptional action was due to inhibitor films adsorption development on surfacing steel. Reducing adsorption on surface of steel tracked Langmuir adsorption isotherm (LAI). The results were long-established BY theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry.
Anaam Rasheed, Senan Albayati, Sarab Alazawi, Enas Zuhair, Mudeer Merza, Khalil Abid
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 138-146; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i3.187

Abstract:
A new metal-free macrocyclic Schiff base ligand bearing two metal cavities incorporated with two sets of N3O2 donor atoms derived from 2, 6-diaminopyridine and isatine was synthesized. The new ligand was used to prepare homo and hetero binuclear macrocyclic Schiff base complexes with Ni (II), Cu (II), ZrO (II) and Ba (II) metal ions. The ligand and metal complexes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV–vis, mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis (CHN), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetic susceptibility, and molar conductivity measurements. The DFT calculations using the B3LYP functional method have been applied to obtain the geometry and electronic properties of the ligand and its metal complexes to support the experimental data. To describe the reactivity of the title molecules, the HOMO and LUMO levels and Mulliken atomic charges were determined.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 65-69; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.97

Abstract:
Malaria can elicit a non-specific immune response against viral, bacterial and other malarial and non-malarial infections. Early in this pandemic suggestions were raised for possible role of cross immunity induced by malaria or other agents against SARS-CoV-2 severity. A possible role of heterogeneous immunity generated by previous malaria infection was suggested to explain part of diversity in COVID-19 mortality among various countries. This study was designed to examine this hypothesis by looking for possible statistical relation between malaria elimination date and COVID-19 mortality. Sixty -nine malaria-free countries with a total population of 1 million or more were enrolled in this study using robust statistical tests which include: Mann-Whitney Test, Kendall's-τ coefficient test and receiver operation characteristic - (ROC) curve analyses. Results showed that there was a significant negative association among studied marker (COVID -19 deaths/million inhabitant , and date of elimination of malaria (using Kendall's-τ Correlation Coefficient test). There was a significant positive association between COVID-19 mortality and duration of time since the time of malaria elimination. With a cutoff point of 15, countries that eliminate malaria during the last 15 years had reduced median COVID-19 mortality, while countries that eliminate malaria more than 15 years ago there is high COVID-19 median mortality p value <0.05) . Receiver operation characteristic - (ROC) curve, was used to support these findings ( P value <0.05). The author of this article suggests that a correlation exists between malaria elimination duration and mortality due to COVID-19.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 70-77; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.99

Abstract:
Gallstone disease is a gastrointestinal disease that results from the dysfunction of cholesterol, bile, and bilirubin metabolism. Gallstones in the gallbladder are common and form through cholelithiasis. They can also grow in biliary ducts through choledocholithiasis. In industrial countries, gallstone disease has increased in prevalence and affects up to 20% of the adult population. Its major risk factors are female gender, age, obesity, type 2 diabetes, rapid weight loss, physical inactivity, and genetic traits. Various systems for gallstone classification are available. Gallstones are classified as cholesterol, pigmented, and mixed gallstones in accordance with their chemical composition. Gallstone disease is either asymptomatic or has symptoms that manifest as pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice. The pathogenesis of this disease is related to the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, which include hepatic cholesterol hypersecretion, bile supersaturation, mucin, inflammatory changes, intestinal hypomotility, intestinal cholesterol hyperabsorption, and gut microbe alterations. The major genetic factors of this disease are the mutations in the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCC8 and the cholecystokinin a receptor gene. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of developing gallstone disease. The standard diagnostic method for gallstone disease is ultrasound imaging. Medical treatment involves the administration of bile acid drugs and/or cholecystectomy.
Thaaer K. Maki Al-Jaffer, Zeki O Naser,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 78-82; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.104

Abstract:
Six new complexes of palladium(II) with a general formula [Pd(L)2Cl2], where L = 2-amino-4-(4-subsistuted phenyl)thiazole. The palladium complexes were prepared by the reaction of 2-amino-4-(4-subsistuted phenyl)thiazole ligands with with Bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) dichloride in chloroform solvent at molar ratio Pd:L=1:2. The resulting complexes were characterized by the magnetic susceptibility, conductivity measurements, infrared, 1H NMR and the thermo gravimetric analysis. Elemental analyses, spectroscopic and another physical studies of the prepared palladium (II) complexes allowed structures to be proposed. The thermal properties of the prepared complexes indicated the all-decomposition steps and gave an insight about the stability of palladium(II) complexes. The physical analysis indicated that prepared ligands behaved as mono dental, bounding Pd(II) through the nitrogen atoms from the thiazole ring.
Ameer Abbas,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 88-92; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.124

Abstract:
The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) is the main genetic determinant of plasma adiponectin amounts from (30 - 70%) of the inherited genetic components. Multiple nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs 2241766 for the ADIPOQ gene correlate with metabolic syndromes such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, rapid glucose excess, and plasma adiponectin level. A polymorphism study was conducted based on PCR 2241766 in Al-Diwaniyah city in Iraq, and this study included (300) people aged (30-45) years who were distributed into two groups, the first group (G1) included (150) control, and the second group (G2) included (150) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The purpose of the current study was to reveal the ADIPOQ polymorphism and its role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The overall genotype of the ADIPOQ rs2241766 gene was significantly different between the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (G2) and control (G1) for the genotype GG (χ2 = 13.45, p-value = 0.002), G allele (χ2 = 10.324, p-value = 0.001), and TG & TT compared to the GG genotype (χ2 = 13.266, p-value = 0.0001). In conclusion, the results of the genotype and allele distribution of ADIPOQ rs2241766 gene in type 2 diabetes patients group showed that there is an association between ADIPOQ rs2241766 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
, Dawood S Abid
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 83-87; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.109

Abstract:
The study focused on the preparation of oxadiazole derivatives containing thiazolidine. Thiazolidine firstly was prepared from the reaction of benzaldehyde with L-cysteine with a good yield and then it was reacted with acetic anhydride to prepare acetyl thiazolidine, then with ethanol in the presence of H2SO4, then steps were taken to prepare a thiazolidine hydrazide (A3), which was reacted with aromatic carboxylic acid in presence POCl3 or carbon disulphide and base KOH to obtain oxadiazole derivatives A4-8. These compounds characterized using FT-IR, NMR and Mass (EI) were diagnosed and the synthesized compound were validated. The activity of oxadiazole derivatives were studied against breast cancer cells, the two compound A8, A4 showed good activity against the cells as for the compounds A5, A6, A7 it was showed little activity against these cells and the value IC50 was calculated.
, , Waleed Dakhil Alnasrawy
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 57-64; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.94

Abstract:
The study aims at isolating and identification of Burkholderia cepacia bacteria from clinical samples from various pathological conditions such as diabetic foot ulcers, burn, wound, sputum and urine. The present study includes 280 samples collected from patients suffering from diabetic foot ulcer, cystic fibrosis, burns, sputum, and wounds who attend Alsader Medical City and Al-Hakim General Hospital during the period extended from September 2020 to February 2021 ( men and women ) with age groups between (1 -75) years. The identification of bacterial isolates were detected by classical and molecular technique (PCR), where the frequency among males 213 (79.2%) was more than that in female 67 (20.8%). The samples distribution is made according to age group; it appears high for the following high 26.8% with group (31-45) years male and female; 22% with group (31-45) years in male and 7.6% with the group (1-15) years in female. The results revealed that 42/80 specimens of the total number of samples are Burkholderia cepacia by using 16SrRNA gene to differentiate the B. cepacia from other (G-) bacteria, and 30/80 recA gene to differentiated B. cepacia from B. cepacia complex.
, Shams Ahmed Subhi, Baydaa Y Hussain
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 35-40; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.75

Abstract:
All Streptomyces sp isolates were screened for their antibacterial activity on Yeast extract-malt extract agar medium (ISP2) using scross-streak technique against two pathogenic bacteria include Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Among three Streptomyces sp isolates that obtained from Baghdad city (Al-Jadriya), one isolates (B2) didn’t show any antibacterial activity against any type of pathogenic bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria), while two Streptomyces sp isolates (B1 and B3) showed antibacterial activity against Gram Two-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). Screening was performed by Agar-Well Diffusion method and growth inhibition zones were measured in millimeters for each of the Streptomyces isolates (B1 and B3). Tested isolates have shown potent in vitro antibacterial activities against all tested pathogens. The highest activities were shown by isolate B1 against S. aureus 19.5 mm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14 mm. It is also evident that B3 isolate has shown activities against all pathogenic bacteria with inhibition zone diameters ranging between 17 and 13 mm against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa respectively. The effects of Levofloxacin, Sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, Amikacin and Gentamicin on growth of Streptomyces sp were evaluated over a 48 h period. Morphology and growth of Streptomyces sp. were not affected by all antibiotics, all Streptomyces isolates (B1, B2) were screened for resistance against seven antibiotics, all Streptomyces isolates were resistance against all antibiotics.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.85

Abstract:
In this article, we describe the process of binding riboflavin to a simple tetradents ligand substituted in α- position from TPAs types, by reacting bromotetraacetate riboflavin with α- substituted TPA with one of the pyridine rings by nitrile group and the two other pyridine rings by halogen atoms. This type of ligands showed very important properties for the activation and transfer of oxygen to a substrate in presence of iron salt. After the tetradents were obtained, the nitrile group was reduced to an amine group where it reacts with Boc group to protect one of the amine hydrogen and then bound to the bromotetraacetate through the amine group under special reactive conditions, to form the α-8-TPAs N- Ac4riboflavin ligands. This compound can be described as a molecular tweezers in which the flavin moiety acts as a potential electron mediator.
Zainab K Al-Khazragie, , Bushra K Al-Salami
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 93-109; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.161

Abstract:
Several new and know 6-(4-substituted phenyl)-4-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-phenyl-6H-1,3-thiazine (or selenazine) (Z4B7, Z4D5, Z4B7' and Z4D5') were prepared by the 1,4-Michael addition reaction of chalcone derivatives with thiobenzamide or phenylselenocarboxamide in basic medium (where the chalcones was formed by Claisen-Schimidt condensation of aromatic aldehydes with 4-substituted acetophenone in presence of sodium hydroxide). These 6H-1,3-thia- or selenazine were used to a new series of cephem and selenacephem compounds (i.e. 7-chloro-4-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-(4-substituted phenyl)-6-phenyl-5-thia (or 5-selena)-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-8-one; AZ4B7, AZ4D5, AZ4B7' and AZ4D5'). All new compound derivatives were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The toxicity of new compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD50 value by using Dixon's up and down method. The antibacterial activity of cephem and selenacephem compounds were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, the antioxidant, anticancer and DNA cleavage efficiency of compounds were evaluated.
Ricardo Gobato, Abhijit Mitra,
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i2.79

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to analyze the occurrence or not of tornadoes in the city of Guatambu, state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil, at the end of the night of 13, at dawn on September 14, 2021. Alerts by the official agencies of the region of the probable occurrence of tornadoes and strong storms in the area between the northeast of Argentina, Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul. A tornado is the most violent windstorm on earth. The tornado is a rotating column of air that extends from a cloud to the ground. The analysis of satellite maps indicated the occurrence of storms, with probable formation of tornadoes in the municipality of Guatambu. Thus, confirming reports from residents, official bodies such as the Civil Defense of Santa Catarina, and the state's meteorological system. It is likely that the formation of a tornado in the municipality of Guatambu occurred between 01:20 UTC on and 02:10 UTC on Sep 14, 2021.
, Saad Badai Nashter
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 20-23; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.81

Abstract:
Childhood obesity is increasing in frequency worldwide with including developing countries, while it was considered previously as the disease of the first world or rich people. The aim is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity with associated risk factors in obese children visiting Al-Kindy Obesity Unit. Throughout a period started in December 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020 in Baghdad, 109 children were randomly involved, 69 (63.3%) girls and 40 (36.7%) boys. Body mass index was evaluated in front of standard tables. A questionnaire was built to gather suspected risk factors. Eight (7.3%) of our sample were overweight [1 (2.5%) boy and 7 (10.1%) girls] and 101 (92.7 %) of our sample were obese [39 (97.5%) boys and 62 (89.9%) girls]. Significant associations were found between overweight and health education, sleep, physical activity, snacks and TV watching. Obesity was more frequently encountered than overweight in children with (heavy weights) who seek help visiting obesity units. Unbalanced dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and spending more hours on watching TV are important risk factors.
Angham J. M. Ali, Miaad K. Alkhudhairy, Dhabaa D. Tobal
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.80

Abstract:
This study aimed for isolation and identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae was an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical syndromes such as pneumonia in both hospital and community settings. Assessment some immune parameter this study was carried out in Al-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniya Province during the period from December 2018 to February 2019. A total of 272 individuals in both sex: 139 males and 133 females, including 210 sputum and blood specimens were collected from patients with pneumonia and 62 blood specimens were collected from healthy persons as a control group. The result of Microbiological tests of sputum was found 120(57.2%) specimens as Gram negative bacteria. From these specimens found 62(51.7%) have been appeared as positive result for K. pneumoniae and represented a major cause for pneumonia in this study, 37(59.7%) of them were males and 25(40.3%) female. 59(95.16%) of K. pneumoniae isolates have capsule when stained negatively with Indian ink. While, 60 (96.77%) isolates were appeared hypermucoviscosity (HVM) phenotype. The level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and toll like receptor (TLR4) concentration was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) and was found that IFN-γ is significantly (p ˂0.05) raised in all age groups of patients in comparison to the healthy control groups. The level of IFN-γ in age group (1-10) years recorded high percentage (293.123) compared with other age groups.. On the other hand, the level of TLR4 concentration was found that is significantly (p˂0.05) raised in all age groups of patients in comparison to the healthy control group. The level of TLR4 in age group (51-60) years recorded high percentage (12.993) compared to other age groups.
, Thaer Salman
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.74

Abstract:
Consumers who ingest boron-contaminated food and water face a variety of health concerns. As a result, the food boron content must be determined. For this research, drinking water samples were collected from different areas in southern Basrah, Iraq. The collected water samples were examined using the SSNTDs method to determine boron levels. Boron values in the Al Khatwa district ranged from 0.21 ppm to 9.8 ppm in Al Shuaiba farm2. The results of this investigation were compared to worldwide standards and prior studies. The Iraqi government may use these data to establish guidelines for reducing radioactive pollution of Basrah's drinking water. The boron levels in the 43 surface water samples evaluated in this study were lower than the international standard limits. However, there are some regions where the rates are quite high. As a result, in most areas, the boron level in Basrah's drinking water is normal. However, there is a possibility that boron pollution will become a major issue soon. As a result, further research will be needed in the future.
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.83

Abstract:
Identified and analyzed highly cited publications in the Web of Science category of biomedical engineering in the last three decades were investigated. Documents that have been cited more than 100 times from Web of Science Core Collection since publication year to the end of 2020 were defined as highly cited publications. The analyzed aspects covered document types, distribution of annual production and its citations per publication, journals, countries, institutes, authors, and the top cited articles. Publication performance of countries and institutions were evaluated by six publication indicators. Y-index was applied to evaluate authors’ publication potential and their publication characteristics. Citation indicators including total citation and citations in 2020 were used to compare the most frequently cited articles. Results shows that most highly cited papers were published in journals with high impact factors. The USA dominated the six publication indicators. The G7 were ranked in the top ten productive countries. Eight of the top ten productive institutes were all located in USA. Results from Y-index shows that highly cited authors had higher proportion of corresponding-author articles and first-author articles. The article by Kokubo and Takadama in 2006 was the most frequently cited and the article by Litjens et al. in 2017 was the most impactful in 2020.
Yazi Abdullah Jassim
Biomedicine and Chemical Sciences, Volume 1, pp 6-10; https://doi.org/10.48112/bcs.v1i1.76

Abstract:
There is no universal cure in treating patients with COVID-19. Although many countries have announced findings of extrapolation on the COVID-19 vaccine trial, it will be difficult to determine the urgent need for an urgent issue that will likely require several months, including vaccination. At the same time, a strategic, preventive, immune-enhancing approach should be considered to commit to strengthening the immune system to enhance host resistance to infection. Aim: This review article aims to review the current literature to explore scientifically discussed updates that stimulate the immune system as a prevention and treatment for COVID-19, based on its antiviral properties.
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