#### Results in Journal enadakultura: 159

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Nestan Ratiani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Irina Bukhaidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
One of the most effective ways of understanding the modern world is to study the most significant historical facts and prominent historical figures who left their mark on it. This is done not only by historians and political scientists, but also by artists of the word, since the sphere of fiction is the reflection of the life of society in artistic images.False Dmitry I is one of the most colorful, mysterious and to this day not fully explored figures of this period. The image of this extraordinary personality, in many respects anticipating the reforms of Peter the Great, initially attracted the attention of both European and Russian historians, writers, painters, composers, cinematographers and literary critics. Each of them, depending on the time of addressing him, as well as the political and ideological position of his contemporaries, portrayed him in different ways.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to assess the adoption rate of online classes and to highlight the required changes of existing resources of higher education adopted by Akaki Tsereteli State University (ATSU) in Kutaisi, Georgia amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The conducted research manifests the insights and perceptions of teachers and students on online modes of teaching and learning. The paper explores and examines the challenges and drawbacks of online courses at the university based on the analysis of the questionnaire handed to students and it also discusses the needs to completely implement digital learning/teaching process with its new sources and assessment strategies, thus indicating the way forward in the years to come.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
With this play, Shoshia Chkhaidze makes a significant contribution to the development of the history of Georgian theater, and not only to the theater, he also made fundamental changes in the drama and even in the formation and development of Georgian thought or critical thinking.His most creative work, based on justice or kayaking, has never faded and I believe it will never fade. His heart was full of human love, kindness, and wickedness. For him, the main thing was not to lose the original essence of a person and always remain a person. Do not be afraid of the most difficult challenges of life, always walk in the right and just way, where there will always be justice, morality and respect between people.Despite the existing political or economic background, the author was still not afraid of the interests of high-ranking officials and continued his work. A playwright is never betrayed for the credo of his own life, for high civic or moral positions. While every word had to be measured, satisfying, and acceptable to the interests of others, the playwright shattered every stereotype. It continued to operate beyond the prevailing rules and frameworks. Shoshia Chkhaidze, through the characters of "Bridge", perfectly presented his words, life position or any critical opinion.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
XIX century is one of the difficult and interesting periods in Georgian History. This is the very century characterised by contradictory events such as losing governmental state, reviving nationality, reuniting historical territories and population with native land, unifying Georgians as one nation within the Russian empire. Under the Tsarism helm, Georgian people managed not only to survive and consolidate, but also to get back the patches and population lost centuries ago. Goergian patriotic intellctual society was actively involoved in the process that used Russin power to get back territories conquered by Osmalia. The above mentioned are exacltly the issues that the article elaborates on. It demonstrates the publistic letters of Great Georgian activist and publisher Niko Nikoladze published in Russian Newspapers.
Sophio Mzavia
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The specificity of the linguistic picture of the world, the national (and in this sense, unique) component of meaning, is revealed at all levels of the language system although it is particularly clearly represented in vocabulary and phraseology. The phraseological picture of the world represents the totality of people’s knowledge about the world, primarily at the level of day-to-day awareness; in this sense it can be called a naïve picture of the universe. Phraseological units of language contain typical fragments of reality (action, situation, situation, quality, quantity, etc.) that are thought of in relation to each other. These situations become a stereotype of human behavior driven by a national cultural worldview. The paper presents the substantiated opinions of linguists that due to the cultural connotation contained in phraseology, the phraseological picture of the world is an important field of contradictory linguistic research
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The article discusses the necessity of preventing intellectual development disorders. Impaired intellectual development is a lifelong complication for a person and it is impossible to cure it, so prevention is very important. The article discusses three levels of prevention.Genetic counseling - Prospective parents who already have a child with an intellectual disability are usually aware of the risk to future children. Accurate professional advice will help them think and make reasoned decisions about having another child.Primary prevention involves a set of approaches that reduce or eliminate the risk of intellectual development disruption. Prenatal - Avoid pregnancy before the age of 21 and after the age of 35 to reduce complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Prenatal screening / diagnosis of at-risk parents would be good.Perinatal - Pregnant women should add iodized salt to their diet to prevent iodine deficiency and also to avoid exposure to harmful chemicals and substances including alcohol, nicotine and cocaine.Postnatal - universal immunization of children according to the schedule of vaccines recommended by WHO; Timely treatment of acute diarrhea and brain infections in childhood;Secondary (secondary) counseling aimed at early diagnosis and treatment. IQ and social adaptation tests for early detection of intellectual development disorders are already available and can be adapted. Once a child is identified as having an intellectual development disorder, it is essential to take care of the optimal development of the child's potential.A third who seek to limit violations are separated from family and community roles. The best place for children with intellectual disabilities is his family. Support services are really needed to help families deal with the situation with confidence and less stress. No program can succeed without the participation and involvement of the community.People with intellectual disabilities should become an integral part of society, should not be isolated, separated or discriminated.The government has a responsibility to provide optimal services to adequately address the needs of people with intellectual disabilities. This includes strengthening and making effective use of existing services in the health, education and welfare sectors.
Tinatin Chikaidze
Published: 18 May 2022
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Corruption is one of the most pressing and problematic issues in world politics. Such a topical categories includes the consideration of different terminological interpretations. The are many definitions of political corruption, but there is no consensus on which actions are corrupt and which are not.We encounter polotical corruption in government, commercial structures, public organizations etc. Corruption is always associated with power, and if a civilization, a state, a population was developing, it was happening with the development of corruption.Political corruprion shouls be considered bribery embezzlement, theft, extortion, abuse of discretion, favoritism and nepotism, use or creation of conflicts of interest,unlawful political donations and so on.
Anna Gogilashvili
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The tragic event of 1921 marked another painful page in the history of Georgia. Parts of the Russian 11th Army invaded Georgia on February, 1921, supporting the Bolshevik uprising. After several days of unequal fighting and heavy casualties near Kojori and Tabakhmela, Georgian units relinquished their positions and so ended the short history of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Our country fell into the hands of Russian occupation and the seventy-year Soviet governance began. Many authors have described these tragic events of our history. Ilia Chavchadze says that the function of a writer is to awake the nation in hard times. Many Georgian writers took upon themselves this mission during the Soviet regime. However, it was often the equivalent of death. After Joseph Stalin became the leader of Soviet system in the 1930s, began the mass extermination of dissidents, including artists. The writers of the so-called first stream of anti-Soviet sentiment were: Mikheil Javakhishvili, Grigol Robakidze, Nikolo Mitsishvili, "Tsisperkhantselebi" and others.Guram Gegeshidze is a writer who worries about his country. His novels “Voice of the Outcryer” (1982), “Bloody Rains” (1991), “The Ash Tower” (2001) and “The Epiphany” (2016) describes several episodes of the historical processes in Georgia. After Stalin's death, from the 1950s to the 1980s, writers were no longer awaiting a death for criticizing the Soviet regime, but still were victims of harassment and arrest. For example, we can name the stories of Guram Dochanashvili and Chabua Amirejibi. Therefore, we think that in 1982, the publication of a novel by Guram Gegeshidze loaded with anti-Soviet ideology, "Voice of the Outcryer", required great courage on the part of the writer. Several important paradigms are noted in the work under consideration, including the concept of a father with a national spirit and his son, Kaplan and Nestor Vardanidze, which in our paper is considered to echo the epoch and is analyzed in the context of establishment of the Soviet Union. Also noteworthy is the Undiladze clan, ideologically opposed to the Vardanidze clan, which the author portrayed as a symbol of betrayal and immorality. The murder of Jambakur Vardanidze, who came out of the church and was dressed in white, is presented as an allegory of the murder of God and holiness by the Bolsheviks in our work. Guram Gegeshidze's emphasis on the gliding blood on read flag is another visible example of the author's attitude towards the bloody Soviet regime.
Natia Jikia, Nunu Charkviani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Debate dates back to ancient times, when disagreements between people first arose.Formally, the debate originated in ancient Greece, where it was part of the institution of democracy, when politicians debated with each other about the validity of proposed laws, discussing its merits and demerits.Rhetoric is a form of oral journalism. Written journalism is what has so far reached first in the form of epistolary and then print editions and today is considered synonymous with journalism. These two branches are still considered to be integral attributes of journalism. If you do not have a solid system of argumentation, it will certainly be difficult for you to enter into controversy with an opponent. However, there is a golden rule that is undoubtedly important along with a deep knowledge of the issue. Citizens used the debate to defend themselves. Arguing on both sides of the issue, students also studied with great interest to better understand its essence. Some of the debaters, called sophists, aimed to win the debate, they focused on the style of the audience and their persuasion.The golden rule for mastering the mastery of polemics is good manners. It refers to self-control, inner form of behavior, relationships with other people, expressions used in conversation, tone, intonation, bowing, gestures and even facial expressions.Mastering polemics requires a lot of effort. In addition to the established rules, it also takes into account personal dignity. For example, restraint and humility are considered good manners in society. The tone of the conversation should be delightful and original, you should show learning in this matter and not pedantry, you should be funny and not noisy, polite and not ostensibly grown up.Intelligence is not only in education, but also in the ability to be able to understand others. It manifests itself in thousands and tens of thousands of trifles, for example, in the knowledge to argue respectfully, to listen to an argument.
Elena Kireeva
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The present research focuses on the conceptualization of strong negative emotions experienced by the personages involved in conflicts, or quarrels, in contemporary British and Russian drama and approaches them from a cognitive linguistic perspective. The study attempts to reconstruct both potentially universal and culture-specific conceptual metaphors through the establishment of a set of correspondences or mappings between a ‘source’ and ‘taget’ domains. The materials yielded a number of culture-specific metaphors alongside with a number of potentially universal metaphors shared by the Anglo and Russian cultures, whose universality could be accounted for by the shared embodiment.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Technology has an important influence on the way many people learn today and has certain benefits. The aim of the paper is to show that only existence of new technologies and equipment isn’t sufficient for successful learning process and developing transferrable skills of learners. A number of factors are involved in determining whether and how technology should be integrated into the classroom and how likely it is to impact positively on learner motivation Among them are digital storytelling using Animoto and Kaltura, also using technologies such as virtual and augmented reality, Learning Management System(LMS), online apps such as kahoot, quizlet, mentimeter, padlet and others. However, successful, motivating use of technology depends on teachers and learners knowing how to realize its affordances. In this paper I used descriptive, qualitative method and resulted in that, teachers need to act as a learner, a leader, a citizen, a collaborator, a designer, a facilitator and an analyst to use technology productively in teaching process. As for learners, they need to know the following skills: Identifying learning needs; Setting SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time- bound) goals; Planning learning; Selecting Resources; Practice; Monitoring process; Assessment and revision(Reinders, 2010).So, support for teachers and learners is at the heart of realizing the potential benefits of technology for motivation and learning.
Tamar Tvaladze, Eka Gotiashvili
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The article highlights that a language helps a person to describe the world. The problem is not the correct language usage, but the mechanism of understanding the environment. It is mentioned in the article that a language provides communication. By percieving the norms, the rules and the peculiarities of communication, a person becomes a member of the society and his speech acquires the qualities of understanding.The article highlights that one of the main characteristics of the communicative behavior of different linguacultural societies is the peculiarity of speech, which is specific for different age, gender, social groups and is expressed in various but in the same typical situations. The article emphasizes that this type of nomination communicative strategy can be applied any time during the course of an interaction as a way of continuing the communication. The interrelationships between communication and courtesy strategies, communicative functions, characteristic categories of oral communication, the strategies of positive and negative courtesy are discussed in the article. We have found that communicative dominants are closely related to the courtesy system of a particular linguacultural community. They are formed on its basis, as a result of regular use of established communication strategies.The article emphasizes that the communicative dominances typical to the verbal behavior of the people are especially important in both theoretical and pragmatic terms, because it is possible to describe the national style of communication in perspective and to develop a didactic rule of communication that ensures the development of communicative language learning.
Jambul Abuselidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
In the article entitled "Ring - an instrument of diplomacy" the author mentions and pays special attention to such diplomatic rituals as: ceremonies and the symbol of the ring. Their active use. The author also shows the views of well-known scholars, the obligatory actions of the seal in both religious and diplomatic relations, as well as how its mass use has evolved and settled over the centuries. Which is necessary for the implementation of any diplomatic action. The author presents in the article the special role of the seal in the diplomatic relations of the states, which enabled any diplomat to fulfill his diplomatic responsibility perfectly and individually and to experience it as a fulfillment of his obligations to himself. Has functions. It is also an important tool for understanding international politics and regulating diplomatic relations. Nevertheless, in diplomacy the ring can be used both formally and manipulatively. The author shows in the article the three main views of ancient writers: 1) the custom of wearing a ring 2) making a ring on the left hand and 3) making an iron ring in triumph. Modern scholars distinguish two options: 1) Byzantine and 2) the ring of Muhammad. The author focuses on issues such as: sending senators as ambassadors to a foreign state and the wearing of a gold ring by ambassadors during their mission, which they received from the state and was a symbol of the republic. Where we can read not only, over time for all senators but later for the Chief Magistrate and, finally, for the Ambassador wearing a gold ring.The author analyzes in the article, the exclusive right to wear a gold ring which included a special concept, it was for several centuries the exclusive privilege of senators, magistrates and ambassadors, while all other persons continued to wear the iron ring. Were covered. In addition to the ancient Roman ambassadors, the ring was sometimes associated with diplomacy and faith and mysticism. References include in-depth scientific papers. Thoroughly introduces relevant and up to date literary materials to interested readers on the subject.
Nino Gelenidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The 20th century constantly confronts new challenges for the entire society, especially for the education system. It offers teachers, parents, students, and the educational space as whole more opportunities for large-scale adoption of new technologies.The article discusses and substantiates that digital technologies are mediator tools for media consumption and that Georgia is successfully implementing them in practice.
Tamar Makharoblidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
It is now accepted that sign languages ​​have a rich morphological structure in both flexion and derivation terms. Most foreign scholars believe that sign languages show simultaneous morphology rather than a consistent sequential one. Morphological marking of verbal arguments in the Georgian Sign Language (GESL) verbal paradigm is performed in three ways: 1. Deictive marking, such as the incorporated verb paradigm; 2. Possessive-destination marking with semantic content, such as version category, expressing respectful and disrespectful forms, as an additional semantic marking for an indirect object; and 3. Morpho-syntactic marking – adding the morphological markers for arguments conveyed by nouns. The subject of the transitive verb in the aorist is expressed with an ergative case, for the rest verbal forms the subject is in nominative (unmarked), while the indirect object is often marked with a deictive marker of dative case. Thus, here we have the combination of the abovementioned first and third types. In GESL (and in other sign languages as well) such combinations are usual. The semantic groups of verbs in sign languages can be distinguished according to the following two principles:
Nona Kopaliani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The article discusses the actuality of researching the process of linguistic conceptualization, the nature of conceptualization as a linguistic concept and the main problems that are of particular interest to scholars. The existence of a conceptual level in modern linguistics is widely acknowledged, although there are different opinions relate to the issue of determining its status. The paper shows different views on the status of the conceptual level. It talks about its content and levels; The fundamental concepts are highlighted and their usage in the conceptual system is emphasized. Conceptualization is viewed as a two-way event: as a dynamic process of human cognitive processing of information that connects(combines) the external world, the human inner world, and the linguistic picture; And as a result - a picture of a world structured in the form of concepts. The paper describes the main features of the conceptualization process: its inherent, i.e. essentially dynamic [Langaker] and ontological [Ruzin] nature. Exactly these characteristics define the unstable, flexible nature of concepts, the existence of verbal and nonverbal conceptual content. The paper also discusses the heterogeneity of the conceptual system, which is reflected in the fact that its individual sections have different meanings in the overall structure.
Ramaz Svanidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The pandemic crisis caused by Kovid-19 has put Georgia and the whole world community in a difficult situation. The transition from traditional attendance to distance learning has been and is a great challenge for the field of education. In such a situation, it is important to use forms of teaching / learning that, despite the spatial distance, further ensure the cooperation and quality of the participants in the education system. The scientific literature on collaborative writing was summarized using a qualitative method. The aim of the research was also to describe a collaborative learning writing project focusing on endangered animals and birds. Evaluating the results of a practical project should highlight the creative texts that have been created through the online tool. A detailed discussion of the types of text allowed students to freely express their thoughts in a variety of ways on a virtual sheet of paper. According to the project participants, the way of personification was impressive, which made them creatively experience the condition of animals and birds. However, it should be noted that the complex approach to this project has developed not only written competence for language learners, but also all the necessary social and communication skills, as well as enriched thematic vocabulary in terms of ecology and natural sciences, strengthened syntactic structures. It was also a great charm that, unlike the textbook, working on the project gave more freedom to the students, which increased their degree of autonomy and cooperation. Discussing the issues selected by them activated a positive emotional bond. It should also be noted that the development of emotional intelligence is an important prerequisite for human success. In conclusion, it can be said that one of the most important criteria for the success of any project is the high degree of student involvement, which allowed us to achieve the set goals despite the initial difficulties.
Lela Tavdgiridze, Nato Sherozia, Maia Bolkvadze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The relevance and importance of child rights protection has risen significantly in recent 100 years. It was preconditioned by the lack of standards on child protection in the industrialized countries at the beginning of the 20th century. The standards on child rights have undergone a complicated process of development, which started with adoption of the Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the Child in 1924. In 1989 the United Nations General Assembly adopted The Convention on the Rights of the Child, being ratified by the majority of the countries around the world and is deemed to be the fundamental document (https://www.unicef.org/child-rights-convention/history-child-rights). In Georgia, the issue of Children’s rights protection drew increasing attention in 1994, after the country had become a part to the Convention on the Rights of Child and therefore, had undertaken the obligation of protection and promotion of children’s rights and their freedom. On September 20, 2019 one more significant step in this direction was taken when Georgian Parliament adopted The Code on the Rights of the Child - very first Article of which reads as follows: The purpose of this Code is to ensure the welfare of the child by promoting the effective implementation of the Constitution of Georgia, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, its supplementary protocols and other international legal acts recognized by the State (https://www.matsne.gov.ge/en/document/view/4613854?publication=0).Proper mplementation of the Convention on The Rights of the Child in the country implies formation of a child as a full member of the society, preparing him/her for life challenges and independent life – being the very objective of gradual introduction of the children’s rights and the mechanisms of their defense in the sphere of education. The present article overviews the educational programs of state universities in Georgia, particularly Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University and reveals the actual state of teaching about children’s rights. The research methodology includes the qualitative and quantitative methods, in particular, collection of information – the syllabus of all the educational programs, their classification, analysis, in-depth interviews with the lecturers/teachers, comparing the outcomes of the program with its aims and revealing the results according to the components. Basing on the outcomes of the research, it will be possible to define the future perspectives of integration of teaching of the children’s rights into the educational programs at Batumi State University and the strategic planning of their implementation procedures.
Medea Metreveli
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Tamar Gelashvili
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The language systems and their structural features can be discussed differently in modern linguistics .One of the most important ways to compare languages is the comparison of their grammatical features that are specific to them. The equivalence of grammatical structures is quite complicated issue in translation due to the genre, stylistic features or other peculiarities of the text to be translated. Equivalence at any level is based on identification of similarity and difference of the grammatical characteristics between original and translated texts. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate one of the translation ways of Satskisi from Georgian into English and their peculiarities base on English translation of ,,The hand of a Great Master” by V. Eristavi.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Modern global financial and goods markets, media and migration flows have led to a rapid change in culture, manifested by the rapid growth of direct contact between different countries and cultures, borrowing cultural values and migrating from one culture to another. During these contacts, many traditional lifestyles and thinking began to change and often disappear, but at the same time, the process of globalization leads to the appearance of new cultural forms and lifestyles.Different societies react differently to changes that are foreign to them. As a result, we are witnessing the emergence of ethno-religious conflict in many countries, the formation of nationalist sentiments and regional fundamentalist movements in politics, that is, there is some potential for conflict in the process of globalization of culture itself. However, global processes do not lead to the formation of a unified world culture. Modern culture is the abundance of original cultures between which dialogue and communication take place.Globalization helps people adapt to a foreign culture without denying their own one, urging people to master the values of another culture without harmingtheir national one. It involves voluntarily mastering the customs of one culture and the traditions of another, bringing them to their own soil, and thus enriching their own culture.
Nana Pruidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
It is a common knowledge that sometimes writers consciously publish their works with hidden identity. That has several reasons. Writer’s contemporaries and especially their closest circle know about it, but as the time passes, more difficult it gets for scientists to find out who the author is. If we are not be able to understand whole litetary legacy of a writer, we can not study it either. This is why when publishing classics, they pay attention to other works as well which may be written by same author. Those works which do not have a certain author and need extra research are published in different collection of works called „Dubia“. As the time passes if any research will confirm author, in the next academic publication text will move to the main part. If proven oppositely, that kind of text will be removed from „Dubia“ as well.Generally, finding out the author is very difficult process and it needs to be researched in 3 main directions. Most important, surely, is finding documentary source; Also research must reveal lingual-stylish resemblance with author’s real and assumed works.It is important that non of Akaki’s publications have „Dubia“, but there are some texts which may by written by him.Our subject of research are two articles written in 1905-1906: „What Was Exposed?“ (Iveria, 1905, #45) and „Pettiness of Imereti’s Noblemen“ (Paper of Notice, 1906, #3034). We think that author of both articles is Akaki Tsereteli and since this assumption does not have any direct proof, it has to be published in so called „gypothetical“ block. To achieve that, „Dubia“ must be added to Akaki Tsereteli’s whole academic publications on which currently works Technical department of Shota Rustaveli institute of Georgian Literature.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Tsiuri Akhvlediani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The problems of semantics, as well as the semantic structure of a word and polysemy, have always been the subject of attention of scholars since ancient times. In the present article we discuss the problems of enantiocemy in modern French and try to convey the vivid picture of their classification.We paya special attention to the different approaches of the analysis of this linguistic phenomenon and their interpretations. A complete classification of the enantiosemic phenomenon has not yet carried out, only the basic varieties peculiar for the French enantiosemy have been worked out,these are: 1. Linguistic opposition - speech enantiosemy, that is often the basis of other types of enantiosemy; 2. complete enantiosemy and incomplete enantiosemy; 3. Absolute enantiosemy; 4.Logical (or nominative) enantiosemy, which refers to the nominative, stylistically unmarked meaning; 5.Lexical (or lexemic) / phraseological enantiosemy; 7. Syntactic enantiosemy at the syntactic level; 8. Lexico-grammatical enantiosemy; 9. Stylistic enantiosemy; 10. synchronic and diachronic enantiosemy. In conclusion, it should note that both French convey a great deal of economy in terms of lexical means which polysemy allows in the languages under analysis.It is also noteworthy that this phenomenon (polysemy) was inherited by both languages from Latin, where the number of polysemic words have been quite abundant.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Having learnt the alphabet its way too important to practice simple, as well as complex words; Then taking care of their usage; Our practical experience gives us a possibility to offer a methodological framework, strategies and consistent plan, which we use with success. Its our preference to start teaching the phrases, which are main, necessary and important for the communication. We choose the least and the most important aspects from the grammatical format, so that the communication can be structured. Here is the short list of what is covered in the basics: Singular forms of personal pronouns – “I/you/he”; Demonstrative pronouns – “This/That”; Responsive particles – “Yes/No”; Singular forms of the verb “To be” – “I am/You are/ He is”; Singular form with negation – “is not”; interrogative word – “Who?”; Phrases – “Hello!/ Good Bye!/ Just a moment!/Thank you!”; The third part of this introductory cycle will be introduced to you later.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The article refers to the details of writing store “Haji Murad” by the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy. Lev Tolstoy had close friendship with Georgian writers Nino and Ilia Nakashidze. They often shared thoughts in the writing of this story. The story was written during eight years. This issue will be very interesting, for Tolstoy creative people.The author, who was fascinated by the romantic character of Caucasus from the early age, spent four years in Georgia, first as the civilian and then as a military figures. Tolstoy had to fight against mountaineers several times in Caucasus.He visited several places in Caucasus. His domicile was Stanitsa Starogladovskaya which he described in ‘The Cossacks’ in detail. Besides this place Tolstoy also visited Tbilisi, Khasavyurt, Old Yurt, Grozno, Pyatigorski, Zheleznogorsk, Mozdok, Caspian Sea coast. Tolstoy with great enthusiasm describes his impressions of travelling and the greatness of Caucasus nature in his numerous diaries, letters and stories.L. Tolstoy was fascinated not only by the Caucasus landscapes but also by people. Though he could not get on with the officers’ society, he became closer with Cossacks and mountaineers. He made friends with the old Cossack Epishka (Epiphane Sekhini), who later became the prototype of one of the characters of ‘Cossacks’ – Eroshki. Cossacks loved Tolstoy in its turn and respected him greatly. They liked his courage, boldness and obstinacy. The author showed his great spiritual strength and stubbornness in the clashes with Chechens, when he was almost captured.
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Everybody knows that the interpretation of the text includes its deep understanding and perception. All individuals understand the text differently. It depends on the reader's knowledge of general education, personal experience, vision and other factors. Different fields of sciences claim to put the text in its sphere of interest: linguistics, literary studies, informatics, and other communicative theory. All these scientific disciplines have their own research direction and methodology that determines a particular approach to the interpretation of the phenomenon of text
Guranda Gobiani, Miranda Gobiani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
In academic life, the ability to create text is central. Text is the main means of communication that preserves certain cultural codes. The existence of communication problems among scientists in various fields has increased interest in the intercultural context of csintific comminication. In this paper, science is discussed as a communication process and in the influence of the cultural phenomenon on the visual form or structure of scientific texts is shown.Texts linguistics methods ans in-text macrostructure, its structure are used in the research process. Sciencwe is generally a communication process. Scientific texts are the most important part of sceintific communication. The provide us with industry knowledge and help to establish and strenghtenth the academic and research relationships of a certain segment of the scientific community. Formal scientific communication has a special significance in terms of popularization of sceince and development and access of scientific base. The influence of discource and socialcultural factors on sceitific communication, as well as on other types of communication, is very strong, which complicates the wuestion of the existence of a common language among scholars of different cultures. In the article, on the example of analyses of 10 German scientific texts by Irem Atasoy [Atasoy, 2016], which are published in different periodicals at different times, 10 Georgian scientific texts are discussed. Based on the results of the research published in the paper, it can be said that the characteristics of the structure and format of scientific texts in both languages are similar and different, althought objectivity requires that these results can not be generalized, because the research is based on only twenty articles written in a specific language. In the section. But there is no doubt that the most important trend in standardizing the structure of texts in both languages ​​is to promote scientific communication, increase the area of ​​scientific results, arouse trust and interest in science, and help develop problem-solving and identify new developments in research.
Sopio Kipiani
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
Politeness theory proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) is supposed to be universally valid for every culture and language. It is generally acknowledged that language is not only an instrument for communicating information, it also marks identity, helps establish and maintain social relationships. Naturally, politeness plays an essential role in international business writing as well. The appropriate use of polite forms is particularly effective, practical and necessary in business letters and can lead to either to business success or its failure.The paper aims to focus on the use of modal verbs in business correspondence. The practical part is focused on the analysis of the modal verbs in samples of business correspondence. In the presented paper the use of modal verbs in a corpus of 47 English business letters written by II year (B2 level) Georgian non-native students is analyzed. It may serve as a resource of linguistic realizations of politeness in English to native speakers of other languages.
Inga Sanikidze
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
It is clear That the contemporary era and the historical events taking place in it have the greatest impact on Rustaveli, so any researcher behind a carefully covered artistic curtain has to identify the poet’s era. One such remarkable passage in the story of India in the murder of the bridegroom and the artistic contexts that developed after that murder, which, in turn, must be directly related to a well-known fact in Georgian historiography, the Orbeli uprising of 1178. We see Tariel locked up in his feudal city after the assassination of his son-in-law, and historical sources say that a direct descendant of the Bagrationi royal family – Demetre/demna the Prince – spent several months in Lore prison (present-day Armenia) with Amirspalar Orbeli. In short, there is such a parallel between the fictional text and his historical references – the city of the Panters and the Lorraine, unknown to us. In one place the prince is locked so that he can nor cross the border, ans in another. One of the heroes is Tariel and the other is Demna. They both need help. Probably, that is why the Indian knight warns and calla for help to his supporters, or as Rustaveli tells us “everyone’s army”. We think that on the Rustaveli canvas, one detail of the painful story of outsing of David the Builder, the son of David V, Demetre/demna the Prince, the usurpation of power by Giorgi III, or the painful destruction of Prince Demetre is also traced in the pains of Tariel locked up in an Indian city.
Nino Jashi
Published: 18 May 2022
Abstract:
The article analyzes the current issues of the mother tongue, the teaching of which in primary school serves to develop speaking skills in the areas of speaking, reading, and writing. According to the National Curriculum, the development of language-related behavioral skills aims to nurture a person whi develops thought-provoking skills, listening culture, social communication and interactive skills. The development of oral skills in the teaching process has a systematic character, the vocabulary of students is gradually enriched according to the classes and their speech is also improved. After learning to read and write, reading habits are strengthened, elementary analysis of texts begins, the content and purpose of reading and writing change.In primary school, the skills of written speech, consistent and logical expression of ideas are developed. It also pays due attention to the development of students' self-expression and creative skills. In elementary school, we use purposeful and effective activities to enable the student to read and write thoughtfully.In primary school, we use purposeful and effective activities to enable the student to read and write thoughtfully. Work is also underway to develop and develop students' comprehension and interpretation skills, critical thinking or reading assessment.In the process of teaching, we apply approaches that will facilitate the process of overcoming personal, personal, social, professional or professional difficulties independently.
Teona Kekelidze
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The observation of the poetic varinats of the poetry of Amiran and the juxtapositional analysis allows us to underline transimissive aspects related to not only the funcioning of the text, but also, in general, its folkloric nature. The building material for the variants represents the “formulas” (traditional sintagmatic and paradigmatic elements). Some of them are spreaded as folk talkes, though most of them developed and settled in the tradition of the particular analitical texts.A comparison of the variants also showed that whatever consititutes to the development of the folkloric texts, also exists in tradition. It is the tradition that dictates the premade formulas, frame of the plot, model of the genre, to the author; these are what plays as a signifacent role in the constraction of the various texts. Therefore, folkloric texts serves not as an individual sample that needs to be memorised by heart, but it is a representation o the classes, types, and traditions.
Nato Dvali
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The era of computerization and globalization has abandoned traditional management practices, which require more flexibility and constant development in modern conditions. In order to succeed in new conditions it is necessary to learn to think in a new way and possess the appropriate habits. Any person involved in managerial activities is required o be able to analyze the information and use it properly. Modern pedagogy and management have much in common. Both are focused on human knowledge, experience, ability, morality and other shared values. Thus, the ability to choose and use the types of managerial communications is a tactical issue for business management, and their formation is a fundamental problem of upbringing and education, which follows much earlier, in the development of the individual's spiritual world and communication skills.
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
When teaching Georgian language, it is important to develop a logical approach to the language for learners from the very beginning. When teaching, we step-by step follow the purposeful delivery of forms typical for Georgian. We use all four skills of course, but it is primary to correctly pronounce the alphabet or the first communication phrases. If something said by the new-learner is not correct or its not properly understood by the listener, what a new learner says is not understood by the listener, it might cause great dissatisfaction in the learner, therefore, when mastering an already difficult language, s/he might lose joy and motivation. It requires to pay vast attention to the pronunciation of each letter and phrase at the beginner level.Phonetic problems are undoubtedly characteristic to teaching different languages and Georgian language is no exception. The learner's articulatory apparatus is primary. Its important to know in advance: who is studying, which country this person is from, what is his / her native language, how many languages does he / she know, etc. Attention is paid to pronunciation forms. It is very interesting to get practical experience with children of different nationalities. In particular, what we use, which module, what methodology we choose, what exercises we load them with, what sequence we choose and why. Whatever leads to the result, what strategies our beginners follow and how they manage to achieve the results, are all evaluated.We will introduce you to the practical part of our work, which has been successful with students of different nationalities.
Nino Kochloshvili
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
David Thurdospireli belongs to the number of Georgians who made their modest contribution to the development of the Twentieth Century Georgian Small Prose. David Turdospireli's novel works are a bearer of all the features characteristic of a small prose, which is expressed by the glow of mood, insensitive epic embroidery, intense expression, rhythm, in some cases lyricism and refreshment, the structure of the dialogue or the use of fabulous and fabulous fantastic and fictional elements. David Turdospireli's literary heritage is distinguished by an abundance of children's works, but attracts the attention of the reader as an interesting pattern of the writer's simultaneous era events and small prose reflecting general problems. In this regard, the archive of a writer kept in the Museum of Literature retains many interesting materials, most of which are still unpublished and therefore remain beyond scientific circulation. This time, we want to focus on the 1916 novel "Bagwash of Hearts. " Water mystery, which falls asleep once in a century, gives a hope to novel’s main character to help him make his youthful dreams come true.
Ekaterine Julakidze, Zinaida Chachanidze
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The main aspect of the modern humanitarian thinking is the link of two fundamental methodology such as interparadugmality and interdisciplinarity. The padigme means how the scientific discipline considers the researched object on the certain stage of it’s existence. The methodological discipline studies an aspect of the reality. The modern understanding of the interdisciplinary methodology means textual researches on the bases of linguistics, journalist genre theory and modern cultural theory. It leads us to the typological features of the interdisciplinarity methodology. These typological features are grouped as follows: The first typological sign should be considered as an internal complexity of this methodology. From the paradigm standpoint, our research should be simultaneously linguocultural, intertextual and synergetic. The next typological sign of the interdisciplinary methodology is dynamism. Since at the initial stage of interdisciplinarity, the linguistically understood textual aspect required linguoculturological interpretation, then it has become necessary to provide intertextual interpretation of linguoculturology itself. And at this final stage the paradigm synthesis needs to be based on synergetism as a completely new methodological paradigm. The third typological sign should be named on the bases of logical interrelation, where interdisciplinarity is characterized by complexity and dynamism. So, from this point of  view we should consider that the interdisciplinary methodology  is characterized by the capacity of seeing through the inner layers of the text phenomenon. Interparadigmal mythology is the synthesis of the theory and the methodology. We can name the paradigms of a higher hierarchy, they are: anthropocentrism, culturocentrizm and linguoculturology. As to the intertextuality and sinergetizm, in spite of their great importance and validity toward textual research these paradigms just beginning to be established in modern linguistics.
Ramaz Svanidze
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The article presents theoretical questions of political linguistics, their role and their importance in the development of modern linguistics. After the theoretical introduction, the determination and function of a political text type, namely the New Year's speech, are examined. In 2021, the balance of political power changed in Germany. Due to this fact, a new coalition formed the federal government. After 16 years, Olaf Scholz (SPD) took over the Federal Chancellery. The New Year's speech is dedicated to current issues and, to a certain extent, combines various events over time. Accordingly, the focus of research attention is Olaf Scholz's New Year's speech, which is analyzed using quantitative and qualitative research methods. It is worth noting that in the digital age, the need for multimodal text analytics is increasing. This article tries to take current linguistic trends into account.
Manana Gelashvili
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
‘’The Hag-Seed’’ (2016) is a postmodern interpretation of Shakespeare’s last play ‘’The Tempest’ by a famous contemporary Canadian writer Margaret Atwood.Prospero, the protagonist of Shakespeare’s ‘The Tempest’ is represented by a 21st century theatre director Felix Philips, who twelve years after being removed from the theatre by his trusted colleague, gets a job teaching Literacy in the Fletcher County Correctional Institution and directs Shakespeare’s ‘The Tempest’ which is performed by the prisoners. Thus, Atwood’s novel is a story about a man who directs a play about a man (Prospero) who in his turn is the director of everything what happens in ‘The Tempest’Atwood’s novel is a multilayered text which has Shakespeare’s play as an intertext. The article focuses on the analysis of the interpretation that Shakespeare’s text gains in Atwood’s novel. (characters, plot structure, etc.). Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the novel’s form, namely what specific transformation the poetics of the text undergoes due to its transfer from one genre to another. The paper also studies the function of the hyper-textuality, and the play in a play device. The analysis reveals that the novel treats arts as the best means of creating the illusory and hyperreality and simulacra which is generally characteristic to postmodern poetics. One of the characteristics of the novel is dialogism and heteroglossia which is achieved not only by the fact that the text is in constant dialogue with Shakespeare’s ‘The Tempest’, but also by introducing multiple voices offering equally important, interesting and in most cases contradictory interpretations which create a variety of ending choices.
Nana Guliahvili
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
Plato-s areas of interest included language and knowledge relationship issues too, in particular he is interested in ideas The question of the relation of language of the world, whether language is a reliable foundation. In the search for knowledge is a reliable foundation. In the search for knowledge and whether the issue may be resolved by the fact that if we know the words, we know the things. If, like Plato, we consider ourselves independent.There is a reality that can be cognized in this case, there are 2 possibilities for language: Language “reflects” reality as well as a mirror and this reflection will change with the change of reality, or language is conditional and has nothing to do with reality. If the language reality directly reflects, according to Plato, then the search for knowledge makes sence is deprived because, in this case, language itself is knowledge and if it turns out that langauge is conditional, it is no longer useful to reality to learn.
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
Represented thesis is about the advantages of project based learning (PBL). We highlighted the diverse works of PBL that helps students to develop communicational and group working skills. PBL is highly interesting and fun process. Students get on well independent working skills that develop students personally and socially. While PBL students transfer all these skills into practice and this transfer is the main goal of PBL. In my work, we share our experience about PBL as in face-to-face teaching as process as online teaching.
Avtandil Arabuli
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The well-established linguistic theories of the last century have created the necessary theoretical basis to overcome the fragmantation and inconsistency of the concepts and provisions of traditional philological grammars with the descriptive events. Strange as it may seem, it was the lack of a general vision that led to the “unviersazation” of the grammatical description of different language systems. And linguistic research has led to a great deal of refinement in this regard and, no less importantly, a universal and specific distinction at the level of the description of specific linguistic data. Most importantly, special studies have shown that it is more difficult for students to mastr these “duplicate” terms. The reason for this seems to be their unnaturalness and opacity.
Rusudan Gersamia
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The consideration of the languages of the Kartvelian branch, as agglutinating and those pertaining to satellite typology, as morphologically rich languages (MRL) should be based on the following criteria: number of grammatically marked categories; number of free and bound morphemes within a word-form; a number of word-form for each lexemes; fusional morphonology.Kartvelian substantives are inflected only for two grammatical categories, whereas the Kartvelian verb may be inflected for 11-13 categories being classified as those of conjugational and derivational. In the Kartvelian languages, nominal and verbal structures are made of bound morphemes. A general number of morphemic markers in morphological structures of the Kartvelian substantives and verbs are more or less varied; simultaneous representations of combinations are based on morphological rules. Initial patterns of a verbal paradigm vary with respect to the categories of version, voice, causation, to a kind of subject-object order; these also facilitate an occurrence of a great number of inflected verbs. In the verbal structure of the unwritten Kartvelian languages, phonology hardly counts with morphology; therefore, fusional morphemes occur as a result of phonetic transformations at morpheme boundaries. In verbal inflections, numbers of homoforms vary with respect to a language; abundant inflection is a condition for considering the Kartvelian languages as morphologically rich ones.
Leila Abzianidze
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani is the best represantative of fiction. The onforgettable book “The Wisdom of Lies” has a special place in his artistic work. The originality of Saba’s genius was revealed in the work. In general, the title of the work gives us an idea of the writer’s style ans abilities, his language. Analyzing the title is almost enough to evaluate its artistic side. The title for the work is the same as the eye for a human, or a window to a man’s abode. To evaluate the artistic side of the work, Orbeliani’s lie is a fairy tale, arakia, a proverb, but a fairy tale and fable are both wisdom and lies. “The Wisdom of Lies” is a brilliant example of an allegory.The work is written in a rare, sophisticated artistic language. Sulkhan-Saba introduced and legalized the spoken vernacular. A key feature of Sulkhan-Saba’s style is the use of short, redundant sentences, both is separate and complex suntactic constructions, with the abundant use of the verb-listener, which gives the narrative a special dynamism and liveliness.
Nino Dzamukashvili
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
Our article is about the oftentimes decisive role of antithesis in advertisements and its linguistic features. A cleverly and creatively composed advertisement is often based on juxtaposition of the opposites, be it times- past or present or future or anything else. Drawing on the material from The New Yorker და The New York Style Magazine, we studied various examples of our subject matter. In most cases antitheses were formed by antonyms and parallel structures. Various types of repetition are also characteristic of antithesis and its expressiveness is usually achieved through metaphors and personification.
Ramaz Khachapuridze
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
In the ancient Georgian written sources, the combination of the healing methods given in the ancient medical carabiners with folk recipes has clearly shown that several effective remedies are still preserved in the folk memory. Researcher N. Mindadze notes: "It is not excluded that some medicines were established in folk medicine under the influence of Georgian official medicine" [N. Mindadze, N. Chirgadze, 2005, p. 53]. Medication has the same long history as medicine, in the modern sense of the term. That is, from the moment when the primitive people "from the expulsion of evil spirits (for which they used various spells, talismans and amulets), began to take practical measures of healing, which was manifested first in the use of heat and cold, and then herbs, minerals and animals. From animal remedies - milk, snake skin and turtle shell. But most of the medicines, at least, were of plant origin, for example cassia, myrrh, kvliavi (root), part of the cut seed, part of the roots, branches, date palm, etc.Plants were preserved, stored in small portions or prepared in powder form. By that time, various chemical-technological processes were known (filtration, dilution, crushing, distillation, drying, steam extraction), on the basis of which primitive pharmaceutical technology was created.
Yidian She
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
The verb inflection system of Kartvelian languages is characterized by the interaction of morphosyntactic features, morphosemantic features and inflection-class traits. Thus, an incremental and morpheme-based approach might fail to seize the multilevel interactions as well as the systemic complexity within Kartvelian verb inflection. However, Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM, Stump 2016) could provide a realizational and paradigm-based approach to verb inflection. Recently, linguists have adopted PFM model in the analyses of different Kartvelian languages and have obtained plausible results (Makharoblidze & Léonard 2020; Tran Ngoc 2020; She 2021). By applying PFM analysis model in Gurian verb inflection, we demonstrate the compatibility of the realizational and paradigm-based approach with traditional templatic analyses. At the same time, we also show that PFM model, by highlighting the paradigmatic dimension of verb inflection, could describe the systemic complexity in a parsimonious way.
Nunu Charkviani, Irma Rusadze, Sophio Kipiani
Published: 9 March 2022
Abstract:
Te article deals with synonymy-one of the most problematic phenomenon in Linguistics. Synonyms, in general, have been noted as one of the several factors that can make words more difficult to learn. However, learning vocabulary with synonyms will be easier than learning words without knowing them. People should be cautious of considering the differences between all choices and finding the right words to use in each particular situation. The correct use of synonyms in the writing process can add colour and accuracy to the text.Considering the synonymy relationship led us discuss that the words that are called near synonymy words which are similar in meaning but tend not be contrastive and are distributed differently. The article offers us Georgian and English examples of synonymy where determining the absolute synonymous pair is based on the ability of the pair to be interchangeable in all contents in a way to test the substitution in the sentence. Synonyms in both languages are found differing with shades of meaning, connotations, affective value, style, valency and idiomatic use.
Eliso Koridze
Published: 9 March 2022