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Natalia A. Tikhomirova, Таисия Владимирована Нечаева, Vladimir N. Yakimenko
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.144

Денис Александрович Соколов, Nikilai V. Usoltsev, Игорь Николаевич Госсен, Сергей Владимирович Морозов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.133

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To monitor and assess the chemical composition of the solid aerosols deposited in the snow in the area affected by the technological road of the Gorlov anthracite mining site. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted in the Iskitim district of the Novosibirsk region (54.58o N, 83.57o E) in 2018–2020. Methodology. The content of total solids in snow was measured by gravimetric method after filtering the melted snow sample through the filter with 0.22 µm mesh size. Micromorphology of the solids was studied by using scanning electron microscope Hitachi TM-3000 (Japan) with attached EDS detector console Bruker Quantax 70 for the element analysis of the surface. The carbon content, С/Н and C/N ratios were determined by dry combustion using the СHN-analyzer (Perkin Elmer 2400 Series II, USA). The content and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined by gas chromatography using Agilent Technologies АТ 6890N with AT 5975N mass-selective detector and AT 7683B autosampler. Main results. The article presents the results of the three-years long study of the solids accumulated in snow along the technological road in the north of the Gorlov anthracite basin. The influence of the automobile road used for the anthracite transportation was shown to reach as far as 2000 m in all directions. The snow cover was found to accumulate from 1.4 to 1131.6 g/m2 of deposited aerosol solids. Those solids were mostly represented by coal particles, the carbon content ranging 26.5–64.1% and increasing with the distance from the road. The aerosol solids, accumulated in snow, were found to contain significant amounts of PAH, including the carcinogenic ones. In the snow samples collected at 25–2000 m off the road, carcinogenic PAH content was found to be 9–13000 times higher than at the control site remoted from the road. Conclusion. The presented study helped to elucidate the factors, contributing to decreasing the spread of the anthracite solids during automobile transportation. Such spread can be attained by a) establishing wide multi-storeyed forested protective belts along technological automobile roads; b) compulsory covering of the loads in the coal-transporting vehicles; c) decreasing the speed limit of the vehicles; and d) taking into consideration a wind rose while projecting locations new automobile roads and coal mining spoils.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.136

Abstract:
The article describes a detailed algorithm to recompute the size of the elementary soil particles obtained by Kachinsky technique (a method conventionally used by Russian soil scientists) into the international granulometric size distribution pattern of 2000-50-2 µm using the formula introduced by E.V. Shein in 2009. The article also describes step-by-step procedures to create Ferrers diagrams using the soiltexture”, “plotrix” и “ggtern”packages in R environment. One of the advantages of R software is its free distribution and usage, vast range of options for the diagram settings, and, in the process of doing so, accruing the experience of working with a very popular language for statistical analysis and data visualization.
, Елена Николаевна Ручко, Олег Александрович Савенков, Валентина Ивановна Плешакова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.141

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to review publication about microbiome of chicken manure, chicken manure compost, as well as soil and crop microbiome after compost addition to soil as a fertilizer. Methodology. A search in the bibliographical data bases PubMed and elibrary.ru was performed using the keywords pertaining to the topic of the article. Main results. The results about the chicken manure microbiome, obtained by high throughput sequencing, showed that the chicken gut microbiome is dominated by bacteria of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla; some regional chicken populations were found to have Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Escherichia coli, Prevotella, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Megasphaera, Fusobacterium и Bifidobacterium as the main representatives of the gut microbiome. However, chicken manure can contain bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes, as antibiotics are increasingly used in the poultry industry to stimulate production. In general manure composting can be regarded as environmentally safe method for transforming various organic wastes into organic fertilizers. As increasing output of the poultry industry, which inevitably includes manure, increased the interest to its composting, and recent years have seen unprecedented number of research, dealing with various details of manure composting, such as duration, hydrothermal conditions, added bulking materials, microbiological preparations, abundance of the antibiotic resistance genes, and so on. However, the studies of soil and crop microbiome after soil fertilization with chicken manure compost have so far been rather scarce, resulting in ambiguous conclusions, i.e. about positive or no effect of the compost addition. The effect is determined by species, breed, age, rearing and manure composting technology, as well as by crop and its cultivar, agricultural practices and soil specifics. Conclusions. Chicken manure contains taxonomically diverse microbiome that can be changed during composting. Microbiota of chicken manure and its compost with their great microbial species richness can contain bacteria, carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Dispersal of such components of the compost resistome in environment via compost addition to agricultural soils should be regarded as a growing biological hazard, threatening the efficient use of antibiotics for treating bacterial infections in in veterinary and medicine. Therefore increasing poultry production urges for assessing the risks and evaluating the scope of the threat, as well as estimating and establishing permissible limits of pathomicrobiotic load of the poultry litter manure and compost, using up-to-date metagenomic techniques. The greatest concern is about spreading antibiotic resistance genes into the marketable crop components, consumed raw; consequently, alongside with studying microbiota of the compost-receiving agricultural soil as a source of dust, microbiome research should be also focused crop phytobiome where crops are produced under addition of composts, obtained with manure of the antibiotic-treated poultry during industrial production.
Мария Ивановна Дергачева
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.140

Abstract:
The article examines the role of the outstanding scientist Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev, whose 175th anniversary was March 1, 2021, in the development of soil ecology as a science of the biosphere class. The natural history methodology, which he introduced into scientific use, is discussed; the methodology was a milestone in the development of not only genetic soil science, but also all natural sciences.
Фути Седрик Фиша, Екатерина Валерьевна Будина, , , Игорь Николаевич Госсен, Сергей Юрьевич Клековкин, Денис Александрович Соколов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v4i1.135

Abstract:
The objective of the study. To identify the prospects for the use of humic preparations for the restoration of disturbed coal-mining areas, by assessing the relationship between their biological activity and the structural-group composition. Location and time of the study. The study was carried out in the Novokuznetsk district of the Kemerovo region (N 54.14o N and E 87.10o E) in 2020. Methodology. The study of the structure-group composition of humic preparations was carried out by the 13C NMR spectroscopy. Evaluation of the effect of humic preparations was performed in a series of plot experiments setup in the reclaimed and non-reclaimed areas of the coal mining spoils. The properties of the soils substrates of the technogenic landscapes were determined by traditional soil methods. The effect of the preparations was assessed by the dry phytomass production and pod yields of Vícia villósa vetch, as well as the phytomass production of the Avéna satíva + Vícia villósa mixture. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by the principal components analysis. Main results: Comparison of humic preparations obtained from brown coals of the Tisulsky (Kansk-Achinsky basin) and Tyulgansky (South Ural basin) deposits showed that, in general, all preparations positively affected phytomass production and pod yeild. However, in different conditions of technogenic landscapes and in relation to different plant species, the effect could manifest itself in different directions. A stable positive effect from pre-sowing seed treatment was achieved only with substrates depleted in natural humic substances (humus and peat), and with optimal moisture. Under such conditions, the greatest influence was exerted by preparations obtained from brown coals of the Tisulsky deposit of the Kansk-Achinsky basin, and their naturally oxidized form, which are characterized by a high proportion of oxygen-containing aliphatic (CO-Alk-O), as well as aromatic (СAr) groups. At the same time, under moisture deficit, the indicated chemical properties negatively affected the yield. In stony areas of technogenic landscapes, a positive effect was manifested only by preparations with a maximum proportion of aromatic hydroxide-containing groups (СAr-ОН). Enrichment of humic preparations with microelements (Zn and Cu) did not result in either positive or negative consequences. Conclusion. The use of humic preparations obtained from brown coals for restoring technogenic landscapes is justified only in areas composed of loamy rocks with a low content of humic substances of humus and peat. The noted multidirectional action of humates, which manifests itself depending on their structural and group composition, properties of substrates and plant species used at the biological stage of reclamation, indicates that using the same standardized preparations for the reclamation of various technogenic objects may not be reasonable.
Вячеслав Генрихович Мордкович, Ilya I. Lyubechanskii
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.131

Abstract:
The review describes the main stages of the formation and development of soil zoology as a science at the intersection of zoology, ecology and soil science, approximately over a century, i.e. from the beginning of the 1920s until now. The analysis of soil-zoological work carried out in the forest-steppe zone, the subject of which was the fauna and population of soil protozoa, worms, molluscs, microarthropods and larger arthropods, collectively referred to as mesofauna. The forest-steppe was chosen as the topic of the review because it is well-studied and because most of the work on this biome was published in Russian, and little is known abroad (which is not surprising, since more than 80% of the forest-steppe territory is located in Russia). The authors reviewed about 170 the most significant works inventorying soil fauna, analyzing its ecological structure and the functional role of its various components, as well as the studies of the anthropogenic impact on soil animal populations. The works are presented on a territorial basis: the west of the European part of the USSR (Russia), the Volga region and West Siberia. The high species richness and originality of the soil fauna in the forest-steppe, its high resistance to natural and anthropogenic influences were shown. At the end, the review indicates some promising directions for soil fauna research in the Russian forest-steppe.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.130

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to estimate changes in chemical composition of the white birch litter during decomposition in a laboratory experiment simulating leaching and salinization. Location and time of the study. Fresh litter of Betula pendula leaves were collected in the forest-steppe zone of Priobskoe plateau (40 km to the east of Novosibirsk, Russia) in October 2016. The incubation experiment was carried out in the laboratory of Agrochemistry of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk, Russia) during 105 days (24.05.2017–06.09.2017) at 24˚С). Methodology. Distilled water (50 ml) or the same volume of NaCl, Na2SO4, FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3 solutions with concentrations of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% were added to 2 g of air-dried birch litter (leaves). The litter was placed into 100 ml plastic cups. The salt concentration in solutions was chosen according to the soil salinity gradation, i.e. 0.3% as weak (0.2–0.4%), 0,5% as medium (0.4–0.6%), 0,7% as strong (0.6–0.8%), and 1% as solonchak (Classification…, 1977). After 24 hours surplus water or salt solutions were decanted and filtered, and the birch litter was air-dried. After that 5 ml soil-water suspension (soil:distilled water 1: 2.5 m/v) was added into half of the cups with litter, whereas another half of cups with litter received 5 ml of distilled water. The variant with litter and no water was also included, designated as “dry birch litter”. The cups with litter were closed up and incubated during 105 days in the thermostat (+24 °С) with periodic ventilation. After incubation the litter was air-dried and weighed. The litter mass loss after decomposition was calculated as a difference between a sample mass at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and expressed as percentage. Concentrations of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni were determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer Inc., USA) in water samples, 0,3–1% salt solutions and birch litter. The total number of cups with litter in the experiment was 150. The term «under leaching» refers to the decrease in chemical element concentration in the litter after incubation with water. The term «under salinization» refers to the increase of Na or Fe concentrations in the litter after incubation with salt solutions. The litter mass loss presented as air-dry mass, concentration of chemical elements in the litter and ash content are expressed on the oven- dry mass basis. Results. Under leaching the concentration of chemical elements was increased in water extracts (especially К, Са, Mg) and decreased in birch litter in the row: Na (3.6 times) –>К (2.4 times) –> Ni (1.9 times) –> Mg (1.4 times) –> Zn and Cu (1.3 times). In comparison with water, the interaction between litter and Na and Fe salt solutions (concentrations 0.3–1%) led to intensive leaching and, correspondingly, to the 1.3 times lower litter К content, as well as 1.2–1.5 times and 1.5-2.2 times lower Са and Mg content, respectively. The highest concentration of Са, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ni was detected in FeCl3 solutions at the start of the experiment. The maximal mass and ash content losses were detected in the dry birch litter. On average, leaching was found to decrease 1.4 times mass loss and ash content in the litter. The minimal mass and ash content losses under salinization were found after litter incubation with FeCl3 (0.3–1%) solutions. The difference in mass loss between variants litter-water and litter-soil water suspension was not detected, although litter ash content after addition of soil water suspension was 1.1–1.3 times higher. Conclusions. The interaction birch litter with water and Na and Fe salt solutions (0,3-1%) led to modification of elemental chemical composition of plant litter as a result of leaching of chemical elements (especially К, Са, Mg) from litter and increased concentrations of Na, Fe and some other elements (depending on the salt used). It led to the decrease in plant litter decomposition rate, which under the natural conditions in the south of West Siberia can take place as a result of temporary overwetting of the forest litter (for instance, in autumn or spring) as well as in areas occupied by saline soils.
Евгения Александровна Гуркова, Vladimir A. Androkhanov, Алексей Тимофеевич Лавриненко
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.127

Abstract:
The article analyses Khakassia environmental conditions with the aim to estimate their resources and role in the efficient reclamation of coal mining spoils. The availability of potentially fertile soil substrate as a resource for large-scale reclamation was evaluated by the thickness of the quaternary clay and loamy bedrock layers, taking into account the amount of the substrate needed for reclamation. The availability of resources of the potentially fertile soil substrate was carried out by taking into account the thickness and soil bulk density of the humus horizon of the most fertile soils of the region, and considering the obtained estimayes within the framework of the methodical rules and normative regulations for optimal reclamation. The availability of hydrothermal resources was estimated by active temperature sums and hydrothermal coefficient. Overall the distribution of reclamation resources was found to be very uneven throughout the region. In the south of Khakassia with its large areas occupied by technogenic landscapes the reclamation resources were concluded to be in deficit, insufficient for carrying out the reclamation according with the optimal protocols. Such lack of resources is indirectly confirmed by prevailing areas occupied by self-revegetating coal mining spoils. The article also describes some successful reclamation examples where specific local environmental conditions were used in such a way as to decrease the effect of deficient resources, thus increasing the efficacy of the self-restoration of technogenic landscapes.
, Иван Петрович Беланов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.132

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to reveal regularities in the development of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)’ communities, to determine their species peculiarities as dependent on soil formation rate and soil ecology in the ecosystems developed on the terminated fly ash dump of the thermoelectric power station over nine years of restoration. Location and time of the study. The main object of the study was a terminated fly ash dump No.1 of the thermoelectric power station No.5 in Novosibirsk, Russia. (54°59' NL, , 83°03' EL). Soil samples were collected in 2019, whereas the ground beetles were collected in 2017 and 2019. Methodology. Six study sites, corresponding to the fly ash dump sedimentation zones, were chosen. The undisturbed white birch forest and clover-brome meadow were chosen as controls representing mature climax ecosystems. Soil cover, developing on the fly ash dump after its termination, was described according to the soil classification of technogenic landscapes, and was shown to consist of various types of embryozems (Technosols). Soil water content on each study site was measured in 0–5cm layer by gravimetric method. Soil samples were collected in May 2019. To collect ground beetles five traps were placed on each study site, each trap filled up to 1/3 of its volume with 4% acetic acid for fixing the trapped beetles. The beetles were collected in May–June 1017 and in June–July 2019. The data obtained were used to calculate α-biodiversity indices and perform cluster analysis using PAST v.3.09 software. Main results. Altogether 74 species of the ground beetle we found: 60 species of ground beetles were identified in the revegetating fly ash dump areas, with 48 species found at the sites amended with potentially fertile substrate (PFS), and 35 species found at the sites without PFS addition. The control sites under birch forest and meadow had 14 and 10 species, respectively. Thus the ground beetles’ abundance in the reclaimed area was almost 3 times greater than in the non-reclaimed area (973 specimens vs. 347). Cluster analysis discriminated three groups in the studied fly ash dump sites, namely dry non-reclaimed sites, dry PFS sites and moist sites. Soil cover of the studied fly ash dump was represented by initial, organic matter accumulating, humus-accumulating and sod embryozems (Technosols). Conclusion. Over nine years of spontaneous restoration at the terminated fly ash dump of the thermoelectric power station species rich and abundant communities of ground beetles were formed. These communities differed significantly from those at the adjacent undisturbed climax ecosystems used for comparison. Species richness and dynamic density of ground beetles was shown to increase from the control sites to non-reclaimed sites and PFS-reclaimed sites. The autonomous position in the catena was found to be occupied by the less evolutionary developed embryozem type, whereas downwards along the catena, i.e. with increasing soil moisture content, identified soil types belonged to higher evolutionary order. Therefore technical recultivation with fly ash dump overlaying with potentially fertile substrate or fertile soil allow accelerating soil cover development, as well as the development of an entire biogeocenosis.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i4.134

Abstract:
The article gives the main biographic information of the Doctor of Biological Sciences Iya Leonidovna Klevenskaya, who was the initiator and the head of the Laboratory of Soil Microbiology of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. She worked in academic science for 40 years, focusing her research on microbial physiology and ecology in soils of Siberia.
, Oleg A. Savenkov, , Yury V. Fotev
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i3.128

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim was to profile 16S rRNA gene diversity and to assess functional potential of bacterial assemblages in the rhizosphere of some unconventional vegetables grown in protected greenhouse conditions in West Siberia. Location and time of the study. Novosibirsk, Russia, 2016. Methodology. At the end of the growing season in the middle of September the rhizosphere soil was collected from the plants of wax gourd (Benincasa hispida), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) grown on peat-based substrate in a polyethylene-protected greenhouse that has been in operation for more than 40 years. The metagenomic DNA was extracted and amplified with V3-V4 primers for 16S rRNA genes, and the amplicons sequenced with Illumina MiSeq. The obtained OTUs tables were used to predict putative functions by running through the FAPROTAX database. Main results. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was dominated by Proteobacteria (32±11% of the total number of sequence reads), Acidobacteria (23±7%) and Actinobacteria (18±3%) phyla, together accounting for about three quarters of the rhizosphere bacteriobiome. In total 20 bacterial phyla were found. The rhizosphere bacteriobiome was surprisingly diverse with Shannon index ranging 7.0–7.5. The number of the observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample was very high, ranging 4,500–4,900, and the potential number of OTUs estimated as 5,100–5,700; all those OTUs were evenly and equitably represented in the bacteriobiome, and dominance indices (Simpson dominance and Berger-Parker) were very low. The main dominant OTU represented Bradyrhizobiaceae family and accounted for just 1% on average. Overall the study identified 27 OTUs belonging to the Bradyrhizobiaceae family, but only four of them were ascribed to nitrogen fixation by FAPROTAX. Function prediction by FAPROTAX also suggested that bacteriobiome had a marked potential for the carbon cycle, denitrification, aromatic compound and plant polymer degradation, but no plant pathogens. The biggest difference in rhizosphere bacteriobiome diversity was observed between the bitter melon and the other three vegetable crops: bitter melon had much increased abundance of Arthrobacter and Sphingomonas as compared with wax gourd, kiwano and cowpea, and increased number of bacterial species associated with aromatic compounds degradation. Conclusion. Based on the finding that the studied rhizosphere bacteriobiomes were very diverse, we conclude that the crops were able to recruit diverse microbiota from the peat-based soil substrate, which, in its turn, means that diverse soil substrate microbiota has been sustained over several decades of the greenhouse operation. All crops apparently shaped distinct bacteriobiomes in their rhizosphere, which ideally should be included into studies of plant-associated bacterial diversity profiles for breeding and sustainable production.
Ольга Александровна Русалимова, Павел Анатольевич Барсуков
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i3.119

Abstract:
The aim of research: Study the possibility of using a mixture of sodium salts of mono- and dicarboxylic acids as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. Location and time of the study. West Siberia, 2016. Methodology. Evaluation of the effectiveness of alkaline effluent from caprolactam production (AECP) on germination of spring wheat seeds in two incubation experiments for 3 and 8 days and a laboratory experiment (in the light) for 11 days with seed pre-sowing treatment at different doses of AECP ranging from 0 to 90 liters/ton of seed. Results. In a series of experiments, it was found that AECP, which is a mixture of sodium salts of carboxylic acids, can be used as a plant growth stimulant for pre-sowing treatment of spring wheat seeds. The dosage of AECP is of utmost importance, the top limit of the application rate is recommended as 30 liters of AECP per a ton of seed. The most pronounced positive effect of the growth stimulant was displayed at the rate of 20 l/t. This AECP rate contributed to an increase in germinal root and leaf weight by 35% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control when seeds were germinated in the light for 11 days. Seed germination and the proportion of seedlings with leaves ≥ 3 cm in length were also maximal at this AECP application rate. Conclusions. To stimulate the germination of spring wheat, it is recommended to use AECP for pre-sowing treatment at the rate of 15– 20 liters per ton of seed.
, Анатолий Алексеевич Танасиенко, Герман Федорович Миллер, Сергей Викторович Соловьев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i3.117

Abstract:
This article is about the changes in climatic characteristics during the cold period of the hydrological year in the southeast of Western Siberia over the past 60 years and their impact on the depth of soil freezing in dissected territories. It has been established that at the regional level over the past 60 years there has been an increase in air temperature and an increase in precipitation during cold periods of hydrological years. These changes have a direct impact on the depth of freezing of soils in the dismembered territories of the southeast of Western Siberia. A stable tendency towards a decrease in the freezing depth was noted from 1968 to 2020.
Svetlana Yu. Kapustyanchik, Vladimir N. Yakimenko
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i3.126

Abstract:
The literature review provides information about one of the most promising energy crops – miscanthus (Miscanthus). Data on the systematics, morphology and phonology of the plant, its yield and the quality of the resulting cellulose-containing raw materials are presented. The possibility of effective cultivation of perennial miscanthus plantations in continental regions, including Russia, is shown. The results of studies of the environmental and phytomeliorative effects of miscanthus plantings on the agricultural landscape are considered. The work on studying the possibilities of obtaining industrial products with high added value from miscanthus biomass is analyzed.
Наталья Александровна Соколова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i3.123

Abstract:
January 14, 2021 marks the 20th anniversary of the Foundation of the Soil Museum of the ISSA SB RAS. The formation and functioning of the Museum was dictated both by the amount of knowledge accumulated by the beginning of the XXI century about the soils of Siberia, and the need for broad education of the population in connection with urgent environmental problems. The advantages of the academic Museum are serious scientific support of collections, an opportunity for visitors to immerse themselves in the research environment, to touch science "first-hand". Soil science is a multidisciplinary science, so knowledge about soils is interesting not only for soil scientists themselves, but also for other scientists, i.e. botanists, geologists, geographers and other specialists in the field of agriculture, nature users, students, schoolchildren, etc. The Soil Museum today is a dynamic, developing structure aimed at accumulating and disseminating knowledge about soils, their development and functioning, overall aimed at the formation of a responsible attitude to the environment.
Нина Аркадьевна Шапорина, Ekaterina A. Sayb
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i2.118

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to estimate heterogeneity of moisture-related soil physical properties in a sequence of degraded hillslope soils in the cis-Salair region. The main tasks were to examine spatial fluctuations and changes in morphological and agrophysical properties of soils, differing in erosion degree, and assess their variability. Location and time of the study. The study was conducted in the forest-steppe zone in the Bugotak Hills (Novosibirsk region, Russia). A sequence of arable soils located along the 411 m convex hillslope with south-eastern exposition was investigated since July 01 till August 15, 2016. Main results. The article describes the variation of soil density, moisture content and temperature in a sequence of hillslope soils. The variation in the ploughed layer was found to be quite high, depending on the sampling scale. Examination of the spatial variability of the soil hydrophysical properties showed that the non-eroded podzolised chernozem (Luvic Greyzemic Chernozem) and toeslope meadow soil (Gleyic Greyzemic Phaeozem, Colluvic)had the highest density. The lower temperatures were recorded in the slightly eroded dark-gray forest soil (Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozem) and in the toeslope meadow soil, accumulating soil material eroded from the topslope. The temperature difference range between the “cold” and “warm” soils was 1.8 °С. Conclusions. Such studies have important prospects in development and introduction of agricultural technologies that are landscape-adapted, especially in areas with diverse relief and eroded soils. The main focus of such research should be the anti-erosion landscaping. The problem needs to be further studied within the framework of targeting the anti-erosion measures to geographic regions and natural zones.
Alexander V. Сhichulin
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i2.116

Abstract:
Aim of the study. The aim of the work was to review critically the practice of applying system approach in soil research and identify existing problems; to consider the cognitive potential of micro- and macroscopic approaches in computational simulation of soil-bioclimatic regularities. Methodology. Mathematical simulation. Results of the study. A new mesoscopic approach to the study of the structure of soil-bioclimatic areas is proposed. It is based on two principles referred to as the principle of invariance and the principle of optimality. Application of these principles makes it possible to express the regularities in soil-climate relationship in the form of a single universal quantitative dependence. The study showed that a mathematical model built on the basis of these principles resulted in the emergence of new generalized concepts, logically combining the previously considered to be unrelated concepts of hydro- and thermal series introduced by V.R. Volobuev, the Vysotsky - Ivanov moisture coefficient and the radiation dryness index by M. Budyko. In addition, the simulation showed that the concepts elucidating the indicator of the radiation energy utilization by biogeocenosis were represented by the interrelated coefficients of the heat and precipitation utilization in soils. The coefficients were also shown to have specific values ​​for different soil-bioclimatic areas. On the basis of the new indicators, soils were grouped in such a way as to produce patterns essentially different in many details from the conventional grouping. Conclusions. The new concepts represent a unified integral system, and the approach as a whole can be considered as an alternative physico-theoretical way to describe natural laws and regularities by using extreme (variational) methodology.
Argenta A. Titlyanova, Nataliya P. Kosykh, Svetlana S. Kurbatskaya, Чайзу Суван-Ооловна Кыргыс, Нина Петровна Миронычева-Токарева, Ирина Петровна Романова, Анна Доржуевна Самбуу, Светлана Васильевна Шибарева
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i2.110

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to estimate biological productivity of Tyva grasslands. Location and time of the study. The living and dead above- and belowground phytomass, as well as net primary production, were estimated in the montane ecosystems and depressions of the Tyva Republic, Russia. Methodology. Field and laboratory studies of the biological production by grasslands were conducted using botanical, geobotanical and ecological methods. Main results. In the montane ecosystems the aboveground phytomass production was shown to range from 1.3 to 3.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, whereas the belowground production was evaluated as ranging 10-65 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The belowground production was found to vary widely, being associated with location of mountain ridges, slope geomorphology and grazing, but no association was found with the altitude. In depressions the average green phytomass stock changed from 0.7 to 1.9 Mg ha-1, living belowground phytomass varied 3.4 to 19.3 Mg ha-1. From the meadow steppes to the deserted ones the living above- and belowground stocks decreased 2.7 and 5.7 fold, respectively, whereas the above- and belowground production was estimated to decrease 3 and 4 times, respectively. Several indices to characterize the growth and development, hence the productivity, of herbaceous plants was proposed. The values of the indices calculated for the Tyva grasslands suggested high photosynthetic activity: all studied steppes had the same share of belowground production in the total ecosystem production, i.e. 90%. The turnover rate of the living belowground phytomass was estimated to increase from meadow steppes to the deserted ones, whereas green phytomass increment, as related to its stock, slightly decreased. Conclusions. The living belowground phytomass stock was found to exceed the green phytomass stock by 5-8 times, both in montane ecosystems and depressions. Preservation of living belowground organs during hot dry summers and cold winters, when soil freezes through, is apparently indispensable for grassland survival under any climatic conditions.
Svetlana Ya. Kudryashova, Александр Сергеевич Чумбаев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i2.122

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The article gives biographical background and a brief outline of the research carried out by the Doctor of Biological Sciences A.A. Tanasienko, who for more than 10 years worked as Deputy Director for Research in the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. For more than 15 years he worked as the Head of the Laboratory of soil-physical processes in the Institute and became one of the leading experts in soil erosion studies in Siberia.
Argenta A. Titlyanova, Чайзу Суван-Ооловна Кыргыс,
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i2.113

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To investigate specifics of plant production process in steppe pastures in Tyva. Location and place of the study. The study was performed in 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 in five pasture ecosystems in the Ubsu-Nur depression in Tyva, Russia. Methodology. Field and laboratory work was carried out to assess the biological productivity of pasture ecosystems employing conventional geobotanical, botanical and ecological methods. Main results. The study showed that all characteristics of production process change with grazing pressure and weather conditions of the year. The highest grazing pressure was observed at the Erzin pasture, whereas the lowest pressure was found at the Yamaalyg one. The green phytomass stock (G) at the Erzin pasture during all years varied within 0.3–0.6 Mg ha-1, whereas the living belowground stock (R) during six years ranged 4.5–11.5 Mg ha-1. The Yamaalyg pasture had the lowest and the highest G of 0.5 and 1.1 Mg ha-1, respectively, with the minimal and maximal R estimates of 7.8 and 20.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Therefore it was concluded that both under the highest (Erzin) and lowest (Yamaalyg) grazing pressure the between-years dynamics (over six years) may change as much as 2–3 times. Phytomass production was shown to vary much more. The aboveground production (ANP) at Erzin pasture was found to change from 0.4 to 1.2 Mg ha-1yr-1, i.e.3-fold. At the Yamaalyg pasture ANP changed 1.2 to 2.0 Mg ha-1yr-1. The belowground phytomass production (BNP) was shown to vary much more as compared with the aboveground production: from 2.7 to 24.5 Mg ha-1yr-1. Some production characteristics were shown to be weather-associated. At one and the same pasture (Onchalaan), depending on the weather conditions, ANP and BNP were found to vary 4 times, i.e. from 0.9 to 3.7 Mg ha-1yr-1 and from 4 to 18 Mg ha-1yr-1, respectively. The highest grazing pressure resulted in less yearly variation, as ANP ranged 0.4–0.8 Mg ha-1yr-1, and BNP ranged 5–8 Mg ha-1yr-1. Such lesser variation was apparently due to the higher resilience of the dominating herbs and grasses to grazing. Analysis of the influence of weather conditions showed that abundant summer precipitation resulted in the highest ANP estimates. No correlation was revealed between BNP and weather conditions. Overall seasonal hydrothermal conditions, such as warm and wet autumn of the preceeding year and rainy summer of the current year) were beneficial for the aboveground plant production. Conclusion. The phytomass stock the in grazed dry steppes of Tyva was found to vary more as compared with phytomass production. Belowground production showed especially drastic changes from year to year. Increased ANP almost always results in decreased belowground living phytomass stock and often in decreased BNP due to modified nitrogen turnover under grazing. The BNP estimate is extremely volatile and does not follow the aboveground phytomass dynamics.The highest BNP in 2008 could not be attributed only to weather conditions, being most likely due to the increased solar radiation. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the phytomass production showed that the maximal green phytomass and dead belowground phytomass stocks, as well as ANP, displayed greater spatial variation as compared with the temporal one. Overall we conclude that despite different methods to study phytomass production, its spatial and temporal variation is about the same.
, Olga P. Yakutina, Helen V. Bogolubova
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i1.115

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to present a review of the general characteristics and cultivation of Hungarian clover (Trifolium pannonicum Jacq.) as a forage crop and phytomeliorant in different regions of Russia based on literature data and own experiments. Hungarian clover (Trifolium pannonicum Jacq.) is a perennial legume plant with a natural area of distribution in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe, the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The crop is characterized by good adaptability to new ecological and geographical conditions, high winter hardiness, drought resistance, stable seed yield, low susceptibility to diseases and pests, productive longevity (10-15 years), decorativeness, especially during the flowering period (Fig. 1, 4). Fodder from Hungarian clover (hay, haylage and silage) is of excellent or good quality, and the most valuable fodder is obtained when the crop is mown in the budding phase (Table 7-8). At this time, the plants are well leafy, have tender stems and the biggest content of nutrients in the forage mass. These advantages opened up the prospect of the introduction and use of Hungarian clover in different regions of Russia, including the Middle Urals, the Non-Chernozem zone of the country, the Middle Volga region and the south of Western Siberia. In Russia, three varieties of Hungarian clover have been created and best studied: Premier (originators - Siberian Research Institute of Forages and Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, Novosibirsk), Anik (Penza State Agricultural Academy), Snezhok (Zonal Research Institute of the North-East named after N.V. Rudnitsky, Kirov). These varieties are included in the state register for testing and protection of breeding achievements of the Russian Federation, have successfully proven themselves in fodder production and gardening, as well as a phytomeliorant of disturbed lands, including when regrassing erosion dangerous slopes and restoration of coal mining sites. Analysis of the literature and our own data showed that the plasticity of Hungarian clover allowed it to adapt to the agro-climatic conditions of different regions of Russia, in particular the forest-steppe of Western Siberia, and to give a high, guaranteed seed yield, despite the harsh winters and a short growing season. The morphological structure of Hungarian clover with a very powerful and deeply penetrating root system, multi-stemmed and goblet-shaped bush with large leaves and inflorescences (Fig. 2-3; Table 1-2), gives reasons to speak of the high competitiveness of this crop in relation to the species of natural flora (including rhizome grasses), and also allows us to consider this plant as a promising soil-strengthening plant. Mineral fertilizers (Table 6) and other means of chemicalization have a positive effect on the growth and development of Hungarian clover: field germination, winter hardiness, symbiotic and photosynthetic activity, seed productivity and fodder harvest increase. In terms of the content and set of the main nutrients, Hungarian clover is not inferior to the traditionally cultivated Red clover, and even surpasses it with late mowing. The crop is resistant to pathogens as Erysiphe communis (Wallr.) Grew, Cercospora zebrina Pass, Stemphylium sarciniforme Wiltsh, Pseudopeziza trifolii Fuck, Uromyces fallens (Desm.) Kem. It is possible to sow Hungarian clover in spring and summer (Table 9). The summer sowing period (mid-July) is preferable to use when the field is heavily infested, which allows several presowing cultivations. The wide-row sowing method is inferior in productivity to the row sowing (Fig. 8-9), but it should be noted that the first method is preferable for two main reasons: inter-row cultivation can be carried out and the plants are less prone to lodging than with row sowing with a shoot height of more than 85 cm. Hungarian clover sowing in natural meadow communities allows to increase the yield and nutritional value of the grass stand (Table 4-5; Fig. 5, 7). For example, when the Hungarian clover of the variety Premier is sown into a natural meadow community dominated by an active cenosis-forming agent, Poa angustifolia L., clover remains in the herbage for more than 16 years with a share of at least 50%. Thus, Hungarian clover is a new, promising forage crop in Russia and can be recommended for the creation of highly productive, long-term agrocenoses and as a phytomeliorant of disturbed lands.
Павел Анатольевич Барсуков, Nikolai B. Smolentsev, Ольга Александровна Русалимова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i1.114

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To find a method to estimate plant available potassium for soil testing that does not require expensive flame photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry. Location and time of the study. Southern parts of West and Central Siberia, 2016-2019. Methodology. Comparison the potassium pool, extractable by 0,1M MgSO4 solution, with exchangeable potassium, extractable by 1M NH4OAc solution (according to GOST 26210-91) by regression analysis of the contents in 100 soil samples of arable soils (Luvic, Haplic and Calcic Chernozems, and Luvic Phaeozems) with different granulometric composition. Results. Exchangeable potassium showed the best correlation with the uptake of the element by plants and with yield in a variety of soil and climatic conditions. It was found that the relationship between potassium availability indices KAIAc (potassium extracted by 1M NH4OAc) and KAIMg (potassium extracted by 0,.1M MgSO4) was satisfactorily described (R2 = 0.88) by a simple linear function for soils with texture classes from sandy loam to sandy/silty clay and well described (R2 = 0.92) by a power function for silt loam, clay loam and sandy/silty clay. In 81% of the soils surveyed the difference between the calculated (according to the power equation) and actual KAIAc values was no more than 20%, and for 97% of the studied soils it did not exceed 30%. The cost of analytical equipment required for potassium analysis for soil testing is 7-60 times lower for KAIMg determination as compared with KAIAc. Conclusions. The KAIMg potassium availability index can be used alongside the standard KAIAc availability index for soils with soil texture classes from silt loam to sandy/silty clay. Conversion of KAIMg into KAIAc can be made by the following formula: KAIAc = 8,.108 • KAIMg0,793.
Олег Александрович Савенков,
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i1.109

Abstract:
The article discusses some examples of incorrect methodology and terminology practice in soil research and publications. In particular, the authors draw attention to extremely inflated and unjustified use of the phrase “statistically significant”, to the controversy between the chemical determination and terminological definition of soil humus, to the inadequacy of using mass concentrations of chemical elements to inferring soil organic matter stoichiometry, to frequent interpreting empirical regression as if describing some conceptual relationship, to the principle impossibility to estimate bacteria and fungi numbers in soil by agar plate counts of colony-forming units. Based on the discussed examples, the authors conclude that the ease and the rate of the present-day communication flow will increasingly enhance the role of communication exchange in estimating the validity of results of a certain piece of scientific cognition, which will significantly increase the negative impact of consensuality, especially in soil science, as soil is one of the most complex natural bodies.
Владимир Викторович Попов
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i1.106

Abstract:
The article describes main categories of soil moisture (hydroscopic, capillary, and gravitational, providing their brief characteristics, and discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are currently used to study the liquid phase of soils, such as using water extracts and saturated pastes, displacing soil solution with a substitute liquid, pressing, centrifugation, lysimetry and studying soil liquid phase in situ.
Maharram P. Babayev, Amin I. Ismayilov, Sultan M. Huseynova
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v3i1.112

Abstract:
The aim of the study. The aim of the research was obtaining new information about the genesis, current status, diagnostic features and properties of the Zheltozem-Gley Soils of the Lankaran region of Azerbaijan and to perform the taxonomic attribution of those soils in accordance with the International Classification of Soils in compliance with the Reference Base for soil resources (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2014). Location and time of the study. Zheltozem-Gley Soils of the Lankaran region of Azerbaijan were the objects of the study. Methodology. Field experiments (relief, vegetation, laying of soil profiles, their description, selection of soil samples and establishment of a preliminary classification name of the soils) and physico-chemical analyzes of soil samples (humus and total nitrogen content, ratio of C:N in soil organic matter, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, grain-size analysis, water extract composition) were carried out by standard methods. Results. It was established that the most characteristic features of the irrigated zheltozem-gley soils were as following: blocky angular-subangular structure of the upper horizon, clayiness of the entire soil profile, the presence of iron-manganese concretions and ferruginous mottles. A gradual decrease in the content of humus (from 2.15-3.28 to 0.18-1.24%), nitrogen (from 0.17-0.24 to 0.05-0.24%), the ratio of C:N (from 6.64-7.18 to 1.89-5.91) was found. The cation exchange capacity increased down the profile (from 33.37-37.13 to 34.31-40.89 cmol (eq)/kg). The reaction of the soil environment was weakly acidic, and varied within 5.8-6.0. Under the influence of irrigation, the removal of the silt fraction from the upper horizons and its accumulation in the middle horizons of the soil were observed (42-96 cm – 42.4%, 48-87 cm – 28.8%). According to the granulometric composition, these soils were medium-light-heavy loamy. The soils were not saline. Conclusion. For the first time, an attempt was made to carry out the taxonomic attribution of Zheltozem-Gley soils (irrigated Zheltozem-Gley merged, ordinary Zheltozem-Gleyic, irrigated Zheltozem-Gley, irrigated residual calcareous Zheltozem-Gley) according to the international classification of soils based on the Reference Base for soil resources (WRB). With the different principal and supplementary qualifiers, all soils were classified as Lixisols.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i4.105

Abstract:
The article presents the results of annual heat dynamics in the soils of the main forest types in the central part of the northern taiga subzone of West Siberia. The general patterns of temperature dynamics at different depths are described, and the features of the forest soils temperature regimes revealed. The characteristic features of soil temperature regimes of drained arears and small rivers’ floodplains were compared with similar sites in the northern part of the subzone. The values of heat supply, heat transfer and temperature and thermal conductivity of the studied soils are discussed.
Akif Pasha Oglu Geraizade, Chingiz Gyulaly Oglu Gulalyev, ,
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i4.92

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The article gives some biographical information and a brief outline of scientific and organizational activities of the Academician, Professor Vladimir Rodionovich Volobuev, who made an outstanding contribution to the study of the fundamental and applied properties of soils. The article also highlights his role in the development of new scientific directions, namely soil ecology and the soil formation energetics.
Наталья Александровна Мартынова,
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i4.33

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To study the properties and genesis of natural soils of forest-steppe areas of Balagansk steppe. Location and time. The environs of Balagansk settlement in the Balagansky district of Irkutsk region, 2013-2018. Methodology. Combined field and laboratory studies of soil cover and soil properties using soil-morphological, pedo-lithological, climatostratigraphic, botanical, geological-geomorphological and comparative geographical methods, as well as various physical and chemical analyses. Main results. The study of soil properties of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe and assessment of their classification position revealed the basic regularities of geographical distribution of soils. In steppe areas of the studied region clay-illuvial and textural-carbonate chernozems were formed. The forest vegetation favoured the developed of residual-carbonate gray, dark gray, gray and dark gray metamorphic and burozemic soils; the floodplain areas are predominantly occupied by gley soils and dark-humus gleic soils. Conclusion. The study of soil and vegetation cover of the Balagansk’ forest-steppe showed that soils were developed on the eluvium-deluvium of carbonate Cambrian red-colored siltstones and loess cover and have sufficiently high natural fertility and ecological and resource potential. The soils of the investigated area are characterized by a large variety and complex polygenetic structure of the soil profile, which reflects the change of soil formation’ conditions during Holocene-Pleistocene.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.91

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To carry out a comparative assessment of the magnesium status in soils, situated on the various hypsometric levels of sloped agrolandscape and with different soil organic matter content by measuring total, mobile (exchangeable) and water-soluble magnesium in soils and to compare different analytical methods for determining magnesium in soils and plants. Location and time of the study. The study site was located in the Cis-Salair drained plain in the south-east of West Siberia (55˚02΄20˝N; 83˚50΄00˝E), administratively being within the boundaries of the Toguchin district of the Novosibirsk region, Russia. Altitude increments were marked on the slope positions of the investigated plot of 225 hectares in area and 4 km in length: the upper part of the slope BCI (280-310 m a.s.l. ), the midslope BCII (260-280 m) and BCIII (220-260 m), and the lower slope BCIV (190-220 m) (see figure 1). Soil and plant samples were collected in July 2013. Materials and methods. Prevailing soils were podzolized and leached chernozems, dark-gray and gray-forest soils according to the classification of soils of the USSR (1977), which correspond to clayey-illuvial eluvialed and dark-tongue agrochernozems, agro-dark gray soils and agro-gray soils to according of the Russian soil classification (2004, 2008), or Luvic Greyzemic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems, Luvic Greyzemic Phaeozems, Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems by WRB Soil Classification (2014) (see table 1, figure 1). Individual soil samples (n=55) were taken with a drill from 0-30 cm layer (ploughed horizon) according to an irregular grid. The aboveground phytomass stock of oat-pea mixture (n=38) was collected using the hay cutting method on the ​​0.25 m2 area. The geographical coordinates of the soil and plant sampling sites were determined using the geopositioning system (GPS, Garmin eTrex Vista). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon content by dichromate digestion. Overall the studied soils were grouped according to soil organic matter (SOM) content into high-SOM (5-8%) and medium-SOM soils (3-5%). Total magnesium (Mgtot) was measured in dry powdered samples by atomic emission spectrometry; mobile (exchangeable) magnesium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry using 1 M KCl, 1 M CH3COONH4, 0.1 M C4H4O5(NH4)2 and 0.5 M CH3COOH as extracting solutions. The same extracts were used to measure water-soluble magnesium atomic absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. The content of total magnesium in plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using two methods of sample digestion, namely wet ashing in a mixture of sulfuric and perchloric acids and dry ashing followed by quantitative transfer of the digest with 1 M HCl. Magnesium content in soils and plants was presented per element and calculated on the air-dry mass basis. Statistical analyses (descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, calculation of student criterion and Mann-Whitney...
Мария Ивановна Дергачева, Алексадр Олегович Макеев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i4.103

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The article presents information about of the work of the International Scientific School on Paleopedology for Young Researchers. This school was conducted for ten years in Siberia in the Altai region, where unique Pleistocene loess-soil series are common and paleosoil horizons and modern soils are present simultaneously in one and the same soil profile. For ten years leading Russian and foreign scientists gave lectures both on fundamental theoretical and applied issues of paleopedology, as well as on a number of topical issues of related sciences, conducted master classes on the basic methods of field study of paleosols, and young researchers discussed their ideas and results. The article lists the main themes of the lectures/ naming Russian and foreign scientists who read them. It also informs about the monograph “Paleosols, the natural environment and methods for their diagnosis”, based on selected lectures at the School from its start until 2014 and published in Russian. Other selected lectures were published in two languages (Russian and English) in the series “Paleosols – a source of information about the Past environment”. The aricle draws attention to the key site "Volodarka" as being of great importance not only for conducting field master classes, but also as a convenient training ground for scientific research, since there occur various soil environment that can serve as models created by nature itself.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.89

Abstract:
A methodological analysis is carried out and the reasons for the limited applicability in solving a number of problems in soil ecology of traditional climatic hydrothermal coefficients — the radiation index of Budyko dryness and the Vysotsky-Ivanov wetting coefficient — are clarified. Based on the analysis of the dimension applied to the problem of the dependence of the nature of the soil cover on hydrothermal conditions, new concepts are introduced - dimensionless similarity criteria, which play the role of soil-climate coefficients, which have a wider range of epistemological accuracy compared to traditional ones. It is shown that the relationship between traditional climatic and new soil-climatic hydrothermal coefficients is asymptotic. Using the empirical equation of M. I. Budyko for evaporation of soil moisture and soil-climatic coefficients, a new physico-theoretical approach is developed and the equation of "soil-climatic characteristics" (PCC) is taken into account, taking into account the combined influence of climatic properties (through long-term average the values ​​of the radiation balance R and precipitation P) and the properties of the soil substrate (through the evaporation of soil moisture E (R, P)) on the features of the soil formation process. It is shown that, in contrast to the traditional approach, which organizes soil properties on an empirical climatic basis, the new approach has the ability to theoretically predict a number of soil patterns, in particular, grouping soils into arid, humid, and balanced pedocosms.
, Ivan P. Belanov, Tatiana Yu. Alikina
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.84

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Background. The aim of the study was to assess the composition and structure of bacterial assemblages by estimating 16S rRNA gene sequences diversity in a young Technosol, developing on a revegetating fly ash dump. Location and place of the study. Two soils were chosen for the study in the environs of the thermoelectric power station No.5 in Novosibirsk region: 1) nine years old Technosol (54°59' NL, 83°03' EL), developing on the spontaneously revegetating fly ash dump, and 2) Phaeozem under undisturbed white birch forest (55°00' NL, 83°04' EL). Soils were sampled from the 0-5 cm layer as three individual replicates each. Materials and methods. The total DNA extracted from soil samples was used as a matrix for PCR amplification using V-3-V4 primers for 16S rRNA genes. The obtained amplicons were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform in the Genomics Core Facility of the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). Descriptive statistics and principal components analysis were used to analyze and present the data. Results. Overall 4887 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found at the 97% similarity level; the OTUs were ascribed to 306 genera, 212 families, 123 orders, 84 classes and 32 phyla of bacteria domain. At the phylum level bacterial assemblages in both soils were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, showing rather similar outline of the phyla relative abundance, confirming the direction of pedogenesis towards Phaeozem. Higher abundance of Chloroflexi a physiologically diverse phyla with aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles, anoxigenic phototrophs and anaerobes, able to respire organic halides, in the young Technosol complies with harsh edaphic conditions there. Although the relative abundance of Rhizobiales, Actinomycetales and unclassified Acidobacteria_Gp6 and Acidobacteria_Gp3 was found to be 1.5–2.4 times higher in the undisturbed Phaeozem, they also were predominating in the Technosol samples. The α-biodiversity indices, pertaining mostly to species/OTUs richness, i.e. Chao-1, OTUs number, Margalef, Fisher’s alpha, were higher in Phaeozem, whereas evenness and equitability were higher in Technosol. Both soils demonstrated similar Shanno indices, which were rather high (6.3). Conclusions. Nine years of spontaneous revegetation on the terminated fly ash dump of the thermoelectric power station resulted in the development of the Technosol, containing quite rich and diverse bacterial assemblage, which was rather close in structure at the phylum taxonomic level to the adjacent undisturbed Phaeozem. Overall the early stages of pedogenesis were dominated by specific bacterial assemblage (Chloroflexi, Xanthomonadales, Geobacter, Aciditerrimonas, Iamiaceae and some others), performing weathering of the pedogenic substrate, i.e. fly ash. The present of nitrificators (Nitrospira), denitrificators денитрификаторов (Reyranella) together with...
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.79

Abstract:
The aim of the study. Observations of the thermal regime of peat soils were carried out in three ecosystems of the complex Bakcharsky mire (56°50'N, 82°50'E): in an more drained raised bog with pine-shrub-Sphagnum community (ryam) and two lowered waterlogged ecosystems – sedge-Sphagnum poor fen (sedge mire) and shrub-cotton grass-Sphagnum marginal part of the poor fen adjacent to the ryam (cotton grass mire). Thermal regime of fibrist histosols was studied using temperature loggers – autonomous soil temperature meters AIPT (IMCES SB RAS, Tomsk). Loggers were installed into unflooded hummocks of 30–40 cm height in the ryam and sedge mire, and in the flooded leveled hollow of the cotton grass mire on June 26, 2012. The temperature was recorded until September 18, 2013, and in the cotton grass mire it was recorded until May 21, 2013, when the equipment failed due to high water table. The recording of temperature was carried out at depths of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, 160, 240 cm once per hour. To assess the weather conditions during the study period, we used data on air temperature, precipitation and snow depth of the Bakchar weather station (http://rp5.ru). Main results. The average annual temperature in the peat soil of the ryam decreased from 3.9˚C in the surface layer to 2.7˚C at a depth of 160 cm and increased to 3.0˚C at a depth of 240 cm; in the sedge mire it increased from 3.4˚C in the surface layer to 6.7˚C at a depth of 160 cm and decreased to 6.2˚C at a depth of 240 cm. In the cotton grass mire, average temperature slightly increased from the surface to the deepest layers at 0.15˚C, averaging 4.7˚C. The annual temperature amplitude at a depth of 20 cm was slightly higher than 15˚C in the ryam and the cotton grass mire, which indicated soil climatic conditions as mild, and 21.6˚C in the sedge mire, which complied with the temperate continental soil climate. The average temperature during the warm period (June–September) in the sedge mire was 1.5–3.1˚C warmer than in the cotton grass mire. In the ryam the average temperature of the warm period in the upper 2–5 cm was the same as in the sedge mire, but sharply decreased with depth, unlike both poor fens. During the cold period (October–March), average temperature increased with depth from –1 ... –4 ˚С to 3 ... 6 ˚С, and the average value became positive at a depth of 25–30 cm in the sedge mire and the ryam, and at a depth of 13 cm in the cotton grass mire, which reflects the different water table depth at different elements of the microrelief. The delay of the heat wave was most pronounced in the ryam: at a depth of 240 cm, the maximum average monthly temperatures was in November, in poor fens it was in September–October. The minimum monthly temperatures was recorded in December 2012 in all ecosystems, whereas negative temperatures penetrated to a depth of 30 cm in the ryam, to a depth of 15 cm into the sedge mire, and to a depth of 5 cm into the cotton grass mire in accordance with the water table depth. Daily summer temperature fluctuations penetrated to a depth of 20 cm in the cotton grass mire, 30 cm in the ryam and 40 cm in the sedge mire. The highest temperature values were observed on July 20, 2012: at a depth of 2 cm it was 34.5˚C in the ryam, 30.0˚C in the sedge mire and 26.8˚C in the cotton grass mire, which reflects an increase in water table from the ryam to the cotton grass mire. According to the Bakchar weather station, on that date the maximum air temperature reached 35.0˚C. Minimum daily temperatures were recorded in November in all ecosystems at a depth of 2 cm: –18.0˚C in the sedge mire on November 26, –4.9˚C in the cotton grass mire on November 8, and –10.0˚C in a the ryam on November 9. The difference between ecosystems is associated with the retention of snow by trees and shrubs, its demolition into hollows of the cotton grass mire and blowing off from hummocks in the sedge mire. As snow cover increased during the winter, daily temperatures increased to daily average values of –5.3, –2.3, and –1.4˚C in the sedge mire, the ryam, and the cotton grass mire, respectively. The sum of the positive average daily temperatures for the hydrological year 2012/13 was higher in the sedge mire (2156˚C and 2280˚C at a depth of 2 and 20 cm) compared with the ryam (1906˚C and 1474˚C at a depth of 2 and 20 cm). The sum of negative temperatures at a depth of 2 and 20 cm was –485˚C and –188˚C in the ryam, –872˚C and –378˚C in the sedge mire, –225˚C and –67˚C in the cotton grass mire. The ratio of the positive temperature sums at the depth of 20 cm to the positive air temperature sums, characterizing the degree of soil heatability, amounted to 0.62 for the ryam and 0.96 for the sedge mire. Temperature gradients penetrate to the deepest layers of the soil profile in both poor fens and become equal to 0˚C·cm-1 below 60 cm in the ryam. Gradients were minimal in the ryam. Seasonal frost penetrated to a depth of 59 cm in the sedge mire, 44 cm in the cotton grass mire and 53 cm in the ryam, and the duration of stable soil frost in the surface layer was 171, 157 and 181 days, respectively. Thus in the peat soil of the cotton grass mire the difference between cold and warm seasons is less pronounced, while the sedge mire soil is characterized by the more contrasting and warmer climate, and the ryam soil is more contrasting and cold. The revealed difference in the soil thermal regimes is associated with the microrelief, which determined the water table depth and redistribution of snow cover. Hummocks and lower standing water table in the ryam and the sedge mires as compared with the cotton grass mire contributed to better warming in the summer and greater freezing in the winter. Conclusion. The thermal regimes of ryams and poor fens of the Bakcharsky mire complex differ according to the results of this and other studies, which is due to the...
, Камолиддин Абдуганиевич Аскаров, Файёз Алимджан Угли Мирзаев
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.71

Abstract:
The aim of the study. To describe the morphology of the irrigated meadow saz soils (Calcic Gypsisols (Aric, Gleyic, Siltic). Location and place of the study. Central Fergana, Uzbekistan, 2019 year. Materials and methods. Morphogenetic comparative method developed by V.V. Dokuchaev. Result. The pedolithic horizons with carbonate-gypsum accumulation were described. The hydrophysical properties of the horizons, formed due to the specific hydrological processes due to irrigation, do not favour plant growth and development.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i3.81

Abstract:
The article presents some biographical data and brief description of research activity of Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences Victor Petrovich Panfilov, an organizer and the first head of the laboratory of soil physics of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who significantly contributed into fundamental and applied studies of soil physical and meliorative properties and regimes in Siberia.
Ladimir N. Yakimenko, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vasily S. Boyko, Omsk Agricultural Scientific Centre, Vladimir N. Yakimenko, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry SB RAS
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i2.74

Svetlana Ya. Kudryashova, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i2.78

Boris A. Smolentsev, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i2.80

Natalia P. Kosykh, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Нина Петровна Миронычева-Токарева, Elena N. Mikhailova, Лариса Геннадьевна Колесниченко, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian State University of Geosyste ms and Technologies, Наталья Павловна Косых, Елена Владимировна Михайлова, Фгбун Институт Почвоведения И Агрохимии Со Ран, et al.
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i1.55

, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Наталья Борисовна Наумова
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2, pp 64-64; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i1.64

, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Почвы и окружающая среда, Volume 2, pp 62-62; https://doi.org/10.31251/pos.v2i1.62

Abstract:
The article presents the research biography of Nadezhda Nikolaevna Naplekova, Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences, a prominent soil microbiologist, who had worked in academic science for 25 years, devotedly investigating microorganisms of virgin, agricultural and technogenic soils of Siberia and the Altai Mountains. В статье приведены основные сведения о научном пути почвенного микробиолога, доктора биологических наук, профессора Надежды Николаевны Наплёковой, проработавшей в академической науке 25 лет и посвятившей свою деятельность почвенной микробиологии, изучению микроорганизмов целинных, окультуренных и техногенных почв Сибири и Горного Алтая.
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