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Published: 15 September 2015
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 52, pp 380-385; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110389

Abstract:
Information concerning the use of non-ionic surfactants (NS) in household products is very scanty. Therefore, a qualitative determination of NS in raw sewage is an alternative source of information concerning the presence and manufacture of NS. The aim of this work was to identify NS in raw sewage (in Poznan and Blonie, both Poland) and treated sewage (in Blonie) and to compare the results with those obtained for river water (Warta in Poznan, Poland). LC-MS/MS was used for this purpose. The presence of 116 ethoxamers, being exclusively polydispersal alcohol ethoxylates (AE) containing alkyl moieties from C10 to C16 and C18, as well as 20 poly(ethylene glycols), was confirmed in the raw sewage, while 68 ethoxamers were found in the treated sewage, including 12 octylphenol ethoxylates. No nonylphenol ethoxylates were identified in the raw or treated sewage.
Published: 15 September 2015
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 52, pp 414-423; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110393

Abstract:
A thin-layer chromatographic system comprising of silica gel as stationary phase and a mixture of methanol, 0.1 % aqueous sodium thiocyanate, acetone and ethyl acetate in 7 : 3 : 2 : 3 ratio as eco-favourable mobile phase has been found most efficient for the separation of ternary mixture of surfactants (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) + Triton X 100). The separation pattern has been presented as densitogram. Chromatographic parameters like ΔRF, separation factor (α) and resolution (RS) for the separation have been calculated. The effect of the presence of foreign substances such as metal cations, metal anions, amino acids and vitamins as impurities on the separation has been examined. The mobility trend of the separated surfactants was also examined by replacing methanol with other alcohols. The detection limits for ADBAC, CTAB and Triton X 100 have been determined. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the identification of ADBAC in the household cleaning product “Lizol”.
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 371-371; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.017052

Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 400-418; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110513

Abstract:
The influence of vitamins B1 (thiamine hydrochloride), B6 (pyridoxine) and B12 (cyanocobalamine) on the micellization, surface activity and viscometric behavior of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium bromide and nonionic surfactant hexadecylpoly[oxyethylene(20)] alcohol at different temperatures was studied. The critical micelle concentration, the micellization thermodynamics, the maximum adsorption density, the standard free energy of adsorption and the other micellar parameters of surfactants in the presence of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 were obtained. On the basis of dependence of the relative viscosities on concentration, the viscosity B-coefficients of the Jones-Dole semiempirical equation were calculated for both premicellar and postmicellar regions. The results of our study allowed the conclusion that vitamins B1, B6 and B12 are solubilized in micelles.
Sunil Kumar,
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 427-436; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110514

Abstract:
The present work deals with the physiochemical properties of polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters (polysorbates), which are commonly known under the trade name Tween. Thermodynamics of micellization and adsorption at air-water interface for these nonionic surfactants solutions have been studied over a broad range of temperature. As the temperature of the surfactant solutions increases, the surface tension decreases whereas the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of each surfactant solution initially decreases and then increases. The free Gibb free energies of the micelle formation Δ G m o $\Delta {\rm{G}}_{\rm{m}}^{\rm{o}}$ , and the surfactant adsorption Δ G ads o $\Delta {\rm{G}}_{{\rm{ads}}}^{\rm{o}}$ , are calculated for the CMC of each surfactant at different temperatures. The surface or expanding pressure (Πcmc), minimum area per molecule (Amin), maximum surface excess (Γmax) are also calculated. The interfacial tension (IFT) between the aqueous surfactant solutions and the crude oil are measured at different concentrations of the surfactants using a spinning drop tensiometer. The contact angles are determined on an oil wet quartz surface to investigate the wettability alteration in the presence of Tween surfactants with varying salinity. FTIR analysis of quartz at dry and oil wet state, crude oil and COBRS (crude oil-brine-rock-surfactant) combinations are performed to identify the associated functional groups and their mutual interactions.
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 443-447; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110522

Abstract:
Three series of cationic gemini surfactants were prepared and characterized using elemental analysis and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The surface properties of them, critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess concentration (Γmax) and minimum surface area per molecule (Amin) were evaluated via surface tension measurements. Quantum chemical parameters, such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EH), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital EL, the energy gap (ΔEg), dipole moment (μ), electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), hydrophobicity (Log P), approximated surface area (A) and the total energy of the optimized structure (ΔET), were theoretically calculated using the MNDO method.
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 393-399; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110516

Abstract:
The interaction of fatty acid of Morinda citrifolia L. (FAMC) with ink was studied using Hele Shaw Cells. The interaction is compared to that of fatty acid derivates of synthetic surfactant. These interactions are modeled and explained through micro diffusion and its viscous fingering character. The results show that the molecule structure and the number of double bonds have a special effect on the surface tension and the micro diffusion character. FAMC at six-hour extraction has the highest speed of interaction and highest perimeter of diffusion among synthetic surfactants and other fatty acids in Morinda citrifolia L.
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 448-452; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110515

Abstract:
A simple method to prepare cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) in an aqueous environment was developed utilizing 4-aminophenol as a reducing agent and the gemini surfactant (14-4-14)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer. The localized surface plasmon resonance band of cobalt nanoparticles in the UV-Vis spectrum was used to determine the rate of formation of cobalt nanoparticles and to assess the beginning of the oxidation process. The effect of the concentration cobalt nitrate, 4-aminophenol, 14-4-14 and PVP was investigated on the growth rate of CoNPs. The data obtained in this work provide valuable information on the rate of reaction at the nanoscale.
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 378-384; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110519

Abstract:
Solubilisation of pyrene (PAHs) in aqueous micellar solutions of natural surfactant saponin and conventional surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) has been examined by UV-Vis and steady state fluorescence spectrometry at 30°C. The effect of addition of common salt NaCl on the I1/I3 of fluorescence has also been determined. The experiment concludes that the pyrene molecules were incorporated in the palisade layers of both micelles because of their hydrophobic character. The interaction of pyrene with a neutral saponin micelle resulted in a red shift of UV absorption spectra, while the negative headed surfactant SDBS showed no such phenomena. The resulting thermodynamic parameters proved the better efficiency of the bio-surfactant saponin for the solubilization of pyrene with respect to that of the conventional surfactant SDBS. With increasing ionic strength (on addition of NaCl) the solubilization of pyrene was found to be better and effective in both the surfactant mediums.
Dongxia Cui, Jinyu Pang
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 386-392; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110520

Abstract:
Surfactants used in road surface treatments have an optimal application pH value which is an important condition for applications, otherwise stable bitumen emulsions with high solid contents are impossible to achieve. Therefore, a wide range of pH values were employed to investigate its effect on the bitumen/water interfacial properties of a cationic bitumen emulsifier. It is shown that interfacial tension and dilatational modulus have correlations with pH value. The lowest value of interfacial tension declined with the decrease of pH value. The strong acid system has the highest dilatational modulus while this modulus of the neutral system is the lowest. Compared with the neutral system, the maximum of the dilatational modulus also appears in the acid or alkaline system at a relatively low concentration. Physical properties of bitumen emulsions, including storage stability and Zeta potential, show the same changing rule as the interfacial rheology.
, Tomasz Wasilewski
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 372-376; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110517

Abstract:
The aim of the study presented in the paper was to demonstrate that using a combination of glycerin and surfactants in the form of sodium salts in the production of laundry liquid detergents might be an alternative to the currently commonly produced products based on surfactants in the form of potassium or triethanol ammonium salts. Tests were performed to determine functional standard properties of model liquid laundry detergent formulations with different contents of glycerin. The analysis focused on foaming power, rheological properties, solubility, washing ability and decrease in fabric strength after washing. The most beneficial functional properties, comparable to those found in formulations containing potassium or triethanol ammonium salts, were achieved at the glycerin content of 20%.
Lusheng Chen, Jin Pan, Bin Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xiaocui Cui, Jianjun Lu, Jinling Chai
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 419-426; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110518

Abstract:
The effects of oil-water ratios (α) on the composition of the balanced interfacial layer and the optimum solubilization of microemulsions C16mimBr/butan-1-ol/oil (octane, decane, dodecane)/5% NaCl solution were investigated. As α increases, the alcohol solubility in water and oil phases (Sa) in the microemulsions also tends to increase. The reason is the relatively high solubility of the alcohol in the oil phase compared to the solubility in water. When α increases, the number of surfactant ( n s s ${\rm{n}}_{\rm{s}}^{\rm{s}}$ ) and co-surfactant ( n a s ${\rm{n}}_{\rm{a}}^{\rm{s}}$ ) molecules required to balance the interface layer and the proportion of alcohol in the interfacial layer (AS) increase but the solubilization capacity (SP*) decreases. When the total mass of water and oil is unchanged, the solubilization capacity of the microemulsion systems is lower the higher the relative content of oil is. The effects of different oils, salinity and temperature on the composition of the balanced interfacial layer and the solubilization of microemulsions were also investigated.
Yicheng Xie, Jiajia Liu, Fan Liu,
Published: 6 September 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 437-442; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110521

Abstract:
A novel cationic Gemini surfactant with bis-piperidinium and benzene ring (C10-CGP) was synthesized by aniline, epichlorohydrin and 1-bromodecane in three steps. The structure of C10-CGP was characterized by mass spectroscopy (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the corresponding surface tension (γCMC) of C10-CGP were measured from 298 K to 313 K and the thermodynamic parameters of the micellization were calculated. The results showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and γCMC were 0.976 × 10−3 mol · L−1 and 28.93 mN · m−1 at 298 K, respectively. With the temperature increase, the CMC increased, the maximum surface adsorption capacity (Γmax) decreased, the γCMC decreased and the minimum molecule area (Amin) increased. The free energy of the system during the micelle formation was negative. When the Gemini surfactant was used as an asphalt emulsifier, C10-CGP exhibited good a emulsifying ability. C10-CGP is a slow-set asphalt emulsifier.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 334-341; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110511

Abstract:
The implementation of nanotechnology in all industries is one of most significant research fields. Nanoparticles have shown a promising application in subsurface fields. On the other hand, various surfactants have been used in the oil industry to reduce oil/water interfacial tension and also widely used to stabilize the nano-suspensions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the improvements of surfactants ability in term of interfacial tension (γ) reduction utilizing addition of silicon dioxide nanoparticles at different temperatures and salinity. The pendant drop technique has been used to measure γ and electrical conductivity has been used to measure the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The synergistic effects of surfactant-nanoparticles, salt-nanoparticles, and surfactant-salt-nanoparticles on γ reduction and the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants have been investigated. Extensive series of experiments for γ and CMC measurements were performed. The optimum condition for each formulation is shown. We conclude that nanoparticles-surfactant can significantly reduce γ if correctly formulated.
Reza Hajimohammadi, , , Ghasem Najafpour Darzi
Published: 14 July 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 308-314; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110506

Abstract:
In petroleum industries, an emulsification process is often necessary to transfer and upgrade heavy crude oil. Saponins are the main group of biosurfactants used for this purpose and they are often extracted from plants. In this study, saponin was extracted from Glycyrrhiza glabra using a soxhlet method. The aim of present study was to optimize the effective parameters in production of saponin in order to obtain the maximum emulsification index (E24) and optimum mean droplet size by Taguchi method. The evaluated parameters include extraction temperature, first solvent volume fraction, second solvent volume fraction and n-butanol volume fraction. Response parameters resulted in yield, cost and E24 of produced saponin. The obtained results showed that temperature and n-butanol volume fraction were the most effective factors in the extraction process. Optimum operation condition including yield, cost and E24 were (3.6 ± 0.1) g/200 g of plant material, (3.4 ± 0.14) $/g and (98 ± 5) %, respectively. The mean droplet size of water in oil (W/O) emulsion was (35 ± 6) μm using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The results of present research could reduce the cost of saponin production for the applications in oil industries.
Fengguang Li, , GuoXia Huang, Wei Wang, Wenxiu Dong, Liujuan Yan
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 299-307; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110512

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between structural changes and surface-activity of water-soluble silk fibroin prepared by treatment with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 · 4 H2O). Ca(NO3)2 · 4 H2O, is a hygroscopic compound at room temperature and a suitable solvent upon melting at 100 °C, which was traditionally used as a solvent for dissolving cocoons or silk. The cocoons or silk were optimally dissolved by Ca(NO3)2 · 4 H2O when using a 40 % (w/w) Ca(NO3)2 solution, a 1 : 10 ratio of cocoons or silk to solvent and a dissolving time of 69 min. The results showed that the hydrophobic region of the silk fibroin was destroyed, resulting in the exposure of the hydrophobic groups. The emulsifying ability and the emulsion stability as well as the foaming ability and the foam stability, and the γCMC and CMC of soluble silk fibroin were 92.8 %, 97.3 %, 213.3 %, 88.1 %, 65.83 mN/m and 0.42 mg/mL, respectively. The molecular conformation of silk fibroin chains was the β-sheet, as shown by the intense amide I–III bands at 3 163 cm−1, 1 627 cm−1, 1 518 cm−1, and 1 231 cm−1. The random coil/α-helix structure induced from Ca(NO3)2 convert to β-sheet conformation. Owing to the calcium nitrate's dissolution, silk fibroin can be dissolved in water by changing its structure, and shows excellent surface activity.
Juan De La Cruz Clavel, Juan C. Navarro,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 361-364; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110510

Abstract:
In this work, six ionic surface-active alkyl ammonium halides were synthesized and evaluated as demulsifiers of W/O emulsions obtained from a Mexican heavy crude oil. A centrifugation test was employed as a fast method for following the kinetics of the demulsification process with the synthesized demulsifiers. Trioctylmethylammonium bromide showed the best performance as demulsifier.
, Sahar Uzair, Ummer Farooq
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 342-352; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110509

Abstract:
The interaction of cresol red (CR) with cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and Triton X-100 (TX-100) was studied in aqueous solutions employing conductometric, tensiometric, and spectroscopic methods. Various micellar and interfacial parameters were calculated in absence and in presence of CR. The interactions suggest the formation of a CR-CPB adduct, an association of CR with the micelle of TX-100 while no adduct is formed between CR and SDS. Appreciably low critical micelle concentration, CMC value of TX-100 compared with those of CPB and SDS in pure water and drastic reduction of CMC of CPB (about one-twelfth of its value in pure water) than SDS and TX-100 in the presence of CR were observed. Higher negative values of Gibbs free energy of micellization, ΔGm0, for all the three surfactants indicate that micellization process is spontaneous. The values of maximum surface excess concentration, Γmax, and minimum area per molecule, Amin, suggest that in the presence of CR, the air-solution interface is closely packed and the orientation of surfactant molecules is almost perpendicular to the surface. UV-visible spectra suggest the formation of ion-pair complex between the dye CR and the monomers of CPB in the pre-micellar region, while above the CMC a breaking up of the ion-pair complex takes place and the dye is solubilized in the micelles of CPB. In the case of SDS the absorption spectra indicate weak interaction between CR and SDS molecules formation of H-bonding, short range dispersive forces, and hydrophobic interactions between CR and TX-100 molecules in the solution.
Yawen Zhou, Pengquan Su, Fu Han, , Baocai Xu
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 322-326; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110504

Abstract:
The synthesis, structural analysis and properties of saturated cardanol sulfonate salt Gemini surfactant (Gemini-SCSS) were described and compared with saturated cardanol sulfonate salt (SCSS). The structure was characterized by infrared spectra and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Gemini-SCSS reduced the surface tension of water to a minimum value of approximately 35 – 37 mN m−1 with concentrations of (0.9 − 2.0) × 10−4 mol L−1 and displayed low foamability and high emulsification, which were better than those of SCSS. Finally, Gemini-SCSS and SCSS both demonstrated good resistance to acid, alkali, hard water.
, Angelika Schmitz,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 280-290; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110503

Abstract:
Energy Labels are an instrument supporting on-going market transformation towards higher energy efficiency by motivating consumers to select more energy-efficient products. Since the purchase decision can be influenced by the consumers' understanding of the Energy Label, this paper addresses the clarity of the Energy Label of washing machines from a consumer's point of view, and their expectations and wishes concerning a future Energy Label. Information on consumers' opinions/expectations regarding the Energy Label was collected by a semi representative survey in eleven European countries in 2015. The main outcome of the study is that consumers are generally familiar with the symbols on the Energy Label, but they do not know this information belongs to which programme. They believe that a washing machine with the highest Energy efficiency class available on the market can help make savings on energy and water in all its programmes. Finally, the study suggests which modifications need to be applied to the current version of the Energy Label to improve its effectiveness.
Li-Huei Lin, Shuenn-Kung Su, Yu-Ching Lai, Yong-Han Yang
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 353-360; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110507

Abstract:
Environment-friendly green amino acid surfactants were prepared by the reaction of glutamic acid with various fatty acids (C2–C14). These green amino acid surfactants have been found to exhibit good surface activities i.e. surface tension, foaming, wetting power and emulsifying ability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) increases with an increase of the alkyl chain of amino acid surfactants. After 5 days the biodegradation of these amino acid surfactants was larger than 60% and consequently, the surfactants should be regarded as readily biodegradable. Finally, the green amino acid surfactants were added to natural plant dyes to test their applicability for dyeing wool fibers. The surfactant developed in this study will contribute to green and sustainability chemistry.
Yang Wang, , Guicai Zhang, Ping Jiang, Kaifei Song, Wen Zhang
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 327-333; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110508

Abstract:
In order to clarify the role of surface dilatational property in foam flow in a porous medium, three systems were prepared: a system with low surface dilatational modulus and high surface tension, a system with low surface dilatational modulus and low surface tension, and a system with high surface dilatational modulus and low surface tension. By measuring the lamella number and pressure drop across the porous medium, it has been found that differing from flow in a capillary tube, a system with high surface dilatational modulus could achieve a high pressure drop in a porous medium. The conclusion drawn as to the reason is that bubbles with smaller diameter resulting from a structure induced breakup and high dilatational modulus are the main reasons. Flow experiments at 40°C also demonstrate the effect of surface dilatational modulus on the pressure drop.
Harshada Patil,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 315-321; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110505

Abstract:
Microbial biosurfactants consists of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties in its structure and are produced by microorganisms. Glycolipid class of biosurfactants has wide range of surface and interfacial properties. The emulsification activity and emulsion stability of the Glycolipids Trehalose lipids (THL), Mannosylerrythritol lipids (MEL), Sophorolipids (SL) and Rhamnolipids (RL) were investigated using liquid paraffin (hydrocarbon source) and sunflower oil (vegetable source) as hydrophobic source by UV spectroscopy. Emulsification activity and stability are in the order THL > MEL > SL > RL. The stability as a function of the temperature in the range of 20 °C – 80 °C is in order THL > SL > MEL > RL. The effect of pH was studied using buffers of acidic and basic pH. It was observed that RL and SL had excellent emulsification activity at pH 8 while the activity of trehalose lipids and mannosylerrythritol lipids was not affected by pH. Similar effect of various concentrations of salt (NaCl) was studied; THL and MEL emulsion were very resistant to concentration of salt but the stability of SL and RL emulsion decreased with increased salt concentration. Average droplet diameter of emulsion and the polydispersity index were determined by dynamic light scattering. The emulsions of THL and SL have smallest droplet diameter of 422 nm and 625 nm, while emulsions of MEL and RL have a droplet size of 1923 nm and 2245 nm respectively. Emulsions of all investigatesd glycolipid surfactants had good polydispersity index and negative zeta potential, suggesting their possible applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, industrial and environmental techniques.
, Yang Mei
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 291-298; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110502

Abstract:
The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) solutions were examined under various washing conditions. Plain-woven and towel cotton fabrics and plain-woven polyester fabric were soiled with a mixture of carbon black/oleic acid. The soiled fabrics were shake-washed in the LAS solution together with the original unsoiled fabrics. Surface reflectance measurements revealed that the soil removal and redeposition decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing water hardness. The identity of the mineral species (calcium or magnesium ions) in the hard water had no notable effect on the detergency. The addition of significant amounts of extra LAS did not fully compensate the reduction in detergency in hard water. Addition of softening agents and an alkali builder to the hard water limited the reduction in detergency, but the detergency was still lower than that in the absence of hardness salts. Moreover, a high wash temperature and repeated rinse procedure did not prevent the reduction in detergency in hard water. Finally, a washing test was carried out in hard water under the conditions considered to be effective for improving the detergent quality in hard water, based on the experimental results. The LAS detergency toward the cotton fabrics under these conditions was still poorer than that in the absence of hardness salts. We concluded that using soft wash water is the best choice for maximizing the cleaning power of detergents.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 279-279; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.017042

, Yue Yu
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 206-213; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110493

Abstract:
The conformations of secondary and tertiary structures of cellulase in the presence of eleven commonly used surfactants were determined by Raman spectroscopy and the results were discussed. The results indicated that anionic surfactants had a stronger influence on the cellulase conformations than nonionic surfactants. Thus anionic surfactants showed a stronger inactivation on the cellulase activity. Furthermore, Zeta potential distributions of cellulase in solutions of surfactants were tested by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The DLS results indicated that the interaction between anionic surfactants and cellulase was attributed to electrostatic attraction. By adding cellulase to a liquid, non-cellulase-containing detergent, the detergency of the liquid detergent could be increased. Further studies on the sample swatches by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were undertaken in this paper.
Kai Xu, Hujun Xu, Qin Cao, Jinsong Yin
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 242-247; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110497

Abstract:
This study focuses on the properties of mixed micelles of di-sodium salt of 3-({2-[(2-Carboxy-ethyl)-dodecanoyl-amino]-ethyl}-dodecanoyl-amino)-propionic acid (symbolized as DLMC) in solution systems (DLMC/DTAB and DLMC/AEO6). The micro-polarity of the mixed micelles was determined by the fluorospectrophotometer. When the concentration is above CMC, the micellar micro-polarity and the aggregation number (Nm) of the mixed micelles were measured by a steady state fluorescence quenching method. The average hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the mixed micelles was studied by means of dynamic light scattering. The results show that the micro-polarity of micelle nucleus decreases obviously with increasing concentration. The aggregation number of DLMC mixed systems is smaller than that of single surfactants. The difference of the proportion of the two surfactants has little effect on the aggregation number of mixed systems. It is easy to generate molecular aggregates with lower curvature from DLMC than the corresponding monomeric surfactant (DTAB), and DLMC can generate huge linear micelles at low concentrations when mixed with other surfactants.
Wei Gao, Lili Ding,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 230-237; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110490

Abstract:
In order to improve the dispersion and increase the compatibility between CaCO3 nanoparticles and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) matrix, hydrophobic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a carbonization reaction with stearic acid (SA) as the modifying agent. PET/CaCO3 nanocomposites were prepared by further in situ polymerization of purified terephthalic acid (PTA), ethylene glycol (EG) and CaCO3 nanoparticles. The surface modification of CaCO3, the microstructure and the properties of nanocomposites were investigated by water contact angles measurements TEM, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA and DSC. SEM examination of the fractured surfaces of nanocomposites showed that CaCO3 modified by SA achieved well dispersed in the PET matrix. Moreover, compared to the nanocomposite filled with the blank CaCO3, the resulting nanocomposite filled with the modified CaCO3 exhibit a better thermal stability and a superior crystallization property.
Zhe Liu, Ruimin Gao, Zhen Dong, Xiang Li, Jianshe Zhao
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 260-271; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110489

Abstract:
In this work, quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants with different spacers and lipophilic tails were synthesized by using imidazole and halogenated hydrocarbons as raw materials. The surfactants were characterized by EA, IR, and ESI-MS. Physico-chemical properties including critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at CMC (γCMC), saturated adsorption amount (Γmax), occupied area per molecule (Amin), standard free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) and adsorption (ΔG0ads), as well as the oil/water interfacial tension were completely studied. The prepared surfactants could efficiently lower the interfacial tension at water/air interfaces and oil/water interfaces. The results indicate that the ability of reducing the surface tension was affected by the surfactant arrangement, which could be further adjusted by a spacer and lipophilic tail. Accordingly, four surfactants were chosen as the representatives to evaluate the displacement efficiency in flooding experiments via using the authentic sandstone microscopic model.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 193-193; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.017032

Seyedeh Sara Soleimani, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu, Zulal Kesmen
Published: 8 May 2017
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 194-205; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110495

Abstract:
In this study, a thermo-tolerant and alkaline lipase enzyme was purified from Lactobacillus brevis and immobilized onto modified γ-Fe3O4 florisil nanoparticles (γ-Fe3O4 MF NFs) and the usability of free lipase (FL) and immobilized lipases (IML) as detergent additives was investigated. Lipase enzyme was purified by fractional precipitation using 20% ammonium sulfate, DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatographic column, and Sephacryl S200 gel filtration chromatographic techniques. Then, the enzyme was purified, which resulted in 135.2-fold purification. Its molecular mass was determined to be 57 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The covalent immobilization of purified lipase was done using γ-Fe3O4 MF NPs. γ-Fe3O4 MF NPs and IML were characterized by using SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XRD. IML showed a good thermo-stability and its activities were calculated as 80% at 60°C. The free and IML enzymes were most stable at alkaline pHs in the range of 7.0–10.0. Also, IML is more stable towards metal ions compared to free lipase enzyme. Washing performances of some detergent formulations were investigated in the presence and absence of Lipase. Olive oil was removed by the detergent alone and by the detergent and IML at ratios of 45% and 72%, respectively. The study on removal of oil stain from cotton cloths indicated that the removal of oil was superior in the presence of IML and IML with detergent, when compared to the detergent alone.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 224-229; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110499

Abstract:
The interest to determine the ionization degree of counterion initiates the need to study the relationship between counterion binding constant (RXBr) and the growth of self-assembly micellar structure. This paper discussed the microscopic evidence for the correlation of counterion binding constant values and micellar structure of cationic surfactants in the presence of phenolates and 2-ethyl phenolates ions in flexible nanoparticle (FN)-system of ionized phenyl salicylate-catalyzed piperidinolysis. The sizes of micelles were determined by particle size analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed a spherical micellar structure for phenolates and 2-ethyl phenolates ions at counterion binding constant values 6.3 ± 1.0 and 24.0 ± 1.1 respectively. A study using a semi-emperical kinetic technique in published article proved that the suggested micellar structures at respective counterion binding constant values corresponded with the present microscopic evidence.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 220-223; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110498

Abstract:
In recent times, long chain amido sulfobetaine surfactants are a very attractive subject, but their unique self assembly properties as well as the rheological behavior of the mixture of these surfactants with other surfactant types are less documented. In this paper, the rheological behavior of the erucyl amido sulfobetaine (EASB) in mixture with long chain cationic surfactants was evaluated. The results indicated that in spent acid solution, the rheological responses of erucyl amido sulfobetaine (EASB) in the presence of cationic surfactants were improved. The effect of surfactants concentration and temperature were also studied.
HuChuan Wang, Chengjun Peng, Yujuan Jian, Chenchen Fang, Xianna Wang, Xuewu Li,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 238-241; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110501

Abstract:
Calcium carbonate is considered as the most frequent scale commonly occurring in cooling water systems. To reduce calcium carbonate scale in an environment–friendly way, a copolymer consisting of acrylic acid (AA)-acrylamide (AM)-polypropylene glycol and maleic anhydride (PPGAZMA) was developed to inhibit this phenomenon. The structure of the AA-AM-PPGAZMA was characterized by FT-IR method. The performance of AA-AM-PPGAZMA inhibition process was evaluated from static experiment method. Results indicated that excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 71.1% calcium carbonate inhibition under the optimum conditions. Also the effect of the copolymer addition on the crystals of calcium carbonate scales morphology was examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM illustrated that great changes in the size and morphology of the calcium carbonate scales took place under the influence of AA-AM-PPGAZMA. SEM and XRD results identify that not only the scales shape and size changed but also that the scales forms altered to an extent.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 248-259; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110496

Abstract:
Macrocyclic metal complexes viz., Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been prepared using a macrocyclic Schiff base as ligand, which was derived from Isatin, 4-aminoantipyrine and o-phenylenediamine. Further, the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, mass spectrometry, FT-IR-, Far-IR-, UV-Vis-, EDX spectroscopy, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, ESR spectroscopy and SEM. The octahedral geometry of the complexes has been revealed by the spectral data of UV-Vis and ESR as well as by the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements. Antimicrobial screening tests indicated that the Zn(II) metal complexes showed an excellent antimicrobial activity compared to the other studied metal complexes. The nuclease activity of the metal complexes showed that the Co(II) complex has effectively cleaved DNA. The optimized molecular structure, bond length, bond angle, dihedral angle, chemical reactivity and total energy have been evaluated using the density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional level.
Liping Liu,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 214-219; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110500

Abstract:
In this study, ionic liquid (IL), specifically ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), was used instead of water to form nonaqueous microemulsions with cyclohexane and the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100). The phase behavior of the ternary system was investigated, and the microemulsions of ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) and oil-in-ionic liquid (O/IL) and the bicontinuous microregion were identified through traditional electrical conductivity measurement. The micropolarities of the IL/O microemulsions were determined via UV–Vis spectroscopy with methyl orange as an absorption probe. Results indicated that the polarity of the reverse micelles remained constant but that of the IL/O microemulsions increased when IL pools were formed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the interaction mechanism between TX-100 and EAN molecules in IL/O microemulsions. We demonstrated that IL/O microemulsions may be promising for application due to the unique features of ILs and microemulsions.
Chen Wang, Tingting Shen, Xikui Wang, Yajun Wang
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110481

Abstract:
Illegal discharge of waste cooking oil (WCO) not only causes environmental pollution but also wastes useful resources. Converting WCO into surfactant to partially substitute virgin vegetable oil is one of the measures for solving simultaneously the three problems of food security, pollution, and raw materials shortage. In this paper, the pretreatment of WCO was investigated, WCO and purified WCO were analyzed, purified WCO was used as an alternate feedstock for surfactant preparation by a chemical three-step modification process, structure characterization and surfactivities of obtained surfactant were demonstrated.
Tao Wang, Hui Li, Qu-Liang Lu, Nan Wu,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110477

Abstract:
Microcapsules with modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer and sodium sulfate decahydrate (Na2SO4 · 10H2O) as core materials were prepared using the emulsion polymerization and solvent evaporation methods. Chemical composition and microscopic structure of the synthesized PMMA-AA/Na2SO4 · 10 H2O phase change materials (PCMs) microcapsules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, polarizing optical microscopy (POM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in detail. The results show that the microcapsules are uniform and approximately spherical with an average diameter of about 3.5 μm. The melting point of the microcapsule is 31.5°C and the fusion heat is 182.8 J/g. This demonstrated that the prepared PMMA-AA/Na2SO4 · 10H2O microcapsules could be promising candidates for the design of novel energy-saving materials with good thermal energy storage application.
Feiyu Chen, Mengsu Liu, Juan Du, Yan Luo
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110476

Abstract:
In order to obtain higher surface activity and lower foaming ability, novel asymmetric Gemini alkyl polyglycosides were synthetized based on tertiary dodecyl dimethyl amine and epoxy chloropropane by adopting chlorination, substitution, and quaternization reactions. The structure of synthesis product was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis. It was confirmed that the synthesis product was an asymmetric glycoside quaternary ammonium salt with double ionic head groups. The critical micelle concentration of the resulting product was 0.025 g/mL at 20°C and its surface tension was low to 22.8 mN/m. The emulsifying ability and wettability of the product were the same as or even better than those of the commonly used surfactants. Moreover, the product revealed low foaming ability.
Xu Li, Lan Wu, Qiong Tang,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110480

Abstract:
Glycerol, derived from biodiesel production, is a renewable feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals. Herein, we report an investigation of the acetalization of glycerol with n-octanal by homogeneous acid catalysis in the absence of a solvent, using p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid, respectively, as catalysts. p-Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, a surfactant-type Brønsted acid, proved to be an excellent catalyst capable of efficiently promoting the reaction under solvent-free conditions, and the yields of glycerol acetals reached 99% under the optimal conditions. The distribution of five- and six-membered cyclic acetal regioisomers varied depending on the reaction time and temperature. Moreover, the amphiphilic properties of the products, with different ratios of five- to six-membered cyclic acetals, have been evaluated by surface tension measurements.
Shili Song, Yabing Han, Wenli Hao, Jingwen Lu, Yuhua Qian
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110479

Abstract:
A cationic choline-derived surfactant with photolabile cinnamate counterion (tetradecyl-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dimethylammoniumcinnamate, C14HDACin) was synthesized. The properties of C14HDACin aqueous solutions for pre- or post-UV irradiation were investigated by employing tensiometry, conductance, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheometry. The effect of UV irradiation time on photoisomerization of C14HDACin solutions was evaluated, which showed that the photoisomerization efficiency decreases with an increase of C14HDACin concentration. After UV irradiation, the fraction of counterion binding (β) of the C14HDACin micelle decreases. However, the value of CMC increases. Rheometry coupled with TEM studies confirmed that the aggregation of C14HDACin could transform from wormlike to spherical micelles upon UV irradiation.
Fei Zhao, Dongliang Liu, Yijiang Wang
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110478

Abstract:
A novel hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite containing two disparate morphologies was prepared by using a new organosilane surfactant with two long alkyl chains. Main crystal phase arrayed regularly and stacked in dense layers. However, the rest of crystalline phase was shaped like egg tarts.
Fenfen Li, Yeqian Wen, Xueqing Yu, Songmei Zhang, Gang Li
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110475

Abstract:
In this paper, a humate surfactant based on humic substances which were derived from lignite by modification of hydroxymethylation and esterification methods respectively was prepared. Determined by surface tension method, the cmc (critical micelle concentration) of the humate surfactant is 1.534 g/L and the corresponding surface tension is 48.8 mN/m. The optimum conditions of the modified processes are as follows: hydroxymethylation modification at pH 10.5, reaction temperature 90°C, reaction time of 60 min, dosage of stock (formaldehyde/lignite/g g−1) 10:10, and the amount of reacted paraformaldehyde was 6.23 mmol/g lignite. The esterification modification was carried but at 70°C, reaction time 10 h, dosage of 6.0 mmol n-decanoyl chloride/g lignite. The conversion rate of n-decanoyl chloride was 95%.
Gang Wang, Ming Zhou, Shenying Ding, Zhou Huang, Ze Zhang, Sisi Li
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 5-10; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110472

Abstract:
As a new type of high effective surfactant, aliphatic alcohol ether sulfonate has widely application prospects in the process of tertiary oil recovery. So, the theoretical analysis of synthesis of aliphatic alcohol ether sulfonate has played a very important role in the process of its development. After the first patent about the preparation of a fatty alcohol ether sulfonate surfactant was reported in 1938, there were several methods to synthesize alcohol ether sulfonate surfactants with different structure. Sulfonated alkylation, one of the synthesis methods, is introduced in this paper. The synthesis principle of alcohol ether sodium sulfonate was analyzed by three step reactions – synthesis of PTGE, ring opening reaction and sulfonation reaction. Synthesis principle of PTGE includes acid catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, side reaction of the synthesis of glycerol ether and reaction of PTGE outcome. Ring opening reaction includes two reactions of acid catalysis and alkali catalysis.
Prabhakara Rao Darapureddi, Bijari Anil Kumar, Shruti S. Deshpande, Koude Dhevendar, Sunil Misra, Rati Ranjan Nayak
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110474

Abstract:
By changing amino acid head group four biobased anionic surfactants were synthesized using 4-vinylguaiacol and methylbromo undecanoate. The synthesized surfactants were characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. The surface active properties such as surface tension, wetting power, foaming characteristic, emulsion stability, calcium tolerance were studied and compared with those of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Excellent emulsion stabilities and calcium tolerances were observed for the synthesized surfactants. These surfactants show a lower critical micelle concentration as compared to the conventional surfactants. The bulk micellization properties were studied using dynamic light scattering and fluorescence anisotropy technique. The antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies were also carried out.
Wen-Rui Kang, Hong-Ze Gang, , Shi-Zhong Yang,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110473

Abstract:
The distribution coefficients of lipopeptide biosurfactant in four different commercially available organic solvents and water were determined by HPLC. A method with a high recovery of 92.1% for isolation of the lipopeptide in a surfactant/polymer mixture in aqueous solutions was established by using the combined means of acid extraction, alkaline conversion and acid re-extraction. The results showed that the lipopeptide distribution coefficients range from 0.010 to 61 at different pH values in different organic solvents, which is an indicator for optimizing the process of separation of lipopeptide biosurfactant in surfactant/polymer mixtures in aqueous solutions. The proposed separation method was used to determine the lipopeptide biosurfactant concentration in production fluids of the Daqing oil field. The concentrations were 6.57 μg/L and 4.56 μg/L.
Mithun G. Mondal,
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 78-84; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110446

Abstract:
A series of cationic surfactants, di-chained esterquat surfactants, was synthesized from triethanolamine, stearic acid and various alkylation agents by two step processes. The quaterisation was carried out with diethyl sulphate, benzyl chloride, 1-chloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, benzoyl chloride. The synthesized surfactants were confirmed by IR spectra. Surface properties, wetting time, softness and antibacterial activity of the synthesized surfactants were investigated. The results showed that the synthesized esterquats exhibit high surface activities, better wetting times and very good softening properties. A synthesized cationic surfactant was further prepared for formulation of hair conditioning and body care. This product can be used in formulations of shampoo, fabric softener and liquid soaps and also it does not have any harmful impact to aquatic life. Further, the synthesized surfactant, prepared from 1-Chloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, exhibit a better antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. It was found that the alkylation agent and hydrocarbon chain length affected the results.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 54, pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.017012

, , Monika Seifert, Arnd Kessler, Rainer Stamminger, Noelle Wrubbel
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 53, pp 470-477; https://doi.org/10.3139/113.110454

Abstract:
To further reduce energy consumption of dishwashing programmes and still obtain satisfying cleaning results, water temperatures in the programme steps are decreased and running times are prolonged. To which extent the cleaning factor duration is able to compensate for temperature has been insufficiently researched until now. This study quantifies the effects of a pre-rinse step, of the duration and water temperatures in different dishwashing programme steps on the cleaning performance and energy consumption in mathematical models. Using those models it is shown that even a (cold) pre-rinse step increases the cleaning performance and that energy consumption is reduced by 25–28% and the cleaning performance decreases, especially on heavily soiled load items and of fatty soilings on plastic surfaces, if the water temperature in the cleaning step is lowered to 30°C.
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