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Results in Journal Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati: 68

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Inama Inama, Nugroho Ponco Santoso, Reza Raihandhany, Firman Heru Kurniawan
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 8, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.8.1.1-7

Abstract:
Orchid is a plant species with a very high level of diversity, consisting of 28,000 species including 763 genera. As one of the mega-biodiversity countries, Indonesia has at least 5000 types of orchids scattered in various places. This study aims to inventory the types of Terrestrial Orchids found in KHDTK Sawala-Mandapa, Majalengka Regency, West Java Province. This qualitative research uses the roaming method with the scope of the Sawala-Mandapa area and by recording the type and coordinates of each Terrestrial Orchid encountered. The primary data taken was recorded using a note sheet to record the type and GPS to record the coordinates of the point. The results obtained are that there are at least four types of Terrestrial Orchids found, including; Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr; Nervilia concolor (Blume) Schltr; Nervila campestris (J.J. SM) Schltr; and Perystilus djampangensis J. J. Sm. At the species level, soil orchids in both areas tend to have a clustered pattern with the size of each group at each point being 2-126 individuals.
Fitri Nur`aeni, Diah Ratnadewi
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 8, pp 14-19; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.8.1.14-19

Abstract:
Kitolod (Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G. Don) is a wild plant. Its flower is widely used as a traditional medicine. When this plant is utilized more intensively, there may be a shortage of the plant due to the lack of seed sources. This study aimed to obtain the best techniques and culture conditions for in vitro propagation of kitolod to provide a large number of planting materials. The experiments were arranged using a completely randomized design with two treatment factors and 10 replications for all experiments except in shoot rooting. Leaves and petioles were used as explant sources. Various combinations of benzilamino purine (BAP) and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) were applied. Leaf explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 1 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA combination produced the highest number of adventitious shoots per explant, but 2 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA was more effective for shoot initiation and multiplication. The latter medium was also able to produce the tallest shoots, and presented 75% of successful rate over the acclimatization period. The best rooting was provided by MS medium added with 0.5-1.0 mg/L NAA.
Henta Ria Anisa, Tri Atmowidi, Windra Priawandiputra, Sih Kahono
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 8, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.8.1.8-13

Abstract:
Pummelo (Citrus maxima) is a species that has a high economic value and several cultivars are found in Indonesia. These plants interact with many species of insects, either as predators, parasitoids, or pollinators. This study aimed to measure the diversity of insects associated with pummelo and its environmental factors. Observation of insect diversity used scan sampling method in thirty plants on sunny days. Results showed that a totally of 1,388 individual insects belonging to 17 species in 11 families and 5 orders were found, i.e., Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. The dominant insect species found were Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Tetragonula laeviceps (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and Chrysolina sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The number of individual insects was high in the morning (07.00-08.00), while the number of species was high in the noon.
Muhamad Azwar Syah
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 8, pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.8.1.20-26

Abstract:
Lipolytic bacteria attract great attention to various biotechnology industries because of their enzymatic potential. This study aims to isolate and identify lipolytic bacteria from cashew nutshell waste using the 16S rRNA gene as a molecular marker. Lipolytic bacteria were isolated using serial dilutions and inoculated on lipolytic media. A total of 3 isolates of lipolytic bacteria were obtained from cashew nutshell waste based on screening in LA Rhodamine B. The partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene from LB15 amplified using a pair of primers 63F and 1387R having a size of 1238 bp, while BL6 and BK6 were 1283 bp, respectively. Based on genetic distance analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction, we proposed that LB15 be identified as Burkholderia sp. with 99.92% similarity. In addition, because the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of BL6 was 99.87% with Paraburkholderia kururiensis strain 979, BL6 was classified as Paraburkholderia kururiensis. Then, isolate BK6 was identified as Ralstonia sp. with a similarity of 99.53%. The similarity value can be used as a reference in determining the identity of bacteria. A bacterium can be categorized as the same species if it has a similarity value of more than 99%.
Dela Putri Amalia, Nabila Dhiya Ulhaq, Kania Dewi Rafa, Faradiba
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 57-61; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.2.57-61

Abstract:
Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles. Several factors can influence a person's physical activity levels, one of them is work from home (WFH) policy caused by Covid-19. This policy could reduce a person’s physical activity. To maintain health during the Covid-19 pandemic, most people access the internet to find health-related information. However, there is no information about the physical activity level and the relationship between physical activity and health-related internet usage during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesian society. This study asked 83 participants from 32 cities in Indonesia to fill the questionnaire related to their activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the purpose of internet usage. Most of the respondents had moderate activity levels. Females were more active than males during the Covid-19 pandemic. A higher intensity of working from home negatively correlated with a physical activity score, however, it was not statistically significant. People who used the internet to search for a healthy diet and healthy life information were more physically active than those who did not. Thus, we assumed that people who used the internet to search for a healthy diet and healthy life information have high awareness about their health. Keywords: Physical activity, IPAQ, MET, Internet usage, Indonesia
Thauhidayatul Hidayah, Anggraini Barlian
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.2.71-77

Abstract:
Leea angulata is a commonly plant used by the Sasak people as a medicine to heal the wounds, but the effects of L. angulata on wound healing process has not been studied. The aim of this research are to determine the effects of L. angulata bark extracts on wound healing of mouse skin and its influence on the localization of FGF2. 1% of L. angulata bark extracts (P1%) on day 7 can accelerate wound closure amounted at 94.66%, Deep and Superficial Contraction Index of 0.96 and 0.1, epidermis Index and remodeling index of 1.55 and 0.81. L. angulata bark extracts stimulates the synthesis of FGF2 early (3rd day ) compared to the postive control group (5th day). FGF2 in P1% group wa found in epithelial cells in the hair follicles, fibroblasts cell in granulation tissue and epithelial cells in the epidermis. In the positive control group FGF2 was found in in epithelial cell of hair follicle, while in the negative control group, FGF2 undetectable. FGF2 in P1% group detected earlier than the positive control, showing the process of proliferation in P1% accelerated. The results confirm the L. angulata bark extracts accelerate the wound healing in proliferation phase and influence localization of FGF2 in the wound area. Keywords : Leea angulata, wound healing, FGF2, immunohistochemistry
Slamet Arif Susanto, Dianti Mayadika Putri, Ilma Rahmawati, Made Ari Sanjaya, Sulistijorini
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 62-70; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.2.62-70

Abstract:
Water availability in Mount Ciremai National Parks (MCNP) is influenced by sustainability of the vegetation. Therefore, tree regeneration around the water springs area needs to be investigated to maintain the sustainability of water springs ecosystem in the future. The purpose of this study was to analyzed and identify natural seedlings of tree regeneration around the water springs area Seda Block MCNP. The collections of vegetation and abiotic data was carried out on 9 sample plots measuring 3 m × 3 m which is purposively placed around water springs. Result show that vegetation in water springs dominate by seedlings Ficus sp., Ficus hemsleyana, and Trevesia sundaica. Shannon-Weiner diversity index in this location was moderate, but evenness and dominance index classified as high and low, respectively. Overall, seedling of trees dominated by orthodox seed-type and shade tolerant plant. The vegetation in this study dominated by plants categorized least concern (LC) based on IUCN red list. Microclimatic of study site affects 58.89% on abundance and distribution of tree seedlings. Therefore, the springs are in the Seda Block MCNP needs to be conserved and maintain its natural vegetation. Keywords: Mount Ciremai National Park, eco-hydrology, canonical correspondent analysis, conservation
Rizkia Adhatirana, Nina Ratna Djuita, Sulistijorini Sulistijorini, Taufikurrahman Nasution
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.2.49-56

Abstract:
Epiphytic ferns can be found in host trees from the Angiosperm and Gymnosperm groups. Epiphytic ferns in Angiosperm plants host have been widely studied, but there is little known for Gymnosperm plants host. The aim of this study was to identify the species of epiphytic ferns in the Gymnosperm plants host at Cibodas Botanical Garden and to analyze the diversity of epiphytic ferns based on microclimate conditions and the surface texture of Gymnosperms plants host. Epiphytic ferns diversity data was obtained using purposive random sampling method. Factors that influence the occupancy of ferns are analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Epiphytic ferns in Gymnosperm host at Cibodas Botanical Garden were identified as 18 species including 7 family. The most dominant species of epiphytic fern is Davallia denticulata (59.45%). Diversity of epiphytic fern on Gymnosperm at Cibodas Botanical Garden is moderate (H’ = 1.81).
M. Ubaidilah Hasan Hasan, La Ode Fitradiansyah Fitradiansyah, Fera Susanti Susanti,
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 41-48; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.2.41-48

Abstract:
Weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina are social insects that recognize nestmates using pheromone. This study analyzes the feeding behavior and nestmate recognition of weaver ants in the urban area of three different islands (Sumatra: Baturaja; Java: Banyuwangi; Papua: Sorong). The free ants were placed in the arena composed of chicken meat, sugar, bananas as the baits. Ten trapped ants were also located in the arena to explore the nestmate recognition between the free and the trapped ants. Five types of behaviors, i.e., approach, stalking, communication, competition, and agonistic, were recorded in 6 days. Food preferences were indicated by the number of conduct towards the feeding sites, and nestmate recognition was indicated by approaching the trapped nestmate. The results showed that the percentage of the approach behavior of free ants was the highest in the three islands but had no significant difference between Sumatra and Java and between Java and Sorong (p-value >0.05). However, the study showed significant differences for the other four behaviors observed. As predicted, the percentage of chicken meat foraged by the ants was the highest due to the carnivorous behavior. The free ants showed the nestmate recognition to the trapped ants in all behavior, except competition.
Abyan Setya Priambudi, Rika Raffiudin, Nina Ratna Djuita
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.1.25-35

Abstract:
Stingless bees forage to the flower for nectar and at the same time, pollen also trapped in the body hairs of the bees. Mostly pollen was concentrated into the pollen basket and transferred to the pollen and honey pot in the stingless bee nest. Pollen is male gametophytes of seed plants which have various of shapes, sizes, and ornamentations. This palynology study was aimed to identify the plants of pollen source that were found in honey of stingless bee Heterotrigona itama and Tetragonula laeviceps in Belitung and to analyze characteristics of the pollen. Pollen was extracted from honey and conducted the acetolysis and identification of the pollen in honey. We found 11 and 19 plant species as pollen soirce in the honey of H. itama and T. laeviceps, respectively. Pollen from Macaranga tanarius (23.72%) and Cocos nucifera (22.53%) were the two most dominant species on the H. itama honey. Pollen from Ageratum conyzoides (16.36%) are most often found in T. laeviceps honey. The most common pollen in honey of H. itama and T. laeviceps were from Arecaceae with a total of three species. Pollen from plants with tree habitus is most commonly found in honey of both species of stingless bees.
Siti Sulfiah, Nampiah Sukarno, Agustin Wydia Gunawan
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 36-40; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.1.36-40

Abstract:
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic symbiosis with root of host plant. Staining technique to detect AM fungi usually used hazardous chemical. The ink stain and vinegar were used as an alternative technique to replace trypan blue and lactic acid in root staining method. This study aimed to determine time for clearing root cell contents and ink stain type to visualize the best AM fungal structures within the root observed under light microscope. Pueraria phaseoloides var. javanica roots colonized by AM fungi were cut into 1 cm long, cleared in KOH solution and stained. Four clearing time were done vis 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, and four stains were used namely Shaeffer black ink, Parker Quink blue ink, blue stamp ink, and trypan blue. Twenty stained roots were taken randomly from each tratment, and observed. Root clearing process for 20 minutes showed the best result. Only Shaeffer black ink and trypan blue produced clear structure of external hyphae, internal hyphae, vesicles and arbuscules. Arbuscular structure stained only by Shaeffer black ink and trypan blue. This indicated that Shaeffer black ink could be used as an alternative stain to detect AM fungi within the root of host plant
Eka Arismayanti, Nisfia Rakhmatun Nisa, Alfath Fanidya, Wildan Arsyad F, Nadya Aulia Putri, Rika Raffiudin, Kanthi Arum Widayati
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.1.9-16

Abstract:
Cockatoo (Cacatua sp.) is one of birds that is widely distributed in Indonesia and often kept as pet, thus threatening the Cacatua population in the wild. Environmental condition may affect the behavior of Cockatoo. Some unnatural behavior may arise due to living in the captive. Different cage conditions may result in different behavior performance in Cockatoo. Research on daily behavior at animal rescue sites at ASTI Bogor has never been conducted. This study aimed to analyze natural and stereotype behavior of Cacatua sp. at animal rescue center due to foreclosure, and analyze the relationship between cage condition and environmental factors. This study used focal instantaneous sampling, using eight individuals Cacatua sp. Cacatua sp. in ASTI performed natural behavior more than unnatural behavior, therefore ASTI can be a good place for animal rescue. The dominant natural behaviors were Resting (Re), Preening (Pr), Feeding (Fe), Locomotion (Lo), and Fighting (Fg), while unnatural behaviors were play, bite, abnormal vocalization, feather picking and aggressive. There are no difference in behavior between male and female, and also behavior in the morning and afternoon (p>0.05), but cage condition had a significant effect to daily behavior of Cacatua sp. (<0.05).
, Dwika Bramasta, Peniwidiyanti, Nilna Kamala, Muhammad Basrowi, Sulistijorini
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.1.17-24

Abstract:
Mount Ciremai National Park has a high ecological function as a major catchment and water source areas. The objective of this research was to obtain information on floristic composition and structure in the edge forest of Seda Block, Mount Ciremai National Park. To carried out the research, the method used in the analysis vegetation was quadrat transect at an elevation of 602-614 m asl. The results showed that species composition dominated by the families of Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae, consisting of 3 stratas of heading A to C where strata A occupied by Elaeocarpus sp. (40 m) and Ficus involucrata (30 m). Ficus involucrata has the widest heading cover on the observation plot. The condition of the forest quantitative structure generally demonstrates good conditions by forming a reversed J curve, as well as a relatively moderate diversity of plant species and there are no species of plant that dominate the forest edges.
Yogy Satria Ariyanto, Anja Meryandini, Titi Sunarti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 7, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.7.1.1-8

Abstract:
Probiotics are living microorganisms if consumed in sufficient quantities can be beneficial for health. One of the potential bacteria as probiotics is Lactobacillus plantarum NHC6 is a lactic acid bacteria isolated from pineapple juice. This study aimed to test the ability of L. plantarum NHC6 as a probiotic in pineapple juice. Probiotics were stored until four weeks under 4°C and 10°C which weekly is monitored data on the amount of microbes, pH, percentage of lactic acid, and total dissolved solids in fermented pineapple juice. The result shows, the shelf time for pineapple juice under 4°C has a lower microbial reduction time rather than the juice storage under 10°C. Probiotics shelf time predicted for 4°C storage was 28.32 weeks and for 10°C storage was 8.67 weeks after production. The changes in physical properties (pH, percentage of lactic acid, and total soluble solids) in 10°C storage is much faster than that off in 4°C, this happens because there is still metabolic activity by bacteria at that temperature.
La Kolaka, Munif Ghulamahdi, Miftahudin
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.2.47-53

Abstract:
Utilization of marginal lands such as tidal land should be done to increase rice production as a solution of the decreasing productive land. However, rice cultivation in such land will be affected by low soil fertility, soil acidity and Fe toxicity. Fe-tolerant varieties are needed to overcome those problems. The objective of the research was to analyze the growth and production of Fe tolerant rice lines in tidal soil type C, Banyuasin, South Sumatera. Screening for Fe-tolerant character of 54 rice lines from the F8 RIL population derived from a cross between rice var. IR64 and var. Hawara Bunar using hydroponic technique under 1000 ppm Fe resulted 25 Fe-tolerant lines. The field test of 25 putative tolerant rice lines, at the tidal land in Banyuurip, Banyuasin, showed that the most lines grew better than that of var. Hawara Bunar parent. Several lines produced yield higher than that of var. Hawara Bunar parent. The field experiment resulted two rice lines, which were IRH108 and IRH195 that potential for further studies.
Diana Agustin Carolina
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.1-6

Abstract:
Aquilaria crassna is one of the Aquilaria species that could produce agarwood. agarwood production of A. crassna can be induced by microfungi as an inoculant. Ecological interaction between the host plant, wounding and inoculant in the formation of agarwood has not yet clearly. other factors like the plant ages, plant species, environ- ment also played important roles in the formation of agarwood. This research aimed to determine the influence of the combination between planting media and Acremonium sp. and Fusarium sp. to agarwood quality of Aquilaria crassna. The experiment was consisted of two factors, which were five planting media and two inoculants fungi i.e. Acremonium sp. and Fusarium sp. The observed parameters were the percentage of senescence leaves, color of wood, level of fragrant and terpenoid content. The best agarwood fragrant was produced by the seedlings that were treated with either combination of husk charcoal media enriched with NPK fertilizer and Acremonium sp. or the combina- tion between husk charcoal media enriched with Hoagland modified solution and Fusarium sp.. The darkest color of wood was produced by the seedlings that were treated with combination of husk charcoal media enriched with NPK fertilizer and Acremonium sp., as well as for the same media with Fusarium sp.. during the experiment terpenoid could not be detected from the treated seedlings. Acremonium sp. caused more leave senescence than that of Fusarium sp..
Arif Mukhtar Hasbi, Rika Raffiudin, I Made Samudra
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.13-18

Abstract:
Ostrinia furnacalis is a corn stem-borer that develops complete metamorphosis and all stages in life cycle in corn. This research was aimed to examine several biology aspects of O. furnacalis such as life cycle, egg incubaton period, egg fertility, female fecundity, longevity of imago, and copulation time on artificial diet, based on the previous study. The results of the observations showed that the life cycle of artificial-diet-given O. furnacalis was between 27-34 days range. Female fecundity was 16-452 eggs with fertility rate of 61,97% and 3-5 days renge of egg incubation period. Longevity of imago was between 6-11 days range, and the longevity was longer in female compared to the male. The imago of O. furnacalis copulate on 0-3 days after emerge from pupae and the highest number in on the day 1. Copulation time was occurred at 3-8 hour after scotophase commenced and the highest was at third hour. The artificial diet used in this research can be used for O. furnacalis mass rearing purpose and performed shorter length of egg stage until pupal stage compared to mass rearing with natural diet.
Henny Sulistany, Lisdar Idwan Sudirman
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.2.41-46

Abstract:
Paraserianthes falcataria sawdust (SGS) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (TKKS) are by-product of forestry and oil palm industries. SGS is commonly substrates for mushroom cultivation. TKKS is expected to be an alternative substrates for mushroom cultivation besides SGS. This study was conducted to determine the growth and fruiting body production of Lentinus sajor-caju LSC9 isolate on SGS, TKKS and mixtures of both substrates (C) with proportion 1:1 respectively. Each substrates were added with 15% rice bran, 1.5% gypsum and 1.5% CaCO3 with a total weight of 500 g/bag. The result showed that the growth and fruiting body production of Lentinus sajor-caju LSC9 isolate on SGS was better than TKKS and C substrates with biological efficiency on SGS substrates (50.88%) higher than TKKS substrates (34.42%) and C substrates (29.51%), with vegetative phase (16 days), generative phase (100 days) and growth and development phase (115 days) on TKKS substrates were shorter than SGS and C substrates. The greatest pileus number found on SGS substrates (12 pieces), while the largest pileus diameter found on C substrates (10.17 cm). Nevertheless, TKKS can be used as alternative substrates for fruiting body production of Lentinus sajor-caju LSC9 isolate.
Inayah Noer Mazidah, Laksmi Ambarsari, Anja Meryandini
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.25-30

Abstract:
Xylanase is an extracellular enzymes that can be produced by microbes which capable to degrade xylan into xilo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and xylose. Application of xylanase is still not optimal due to the lack of availability of superior microbial cultures producing xylanase. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of xylanase produced by bacteria isolated from Forest land Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi, Indonesia. Xylanase produced by bacterial isolate XJ20 was selected for further enzymatic activity and characteritics assays. Xylanolytic activity was measured by using the 3.5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay. High activity of xylanase was recorded at three times of incubation, which were 6 (0.015 U/mL), 14 (0.012 U/mL) and 20 (0.007 U/mL). The first peak and the second peak reached the highest activity at a temperature of 70 °C, however, the first peak reached the highest activity at pH 4.0 and a second peak at pH 7.0. pH 4.0 xylanase were incubated at room temperature and 70 °C has a half time consecutive 9 hours and 6 hours, whereas at pH 7.0, has a half time consecutive 4 hours and 3 hours. Stability of enzyme better at pH 4.0 and at room temperature.
Nurfitriani Rina, Ni Putu Ratna Ayu Krishanti, Alina Akhdiya, Aris Tri Wahyudi
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.19-24

Abstract:
Bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the important diseases in rice crops in Indonesia. The disease is difficult to be controlled since it attacks the rice plant at different growth stages such as tillering, flowering and ripening. One of the alternatives that could be used to control the disease is by using phyllosphere bacteria as the biocontrol agents. This study aims to isolate, characterize and screen the rice phyllosphere bacteria producing bioactive compounds against Xoo. Phyllosphere bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of rice var. Ciherang by using 4 different media obtained 285 bacterial isolates which were consisted of the 65 isolates of King’s B agar, 86 isolates of Nutrient agar, 81 isolates of Luria-Bertani agar, and 53 isolates of Trypticase Soy agar media. Antagonist test using double layer method showed 58 isolates of phyllosphere bacteria produced bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of Xoo. Pathogenicity test agaist rice leaf revealed 18 bacterial isolates did not perform their potencies as pathogenic bacteria. Among the 18 non-phytopathogenic bacterial isolates, 14 isolates belong to Gram-positive bacteria and 4 isolates belong to Gram-negative bacteria. Five isolates among Gram positive bacteria were predicted as Bacillus genera.
Billyardi Ramdhan, Tatik Chikmawati, Eko Baroto Waluyo
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.1.7-14

Abstract:
Peoples of Traditional Cikondang Village, located in the village of Lamajang, Pangalengan, Bandung City West Java have a very close relation to the environment along with its natural resources. This relation is expressed in the form of procedures and rules on the management and utilization of landscape units as well as the diversity of plants as a form of adaptation to the natural environment. This research was conducted through ethnographic method for photographing people’s lives and ethnobotany to know the biological resources that are important to Cikondang’s people’s daily lives. Descriptive and analytical methods are used through interviews with 87 respondents and 4 key informants. Results of research on landscape units that were identified by the community, indicates that in terms of the character, function, and its management there are 9 units of landscape that is both natural landscape and which has been modified by Cikondang community activities. Each unit of the landscape is characterized by vegetation cover according to the type of value in order for daily life. Meanwhile, cultural factors, economic, and political could be a trigger to the landscape transformation of one type of landscape into other landscapes.
Rita Megia, Ratnasari, Hadisunarso
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.2.34-40

Abstract:
Sansevieria trifasciata is an unique houseplant that can provide clean air to occupied room because it can absorb harmful substances from the air. This research aim to compare morphological, and anatomical characters and chlorophyll content of five cultivars of this plant. Morphological characters of all S. trifasciata cultivars observed varied in pattern, colour, and size of the leaf. Stomata can be found on both leaf surfaces; abaxial side have higher stomatal density than adaxial side. Distribution of single stomata was presented in all cultivars, while clustered stomata were also found in cv. Moonsine. Among all cultivars, stomatal density and stomatal index were found the highest in cv. Moonsine. The highest chlorophyll content, the longest leaf, widthest leaf and the thinnest leaf were found in cv. African Dawn. Potentially, S. trifasciata cv. African Dawn and S. trifasciata cv. Moonsine could absorb air pollution better than the other cultivars.
Dwi Suci Setyaningsih, Tatik Chikmawati
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.1.1-6

Abstract:
Selaginella, a genus of Pteridophyte, is known as an herb that contains of several bioactive compounds. The growth and bioactive compounds of plant were affected by plant environment, such as media types. The objective of the research was to obtain an appropriate plant media for growing S. plana dan S. willdenovii, and its effect on the content of bioactive compounds. The experiment consisted of two factors, plant growth media and the species of Selaginella. The first factor consisted of eight plant growth media, i.e.: soil, rice husk, rice husk : soil = 1:1 (v/v), burned rice husk, soil : burned rice huks = 1:1 (v/v), burned rice husk : rice husk = 1:1 (v/v), burned rice husk : rice husk = 3:1 (v/v), and burned rice husk : rice husk = 1:3 (v/v). The second factor was two spesies of Selaginella, i.e.: S. plana and S. willdenovii. Ethanol extract of Selaginella was qualitatively analyzed for flavonoid, tannin, and saponin content. The result showed that both fresh and dry weights of Selaginella were influenced by the type of plant media, Selaginella species, and their interactions. S. plana and S. willdenovii grew best on medium containing soil: burned rice = 1:1 (v/v). The highest flavonoid content of S. plana and S. willdenovii was also obtained from the plant grown on the same media. Comparing to the bioactive compound content of natural plant, saponin content of S. plana and S. willdenovii was increased by the treatment of plant media. The treatment also increased tannin content of S. plana, but not of S. willdenovii.
Diah Ratnadewi, Ai Nurhasanah Husnul Izzati, Aris Tjahjoleksono
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 15-18; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.1.15-18

Abstract:
Lidah mertua (Sansevieria sp.) Blue Leaf is a slow growing ornamental plant. It is also difficult to reproduce. Therefore market demands for this plant is impossible to fulfill through conventional methods of propagation such as leaf cutting or layering. Tissue culture is one of the alternatives to solve the problem of plant propagation. In vitro culture of Sansevieria calli was induced for shooting, and rooting afterwards. The basic media of WP was superior than MS in producing multiple shoots, and this WP media containing of BAP 5 mg/L and NAA 0,5 mg/L (WH1) gave the highest number of shoots and leaves on plantlets, as well as the best growth performance. The shoots started to appear two weeks after culture. Plantlets from WH1 rooted in higher frequency as well on rooting media. A mixture of compost, sand, and zeolit (4:4:1) enriched with a nutritive solution, composting of 1⁄4 WP plus IBA 0.5 mg/L, was a poreous media that was able to induce rooting of this plant.
Astri Ariyani, Nampiah Sukarno, Sri Listiyowati
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 43-51; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.2.43-51

Abstract:
Hydrilla verticillata is an aquatic weed, can build symbiosis and also become a substrate of freshwater fungi. Some of freshwater fungi that live in association with H. verticillata are pathogenic fungi which were potentially used as controller for Fusarium oxysporum and Ganoderma boninense. The use of pathogenic fungi as a biocontrol is not consistent in the field. Therefore, this research aimed to find new fungus candidates that are stronger and more consistent in controlling pathogenic fungi. Freshwater fungi were isolated from H. verticillata. Identification was based on morphological characters. Molecular analysis was carried out for freshwater fungi which had the highest inhibition percentage to pathogenic fungi. The antagonism test was conducted by dual culture method. The mechanism of interaction of hyphae was observed under a microscope. Freshwater fungi was derived from H. verticillata stem are Aspergillus section flavi, Gliomastix sp., and Talaromyces sp. Antagonism test results showed that all fungi could inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. Based on molecular analysis used ITS region showed Talaromyces sp. could not identify to the level of species so that additional genes were required, namely beta-tubulin gene, in order to further identify Talaromyces sp.
Mahmudin Aritanoga, Choesnan Effendi, Lilik Herawati
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.2.58-63

Abstract:
It is known that coffee has much phenolic components such as flavonoids and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) content for neutralizing oxidative stress. Gayo-arabica coffee is a typical arabica coffee which widely used by Gayo people in Aceh, Indonesia. The coffee plants also grow in Gayo. However, it has not clearly understood its effect for health. The study aimed is to analyze the Gayo-arabica coffee consumption on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of damage cells due to oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a marker of antioxidant enzyme, after performing a single bout submaximal physical exercise. Male sedentary subjects (21-27 y.o), consisted of 36 men, divided into 3 groups: control (zero of coffee), Gayo1 (15 g coffee in 200 ml water), and Gayo2 (20 g coffee in 200 ml water). Coffee was given once, after rockport test as a single bout submaximal physical exercise. MDA serum and SOD serum were taken after 1 hour of coffee drinking. MDA serum decreased significantly in Gayo1 (8.01 uM) and Gayo2 (10.36 uM), compared to control (26.82 uM). SOD serum increased significantly in Gayo1 (114.81 ng/ ml) and Gayo2 (101.48 ng/ml), compared to control (24.024 ng/ml). Nevertheless, there was no significantly different between Gayo1 and Gayo2 on MDA and SOD serum (p≥0.05). We suggest that the Gayo-arabica coffee after single bout submaximal exercise can diminish stress oxidative in sedentary people.
Andre Pasetha, Dyah Perwitasari Farajallah, Gholib
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 25-34; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.1.25-34

Abstract:
Crested macaque (Macaca nigra), one of the seven endemic primates in Sulawesi is the most endangered macaque species that has been categorized as critically endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However, almost nothing is known about the reproductive biology in associated with the behavioral during pregnancy. The data is important to support a management and breeding programs such as pregnancy diagnostic and conservation program in this species. The research aimed was to study the behavior of the crested macaques during pregnancy. Observations were performed on the 10 adult females of the group of Rambo 1 (R1) which has been habituated at Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi. Behavioral data were collected using focal animal sampling and recorded using instantanaeous sampling on females during menstrual cycling, pregnancy, and after parturition (lactation). During five months observations, a total of 393.63 observation hours were recorded. The results showed that daily activities of the M. nigra during menstrual cycling were dominated by feeding (26.60%), foraging (15.95%), and locomotion (16.16%). Daily activities during pregnancy was dominated by feeding (27.03%), foraging (16.37%), and resting (13.45%), whereas after parturition (lactation) period is dominated by resting (26.12%), foraging (19.51%), and feeding (14.98%). The resting was the most activity in the end of pregnancy and few day after parturition. The diets were collected successfully composed of the fruits (34 species), arthropods (3 species, 2 families, 4 orders), fungi (4 genus), and plants (5 species). Climate was influenced on the composition of the diet, especially on fruit and arthropods. In conclusion, the activity budgets were different during menstrual cycling, pregnancy, and lactation, especially feeding, foraging, locomotion, and resting.
Ari Nugroho, Tri Atmowidi, Sih Kahono
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.1.11-17

Abstract:
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an entomophilous plant which is need insects for pollination. Pollinator insects increase cocoa’s fruit set. The aim of this research were to study diversity of pollinator insects, visiting activity of fly, Forcipomyia (Diptera), and fruit set of cocoa. Observation of pollinator insects was conducted by scan sampling method. Visiting activity of Forcipomyia were observed based on duration visit per flower, number of flowers visited per minute, and duration of activity on flowers. Pollen load on body of Forcipomyia were measured. Pollination effectiveness of insect were measured from the number and size of the cocoa fruit. Result showed that 19 species of insects visitors on cocoa flowers were observed. Nine species are pollinator of cocoa’s plants i.e. Forcipomyia, Cecidomyia, Stilobezzia, Drosophila, Orimarga, Dolichoderus, Pheidole, Megachile, and Nomia. Cocoa pollination by insects produced 3% fruit higher than flowers without insect pollination. Pollination by insects produced size and weight of fruit, and number of seed per fruit were higher than pollination without insects.
Hamim, Zahrul Romadlon, Dorly
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.1.1-10

Abstract:
Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum), a non-edible producing plant, is a tropical plant traditionally used by local residents as firewood, building material and medicinal plants. The research aimed to study the development of flower and fruit as well as oil content of nyamplung seeds. Two adult trees (P1 and P2) with different provenance were used in experiment. Morphology of flower and fruit, and seed germination were observed from the field, while the microscopic anatomical observations and oil content analysis were carried out in the laboratory. The result showed that a single generative bud generally had 8-15 flowers. The flower was arranged in bunches, with 4 petals, 4 sepals, single pistil and 4 files of anthers surrounded the pistil. In some cases, the flowers had 5 sepals, or 3 sepals and 3 anthers files. Fruits were round, green and turned to harden with brownish color during maturation. Flower bud grown from bud was ready to blossom 27 days after initiation (DAI). There were up to 48.52% flower buds drop at 24 DAI, and they were still increase up to 64.5% flower drop during the whole of flower development. The observation also showed that fruit drop rate of P2 plant was higher than P1. After flower bloom for 3 or 4 days after anthesis, the flowers started to lose their parts. The fruits started to ripe 8-10 week after anthesis (WAA). Seeds from P2 tree had oil content of 51.79%, which was higher than the P1 tree (42.57%).
Brian Theowidavitya, Mafrikhul Muttaqin, Miftahudin, Aris Tjahjoleksono
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.1.18-24

Abstract:
Mutualistic plant-microbe interaction can increase the availability or absorption of nutrients and affect plant metabolism. Metabolomics is the study of all metabolites contained in living beings at a specific time. This research aims to study the effect of metanotrophic bacteria (BGM 9 isolate) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ITJ 7 isolate) on rice plant growth and reveal the information about metabolites produced by rice plant interacting with the bacteria. Three rice plant varieties (Ciherang, Hawara Bunar, and IR64) were grown on liquid media (Yoshida solution) and were inoculated with the bacteria five weeks after planting. Metabolites in the liquid media were detected seven days after inoculation using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and analyzed using MassLynx v4.1. The results showed that the bacterial inoculation had significant effect on rice growth. Chromatograms resulted from LC-MS showed there are 34 unique peaks from Ciherang, 21 unique peaks from Hawara Bunar, and 30 unique peaks from IR64. The unique peaks in each variety were affected by the bacteria inoculation treatments.
Meta Yuliana, Anja Meryandini, Titi Candra Sunarti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.1.35-42

Abstract:
This research aims is to find starter for sorghum fermentation and to observe its influence in fermentation process and tannin level in sorghum flour. Four isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria were tested as starter for Numbu and Kawali sorghum grain fermentation. The criteria was the ability to produce acid and cell viability. The fermentation used four treatments in duplicates. The selected isolate was inoculated into dehulled and non-dehulled sorghum grain. The fermentation time were 0, 24, and 48 h. Analysis were pH, total acidity, total sugar, viable cell, tannin level, structure of sorghum flour, the yield of flour passed 80 mesh, and flour moisture. The results showed that E1222 was selected as a starter for Numbu sorghum grain fermentation while E5 was selected for Kawali. The starter can decrease pH value, increasing total acidity, decreasing total sugar, however there was no significant difference in viable cell in fermentation process. It decreased tannin level approximately 90% in Numbu fermented flour and 77% in Kawali. There was corrosion in starch structure of fermented flour, while the yield of flour passing through 80 mesh was increased. The best treatment was fermentation of dehulled and inoculated sorghum grain (So-St) in both of sorghum varieties.
Hanna Latifa, Tri Atmowidi, Woro Noerdjito
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 52-57; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.2.52-57

Abstract:
Coprophagous beetle has important role in decomposition of organic materials. This research aimed to study and analyze the diversity and abundance of coprophagous beetles in organic and non-organic farms. Coprophagous beetles were collected in organic farm of Bina Sarana Bakti and non-organic farm of Seruni in Cisarua, West Java. In each location, twenty dung traps were set up in corn plants, carrot plants, cabbage plants, and onion plants. Totally, 15 species (610 individuals) of coprophagous beetles belonging to two families i.e Scarabaeidae and Aphodiidae were collected. Coprophagous beetles in organic farms (389 individuals, 13 species) more divers than that in non-organic farms (221 individuals, 10 species). There was no dominant species in both of locations (C<0.5). The most dominant species in organic farm was Copris reflexus (49%) and in non-organic farm was Onthopagus pauper (52%). Beetles similarity in organic and non-organic farm was 67%.
Mike Permata Sari, Dwirini Retno Gunarti, Mohamad Sadikin
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.2.64-71

Abstract:
The Courgette or oyong (Luffa acutangula L. (Roxb)) is member of Cucurbitaceae mainly used as vegetable. Beside used as vegetables, courgette aslo used as keratolytic agent. This fact is supposed that this vegetables contain protease. This research is succeed to purified courgette’s protease by four step. That was precipitate by 70% ammonium sulphate saturation, purification using DEAE cellulose ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-100 and G-75. Purified courgette’s protease had 81,922 U/mg for specific activity and 34 kDa molecular weight. This enzyme had the characteristic such as activated optimally at 37oC, pH 7 and 10 minute duration time. This enzyme activity can decrease by PMSF and H2O2, its remarkable that courgette protease is serine protease and had the thiol group in its structure. The ability to digest food proteins materials like boiled meat and boiled white egg by courgette protease proves that the courgette protease enzyme is could be used in enzyme replacement therapy in mild digestion problem.
Fithriyah Nur Kurnia, Alex Hartana, Iris Rengganis
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 5, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.5.2.72-80

Abstract:
Allergy is a hypersensitive reaction in human due to human body produced IgE antibody more than regullary do as a response to the presence of allergens. Asthma and rhinitis are respiratory allergies, could be caused by genetics and environmental factors. The objectives of this study was to analyze the trigger factors of asthma and rhinitis patients at the Allergy-Immunology Polyclinic, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Center General Hospital, Jakarta. The skin test using grass mix pollen, cat, dog, cockroach, and dust mites allergens were done to 90 respiratory allergy patients. History of respiratory allergy from their parents, and environmental factors such as pets, cigarette smoke, and emotional state were asked and recorded. The patients mostly women, and most respiratory allergy patients could be detected by skin test using dust mites allergens, however, their reaction did not the same for other allergens. More than 50% patients of respiratory allergy have atopy from their parents, for most of patients, their emotional state and cigarette smoke in house could trigger the symptom of respiratory allergy.
Rr. Syafira Nidyasari, Hilda Akmal, Nunik Sri Ariyanti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.1.12-20

Abstract:
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) cultivation has problems in terms of fruit quality and rooting system. This problem is solved by Mekarsari Fruit Garden by developing the technology of double rootstock seedling that is by combining two mangosteen seedling into one plant through the pasting process. Characterization of the collection of mangosteen plants and its species of relatives (Garcinia spp.) is needed to seek superior characters used for the technology of double rootstock seedlings, cultivar development, and management and preservation of mangosteen germplasm. This study aims to record and compare morphological and anatomical characters of mangosteen and its relatives collected in Taman Buah Mekarsari. The study was carried out by collecting the sample and characterizing the morphological structure using mangosteen descriptor, observing the leaf paradermal anatomy, and collecting secondary data. Observation on the morphological characteristics of mangostana (G. mangostana) and its relatives (G. celebica, G. dulcis, G. forbesii, and G. malaccensis) showed variations on the fruit characters, such as the shape is spherical, ovate or spherical flattened apex and base; the rind color is bright yellow, deep red, and bright red; the flavor is sour, sour sweet, or sweet. The anatomical character of the mangosteen leaf and four species of its relatives show the paracytic stomata on the abaxial surface only except on the leaf of G. forbersii, which is found on the abaxial and adaxial sustance, the epidermal cells are square to rectangular, the wall is straight or slighty winding except that of G. forbesii which is sharply winding or zig-zag
Nisfa Hanim, Salmah Widyastuti, Achmad Alfiyan, Muhammad Azhari Akbar, Berry Juliandi
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.1.7-11

Abstract:
This research aimed to confirm the tendency of mice to novel object, effect of exercise (in running-wheel) toward memory of mice and to test tendency of mice in avoiding predator signal in novel object. Novel object recognition test (NORT) used to test the memory the day after acquisition phase (NORT I) and memory one week after exercise was given (running-wheel) (NORT II). The result showed that there was no tendency of mice in exploring toward novel object in both NORT I and NORT II. This might happen because the complexity of familiar object higher than novel object, so the familiar object could accommodate more activities. Exercise using running-wheel in mice had an effect on memory, it could be seen in decreasing duration of object exploration time from NORT I to NORT II. There was no tendency in avoiding predator’s signal on novel object which was attached by urine addition (odor signal).
Rofidah Ummulharbi Apal, Nunik Sri Ariyanti, Eko Baroto Walujo, Dorly
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.1.21-27

Abstract:
Togutil is an indigenous tribe that lives in buffer zone of the Aketajawe Lolobata National Park (ALNP) Halmahera Island, North Maluku. This tribe still uses medicinal plants to treat diseases and health care due to limited access to the modern health care. This study aimed to identify the biodiversity and utilization of medicinal plants, as well as to analyze the index of cultural significance of the medicinal plants based on the traditional knowledge of the Togutil tribe. This research was conducted from June to November 2016. The research was conducted in 3 villages by interviewing 3 key informants and 36 respondents. The cultural significance of the medicinal plant species was analysis based on its quality, intencity, and exclusivity value. The result shows that the Togutil tribe use 69 species of medicinal plants for treating 45 categories of diseases. They are mostly used as medicine are leaves (43 species). There are several ways to use the medicinal plants, including smearing, dripping, in taking per oral and per nasal. Gluta renghas is the most important.
Sutardi, Heni Porwoninsih
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 4, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.4.1.1-6

Abstract:
Shallot is one of strategic commodities in Indonesia. Sandy coastal area of Bantul and Kulon Progo districtis the centre of shallot production in Yogyakarta. The results showed that recommendation of fertilizing technology ameliorant (clay 2:1), organik fertilizer 20 ton/ha, Urea 115.7 kg/ha, ZA 250 kg/ha, SP-36 75 kg/ha, and KCl 250 kg/ha. Pest and disease management in integrated pest and disease management 10 Feromon – Exi, Attractant, 10 Light trap, 45 Yellow/white/green trap, biopesticide, limited chemical pesticide, organophosphate pesticide residue contents below with residues below the MRL
Agung Prasetyo, Alam Putra Persada, Ismayati Afifah, Vella Nurazizah Djalil, Rika Raffiudin
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 3, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.3.1.8-13

Abstract:
Pachliopta aristolochiae plays important role in the ecosystems. Their role as pollinators can be observed from their daily behaviors. This study aimed to observe the behaviors of butterfly P. aristolochiae as well as their food preferences on daily basis. This research was conducted at the Museum of insect and butterfly of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Observations were done in two female individuals based on scan sampling method. Behavior was observed according to perching, flying, nectaring and interaction activities. Our results indicate that P. aristolochiae mostly showed flying ( 35.9%) and nectaring (30.6%) activities. On the other hand, interaction (9.3%) was among the least behaviors observed during the study. Nectaring activity was mostly shown within 08.00 - 09.40 am, while perching was observed throughout the day within 11.00 - 16.00. During observation, P. aristolochiae was recorded in visiting various plants, including Ixora sp., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Clerodendrum japonicum, Ochna serrulata, Jatropha curcas and J. integrifolia.
Mulia Safrida Sari, Ahmad Ridwan
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 52-58; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.2.52-58

Abstract:
Betel nut (Areca catechu) was proven to have antihyperglycemic activity through increased PI3K pathway in the GLUT4 translocation in cells. However, research on the ethanol extract of betel nut in Indonesia is still limited. The main problem in this study was whether the ethanol extract of betel nut could improve glucose tolerance in a two-hour postprandial period and whether the ethanol extract of betel nut could induce GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells of mice induced hyperglycemia. Glucose tolerance test results showed that treatment of the ethanol extract of betel nut for 24 days with all doses tested: P50,100,150,200 and 250 mg/kg body weight could improve glucose tolerance in a two-hour postprandial period. The protein electrophoresis of that fasting and one hour postprandial state treatments resulted an increase in GLUT4/βActin density ratio of P250 group compared to negative and positive controls. In this case, GLUT4/βActin density ratio of P100,P200 and P250 were higher than that GLUT4/βActin density ratio of P50 and P150. Increased in GLUT4/βActin density ratio showed enhancement of the GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells in fasting and one hour postprandial state after treated with ethanol extract of betel nut.
Mafrikhul Muttaqin, Iman Rusmana
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.2.45-51

Abstract:
High methane oxidation activity of local isolated methanotrophic bacteria have a potent as methane gases reducing agent while combined with nitrogen fixing bacteria as paddy biofertilizer. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the bacteria as methane gases reducing agent and biofertilizer in paddy plantation. The research was arranged in a completely randomized design consisted of fertilizer types and watering system treatments with four replicates. The research showed that paddy shoot length was not affected by the treatment. On the other hand, both plant freshand dry weight, as well as the number of productive tiller were affected by interaction of fertilizer types and watering system. Fertilizer types affected grain per panicle and methane flux after fertilization. In the end of paddy vegetative stage, bacterial fertilizers were capable to reduce methane emission in different rate. The different result in methane flux was likely due to the interaction between soil local microorganisms and soil chemical component.
Susi Ratnaningtyas, Iman Rusmana, Alina Akhdiya
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 3, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.3.1.14-20

Abstract:
Some of Gram-negative bacteria perform a phenomenon called quorum sensing (QS) to activate certain phenotypes such as pathogenicity. The bacterial cells performing QS produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules to communicate within a population. These molecules can be degraded by the enzyme, i.e. AHL lactonase. This study aimed to characterize the activity of AHL lactonase from Bacillus cereus INT1c and Bacillus sp. NTT3a in different pH and temperature levels. Both strains produce AHL-lactonase that could be found in intracellular and extracellular extracts. The dialysis process of extracellular AHL-lactonase of INT1c significantly increased the specific activity from 5.91 to 29.96, different from an extracellular enzyme of NTT3a that slightly increased from 4.08 to 5.39. Generally dialyzedAHL-lactonase of both B. cereus INT1c and Bacillus sp. NTT3a had activity in wide pH range with better activity in acidic pH and were not stable in high temperature with the highest activity at 30-40 oC.
Ankardiansyah Pandu Pradana, Diana Putri, Abdul Munif
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.2.39-44

Abstract:
Indonesia is one of the largest pepper producing countries in the world. One of the pepper-producing provinces in Indonesia is the Bangka Belitung Islands (Babel). However, the infection of Radopholus similis and Meloidogyne spp. which causes yellow disease becomes one of obstacles in pepper cultivation in Babel. Thus, alternative solution to overcome this yellow disease is by reducing the amount of nematode inoculum of R. similis and Meloidogyne spp. in soil. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the infusion of oyster mushrooms baglog waste enriched with molasses to control the population of R. similis and Meloidogyne spp. and to increase the population of rhizobacteria. Infusion of oyster mushrooms baglog waste was mixed with 1% of molasses and was poured into soil obtained from the pepper plant roots. The concentrations used were 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%. Population of phytonematode, rhizobacteria, proteolytic bacteria, and group of fluorescence bacteria were calculated before and 7 days after treatment. Results showed that the populations of R. similis and Meloidogyne spp. in the soil poured with the influsion of oyster mushroom baglog waste decreased by 29.11% (R. similis) and 24.61% (Meloidogyne spp.), compared to the before and control treatments. The suppression of nematode population was found to be the highest in the influsion treatment at concentration of 50%. Overall, treatment of all concentrations succeeded to increase the population of rhizobacteria, proteolytic bacteria, and group of fluorescence bacteria in soil. Moreover, the highest increase was found in soil treated with concentration of 50%. This study provided new information that the infusion application of oyster mushrooms baglog waste enriched with molasses had the potential to increase the population of rhizobacteria and suppress the amount of pathogens R. similis and Meloidogyne spp.
Safitri Nurlaela, Titi Candra Sunarti, Anja Meryandini
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.2.31-38

Abstract:
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and its lactic acid are commonly used to preserve the food and to extend the food’s shelf life. MRS media is a growth medium for LAB, but it is not feasible for industrial scale application. Cheaper substrate from agriculture products is therefore required, such as tofu whey, which is potential to be used as LAB medium. Tofu whey contains important components to support the LAB growth, but it needs C source (5% of glucose) and nitrogen source (1% ammonium sulphate or urea) supplementations. This study aimed to investigate the influence of N-source to Pediococcus pentosaceus growth and its capability in producing acid compounds. The result showed that addition of urea increased pH fermentation, contrarily to that ammonium sulphate supplementation. The highest bacterial growth rate (μmaks) was observed on media with urea (0.43 jam-1), while the highest acid production was occured on media with ammonium sulphate (9.13 mg/mL). Supplementation of ammonium sulphate and urea on tofu whey highly supported the growth of bacterial population for about 6.5 × 108 CFU/mL and 5.4 × 108 CFU/ mL, respectively, but still lower compared to MRS media (2.03 × 1010 CFU/mL).
Sasmiati Farach Dita, Sri Budiarti, Yulin Lestari
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 3, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.3.1.21-26

Abstract:
Sponge-associated actinobacteria may diverse and have potency to produce bioactive compounds. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of indigenous sponge-associated actinobacteria isolated from the marine ecosystem in Indonesia have not much been explored. This work aimed to assess morphological and antibacterial activity of sponge-associated actinobacteria. The morphological characteristics were examined based on their color of aerial and substrate mycelia, and pigmentation, while antibacterial activities were assayed using the antagonist technique. The selected actinobacterial isolate was identified using 16S rRNA gene. Various sponge-associated actinobacteria were successfully isolated from Hyrtios sp., Callyspongia sp., and Neofibularia sp. sponges. A total of 62 actinobacterial isolates were obtained, and each isolate showed a variety of morphological characters, which could be seen in aerial mass color, substrate mass color, and pigmentation. Actinobacterial isolates were tested against human pathogenic bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, representing Gram-positive, and Escherichia coli EPEC K1-1 and Shigella dysenteriae, representing Gram-negative. Most of actinobacterial isolates had antimicrobial activities at least against one of pathogenic bacteria. High activity was shown by NOHa.2, isolated from Neofibularia, and HRHa.5 isolated from Hyrtios. The NOHa.2 showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. dysenteriae, meanwhile, HRHa.5 showed antimicrobial activity against 3 of 4 tested bacterial pathogens. These data showed diversity of sponge-asccociated actinobacteria from marine ecosystem in Indonesia, and several of them have potency as source of antibacterial compounds
Rahayu Wulan, Anja Meryandini, Titi Candra Sunarti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 3, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.3.1.27-33

Abstract:
Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Pediococcus pentosaceus can improve the quality of food and its shelf life. Using commercial LAB specific media, de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) for growth on industrial scale application is not efficient. Tapioca wastewater (TW) still contains some of the nutrients needed for the growth of P. pentosaceus, but needs the enrichment of carbon sources (5% of glucose) and nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate). This study aimed to use tapioca industrial wastewater with the addition of glucose and ammonium sulfate as an alternative growth media for lactic acid bacteria P. pentosaceus E.1222. The results showed that glucose and nitrogen had no significant effect on the number of bacterial colonies. The highest substrate efficiency was tapioca wastewater (86.81%), MRS broth (53.73%), and TW with 5% of glucose and 1% of ammonium sulfate (43.53%) respectively. Maximum growth rate (μmaks) was found in TW with 5% of glucose and 1% of ammonium sulfate (0,52 hours-1). Increasing the starter volume until 1000 mL in TW with 5% of glucose and 1% of ammonium sulfate showed a slight decrease in the log number of bacteria from 8,836 (50 mL), 8,401 (500 mL), to 8,063 (1000 mL).
, Era Mardiyah, Nelly Saidah Amalia, Arieh Mountara
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 3, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.3.1.1-7

Abstract:
Biodiversity is an important aspect which supports life systems on earth as well as maintains ecosystem sustainability and evolution. Fungal communities, in particular, saprophytic fungi, are often ignored during an inventory of biodiversity in the National Park Area. Saprophytic fungi is a fungus obtain nutrients by decomposing dead organisms or other organic material and act as decomposers in the ecosystem. Saprophytic fungi can be found growing on dead organic matter contained in the environment such as soil, wood, and litter. The diversity of Macroscopic saprophytic fungi from Ujung Kulon National Park is reported here. Fungal identification was done by using a variety of macroscopic characters. This study determined eight species that classified into six genera of saprophytic fungi, namely: Collybia, Crepidotus, Hygrocybe, Lepiota, Marasmius, and Mycena. By knowing the diversity of saprophytic fungi, it is expected to add information about biodiversity as a preparation towards the further development of the potential of existing biodiversity in Indonesia.
Hirmas Fuady Putra, Dhenok Sekar Ambarwati, Nurrizki Mubyrasih, Tersi Alesti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 60-63; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.2.60-63

Abstract:
Environmental factors greatly influence the physiological state of moss. Some of the environmental factors that influence the physiological of moss are air temperature, humidity, and light intensity. These three environmental factors will vary at each altitude. This study aims to determine the physiological characteristics of mosses on some altitudes in the area of Mount Tangkuban Perahu (Ratu Crater – Domas Crater track). The method that are used is to measure air temperature, humidity, and light intensity at some altitudes. Subsequently, samples were taken at each altitude, to measured chlorophyll and proline content. Mosses that are used as samples; Campylopus sp., Plagiochila sp., Dicranella sp. The results indicate that the chlorophyll content significantly different at some altitude, with an increasing trend as the decrease altitude. The highest chlorophyll content in Campylopus sp. at altitude of 1,621 meters above sea level, while the lowest chlorophyll content in Plagiochila sp. at altitude of 1,721 meters above sea level. The content of proline did not differ significantly at some altitude, and tend to be more affected by air conditions that correlate with distance of moss habitat with the active crater of Domas, which allegedly can cause physiological stress in the moss.
Rika Raffiudin, Rismayanti, Triadiati
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 1, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.1.1.19-25

Abstract:
Herbaceous plants are able to flower any time, give them opportunity to interact with insects. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of pollen collected by Trigona sp. in herbaceous ecosystem and counted the percentage of pollen viability from the pollen basket. Trigona’s nest was adapted at plot and the herbaceous plants with their pollen were identified. Pollen were took from hind legs at 07.00, 08.00 and 09.00 am. Pollen slide were make by acetolysis and SEM methods. Pollen were identified and examined of viability. Identification herbaceous plants and their pollen on plot showed that there were 7 herbaceous plants: Kyllinga monocephala, Cleome rutidosperma, Pennisetum polystachyon, Ageratum conyzoides, Brachiaria mutica, Cyperus orodatus, and Eleutheranthera ruderalis. Otherwise pollen which were collected by Trigona sp. consist of 11 kinds of pollen from 6 families, that were Sapindaceae, Leguminoceae, Loranthaceae, Malvaceae, Symplocaceae, and unidentified family.Viability of pollen ranged from 88.8% to 99.8%. The result of identification herbacious plants and pollen that were taken by Trigona sp. indicated that there was not similarity therefore, it was no interaction between herbaceous plants in the plot with Trigona sp.
Maipa Dia Pati, Syaiful Anwar, Rahayu Widyastuti
Jurnal Sumberdaya Hayati, Volume 2, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.29244/jsdh.2.1.7-12

Abstract:
Agricultural land expansion necessity for food security in Indonesia has been faced by the fact in utilizing marginal land such as shallow peat soil in Central Kalimantan. Among problems encountered in such marginal land are pests and diseases incidence. Farmers practice in dealing with those problems is the chemical pesticides application. Unintended chemical pesticides that fall on/into the soil might have an adverse effect to soil microbes activity. This research aimed to assess the effect of pesticides on functional soil microbes population in peat soil. The research used completely randomized factorial design with two factors. First factor was 7 combinations of types (paraquat and buthylphenylmethyl carbamat (BPMC)) and dosages (50, 100, and 200% of recommended dosage) of pesticides. Second factor was 4 incubation times (1, 7, 14, and 28 days). Following the each of incubation times, the soil samples treated and analyzed for population of phosphate solubilizing microbes, cellulolytic microbes, and N2 fixing bacteria. The results show that phosphate solubilizing fungi population decrease by pesticides treatment. In contrast, pesticides significantly increased the Azospirillum population. Adverse effect to microbes population was found on the first day of incubation, however it recovered at 7 days and longer incubation times. In general, functional microbes population with paraquat application lower than BPMC application.
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