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Results in Journal Chinese Medical Journal: 18,672

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Jie Tang, Yu-Qian Luo, Yi-Hua Zhou
Abstract:
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health issue because of its severe sequelae. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is critical to eliminate chronic HBV infection. Here, we reviewed the progress toward the elimination of HBV infection in children in China in the recent decade. A universal hepatitis B vaccination program started from 2002 has been intensified, with the coverage of timely birth dose >95% of all newborn infants from 2012. Since 2011, China has taken a nationwide program to administer hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) with free of charge in all neonates of HBV-infected mothers, leading to a significant increment of timely use of HBIG. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was declined from around 10% among children in 1980s to 2 × 105 U/mL during the third trimester is increasing, which will further reduce MTCT of HBV. However, there are some challenges in the elimination of HBV infection in children, which need to overcome by the concerted efforts. Nevertheless, it is anticipated that China will achieve the goal set by the World Health Organization that the prevalence of HBsAg in children aged <5 years is ≤0.1% by 2030.
Jinfeng Liu, Tianyan Chen,
Abstract:
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to vertical transmission remains a critical concern with regards to eliminating HBV infection. Implementation of hepatitis B vaccine, the foundation to prevent perinatal and horizontal transmission, has reduced the prevalence of HBV by >80%. In countries where the hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is available, such as China and the United States, the administration of HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine to the infants of mothers who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen has become a standard practice and is effective in preventing vertical transmission. Accumulating evidence on the efficacy and safety of antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy indicates the probability of attaining the goal of the World Health Organization to eliminate hepatitis by 2030. In this review, we discuss the transmission routes, diagnostic criteria, and preventive strategies for vertical transmission. A preventive program that includes screening before pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy, and postpartum immunoprophylaxis provides “perfect strategies” to eliminate vertical transmission. However, there is still a notable gap between “perfect strategies” and real-world application, including insufficient coverage of timely birth dose vaccine and the efficacy and necessity of HBIG, especially in mothers who are negative for hepatitis B envelope antigen. In particular, there is a clear need for a comprehensive long-term safety profile of antiviral prophylaxis. Therefore, feasible and cost-effective preventive strategies need to be determined across regions. Access also needs to be scaled up to meet the demands for prophylaxis and prevalence targets.
Jing Tan, Shao-Yang Zhao, Yi-Quan Xiong, Chun-Rong Liu, Shi-Yao Huang, Xin Lu, Lehana Thabane, Feng Xie, Xin Sun, Wei-Min Li
Abstract:
Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human mobility restriction measures have raised controversies, partly because of the inconsistent findings. An empirical study is promptly needed to reliably assess the causal effects of the mobility restriction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the causal effects of human mobility restriction on the spread of COVID-19. Methods: Our study applied the difference-in-difference (DID) model to assess the declines of population mobility at the city level, and used the log–log regression model to examine the effects of population mobility declines on the disease spread measured by cumulative or new cases of COVID-19 over time after adjusting for confounders. Results: The DID model showed that a continual expansion of the relative declines over time in 2020. After 4 weeks, population mobility declined by −54.81% (interquartile range, −65.50% to −43.56%). The accrued population mobility declines were associated with the significant reduction of cumulative COVID-19 cases throughout 6 weeks (ie, 1% decline of population mobility was associated with 0.72% [95% CI: 0.50%–0.93%] reduction of cumulative cases for 1 week, 1.42% 2 weeks, 1.69% 3 weeks, 1.72% 4 weeks, 1.64% 5 weeks, and 1.52% 6 weeks). The impact on the weekly new cases seemed greater in the first 4 weeks but faded thereafter. The effects on cumulative cases differed by cities of different population sizes, with greater effects seen in larger cities. Conclusions: Persistent population mobility restrictions are well deserved. Implementation of mobility restrictions in major cities with large population sizes may be even more important.
Silvere D. Zaongo, Ping Ma, Fang-Zhou Song,
Abstract:
Many seminal advances have been made in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS research over the past four decades. Treatment strategies, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, are yielding promising results to effectively control HIV infection. Despite this, a cure for HIV/AIDS is not envisioned in the near future. A recently published academic study has raised awareness regarding a promising alternative therapeutic option for HIV/AIDS, referred to as “selective elimination of host cells capable of producing HIV” (SECH). Similar to the “shock and kill strategy,” the SECH approach requires the simultaneous administration of drugs targeting key mechanisms in specific cells to efficiently eliminate HIV replication-competent cellular reservoirs. Herein, we comprehensively review the specific mechanisms targeted by the SECH strategy. Briefly, the suggested cocktail of drugs should contain (i) latency reversal agents to promote the latency reversal process in replication-competent reservoir cells, (ii) pro-apoptotic and anti-autophagy drugs to induce death of infected cells through various pathways, and finally (iii) drugs that eliminate new cycles of infection by prevention of HIV attachment to host cells, and by HIV integrase inhibitor drugs. Finally, we discuss three major challenges that are likely to restrict the application of the SECH strategy in HIV/AIDS patients.
Zi-Nan Lu, Jia Song, Tong-Hui Sun,
Abstract:
Background: Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence of various cancers and involved in many tumorigenic processes. This study aimed to investigate the specific molecular mechanism through which UBE2C affects breast cancer (BC) proliferation. Methods: BC-related datasets were screened according to filter criteria in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Venn diagram analysis. By using DEGs, we conducted the following analyses including Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein–protein interaction (PPI), and survival analysis, and then validated the function of the hub gene UBE2C using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell assay, and Western blot assay. Results: In total, 151 DEGs were identified from the GEO and TCGA databases. The results of GO analysis demonstrated that the DEGs were significantly enriched with mitotic nuclear division, lipid droplet, and organic acid-binding. KEGG analysis showed that the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation were significantly enriched in the signal transduction pathway category. The top three hub genes that resulted from the PPI network were FOXM1, UBE2C, and CDKN3. The results of survival analysis showed a close relationship between UBE2C and BC. The results of CCK-8 and transwell assays suggested that the proliferation and invasion of UBE2C knockdown cells were significantly inhibited (P < 0.050). The results of Western blot assay showed that the level of phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN) was obviously increased (P < 0.050), whereas the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) were dramatically decreased (P < 0.050) in the UBE2C knockdown cell. Conclusion: UBE2C can promote BC proliferation by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Wen-Chao Liu, Na Liu, Yan Wang, Chen Huang, Yan-Fang Li, Hao Wang, Xiao-Gang Li,
Abstract:
Background: Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms in motor neurons (MNs) derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines could improve understanding of the issues affecting MNs. Therefore, in this study we explored mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein expression in MNs derived from the iPS cell lines of ALS patients carrying different SOD1 mutations. Methods: We generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from two familial ALS (FALS) patients with SOD1-V14M and SOD1-C111Y mutations, and then differentiated them into MNs. We investigated levels of the SOD1 protein in iPSCs and MNs, the intracellular Ca2+ levels in MNs, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the process of differentiation into the MNs derived from the controls and ALS patients’ iPSCs. Results: The iPSCs from the two FALS patients were capable of differentiation into MNs carrying different SOD1 mutations and differentially expressed MN markers. We detected high SOD1 protein expression and high intracellular calcium levels in both the MN and iPSCs that were derived from the two SOD1 mutant patients. However, at no time did we observe stronger LDH activity in the patient lines compared with the control lines. Conclusions: MNs derived from patient-specific iPSC lines can recapitulate key aspects of ALS pathogenesis, providing a cell-based disease model to further elucidate disease pathogenesis and explore gene repair coupled with cell-replacement therapy. Incremental mutant expressions of SOD1 in MNs may have disrupted MN function, either causing or contributing to the intracellular calcium disturbances, which could lead to the occurrence and development of the disease.
Yu Liu, Zheng-Yong Li, Ai Zhong, Wijaya Wilson Adrian, Jing Peng, Jun-Jie Chen
Shan-Shan Xu, Ning-Li Chai, Xiao-Wei Tang, , Sha-Sha Wang, Bao Li
Abstract:
Background: With the wide application of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric neoplasms, metachronous gastric neoplasms (MGN) have gradually become a concern. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of MGN and evaluate the treatment and follow-up outcomes of MGN patients. Methods: A total of 814 patients were retrospectively enrolled. All these patients were treated by ESD for early gastric cancer or gastric dysplasia between November 2006 and September 2019 at The First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. The risk factors for MGN were analyzed using Cox hazard proportional model. Moreover, the cumulative incidence, the correlation of initial lesions and MGN lesions, and the treatment and follow-up outcomes of MGN patients were analyzed. Results: A total of 4.5% (37/814) of patients had MGN after curative ESD. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year cumulative incidences of MGN were 3.5%, 5.1%, and 6.9%, respectively, and ultimately reaching a plateau of 11.3% at 99 months after ESD. There was no significant correlation between initial lesions and MGN lesions in terms of gross type (P = 0.178), location (long axis: P = 0.470; short axis: P = 0.125), and histological type (P = 0.832). Cox multivariable analysis found that initial multiplicity was the only independent risk factor of MGN (hazard ratio: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.0–9.4, P < 0.001). Seventy-three percent of patients with MGN were treated by endoscopic resection. During follow-up, two patients with MGN died of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. The disease-specific survival rate was significantly lower in patients with MGN than that in patients without MGN (94.6% vs. 99.6%, P = 0.006). Conclusions: The MGN rate gradually increased with follow-up time within 99 months after curative gastric ESD. Thus, regular and long-term surveillance endoscopy may be helpful, especially for patients with initial multiple neoplasms.
Pan Li, Xiao-Rong Dong, Bei Zhang, Xin-Tong Zhang, Jing-Zhuo Liu, De-Sheng Ma, Li Ma
Abstract:
Cell death occurs in various tissues and organs in the body. It is a physiological or pathological process that has different effects. It is of great significance in maintaining the morphological function of cells and clearing abnormal cells. Pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necrosis are all modes of cell death that have been studied extensively by many experts and scholars, including studies on their effects on the liver, kidney, the heart, other organs, and even the whole body. The heart, as the most important organ of the body, should be a particular focus. This review summarizes the mechanisms underlying the various cell death modes and the relationship between the various mechanisms and heart diseases. The current research status for heart therapy is discussed from the perspective of pathogenesis.
Zhi-Gang Li, Ying Wang, Jun-Bo Rong, Li-Juan Lang, Li-Min Xu, Ke-Xin Guo, Lu-Xi Zhang, Guang-Ying Zheng, Yu Zhu
Xiang-Liang Liu, Ri-Lan Bai, Xiao Chen, Yu-Guang Zhao, Xu Wang, Ke-Wei Ma, Hui-Min Tian, Fu-Jun Han, Zi-Ling Liu, Lei Yang, et al.
Abstract:
Background: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for non-invasive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (EGFRm) detection in lung cancer patients, but existing methods have limitations in sensitivity and availability. In this study, we used the ΔCt value (mutant cycle threshold [Ct] value–internal control Ct value) generated during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to convert super-amplification-refractory mutation system (superARMS) from a qualitative method to a semi-quantitative method named reformed-superARMS (R-superARMS), and evaluated its performance in detecting EGFRm in plasma ctDNA in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: A total of 41 pairs of tissues and plasma samples were obtained from lung adenocarcinoma patients who had known EGFRm in tumor tissue and were previously untreated. EGFRm in ctDNA was identified by using superARMS. Through making use of ΔCt value generated during the detection process of superARMS, we indirectly transform this qualitative detection method into a semi-quantitative PCR detection method, named R-superARMS. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the data were performed. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables. Results: The concordance rate of EGFRm in tumor tissues and matched plasma samples was 68.3% (28/41). At baseline, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off ΔCt value of EGFRm set at 8.11. A significant difference in the median OS (mOS) between the two groups was observed (EGFRm ΔCt ≤8.11 vs. >8.11: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.024). Patients were divided into mutation clearance (MC) group and mutation incomplete clearance (MIC) group according to whether the ΔCt value of EGFRm test turned negative after 1 month of treatment. We found that there was also a significant difference in mOS (not reached vs. 10.4 months; log-rank P = 0.021) between MC group and MIC group. Although there was no significant difference in PFS between the two groups, the two curves were separated and the PFS of MC group tended to be higher than the MIC group (not reached vs. 27.5 months; log-rank P = 0.088). Furthermore, EGFRm-positive patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off of the changes in ΔCt value of EGFRm after 1 month of treatment, which was set at 4.89. A significant difference in the mOS between the two groups was observed (change value of ΔCt >4.89 vs. ≤4.89: not reached vs. 11.0 months; log-rank P = 0.014). Conclusions: Detecting EGFRm in ctDNA using R-superARMS can identify patients who are more likely sensitive to targeted therapy, reflect the molecular load of patients, and predict the therapeutic efficacy and clinical outcomes of patients.
Lei Guo, Ying Ji, Wei Guo, Peng Song, Xue-Min Xue, Guang-Yu Bai, Bin Qiu, Jian-Ming Ying, Shu-Geng Gao
Yue-Lun Zhang, Li-Jian Pei, Chen Sun, Meng-Yun Zhao, Lu Che, Yu-Guang Huang
Abstract:
Background: Whether regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence in cancer patients is still controversial. The stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is one of the most important sources of heterogeneity for the treatment effect. We sought to update existing systematic reviews and clarify the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence in late-stage cancer patients. Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that assessed the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence and overall survival (OS) compared with general anesthesia. Late-stage cancer patients were primarily assessed according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual (eighth edition), and the combined hazard ratio (HR) from random-effects models was used to evaluate the effect of regional anesthesia. Results: A total of three RCTs and 34 cohort studies (including 64,691 patients) were identified through the literature search for inclusion in the analysis. The risk of bias was low in the RCTs and was moderate in the observational studies. The pooled HR for recurrence-free survival (RFS) or OS did not favor regional anesthesia when data from RCTs in patients with late-stage cancer were combined (RFS, HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58–2.18, P = 0.729, I2 = 76%; OS, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.63–1.18, P = 0.345, I2 = 48%). Findings from observational studies showed that regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78–0.96, P = 0.008, I2 = 71%) and improve OS (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79–0.98, P = 0.022, I2 = 79%). Conclusions: RCTs reveal that OS and RFS were similar between regional and general anesthesia in late-stage cancers. The selection of anesthetic methods should still be based on clinical evaluation, and changes to current practice need more support from large, well-powered, and well-designed studies.
Jia-Wei Song, Jian-Qiong Tang, Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Ying Liu,
Abstract:
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for global mortality and morbidity and those with hypertension are more likely to develop severe symptoms in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system, which is closely related to abnormal renin–angiotensin system and elabela/apelin–apelin receptor (APJ) axis. The elabela/apelin–APJ axis exerts essential roles in regulating blood pressure levels, vascular tone, and cardiovascular dysfunction in hypertension by counterbalancing the action of the angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and enhancing the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase/NO signaling. Furthermore, the elabela/apelin–APJ axis demonstrates beneficial effects in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, including angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, fibrosis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction during hypertension. More importantly, effects of the elabela/apelin–APJ axis on vascular tone may depend upon blood vessel type or various pathological conditions. Intriguingly, the broad distribution of elabela/apelin and alternative isoforms implicated its distinct functions in diverse cardiac and vascular cells and tissue types. Finally, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches have defined critical roles of the elabela/apelin–APJ axis in reducing the development and severity of hypertensive diseases. Thus, targeting the elabela/apelin–APJ axis has emerged as a pre-warning biomarker and a novel therapeutic approach against progression of hypertension, and an increased understanding of cardiovascular actions of the elabela/apelin–APJ axis will help to develop effective interventions for hypertension. In this review, we focus on the physiology and biochemistry, diverse actions, and underlying mechanisms of the elabela/apelin–APJ axis, highlighting its role in hypertension and hypertensive cardiovascular injury and dysfunction, with a view to provide a prospective strategy for hypertensive disease therapy.
Qiang Wang, Ruiqun Qi, Jianping Li, Fengqiu Lin, Xianwei Han, Xiuyu Liang, Xiaodong Sun, Yue Feng, Kaibo Wang, Chunlin Jin, et al.
Zhan-Qi Wei,
Abstract:
Surgical resection (SR) is recommended as a radical procedure in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, postoperative recurrence negatively affects the long-term efficacy of SR, and preoperative adjuvant therapy has therefore become a research hotspot. Some clinicians adopt transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) as a preoperative adjuvant therapy in patients undergoing SR to increase the resection rate, reduce tumor recurrence, and improve the prognosis. However, the findings of the most relevant studies remain controversial. Some studies have confirmed that preoperative TACE cannot improve the long-term survival rate of patients with HCC and might even negatively affect the resection rate. Which factors influence the efficacy of preoperative TACE combined with SR is a topic worthy of investigation. In this review, existing clinical studies were analyzed with a particular focus on several topics: screening of the subgroups of patients most likely to benefit from preoperative TACE, exploration of the optimal treatment regimen of preoperative TACE, and determination of the extent of tumor necrosis as the deciding prognostic factor.
Chen-Yu Luo, Na Li, Bin Lu, Jie Cai, Ming Lu, Yu-Han Zhang, ,
Abstract:
Background: Female breast cancer (FBC) has become the most prevalent malignancy worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the global and regional burden in epidemiological trends and factors associated with the incidence and mortality of FBC. Methods: FBC incidence and mortality in 60 selected countries by cancer registry data integrity in 2020 were estimated from the GLOBOCAN database, and their association with the human development index (HDI) was further evaluated. Trends of age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality in 60 countries from 2000 through 2019 were evaluated by joinpoint regression analysis using data of Global Burden of Disease 2019. The association between potential behavioral, metabolic, and socioeconomic risk factor exposure at the nation level retrieved from the World Bank and Global Health Observatory and the incidence and mortality of FBC were evaluated by multivariate linear regression. Results: FBC incidence and mortality varied greatly in the 60 included countries. Higher incidence and mortality rates were typically observed in countries with higher HDIs and vice versa. During 2000 to 2019, significantly increasing trends in incidence and mortality were observed in 26 (average annual percent changes [AAPCs], 0.35–2.96) and nine countries (AAPC, 0.30–1.65), respectively, while significantly decreasing trends in both incidence and mortality were observed in 22 countries, most of which were high-HDI countries. Among the population aged ≥40 years, there were 26 and 11 countries showing significantly increased trends in incidence and mortality, respectively. Ecological analysis showed that countries with higher prevalence rates of high cholesterol and higher health expenditures were more likely to have higher FBC incidence, and countries with higher rates of obesity and poor universal health coverage were more likely to have higher FBC mortality. Conclusions: Despite decreased or stabilized FBC incidence and mortality rates were observed in some countries with high HDI over the past decades, disease burden became even severer in developing countries, especially for the population aged ≥40 years. Effective targeted preventive programs are strongly encouraged to reduce the FBC disease burden worldwide.
Juan Du, Yu-Heng Shi, Yu-Xiang Duan, Xiao-Ru Wang, Min Zhou, Wen-Chao Gu, Chi-Jun Wen, Yi Gong, Chun-Ling Du, Bo Peng, et al.
Jing Wu, Bin Huang, Hong-Bo He, Wen-Zhu Lu, Wei-Guo Wang,
Abstract:
Background: Emerging evidence indicates that the sineoculis homeobox homolog 1−eyes absent homolog 1 (SIX1–EYA1) transcriptional complex significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple cancers by mediating the expression of genes involved in different biological processes, such as cell-cycle progression and metastasis. However, the roles of the SIX1–EYA1 transcriptional complex and its targets in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still being investigated. This study aimed to investigate the roles of SIX1–EYA1 in the pathogenesis of CRC, to screen inhibitors disrupting the SIX1–EYA1 interaction and to evaluate the efficiency of small molecules in the inhibition of CRC cell growth. Methods: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein levels in CRC cells and clinical tissues (collected from CRC patients who underwent surgery in the Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, between 2016 and 2018, n = 24). In vivo immunoprecipitation and in vitro pulldown assays were carried out to determine SIX1–EYA1 interaction. Cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell invasion were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, clonogenic assay, and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. The Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen (AlphaScreen) method was used to obtain small molecules that specifically disrupted SIX1–EYA1 interaction. CRC cells harboring different levels of SIX1/EYA1 were injected into nude mice to establish tumor xenografts, and small molecules were also injected into mice to evaluate their efficiency to inhibit tumor growth. Results: Both SIX1 and EYA1 were overexpressed in CRC cancerous tissues (for SIX1, 7.47 ± 3.54 vs.1.88 ± 0.35, t = 4.92, P = 0.008; for EYA1, 7.61 ± 2.03 vs. 2.22 ± 0.45, t = 6.73, P = 0.005). The SIX1/EYA1 complex could mediate the expression of two important genes including cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) by binding to the myocyte enhancer factor 3 consensus. Knockdown of both SIX1 and EYA1 could decrease cell proliferation, cell invasion, tumor growth, and in vivo tumor growth (all P < 0.01). Two small molecules, NSC0191 and NSC0933, were obtained using AlphaScreen and they could significantly inhibit the SIX1–EYA1 interaction with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.60 ± 1.15 μmol/L and 83.43 ± 7.24 μmol/L, respectively. Administration of these two compounds could significantly repress the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1 and inhibit the growth of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: Overexpression of the SIX1/EYA1 complex transactivated the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1, causing the pathogenesis of CRC. Pharmacological inhibition of the SIX1–EYA1 interaction with NSC0191 and NSC0933 significantly inhibited CRC cell growth by affecting cell-cycle progression and metastasis.
Shi-Meng Weng, Sheng-Yu Fang, Lian-Wang Li, Xing Fan, Yin-Yan Wang,
Abstract:
The demand for acquiring different languages has increased with increasing globalization. However, knowledge of the modification of the new language in the neural language network remains insufficient. Although many details of language function have been detected based on the awake intra-operative mapping results, the language neural network of the bilingual or multilingual remains unclear, which raises difficulties in clinical practice to preserve patients’ full language ability in neurosurgery. In this review, we present a summary of the current findings regarding the structure of the language network and its evolution as the number of acquired languages increased in glioma patients. We then discuss a new insight into the awake intra-operative mapping protocol to reduce surgical risks during the preservation of language function in multilingual patients with glioma.
Shen Yang, Rui-Zhe Yang, Xiao-Fan Ma, Shuang-Feng Yang, Yun Peng, Qiang Tao, Kuai Chen, Jun-Feng Tao, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jing-Bin Du, et al.
Yang Wang, Zi-Ru Niu, Li-Yuan Tao, Xiao-Ying Zheng, Yi-Feng Yuan, Ping Liu, Rong Li
Abstract:
Background: Existing clinical prediction models for in vitro fertilization are based on the fresh oocyte cycle, and there is no prediction model to evaluate the probability of successful thawing of cryopreserved mature oocytes. This research aims to identify and study the characteristics of pre-oocyte-retrieval patients that can affect the pregnancy outcomes of emergency oocyte freeze-thaw cycles. Methods: Data were collected from the Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital of China. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to derive the nomogram. Nomogram model performance was assessed by examining the discrimination and calibration in the development and validation cohorts. Discriminatory ability was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and calibration was assessed using the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and calibration plots. Results: The predictors in the model of “no transferable embryo cycles” are female age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.099, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003–1.205, P = 0.0440), duration of infertility (OR = 1.140, 95% CI = 1.018–1.276, P = 0.0240), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level (OR = 1.205, 95% CI = 1.051–1.382, P = 0.0084), basal estradiol (E2) level (OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001–1.010, P = 0.0120), and sperm from microdissection testicular sperm extraction (MESA) (OR = 7.741, 95% CI = 2.905–20.632, P < 0.0010). Upon assessing predictive ability, the AUC for the “no transferable embryo cycles” model was 0.799 (95% CI: 0.722–0.875, P < 0.0010). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.7210) and calibration curve showed good calibration for the prediction of no transferable embryo cycles. The predictors in the cumulative live birth were the number of follicles on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (OR = 1.088, 95% CI = 1.030–1.149, P = 0.0020) and endometriosis (OR = 0.172, 95% CI = 0.035–0.853, P = 0.0310). The AUC for the “cumulative live birth” model was 0.724 (95% CI: 0.647–0.801, P < 0.0010). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.5620) and calibration curve showed good calibration for the prediction of cumulative live birth. Conclusions: The predictors in the final multivariate logistic regression models found to be significantly associated with poor pregnancy outcomes were increasing female age, duration of infertility, high basal FSH and E2 level, endometriosis, sperm from MESA, and low number of follicles with a diameter >10 mm on the day of hCG administration.
Hong-Yi Li, Fang Wang, Min Chen, Zhi-Jian Zheng, Ya-Jun Yin, Jun Hu, Hua Li, Andreas Sammer, Georg Feigl, Norbert Maurer, et al.
Jian Yu, Hong Wang, Min Zhu, Dan Yan, Boqiang Fan, Yun Shi, Min Shen, Xiaoyun Liu, Wei He, Dan Luo, et al.
Si-Ming Dai, Juan Zhang, Xiao-Ying Zhu, Yu-Xuan Lin, Ying Cui, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Zhi-Guo Lin
Lei Meng, Kai-Xuan Xu, Ming-Xi Zhao, Kang Li, Kun Zhu, Da-Wei Yuan, Hao-Nan Wang, Peng-Gao Dai, Rong Yan
Abstract:
Background: Nucleolar protein 6 (NOL6) is a nucleolar RNA-associated protein that is highly conserved between species. It has been proved to be associated with the prognosis of liver cancer. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully established. This study aimed to assess the relationship between NOL6 and liver cancer prognosis. Methods: We constructed an NOL6-short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing lentivirus. Through viral transfection, cell growth assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we evaluated the effect of shRNA-mediated NOL6 knockdown on the proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The relationship between NOL6 expression and HCC patient survival has been established through bioinformatics analysis. We also explored the downstream molecular regulatory network of NOL6 in HCC by performing an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis in the database. Results: Increased NOL6 expression was detected in HCC cells compared to normal controls; HCC patients with high NOL6 expression had poorer prognoses than those with low expression. NOL6 knockdown inhibited HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and colony formation. Also, MAPK8, CEBPA, and FOSL1 were selected as potential downstream genes of NOL6. Conclusions: NOL6 up-regulates HCC cell proliferation and affects downstream expression of related genes. Moreover, NOL6 is considered to be associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients.
Jiu-Jun Zhu, De-Chuang Jiao, Min Yan, Xu-Hui Guo, Ya-Jie Zhao, Xiu-Chun Chen, Cheng-Zheng Wang, Zhen-Duo Lu, Lian-Fang Li, Shu-De Cui, et al.
Shuai-Qi Ji, Rui Han, Ping-Ping Huang, Shuang-Yi Wang, Hao Lin, Lei Ma
Abstract:
Backgrounds: Previous surveys have found that children with iron deficiency (ID) were likely to suffer from early childhood caries (ECC). We aimed to assess the scientific evidence about whether ID is intrinsically related to ECC. Methods: The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and free words were searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals from March 2020 to September 2020. Two researchers independently screened the articles. Data extraction and cross-checking were performed for the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.3 software. Results: After excluding duplication and irrelevant literature, 12 case-control studies were included in the study. The meta-analysis demonstrated that children with ECC were more likely to have ID (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.85, 3.73], P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association found between the level of serum ferritin and ECC (weighted mean difference (WMD) = −5.80, 95% CI: [−11.97, 0.37], P = 0.07). Children with ECC were more likely to have iron-deficiency anemia (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: [2.41,3.11], P < 0.001). The hemoglobin (HGB) levels in the ECC group were significantly lower compared with that in the ECC-free group (WMD = −9.96, 95% CI: [−15.45, −4.46], P = 0.0004). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels in the ECC group were significantly lower compared with that in the ECC-free group (WMD = −3.72, 95% CI: [−6.65, −0.79], P = 0.01). Conclusions: ID was more prevalent in children with ECC, and the markers of iron status in the ECC group, such as serum ferritin, HGB, and MCV, were relatively lower than the ECC-free group.
Tai-Yang Li, Rong Li, Lin Zeng, Li Li, Jie Qiao, Ping Liu, Hai-Yan Wang
Abstract:
Background: Empiric therapy for patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (URPL) is not precise. Some patients will ask for assisted reproductive technology due to secondary infertility or advanced maternal age. The clinical outcomes of URPL patients who have undergone in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) require elucidation. The IVF outcome and influencing factors of URPL patients need further study. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was designed, and 312 infertile patients with URPL who had been treated during January 2012 to December 2015 in the Reproduction Center of Peking University Third Hospital were included. By comparing clinical outcomes between these patients and those with tubal factor infertility (TFI), the factors affecting the clinical outcomes of URPL patients were analyzed. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate (35.18% vs. 34.52% in fresh ET cycles, P = 0.877; 34.48% vs. 40.27% in frozen-thawed ET cycles, P = 0.283) and live birth rate (LBR) in fresh ET cycles (27.67% vs. 26.59%, P = 0.785) were not significantly different between URPL group and TFI group. URPL group had lower LBR in frozen-thawed ET cycles than that of TFI group (23.56% vs. 33.56%, P = 0.047), but the cumulative LBRs (34.69% vs. 38.26%, P = 0.368) were not significantly different between the two groups. The increased endometrial thickness (EMT) on the human chorionic gonadotropin day (odds ratio [OR]: 0.848, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.748–0.962, P = 0.010) and the increased number of eggs retrieved (OR: 0.928, 95% CI: 0.887–0.970, P = 0.001) were protective factors for clinical pregnancy in stimulated cycles. The increased number of eggs retrieved (OR: 0.875, 95% CI: 0.846–0.906, P < 0.001), the increased two-pronucleus rate (OR: 0.151, 95% CI: 0.052–0.437, P < 0.001), and increased EMT (OR: 0.876, 95% CI: 0.770–0.997, P = 0.045) in ET day were protective factors for the cumulative live birth outcome. Conclusion: After matching ages, no significant differences in clinical outcomes were found between the patients with URPL and the patients with TFI. A thicker endometrium and more retrieved oocytes increase the probability of pregnancy in fresh transfer cycles, but a better normal fertilization potential will increase the possibility of a live birth.
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