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Results in Journal Science, Engineering and Technology: 22

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Ferroudja Djellali, Emir Deljanin
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.26

Abstract:
People's emotions are rarely put into words, far more often they are expressed through other cues. The key to intuiting another's feelings is in the ability to read nonverbal channels, tone of voice, gesture, facial expression and the like. Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in a variety of contexts. The range of meanings extends from basic, probably innate, social-emotional concepts such as "surprise" to complex, culture-specific concepts such as "neglect". The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions extends from responses to events in the environment to specific linguistic constructs in sign languages. In this paper, we will use an artificial neural network to classify each image into seven facial emotion classes. The model is trained on a database of FER+ images that we assume is large and diverse enough to indicate which model parameters are generally preferable. The overall results show that, the CNN model is efficient to be able to classify the images according to the state of emotions even in real time.
Amar Ćatović, Nevzudin Buzađija,
Published: 30 April 2022
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.19

Abstract:
Nowadays, when applications are being developed faster with the introduction of agile methodologies and new technologies, microservices are emerging. The microservices make applications easier to create and maintain when broken down into smaller parts, which form a whole application. RabbitMQ acts as an intermediary between the various services. It reduces the load and delivery time on server web applications by delegating tasks that would typically take a lot of time and resources. Message queuing allows web servers to respond quickly to requests rather than being forced to perform complex procedures that can take more time and resources. AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) is a message protocol that deals with publishers and consumers like any other messaging system. Publishers produce messages while consumers download and process them. The job of message brokers, such as RabbitMQ, is to ensure that messages from publishers go to the right consumers. To do this, the broker uses two key components: exchange and order. We demonstrated that the style of microservice architecture is an approach to the development of an application as a set of small services, each in charge of its own process and communication with other services.
Bakir Karahodza, Elma Avdagić-Golub,
Published: 30 April 2022
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.24

Abstract:
Software process improvement implies a set of complex and systematic activities of software engineering. It requires theory and models established in management, technical and social sciences. The improvement is based on the assumption that the organization if it owns mature and capable processes, would be able to deliver quality software on time and in line with predicted costs. The maturity models are initially aimed for implementation in enterprise software organizations, government organizations and within the military industry. Their complexity and the size make them difficult to use in small software organizations and companies. In such organizations the interest for use and the efforts to make an efficient and effective organization is always presented, though. In this paper, the basic and derived capability maturity models are described and cases from their implementation are analyzed, along with assessment of results of such projects in business practices. The problem of the software process improvement in small organizations is described, extracting the risks and recommendations for its enhancement. These recommendations are provided in order to set up a foundation for implementation of these models in a specific managerial and organizational environment characterized by small organizations.
Ermin Muharemović, , , Muhamed Begović
Published: 30 April 2022
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.23

Abstract:
In the last few years, we have been active participants in globalization and the rapid growth of online commerce. This trend directly impacts logistics, postal, and courier companies. Challenges are visible in the growth and development of these companies, as well as quality of task execution and the ability to adapt to market conditions. With the impact of the SARS-COV-19 virus on the market, and due to locks during the pandemic, shoppers were forced to buy products online. This effect accelerated the trend of purchases via e-commerce, which increased the number of parcels in the technological phases of pick-up and delivery. These companies are the bearers of the first and last technological phase of shipment transport. Due to the increase in the number of shipments, postal and logistics companies are under great pressure. This is because of certain restrictions introduced during the pandemic, but also because of costs, especially fixed costs in the first and last phase of transport. This paper proposes an outsourcing model for the pick-up and delivery to convert fixed costs into variable ones.
Nermin Goran, Mujo Hodzic, Anis Maslo, Aljo Mujčić
Published: 30 April 2022
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.22

Abstract:
The main aim of the paper is modeling and simulation of fiber optic transmission. It also deals with ways to increase the capacity of fiber optic transmission links by using WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system. The parameters of the fiber optic transmission link were measured on a real optical transmission links and a model for simulation was set up. A simulation of increasing the capacity of a fiber optic transmission link was made in two ways. The first one is to increase the transmission speeds of the individual channels of the WDM system, and the second one is to increase the number of WDM system channels with lower individual speeds. The simulation results showed that the second method provides better quality of WDM service. The additional experiment was done on an existing ITU T G.655 optical fiber intended for WDM systems whose parameters were measured. Bit error rate and Q parameter for WDM system of 4 and 16 channel was used to check quality of proposed solution.
Belma Memić, Adisa Hasković Džubur, Elma Avdagić-Golub
Published: 30 April 2022
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2022/v2.i1.25

Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) connects everyone in the smart world, so the energy consumption of IoT technology is a challenging and attractive research area. The development of technology in the field of IoT has changed the way of life and enriched society with its benefits, but we must not ignore the fact that IoT consumes energy, contributes to toxic pollution, and generates electrical waste. To increase the benefits and reduce the harmfulness of IoT, there are increasing tendencies to move towards green IoT (G-IoT). The G-IoT is considered the future environmentally friendly IoT. Greening ICT technology plays a key role in G-IoT and promises many benefits to society such as efficient production, and reducing the energy used to design and distribute ICT devices and equipment. This paper will present a comprehensive overview of G-IoT technologies and strategies that demonstrate work and efforts to build a green and smart world, contributing to a safe and healthy environment, smart and high quality of life based on enabling technologies, reducing pollution, and reducing energy consumption. ICT technologies that enable G-IoT include Green RFID, Green Wireless Sensor Network (GWSN), Green Cloud Computing (GCC), Green M2M (G-M2M), and Green Data Center (GDC). The paper will also present an analysis of the importance of environmental technology processes in sustainable development, exploring the principles and roles of G-IoT in the progress of society through examining its potential for improving quality of life, environment, economic growth, and green global modernization.
, Ermin Muharemović, , Mirza Lakaca, Edvin Šimić
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.9

Abstract:
New technologies primarily affect the lives of all people, their habits, needs, desires, but also significantly affect the demands placed on various business sectors. Discussions on the increasingly rapid development of technical-technological solutions that can be applied in the postal sector and logistics have a long history. New technologies in all areas bring a constant change in the relationship between companies and their customers, which significantly affect the quality of work and activities. In the years to come, it will be an increasing challenge for postal operators around the world, as well as for other companies, to achieve substantive communication and understanding of their customers through the application of innovative technologies. Understanding and learning about customer issues is key to offering them services that, with their precise targeting of stakeholders, quality, visibility, efficiency, and, perhaps most importantly, flexibility, will be able to meet needs that change so quickly over time. This will be possible with new technologies and innovative solutions. The paper presents a market research on the potential use of autonomous vehicles and drones in the postal sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research is based on a survey questionnaire on the use of drones and autonomous vehicles in the postal sector in the segment of shipment delivery.
Nedžad Branković, Aida Kalem
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.10

Abstract:
The development of new technologies has significantly influenced railways modernization and has caused the appearance of high-speed rail which represent a safe, comfortable and ecologically sustainable way of transportation. The high-speed rail present a big step in a relation to conventional railways, where the biggest difference is speed which even entails a change of other organizational and operational parameters, better utilization of trains, higher performance of manpower and better service to users. That is visible in many cities around the world where high-speed trains are used by billions of users. In the EU there is no unique high-speed railway network, besides that in many EU member countries various operational models are applied. The future of the high-speed railways market depends on political, economical and technical factors and challenges as high infrastructure costs, various rates of return on investment and the negative effects of economic crises. The main objective of the paper is to analyze infrastucture costs of high-speed rail in Europe and benefits such us time savings, higher reliability, comfort, safety, reducing pollution and the release of capacity in the conventional rail network, roads and airport infrastructure.
Salihović Nazif, Adisa Hasković Džubur
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 59-67; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.11

Abstract:
An information network is a structure used for transmitting various forms and types of information. In basic structure, it consists of branches that connect certain nodes. Many scientists and researchers have dealt with the problem of defining an information network, depending on the functional organization and data transmission, and also with the classification of information networks. Information networks have a very wide application in almost all scientific disciplines. A large number of researches are carried out on the application of information networks (e.g. bisociative, deep information network, heterogeneous information network, and space information network) in the field of medicine for easier detection of diseases, drug development, etc, and other needs to support real-time communication, massive data transmission, and data processing. In accordance with the above mentioned, the aim of this paper is to offer different approaches in defining and classifying general forms of information networks and to notice their wide application in different research disciplines.
Belma Memić, , Adisa Hasković Džubur, Elma Avdagić-Golub
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.12

Abstract:
Routing in multidomain and multilayer networks is the subject of constant theoretical research, with special emphasis on routing optimization algorithms based on several criteria. Such research results in new proposals. The basic task of the algorithm is to perform the given task in a finite and reasonable period of time and with reasonable resource requirements. When new solutions are compared with previous solutions, it is necessary to consider as much information as possible about the characteristics and differences between these algorithms, which ultimately determines the degree of success of the algorithm. Routing algorithms depend on the goals to be achieved and most often solve a certain group of problems with certain simplifications of the overall problem and to the detriment of performance that are not crucial for a given routing optimization problem. Therefore, it is necessary to have acceptable methods for efficiency-complexity evaluation methods of routing algorithms with certain, universally applicable, metrics. Several theoretical approaches, including graph theory, optimization theory, complexity theory, allow approaches to compare the algorithms and the results achieved with the help of these algorithms.
Enisa Hodžić, , Anesa Kavazović,
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.13

Abstract:
Information-Communication Technologies (ICTs) are currently used in various fields and there are many amazing inventions that are already present and make communication and life easier for us on a daily basis. The use of ICTs is less represented in the social work institutions. Therefore, this paper presents the implementation of ICTs through the chatbot application for the needs of social work created on the Tidio platform and within the webpage of the Public Institution “Center for Social Work Tešanj”. The application facilitates the work of social workers in collecting information from the users and eases the aid received by the users of social care in terms of faster responses to inquiries during emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, but also after. For the purpose of this research, an end-user survey was created and conducted with the aim of collecting user opinions on the acceptance and motivation for the use of chatbots in social work institutions. The results showed good acceptance and usage motivation of social work chatbot.
Sara Klisara, Goran Nermin, Elma Avdagić-Golub
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.15

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the problem of 5G network cell planning. In addition, it presents an example of a rough estimation of the required number of cells or base stations in a certain area for arbitrary number of users who are provided with a certain bandwidth per user within these cells. The cell number estimation is the initial step and the essence of planning and implementation of 5G network in an area. It is helpful for the operators to create and take into the account business plans in order to fully implement the network as a function of number of users which have to be served. Considering that, knowing the rough number of 5G base stations per user is very important for pre-sale activities and eventually necessity for widening of the initial investments. Therefore, the paper presents four scenarios that include different network parameters. Depending on the network parameters, the required number of base stations in a certain area changes. Given scenarios are examples of one 5G network in virtual area per bandwidth per user.
Ajna Fetić, Adnan Dželihodžić
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.16

Abstract:
Cancer is the leading disease in the world by the increasing number of new patients and deaths every year. Hence, it is the most feared disease of our time. It is believed that lung cancer and breast cancer are most common types of cancer and they both are subtypes of the same group of cancer – carcinoma. With this type of cancer early detection is of great importance for patient survival. As it is the disease that has unfortunately been around for many years, today we have datasets with all necessary information for diagnosing and predicting cancer. Predicting cancer means deciding if the cancer is malignant or benign. The key to this answer lays in different values of parameters that have been stored when the disease was discovered. Machine learning plays the crucial role in predicting cancer, given the fact that algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF) and etc. are designed to find the pattern that occurs in large sets of data and based on that make a decision. In this paper, author's goal is to see how machine learning and its practical implementation on public datasets can help with early breast cancer diagnosis and hopefully help save more lives.
Adnan Omerhodžić, Samir Džaferović
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 54-58; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.17

Abstract:
The trend of continuous increase for mobility requirements results in a progressive increase in the use of vehicles of all modes of transport, which contributes to a significant increase in noise levels, especially in urban areas. The most significant noise in urban areas is traffic noise, where road traffic contributes the most. This paper reviews the treatment of road traffic noise in the European Union with a focus on Directive 2002/49 / EC. The paper presents the basics of the mechanisms of the institutional and management framework in the field of road traffic noise monitoring in EU countries. Also, the results of road traffic noise monitoring in EU countries, indicators of population exposure to road traffic noise, as well as indicators of the impact of road traffic noise on the health of the population, were presented.
Mustafa Mehanović
Published: 30 October 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i2.18

Abstract:
This paper presents a model push on which to determine the flow rates vehicles per share on the basis of circular intersections recorded entries and exits of vehicles in the aisles. In addition it is possible to analyze the influence of individual flows at intersections capacity, and determine the number of vehicles at the intersection of routes in the knowledge of the number of vehicles leaving the intersection at the next exit. Count the number of vehicles it is easier to manually and by using new technologies. Model (MIKR) results in a longer or shorter period of time which gives both static and dynamic characteristics.
Nadina Ajdinović, Semina Nurkić, ,
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.8

Abstract:
Network traffic recognition serves as a basic condition for network operators to differentiate and prioritize traffic for a number of purposes, from guaranteeing the Quality of Service (QoS), to monitoring safety, as well as monitoring and detecting anomalies. Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) is an open-source project that enables real-time audio, video, and text communication among browsers. Since WebRTC does not include any characteristic pattern for semantically based traffic recognition, this paper proposes models for recognizing traffic generated during WebRTC audio and video communication based on statistical characteristics and usage of machine learning in Weka tool. Five classification algorithms have been used for model development, such as Naive Bayes, J48, Random Forest, REP tree, and Bayes Net. The results show that J48 and BayesNet have the best performances in this experimental case of WebRTC traffic recognition. Future work will be focused on comparison of a wide range of machine learning algorithms using a large enough dataset to improve the significance of the results.
Mustafa Mehanović
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 42-51; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.6

Abstract:
The transport of the tram system on a high capacity corridor in a narrow urban area with increasing demand has become limiting both in terms of capacity and in terms of quality improvement. In this sense, the tram system in Sarajevo, as the primary system of city passenger transport, for many years, requires improvement in order to meet demand. The lack of clear strategies and plans for improving the primary transport system results in interventions of short-term investments in the maintenance of the infrastructure and suprastructure of the classic tramway of outdated and abandoned technology. In this way, the system is brought into a state of very unreliable and unsafe work. On the other hand, it is obvious that the development of individual motorized traffic has led to the fact that the common route has worsened the quality and safety of driving. The paper presents basic guidelines and aspects for the transformation of the classical tram in Sarajevo to the Light Rail System that can reach the fast city railway with the quantity and quality of the offer.
Nedžad Branković, Aida Kalem, Adisa Medić
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.2

Abstract:
Development of high-speed railways set up challenges for new communication technologies. With the increase in speed, new requirements for communication systems have emerged that HSR requires greater reliability, capacity and shorter response time for efficient and safe operations. Mobile communication systems are crucial for the competitiveness of the railway industry and therefore have become one of the priorities addressed by the participants in the railway system to take advantage of technological opportunities to improve operational processes and the quality of provided transport services. The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) uses the Global System for Mobile Communications for Railways (GSM-R) for voice and data communication to communicate between trains and control centers. The International Railway Union is exploring new ways of communicating for high-speed railways because as speed increases this system becomes unreliable in information transmission. This paperwork presents an analysis of the evolution of communications on European railways since the usage of GSM-R. In addition, an overview of the various alternative solutions proposed during the time (LTE-R, Future Railway Mobile Communication System) as possible successors to GSM-R technology is given.
Elma Avdagić-Golub, Adisa Hasković Džubur, Belma Memić
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 52-58; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.4

Abstract:
Nowadays, companies face numerous challenges to operate successfully and remain competitive in the market. Globalization is increasing competition in the market, allowing many companies to operate in foreign markets. Increasing competition has made companies constantly trying to increase their productivity while reducing costs. To meet all the requirements, and at the same time function in the best possible way, companies must be organized adequately, taking into account the whole set of processes from the company's internal organization to the company's appearance on the market. It means, if the end-user is to be satisfied, the company must implement quality in all phases of business, ie business ethics and company culture, through the quality of technology, personnel, etc. In other words, it must be satisfied the system quality of the company, known in the literature as QMS (Quality Management System). The main purpose of this paper is to review the multiple understanding of the concept of QMS and its different underpinning theories in a business to customer context. The design of this research is based on mere documentary analysis and some observations.
, Adisa Hasković Džubur, Bakir Karahodža
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.3

Abstract:
Internet of Things (IoT) is the inter-networking paradigm based on many processes such as identifying, sensing, networking and computation. An IoT technology stack provides seamless connectivity between various physical and virtual objects. The increasing number of IoT applications leads to the issue of transmitting, storing, and processing a large amount of data. Therefore, it is necessary to enable a system capable to handle the growing traffic requirements with the required level of QoS (Quality of Service). IoT devices become more complex due to the various components such as sensors and network interfaces. The IoT environment is often demanding for mobile power source, QoS, mobility, reliability, security, and other requirements. Therefore, new IoT technologies are required to overcome some of these issues. In recent years new wireless communication technologies are being developed to support the development of new IoT applications. This paper provides an overview of some of the most widely used wireless communication technologies used for IoT applications.
Fadila Kiso, Ajdin Džananović, Samira Šabanović-Karičić
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.7

Abstract:
The traditional approach to the analysis of traffic accidents has mostly involved identifying omissions in vehicles and drivers, which led to the occurrence of a traffic accident. However, more recent EU directives dealing with this area emphasize infrastructure failures that may be the real cause of the accident. This approach refers to preventive action, ie the design of such infrastructure that will, in case of failure of the driver, "forgive" the driver his mistake and prevent the occurrence of a traffic accident or reduce the consequences of a traffic accident. To achieve this, a completely new approach to the problem is needed, ie to build, reconstruct and regenerate the road infrastructure according to its real function from the aspect of traffic safety. The realization of these concepts in our area implies primarily the education of all entities that have contact with road infrastructure (designers, managers, auditors, etc.), with emphasis on the fact that savings on the material are significantly less than the savings achieved by reducing the number of accidents, with injured faces and fatalities.
Adisa Hasković Džubur, , Belma Memić, Elma Avdagić-Golub
Published: 30 April 2021
Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 1, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.54327/set2021/v1.i1.1

Abstract:
A large number of researchers found their interest in addressing the issue of capacity scaling for wireless ad hoc networks. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the development of capacity scaling laws in wireless networks, highlighting the problem of scaling as one of the basic challenges in their research. The review began with the definition of the notion of bandwidth of random networks, which were taken as a reference model of consideration when determining more advanced strategies for improving throughput capacity. Based on these strategies, other factors that have an impact on capacity scaling laws have been identified and elaborated. Finally, the capacity of hybrid wireless networks, ie networks in which at least two types of nodes functionally exist (ad hoc nodes/infrastructure nodes / auxiliary nodes), was partially investigated.
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