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Lali Dzamukashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.533

Abstract:
Bachelor's degree is a final step before graduating first four years of studying at the university. The students show off their knowledge and research skills acquired by the University that are based on their original vision and scientific information. Writing a bachelor's thesis is a responsible, interesting and at the same time stressful job. It requires formal characteristics of its performance, which determine the content, form and style of the paper.The researcher of the undergraduate thesis raises the problem, analyzes, substantiates and suggests the solutions, evaluates the research results and concludes. During the working process new knowledge is activated which is based on analytical skills and critical reasoning.Maintaining academic standards in the paper makes it more fruitful because it gives the reader a sense that the author of the paper depends on reliable academic sources to support his or her own reasoning and position.The completed paper will be checked for plagiarism. There are numerous programs which reveal the originality of the work. After all, there is a big temptation of plagiarism in the papers.Preventing plagiarism offers to protect someone else’s intellectual property and make the student aware that he or she has to respect the rights of intellectual property and distance himself or herself from plagiarism. Avoiding Plagiarism in the paper is possible if the student has been clearly informed about the mechanisms or responses that plagiarism may cause in his or her work. Awareness is largely responsible for preventing plagiarism, however, only the moral part of the problem is not enough. We need to pay more attention to proper implementation of the academic techniques in the academic environment.
Yuriy Boychuk, Svitlana Berezhna, Kateryna Yuryeva
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.535

Abstract:
Ethno-cultural diversity of the population of Ukraine actualizes the problem of preparing future teachers and educators for professional activities in a multicultural society. The legislative, normative, and conceptual framework of intercultural education in Ukraine is listed. The achievements of international organizations have been taken into account and creatively developed: UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, The Council of Europe. The author’s approach to the interpretation of the essence of intercultural competence is revealed, which provides the teacher with the ability to understand and respect the cultural diversity of modern Ukrainian society, understand its value as a resource for the development of personality and society, and use in practice the educational and socializing potential of cultural diversity. The structure of the intercultural competence is outlined, which combines personal-psychological, cognitive, procedural-activity components. The model of the formation of future teachers’ intercultural competence was developed and implemented at the H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The model assumes the construction of the content of the process of forming intercultural competence on the basis of a comparative acquaintance of future teachers with the traditional culture of different peoples and its implementation in the educational process, pedagogical practices, extracurricular and research activities of students; the use of innovative forms, methods and techniques of work: interactive, training, game, project; purposeful impact on the emotional sphere of the student's personality (work with moral dilemmas and multimedia resources); creation of an educational environment for intercultural communication in a pedagogical university. The media resources used in the process of forming the intercultural competence of future teachers (films of the Docudays festival, cartoons of the “Lullabies of the Worldˮ project, clips of the video project “Made in Ukraineˮ, etc.), as well as digital tools (virtual interactive whiteboards Padlet, Google Jamboard, service for creating presentations and instant polls Mentimeter, an online tool for creating interactive Wordwall games).
Nino Gigilashvili, Salome Tatulishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.537

Abstract:
Georgia’s involvement in the Bologna process has completely changed and redefined the orientation of its development and, therefore, its strategic goals. Initially, the Law of Georgia on Higher Education was drafted (adopted December 21, 2004) which regulates the process of carrying out educational and scientific-research activities by higher education institutions in Georgia, and the principles and procedures of administering and financing higher education; it also defines the procedures for establishment, reorganization of the activities and for the liquidation of all the higher education institutions, as well as principles of the authorization and accreditation of higher education institutions. The given law has set minimum standards and requirements for the establishment of higher education institutions in the education system of Georgia. On the whole, the changes made and defined in the Law on Higher Education has laid the foundation for the authorization and accreditation of higher education institutions as an essential requirement for their existence and sustainability in the common European educational area.
Tamar Tamarashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.528

Abstract:
Kakheti region is rich in abundance and diversity of tourist resources. The study and popularization of the tourism resources of each municipality is important for the cultural and economic development of both the region and each village. The article presents the multifaceted tourist opportunities in the territory of one of the ancient villages, Kisiskhevi, as a basis for tourism development. The unique cultural and religious objects in and around the village are analyzed, which make it possible to plan various tourist routes. Especially noteworthy is the "Ghvtismshoblis chalis" complex. The area "Nakaravnali" was an intermediate point on the road that passed through this valley. On the medieval roads, every thirty kilometers, there was a stop for a caravan or caravanserai, where the caravan rested. The diverse cultural heritage of the village of Kisiskhevi provides an opportunity to plan tourist tours of different types, complexity and themes (cultural, cognitive, religious, extreme, etc). The involvement in the routes of the ancient churches and monasteries will have a positive impact on the promotion of tourist resources.
Manana Mchedlishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.529

Abstract:
The study of financial instruments, based on international standards, showed us: That the role and importance of financial instruments is paramount to the proper functioning of a country's economy. Accordingly, commercial banks record financial instruments in accordance with international standards. With the transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9, TBC Bank has changed its methods of recognizing and valuing financial instruments; As a result of adopting IFRS 9, TBC Bank reduced its credit loss as its valuation methods changed; TBC Bank, in accordance with international standards, always determines the expected credit loss. Constantly monitors loans and reclassifies them if necessary. The loan is assessed as modified. Differences caused by the modification are reflected in profit or loss. In 2020, the loss of net modification of financial instruments amounted to GEL 41.0 million. As a result of the transition to the new standard in TBC Bank, the total amount of reserves increased by 63,600 thousand GE. In the conditions of the pandemic, amendments were made to IFRS-9. Which is due to changes in benchmark interest rates such as LIBOR and other interbank offered rates. The Board of Directors also decided not to recommend a dividend On March 20, 2020, TBC Leasing, with the assistance of TBC Capital, placed secured bonds in the amount of GEL 58.4 million on the Georgian Stock Exchange. In our opinion, according to IFRS 9, special attention should be paid to forecast information when assessing credit risks. In particular, the assessment of expected credit losses should take into account expected trends in the macroeconomic and financial environment and local and global risks. This will facilitate the timely recording of credit risks and thus have a positive impact on financial stability.
Gvanca Chanturia, Khatia Khatiashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.546

Abstract:
The study of inclusive education has an early history in EU countries. It has gone through many stages in its formation from ancient times to the present day. At first the persons with disabilities were excluded from society, but today almost every country in the world agrees, that people with disabilities should live integrated in our society as it is possible. Therefore, we decided to conduct a cross-case analysis on the example of two European countries – France and Sweden.Involving persons with special educational needs in the educational process of HEI on the example of inclusive education model is not an easy process. It requires the development and application of new regulations at both, theoretical and practical levels.Authorities were interested in the problem of access to the HEI primarily in the late 20th century. However, this was accompanied with many problems. This led the public to think about who could get a higher education and who could not. It was necessary to train staff and administration, to equip universities with special equipment and prepare textbooks. This is still in the process of refinement, as not all countries can boast of a complete solution to this problem. Much has been done, but much more remains to be done.An important element in the education system is still the school, the basic level. Students come from school and get the bulk of their education there. It is noteworthy, what they got from school and what we could give them in the high school.
Irma Shioshvili, Nino Kakhashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.524

Abstract:
XIX century Georgian literature is quite versatile and diverse. It is the transitional period from Romanticism to Realism that is continuously accompanied by the national motive. Though, many other topics were also emphasized in literature of the mentioned period. Georgian literature beginning with its first works guards the morality. Works of XIX century Georgian creators are distinguished in that regard as well. Different ideal characters created by them are the special examples for society even today. This time the given work deals with Akaki Tsereteli’s poems. It is worth of interest as how the ideology of realist, warrior poet is compatible with the tolerant approaches, when Akaki Tsereteli is tolerant and if their characters can forgive and gain a victory over themselves. Tolerance as the moral phenomenon and its philosophical definition are also emphasized in the given work in an interesting way. All of the abovementioned matters are quite acceptable for Akaki. Great humanism and tolerance are revealed in poet’s words. After analyzing the poems given in the work it becomes clear that the poet is tolerant not only with neighbors, but also he turns out to be the most gracious one with enemies. His characters find ways for showing courage even in the war. His characters are not only heroic warriors, the poet also gives them quite a tender temper and that is the reason for becoming worthy brave man. His characters are separated from the natural things, defeat selfish forces and make such decisions in a specific moment that helps them remain humans with morality, they are right with their own conscience and it is the expression of their free will. The given work allows to conclude that Akaki Tsereteli’s poems reveal the greatest examples of tolerance and offer society the samples of humanism and morality.
Manana Aladashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.527

Abstract:
The desires and needs of tourists are often considered to be the motivation for travel. The International Tourism Survey showed that there are four main factors: culture, destinations, social contact and adventure, which influence the decision of tourists to travel in international tourism.The paper discusses the rational and emotional motives that influence tourists' travel choices and the selection of the tourism industry sector. Rational motives represent economic; Minimize risks, stability, life safety, health, property, financial resources; Comfort when arriving at the destination and compatibility of service quality with price.Emotional motives are no less important, include knowledge acquisition, success, respect and recognition, consideration of fashion trends, reputation and status.Based on the motivations of the consumers and the behavior of the people, a list of types of leisure has been formed, which is preferred by a large number of consumers: 1) rest, which has the character of restoration of rest; 2) active recreation (possibly with sports activities); 3) educational and cultural recreation; 4) Spectacular, entertaining, light rest; 5) Medical and recreational rest. We can say that the rapid development of the travel industry today is largely due to the transformation of public consciousness. Today, in the structure of modern human values, there is a quality rest that meets his individual needs. These requirements of the modern consumer of tourism services should be taken into account in the development of tourism-related infrastructure and the tourism industry in order to develop their tourist attractiveness in different regions of the world.
Malkhaz Chokharadze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.525

Abstract:
Chorokhi is the main river of historical southern Georgia. Interesting background knowledge about sailing on Chorokhi was preserved by the press and the records of travelers of the last quarter of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, as well as by the collective memory of the population living by the edge of the river. Interestingly, the Chorokhi navigation area has almost never been reflected in fiction. Therefore, the work “Adjarians” by Arthur Zuttner is undoubtedly of great importance.Arthur Zuttner, an Austrian writer, lived in Georgia with his wife Bertha from 1876-1885. “Adjarians” was published in Germany in 1888, and the Georgian translation by Rusudan Ghvinepadze was published in 2007.“Adjarians” reflects the reality of southern Georgia before the Russo-Ottoman war of 1877-78. The action takes place mainly in the Chorokhi basin. The author describes the Chorokhi boat and sailing in only a few episodes, though, quite extensively. The work deals with the navigation images described by Zuttner in the novel, especially how the Chorokhi navigation area is reflected in the work and what is the relationship between the relevant episodes of the novel and the objective reality. It is obvious that the writer has deep insight into the life of the Chorokhi sailors and the local specifics of the river sailing. Obviously, Suttner's text is an artistic interpretation of reality, but it must also be noted that the navigational narrative in Suttner’s novel, with a few exceptions, accurately depicts a number of 19th century details of the Chorokhi navigation artery. Consequently, the images depicted in the novel are undoubtedly interesting for the literature lovers and the readers of fiction interested in the history or details of life.
Nino Gogiashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.519

Abstract:
War has been reflected in national cultures and literature of every country, as it is related to sharp and turbulent emotions. The fear of death, tension, heroic pathos and suffering, following every war, gives it esthetic value and certain romantic touch too. Georgian-Ossetian conflict, war in Abkhazia, civil war and Georgian-Russian war have clearly been reflected in the literature created at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries, both in prose and poetry. In the presented report I will discuss Georgian women’s poetry, in which war is a literary reception and poems are the space for the reflection of emotions caused by war. In 2020, were published 2 volumes of the Almanac – Without Limits – which include texts by Georgian woman poets and writers, dedicated to war. Accordingly, the main literary material when preparing the report was the first, poetry volume of the aforementioned Almanac. The thesis does not consider discussion of war reception in general, in contemporary poetry, but only in the works by contemporary woman poets. There are radically different opinions on whether or not anthologies must differ according to gender and that art and its creator – artist – do not have an art-gender. It is true that art is universal and stands above any ethnic, race, religious, gender or age affiliations; however, we cannot ignore the fact that all these criteria are revealed themselves in literary works. Therefore, women’s poetry is specific and woman is always seen in its invisible nuances. In view of the research, it appeared to be very interesting and essential, how the war topic has been accepted and processed by contemporary women’s poetry. Contexts of Russian occupation, Georgian-Abkhazian and Georgian-Ossetian ethnic conflicts, civil wars, formed as the new, post-soviet stereotypes, have clearly been reflected in Georgian women’s poetry; while postmodernism has appeared to be the favorable space for ignoring the Soviet clichés.
Temur Jagodnishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.526

Abstract:
Folklore and ethnography as a folk ethnoculture were intensively studied in Georgia in the 70s of the XIX and XX centuries. Then the found material has been printed according to the folkloric principle. The publication of the complete corpus of Georgian folk prose was published. On this background, it is clear that Georgian folklore has not been collected so far (nor in the living oral tradition, neither in texts recorded at different levels and preserved in various archives). This is evidenced even by the richest folklore collections preserved at the Pushkin House in St. Petersburg, which became known by the folklore expedition in 2018.Modernity has presented a new perspective on the importance of folklore as an ethnoculture for the dialogue of cultures. In its significance, it has been equated with national culture (classical, elitist). This circumstance requires a new understanding of the cultural status of folklore and puts on the agenda of necessity for dialogue between national classical (elite) and folk (folk) cultures.
Nino Kochloshvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.521

Abstract:
Documentary prose with a direct description of the author's contemporaneous epoch-making problems, historical-political events or the development of public thought is always the subject of the reader's interest. Although for works of the documentary genre, to some extent, the subjectivism of the narrator is not foreign, at least its main dignity is the real beginnings.The book of memoirs "From Prison to Prison" by Ramaz Kobidze, one of the victims of the "Stalinist cohort" is very interesting.The author of the book pays special attention to the necessity of documentary prose before recollection. He considered it obligatory not only for writers, but also for state figures, to keep the last few years for the production of documentary-type works, namely memoirs. In his view, if a statesman did not leave a documentary-type work to his descendants, it would always be a cause of unrest, strife, and sometimes even civil war.From the title, a very interesting documentary based on Ramaz Kobidze's "From Prison to Prison" memoirs prepares the reader to get acquainted with and understand the work of the "Stalinist cohort", the victim of which was the author of the work as a member of the "Secret Anti-Soviet Youth Organization".In addition to the specific facts of political persecution in the Book of Memoirs, which not infrequently took place not only in the life of the writer, but also in the lives of his friends and relatives, they also provide you with inspiring images of cruelty and disorder typical of the Stalinist regime.Ramaz Kobidze's book of memoirs "From Prison to Prison" is an extremely interesting source for studying not a single important event of Soviet existence. It contains a number of cases of ideological pressure typical of the Stalinist regime, which zombified a large part of the intellectual community at the time, made them worthy representatives of the "Stalinist cohort." And they destroyed a large part of the Georgian intelligentsia, but the "Soviet generation intelligentsia" was trained, raised and handed over the future of the country.
Mariam Zakariashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.539

Abstract:
The article discusses the technological aspects of distance learning in the GeoGebra Classroom virtual math platform environment, based on a practical model of using the GeoGebra Classroom. In particular, the main activities of Geogebra Classroom are presented in the following order: Activities - find / create an activity; GeoGebra class - create a GeoGebra class; Admission of students to the GoeGebra class; Appointment of a co-teacher; Monitoring student progress; GeoGebra classrooms in a distance learning environment; GeoGebra Applets (Graphing; CASE; Geometry; 3D Graphics; Spreadsheet; Probability; Notes) for GeoGebra Classroom; Creating a GeoGebra class from a GeoGebra book.Every activity in the work is explained and performed in practice, which is confirmed by the corresponding illustrations actually carried out in the GeoGebra classroom environment. The algorithm for carrying out each activity is explained in detail and analyzed from a technological point of view and the methodological value of a separate step is shown. The discussion of the individual activities is accompanied by the proper definitions and purposes of the GeoGebra Classroom environment interface.The article provides the recommendations for the necessary measures before starting the practical work in the GeoGebra Classroom,such as: Registration on the official GeoGebra website https://www.geogebra.org/; Download the GeoGebra Classic installation package and install it on the local computer; Have knowledge of using online and installed applications of GeoGebra Classic to create a resource.The main activities of the GeoGebra classroom in the work are carried out on the example of discussing a practical model, parallel lines, with virtual groups of students. The following steps are shown sequentially: Creating resources in local and online GeoGebra applications; Creation of activities and their enrichment with additional elements of educational goals (Text; GeoGebra Applet; Notes; Question: Open question, Multiple choice; Video; Picture; PDF file Web); Creating a GeoGebra class and engaging participants online in real time; interactive communication in the GeoGebra classroom with the joint participation of the teacher and sstudents, which does not require sharing of screens by students; Tracking students' progress in the educational process, conducting anonymous discussions and providing feedback.The article analyzes and confirms the success of using GeoGebra Classroom in teaching mathematics both in schools and in higher educational institutions.
Lia Metreveli
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.532

Abstract:
Mankind has long faced the question - what is the main thing in human life, Why is life worth living?Some philosophers considered happiness-pleasure-bliss to be the highest value. Consequently, the meaning of human lifewas seen in achieving all this (Democrats, Epicureans and Epicureans, French and English materialists, Feuerbach, Russian Revolutionary Democrats), while others viewed life in accordance with duty. According to the ethics of happiness, the main orientation of morality is the pursuit of happiness; Morality is what leads a person to happiness. This does not preclude a moment of temporary suffering and distress in order to achieve ultimate bliss.Such an understanding of happiness and the recognition of bliss as the meaning of human life has aroused the desire of all sections of society to strive for happiness. That caused a collision between the interests of people, often irreconcilable conflicts and contradictions.Ethical rigorism based morality solely on a sense of duty and ruled out human spontaneous aspirations. It is essentially the same as asceticism. And according to the representatives of the ethics of duty, we should look for the meaning of human life in the specifics of human life. If we see the meaning of human life in the pursuit of happiness and bliss, then Then human life is nothing higher than the existence of animals - the regulator of animal behavior is also pleasure-enjoyment-bliss! Man stands above the animal world so much that he can subdue his aspirations towards sources of pleasure and live according to his\her duties. People have these responsibilities to the homeland, relatives and humanity, as well as to themselves. For example, taking care of your own health-beauty, acquiring knowledge, moral perfection. Performing duty requires great spiritual tension, a strict attitude towards oneself, that is why living according to duty is the specificity of human existence, which gives a person a sense of dignity and perfection.Ethics historians point out that eventually, from the "back door", the ethics of duty also goes to the ethics of happiness, because it promises people to achieve happiness through the performance of duties. By the same logic, ethics, happiness attributed to Christian ethics too. Christian ethics emphasizes man's responsibilities to God, his parents, other people, and even his own enemies. At the same time, this will faithfully discharge the duties of the person promises to God's mercy in this world and paradise in the country. It is nothing but happiness. Duty as the end of human life was recognized by Immanuel Kant. In his view, morality and moral behavior must be based on a sense of duty, regardless of any consequences of the behavior (see Kant's categorical imperative).
Madona Nikolaishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.543

Abstract:
The article discusses the role of homework as one of the important components of assessing student achievement in the process of monitoring the quality of teaching and learning, because it is the quality of homework that provides important information about the individual progress of the student. Emphasis is placed on the importance of homework for the student to develop comprehension of learning materials and problem-solving skills independently.Based on the results of the research, the difficulties that accompany homework are analyzed. The role and responsibility of the teacher is defined to determine and take into account the optimal volume and complexity of homework, which is extremely important for achieving the main goals of learning and upbringing.The author focuses on the questions: What factors influence this process? What individual characteristics can students have? In what environment do they have to do their homework? How much volume and difficulty should homework be given so that the student does not lose interest and belief in their own strengths? Should a parent intervene in the homework process or not? Analysis of the data shows that only a small proportion of students have the opportunity to isolate themselves from family members during their studies. Most do not have a suitable work space to do their homework, study in a common room, with the TV on and talking to family members, or in the kitchen.The author believes that it is advisable to plan and implement interventions to help both students and parents. Finally, some examples of „non-traditional“ homework are suggested, as well as interventions to help parents.
Mimoza Tkebuchava, Tinatin Bezhanishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.544

Abstract:
Distance learning was a mean of maximizing opportunities with a big challenge for the people in the world who works in the education space. We read the articles about experience of Great Britain, USA and Georgia. Our school was involved in distance learning actively and we conducted a survey of as schoolchildren as parents in order to value our activity. In this study, we focused on identifying the pros and cons of online learning that were necessary to refine the learning process. The research began in several stages. We took 1st - 6th, 7th – 12th grades as target groups and parents’ group too. 357 students participated in the study from 1st and 6th grades and 192 participants and 349 parents participated from 7th and 12th grades. The results of research were quite interesting and informative for the school. The study identified the needs with we planned the new learining process.2020-2021 has also started with new challenges for our school. We were involved in a new school model, along with a new hybrid model of teaching. We took into account research results and at the end of the year decided to conduct a face-to-face survey in a learning environment in order to better express their attitudes. We summarized their answers and formed the main orientaries.It is important to emphasize the direction of inclusive education. According the research, we assessed children’s academic and cognitive skills online and interviewed parents and teachers, made lessons’ monitoring. Thus, this research showed the faults that accompanied distance learning during the pandemic period. The information that we received enabled us to understand the challenges we faced, accordingly, we tried to adapt the learning process to the student as much as possible.
Mariam Chokharadze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.545

Abstract:
Assessment plays an important role in the planning and implementation process of teaching. Assessment is a continuous process of collecting, recording and analyzing quality data to achieve learning objectives, a consistent study of the success and progress of language learners.In this paper we discuss the issues of teaching and assessment of Georgian as a foreign language. First of all, we will discuss some strategies related to learning process. We will present our innovation in the assessment system. This is a novelty that we have worked on with our colleagues at Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University within the short-term educational program “Georgian Language for Foreigners”.In this work we will discuss about how to use the electronic resources to develop specific language competencies and assess the knowledge based on relevant materials. We note that the article mainly reflects our personal experience, which we have accumulated in the teaching process, the innovations that we have tried to introduce to groups of non-Georgian listeners.
Ketevan Barbakadze, Tamar Gogoladze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.517

Abstract:
The history of Georgian painting is closely connected with the name of the 19th century artist Giorgi (Grigol) Maisuradze, who went through the way of demonstrating his artistic talent, from the family of peasants to the Brulov Academy and later working as a teacher of art. Giorgi Maisuradze's paintings are preserved in various museums in Kutaisi, and his following biography with his family and descendants still creates an interesting cultural gallery where famous Georgian artists, writers and scientists are presented. The artist's works has been thoroughly studied by an art critic Shalva Kvaskhkadze, and the present issue is from the history of Georgian culture.
Tea Talakvadze, Ivlita Lobjanidze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.520

Abstract:
Memory studies have been particularly active since the second half of the 20th century and include a mix of fields of culturology, social psychology, media archeology, political philosophy, and comparative literature. Memory studies have formed the basis of both collective and individual identity studies, as well as the study of psycho-social factors in understanding traumatic memory and attempts to overcome trauma. Memory studies have activated an in-depth analysis of the construction of national and cultural identities and brought them into the context of transnational and transcultural studies.Based on the above, the purpose of this report is to provide a transcultural understanding of national culture based on the study of cultural memory, which is primarily based on the study of national identity and the analysis of the compositional nature of common / shared myths.
Tamar Shaishmelashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.523

Abstract:
Like Vazha-Pshavela’s Mindia, Levan Gotua was a mystic of nature. This feeling was compounded by the arrests. After each release from prison, nature became his refuge. Inspiration has also grown by a hundred. He came from nature in writing.The writer in his publicist letters argued why nature is „the protector of our nation“ and „geographical happiness“. If we did not have this „geographical miracle“, we would probably have shared the fate of Babylon, Assyria, Hittites, Urartu and other modern tribes.Levan Gotua concludes that our history and geography are „completely inseparable". She called the forest „Green Mother“, the tree was also called the Green Temple.He was a great fan of nature. He thought a lot about the past, present, future and was sure that Georgia is not only a mountainous, but also a forest country. Almost all spheres of Georgian life began with the forest, he connected nature and forest with the fate of the nation and could not imagine any of them.According to him, sometimes the reason for the felling was the construction of the road and the reckless equipping of the „lovers“ with new technology.Levan Gotua connects the cultivation of trees with the multiplication of the nation. In his opinion, the reproduction of children and the cultivation of trees are almost equally necessary in Georgia. „We need to plant as many trees as possible, as if we are propagating our children“, he wrote.Levan Gotua declares Georgia a country of three „eternities“: Evergreens (subtropical vegetation), Forever white (snowy peaks), Forever blue (sea).The endurance and immortality of a nation are the companions of the three „eternity“ of countries.The forest is the main outpost of spiritual and physical existence.
Natela Maglakelidze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.541

Abstract:
Georgia has always been a multilingual country. According to the Law of Georgia on General Education, Georgian is a teaching language in educational institutions. According to the same law, “Georgian citizens, for whom the Georgian is not a native language, have the right of receiving a full general education in their native language, in accordance with the National Curriculum and the rules established by law. Learning the state language is compulsory in these general educational institutions”. Teaching process in our schools today is undergoing in accordance with this law. There are 2313 schools in Georgian at the moment, about 10% of them are non-Georgian schools: Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian. Next to the native (Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian) languages the Georgian language (as an official language) is also taught from the first grade in suche schools where Georgian represents the second language for these students.The main problem for the non-Georgian students is not knowing their official language and hindering them in social integration.There are some reasons: a) the texts-books of the Georgian language for non-Georgian schools, b) the low competences of Georgian language in teachers are also to be mentioned, c) the most important problem among them is the non-existence of research and theoretical analysis. From this view point only some important events are organized by the NGOs and certain expert groups. Unfortunately specialists of Education, linguists and psychologists are not involved in these researches.
Natela Baghatrishvili, Nino Modebadze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.534

Abstract:
The article is based on a needs assessment carried out at Telavi Public School N7 to understand teachers' attitudes towards student-centered learning strategies. In particular, it examines how intensively and effectively student-centered approaches are integrated into the teaching process and how teachers interact with each other in student-centered learning. The study was carried out in the 2018-2019 academic year, but the inspiration for the study was the Directorate's informal participation in the educational process during the 2017-2018 academic year. A mixed type of study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used to test the hypotheses. To further investigate the problem and identify a common need, teachers from Telavi State School No. 7, as well as elementary and secondary school students, participated in the study. The interventions were carried out after the completion of the first phase of the study. Observing and analyzing teacher activities helped us assess the effectiveness of our problem-solving and needs-based interventions. The study highlights the fact that creating a collaborative atmosphere between teachers has a positive effect on the learning process. The study found the importance of fostering a culture of collaboration among teachers through the use of diverse resources, activities and challenging classroom assignments. Students' views, opinions and feelings about such lessons were also determined. As a result of the analysis, conclusions were drawn that allow recommendations to be made for identifying and solving similar problems and needs.
Mariami Gogilashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.538

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The advance of technology has made the emergence of the Internet become more and more important in language teaching and learning. For this reason, this paper addresses its discussion on the importance of the Internet use in English language teaching. this current study aims at describing how Lessons in English online can solve a number of didactic tasks: develop reading skills and abilities, using global networking materials; Improve students’ writing skills; Complete students' vocabulary; Develop students' motivation to learn English.
Nino Nakhutsrishvili, Mimoza Tkebuchava
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.542

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Student-centered learning is unimaginable without the implementation of differentiated approaches. We can find out a number of publications and articles about this subject. The American professor Carol Ann Tomlinson has quite important articles on differentiated teaching from contemporaries. In his work, Tomlinson discusses in detail and in depth the essence of differentiated teaching as one of the effective approaches and the principles of its implementation. However, a number of issues (why is differentiated learning so important and relevant? What makes it relevant?) Still require a good understanding in order to successfully implement this approach when teaching a particular subject. These issues are discussed in the article on the example of teaching elementary school mathematics and clarifies the perspectives of using a differentiated approach in these areas. Differentiated learning is fully suited to student-centered learning, as it implements a learning process focused on the needs, skills and abilities of each student (group of students). According to Tomlinson, differentiated learning is constructed and implemented to take into account the readiness, interests and learning profile of students to create optimal conditions for development for each of them. This is one of the best ways to implement an individual approach to students.Providing a learning process tailored to the needs of the students and teacher feedback on the needs of the students include teacher activities in a number of areas. Tonlimson and Mooney consider new opportunities for students, a sense of partnership, expectations, and training for quality learning significantly; Which contributes to class success and student growth. The condition for facilitating is the active involvement of students in the learning process, their cooperation;The essence of the issue is clarified in the article on the example of a mathematics course, how we can apply this approach in the teaching-learning process and why it is extremely valuable to implement differentiated teaching from the elementary level. This need is explained in relation to the specifics of teaching mathematics as a school subject. The "technology" of differentiated teaching, the essence of differentiation based on student readiness, as well as what the subject of differentiation includes are discussed in detail. Differentiation of each component according to the individual components of the curriculum (content, process, product) is discussed with specific examples. With the help of different types of tasks it is possible to use the possibilities and perspectives of differentiation in teaching mathematics at the elementary level. Some recommendations in this regard are offered. The issue discussed in the article concludes that the purposeful use of differentiation from the elementary level gives a great chance for the multifaceted development of students, which is accompanied by the results of successful teaching in mathematics.
Elene Maglakelidze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.547

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One of the main and key issues of language mastery is the study of literacy in this language. The issues of identification and classification of literacy teaching methods have always been in the center of attention in the Georgian methodological literature. All methods used in teaching Georgian literacy can be conditionally divided into three groups: a) synthetic (modern terms: ascending, phonetic), b) analytical (ascending), c) analytical-synthetic (descending-ascending, balanced).Observation of the learning process shows that the selection and effectiveness of the teaching method of the alphabet is primarily determined by the nature-structure of this language. Thus, blindly transcribing it blindly from another language is totally unjustified.
Vaja Danelia
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.531

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Over time, along with the world, language also evolves and changes. In order to save time and effort, people simplify their speech, often deliberately making changes in the language to achieve a special effect. In this respect, sport stands out in the first place, as it is an important factor in strengthening national unanimity, interpersonal relations and international cooperation. In the process of globalization, sport is becoming more international, getting closer to the representatives of different countries. These relations, of course, are reflected in the sports vocabulary of this or that language, so the language of sports has become one of the most intensively developing lexical systems,In the creation-borrowing and establishment-dissemination of sports terms in the 20s and 70s of the last century, more attention was paid to Georgian terminology. From the 90s of the 20th century, foreign vocabulary prevailed, Will.In recent years, a large number of sports journalists and commentators have chosen the easy way out - using cooking terms or slang instead of word production, indicating the international nature of the sport. The main reasons for the intervention of the Anglicans are the Internet, the culture and sport of pop music, as well as socio-psychological factors. For some, foreign vocabulary is perceived as superior to native. As if it is related to reading and learning, so speech containing foreign words is considered more socially prestigious. However, borrowing is justified only when the borrowed word fills in the missing realities of the language. However, it is not necessary to translate words for that. It is better to use the richest possibilities of Georgian language word production. This should be especially taken into account by sports journalists and commentators, as their speech has a contagious power and even poses a risk of unintentional imitation or infection.
Nana Rinkiashvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.530

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One of the most important conditions for the development of the Georgian economy and its successful integration into the world economic space is to focus on the development of innovations and, as a result, to form a competitive economy. At present, the innovative climate in Georgia is not favorable for the formation of a competitive economy. There is no unified innovative state policy, weak innovation infrastructure, limited innovation market and normal economic stimulus to manage these processes. Financial difficulties, lack of proper guarantees in the industrial field and difficulties in creating modern and especially in high-tech production area, unstable pace of development further reduced the interest in innovative activities and led to its gradual decline. As a result, Georgia ranks 74th place among 141 countries in the Competitiveness Index. In the modern global space, the development of innovative potential is an important condition for the formation of a competitive economy of the country. In the article we focused on some of the problems of innovative development and its solution. The competitiveness potential of the country is analyzed, the role of the state in the formation of a competitive economy through the development of innovations is given.
Elene Taboridze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.540

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Since 2020 our planet is facing a huge danger named pandemic Covid-19. This latter seems like is tempting the humankind, reminding that besides technological miracles exist other significant factors necessary for prolonging and supporting the life on earth. Human moral values, like empathy, solidarity, helping those in needed, that were temporarily shifted back to the foreground now naturally moved back to surface. And these highly moral people gifted with such features (mainly medics and volunteers) are fighting against the virus and saving the lives all around the world. Simultaneously, importance and necessity of controlling and managing human emotions in adequate directions have aroused. Thus, emotional intelligence is attracting significant attention, it is the main and necessary background for creating everything that is valuable for humanity.Either our native country is facing and is fighting against pandemic, the country which is situated on the cross of East-West worlds, the country with enriched and ancient history and culture. After gaining the state independence important institutional branch like educational system was under refining and reforming processes when pandemic as a challenge came upon. Because of latter situation it is of great importance that new vectors and tendencies featured in contemporary worldwide educational systems should be promptly reflected on our educational system as well.By the author’s opinion, main attention should be focused on establishment of highly moral values and emotion controlling issues, especially to an education process of young people born and rising in digitalized epoch. The art, and principally literature, should make significant contribution towards this direction.In this article some processes and changes made in educational system at schools are discussed and criticized from above stated position; are mentioned and emphasized the centuries-old traditions of preaching humanism, compassion and tolerance in Georgian literature; our literature’s possibilities of teaching in terms of the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents are analyze.
Guram Gvenetadze
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.536

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Socialization of students, their proper preparation for professional activities exactly corresponds to the spirit of the Bologna Process. That is why it became the basis for our learning process. Besides, our frenetic aspiration to integrate into the Euro-Atlantic space obliges us to follow the mentioned activity. Therefore, it is absolutely clear that we have already established a new scientific field – communicology. The eminent scholars, such as professors of Georgian Technical University Temur Jagodnishvili and Ivane Jagodnishvili laid the firm foundation for the development of the mentioned field. The books published by them: "Oral Communication," "Written and Oral Communication," "Academic Writing" or other textbooks are of the same level as the works of European and Russian textual critics, where the authors' concepts, findings, and methods establish the requirements of the modernity at a high scientific level. In the process of teaching the Georgian language, we pay special attention to the use of specific elements of non-Georgian speakers; for instance, determining the ways of language development and its management, clarifying the issue of language prestige, specifying its role in determining nationality, finding and establishing valid language policy models.
Mari Simonishvili
Published: 25 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.522

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The main characteristic of Georgian postmodernism has become metaprose or the principle of double coding - text within text, in which the effect is achieved in the form of linguistic games. When we talk about Georgian postmodernism, the greatest innovator is the famous German-speaking Georgian author Givi Margvelashvili. His work is a peculiar expression of postmodern aesthetics and deserves special attention, since his works have not been properly researched in terms of the deconstruction of classical texts.Givi Margvelashvili, in fact, lived under two dictatorships - fascism and communism. A family sacrificed to repression ... Spending the best years of life under pressure ... Constant persecution and harassment ... After all this, the writer's words that he is the protagonist of his book and has a flat in the book alone, intensifies the sense of the logic of fate.The subject of the Georgian postmodernist author's passion is the concept of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze, according to which we do not draw dots, but draw lines. This means that literary characters are not even "buried" in their own texts, but they also run away from the texts. This phrase will probably be used as a starting point for Givi Margvelashvili's prose - Stop death in the texts! Considering the Kantian maxims, he is sincere with the reader and offers us the highest principle, the observance of which would be desirable of a universal nature. His prose is a text of the text, a metaphor, he calls himself an ontotext and believes that the characters in the book are determined by the same lyrical characters, they try their hand at the reader and can do nothing but what the author himself has determined. Margvelashvili becomes the savior of the book's characters, studies their existence and believes that people are defined by the text. The purpose of this paper is to show what kind of readers the audience of Margvelashvili's characters has, who the reader is in his understanding, what metaphorical attitudes the latter offers and what is the dichotomy of the relationship between the reader and the book characters.
Malkhaz Baladze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.516

Abstract:
The history of new Georgian literature begins with Romanticism. Its origin was facilitated by the historical process that developed in Georgia at the beginning of the 19th century, in particular, the loss of the country's independence. The Georgian man left the field of action, he became dependent on others. Sadness and despair, in turn, gave rise to a certain spiritual loneliness in Romantic writers. Loneliness even added more judgmental character to their creativity. Questions arose about human life, destiny, its essence and purpose, which in itself gave the creations of the Romantics a philosophical character. Thus, Georgian literature has already responded to the world historical-philosophical proces, Where the problem of the place of art, starting from the era of Romanticism, permeated the entire humanitarian self-knowledge of European culture. The subject of research is also the question, what philosophy means in literature, What is the difference between philosophy and the philosophy of literature and what do they have in common, When philosophy thinks in categories, literature in artistic forms and these two forms of conveying truth are important to man. Georgian classical romanticism begins with Alexander Chavchavadze and he laid the foundation for the artistic-philosophical understanding of the events and carried out the philosophical contemplation of the essence and existence, purpose and origin of human life in excellent artistic forms;The elements of philosophical reasoning in the work of Gregory Orbeli are faint, but still appear in the last period of creation.The peak of Georgian romanticism, Nikoloz Baratashvili, takes the philosophical character of Georgian literature of that time to the highest level. The difference is that the internal philosophical discourse with Nikoloz Baratashvili goes to the highest level and not only philosophically prepares us for certain events, but, in many cases, responds to them.In the second half of the 19th century, realism further deepened the process of depicting these important issues in a highly artistic form, which is the subject of a separate study.
Nino Giorgadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.518

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Roland Giorgadze regularly publishes his poetry and prose in Georgian literary journals and newspapers and thus humbly contributes to the development of Georgian literary processes. The bulk of his work is presented by the following publications: Dream President (2001), The Road (2011), The Cry (2017) and Diso, Diso (2020).This time we are dealing with the novel Diso, Diso. Here, the writer described life in Georgia in the 90-ies of the 20th century in gloomy, yet, very realistic colors without any embellishment. Some very accurate stresses are made upon the poor spiritual state of the country and upon the tragic reality it causes. The novel tries to show the deplorable reasons why a human being in this ideal-free society is doomed to become degraded even if they experience a rise (before a fall). The evil has a new beginning and life in every epoch and this new beginning is presented through the character of Elepter in the novel. The novel has a slightly documentary hue. The author openly discusses all the problems. His political flair is infallible and he has a good sense of judging and evaluating current events. All walks of life are branded with the mark of a country not properly attended. Human values and selfless love for one’s homeland are no longer priorities. Diso, Diso is full of didactic maxims that clearly show the life experience of the author, his adherence to lofty values. Roland Giorgadze understands well the purpose of a literary work and that is why all his words and phrases are loaded with meaning. The author manages to convey a meaningful message is a compressed, verbally laconic way. The writer uncovers the dramatic scenes of spiritual poverty marked with time, existential details of economical squalor, that cause the fear of national endangerment and the threat of looming genocide. The criticizing and uncovering the national and state faults should not be understood as self-flagellation. It aims at making readers think and also reminding them about the importance of moral life, being close to the creator, about love and the good of forgiving. The author sees the preserving national identity through religious faith. He also sets the ways of coping with these problems in this gloomy scene of national and religious degeneration.To our judgment, Diso, Diso is an interesting publication on the current literary scene and we hope it will get the attention of both general readers and literary critics.
Nino Dzamukashvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.515

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Our article is an attempt to represent a contrastive analysis of the two translations of Shota Rustaveli’s aphorisms from his timeless epic poem The Night in the Panther’s Skin into the English language; those of by Marjory Scott Wardrop and Venera Urushadze. Our study revealed that though very conscientiously done, both translations lack the lustre and rhyme and rhythm of the poetry of the great poem and the compensation is often rendered on behalf of other stylistic or lexical devices; namely it is alliteration and consonance, parallel structures, in most cases. We have also come to realize that the second translation, by Ms. V. Urushadze is certainly greatly indebted to the first one for both: choice of wording and structure of a phrase. However, it should be noted that Ms. V. Urushadze took more liberty at rendering the aphorisms into English, making them more extended and stylistically more expressive. We hope our little study will be of interest to those individuals who are fascinated by translation challenges and especially that of almost impossible task– translation of great poetry.
Natela Varshanidze, Inga Diasamidze, Nazi Turmanidze, Ketevan Dolidze, Eter Jakeli, Gia Bolkvadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.490

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Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing organic compounds that are widely used in medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous, tumor pathologies. The aim of the research was to study the species diversity of alkaloid-containing plants, distribution areas, habitats and peculiarities of use in the floristic region of Adjara. According to the research, 35 species of alkaloids are distributed in the floristic region of Adjara, which are united in 24 families and 32 genera, including 28 species of the genus Orlebnia, 7 species of the genus Erlebnia, 1 species is representative of the fungal kingdom.
Magda Davitashvili, Lamara Zuroshvili, Darejan Margalitashvili, Gela Azikuri
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.489

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For in-depth study of the peculiarities of the etiological and epizootic processes of gastro-intestinal infections in sheep, we conducted a study to determine the role of conditional-pathogenic microorganisms in this pathology. A study of the prevalence and frequency of intestinal infections in lambs on farms in the Kakheti region has shown that this pathology is very common and harms the region's livestock. During the study of pathological material of fallen lambs and aborted fetuses, 365 cultures were isolated, of which 182 cultures belonged to the genus Escherichia, 143 - Salmonella, 28 - Klebsiella, 4 - Streptococcus, 1 - Proteus and 7 cultures Diplococcus. Bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family has been found to play an important role in the development of gastro-intestinal diseases in lambs, accounting for approximately 97% of isolated cultures, of which Escherichia and Salmonella predominate, 51.0% and 39.1%. DOWNLOADS
Nona Nikabadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.511

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Translation theory has gone some way towards becoming an independent discipline. The communicative direction of translation shows the importance of " fidelity " to the original texts and it is also essential to consider its cultural aspect. There is only a single completed Turkish translation of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin", which was translated by Dr Bylal Dindar and Dr Zeynelabidin Makas. In 1990, Dr Byblal Dindar was invited to Georgia for the scientific congress. It was then that he went to the Tbilisi State University where he discovered the different world language translations of "The Knit of the Panter's Skin". He became wistful when he could not find the Turkish translation. He thus decided to translate the poem into Turkish.In the translation process, Dr. Bylal Dindar utilized the French and Azeri translations of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" translated by Sergi Tsuladze (French) and Ahmet Jevat (Azeri). The two translations are different, which is due to the differences between Christian and Muslim cultures, as well as different language systems and historical memory.The research discusses a topic of the Turkish translation of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin", in particular, the occasions of the word absences. Translation misses and does not translate the important Georgian realis (Changi, Molizghari, Tskluli, Mufarexi), The translation is missing and does not translate the important Georgian realis (Changi, Molizghari, Tskluli, Mupharexi), unless some of these realis have a Turkish equivalent (çeng, yara, ilaç), but the translator does not provide a translation. Similarly, the word omitting is confirmed in the synonyms and in the translation of the comparatives (Krdzalvit and Ridit, Qushad and Daghrejit, Ukadri), beneath which the author of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" introduces another dynamism into the poem. This is why the Turkish translation has lost its dynamism while these synonyms and comparatives are not translated at all, thus simplifying the image of the dynamism of the text. Therefore, the Turkish translation does not have the same influence as the original text and is obscured to retell.
Manana Gambashidze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.513

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In the article there are discussed topics that are less studied in linguistics: Imitate sounds, interjection, onomatopoeia, reflection of productivity in Russian and Georgian proverbs. The results of the study are summarized in tables. The research enables the separation of universals in Georgian and Russian paremies, the presentation of their role in the emotional-aesthetic function of paremies on the basis of analysis and conclusions. It is well known in linguistics that imitate sounds is a well-known method used by the classics, often used by modern poets and writers. In each language, sound imitation has its own peculiarities. Onomatopoeias are lexical units derived from sound imitation phonemes. As for the interjections - this is a universal group of sounds, which expresses the imitation of the emotions of the speaker and is widely used in prose, fables, riddles, poetry. Imitation sounds and interjection are not characterized by morphological features, do not perform a nominative function. All three methods are distinguished by special features for all languages. Our research also confirms their use in Russian and Georgian proverbs, with relatively less productivity.
Valeri Vepkhishvili, Irma Chanturia, Nino Vephkhishvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.493

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The Georgian nation, which has a long history keeps the ancient traditions in viticulture and winemaking too and is distinguished by the richest culture of winemaking. However, Georgian winemaking was not limited to only local varieties and methods. In the 19th century, foreign grape varieties and technologies were introduced in Georgia.
Seda Asaturova
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.502

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Since grammatical rejection construction belongs to one of the linguistic universals, its study is very relevant to us. Russian and Georgian languages ​​are typologically different, in particular in terms of the use of double negation. That is why we addressed the problems related to the translation of Russian polynegative pronouns into Georgian.The aim of our paper is to reveal the peculiarities of translating Russian polynegative sentences into Georgian. Our task was to reveal the peculiarities of conveying polynegativity in Georgian, where initially (from the beginning) only a single rejection was possible. We have selected Anton Chekhov's stories and their Georgian translations as the research material. While working on the topic, we have used the following research methods: scientific literature analysis, contrastive analysis methods, elements of statistical analysis.The analysis of the Georgian translations of the Russian negative verbs revealed that mainly the Russian general negative (complete negation, общеотрицательные) sentences were translated into Georgian through the negative (partial negation -частноотрицательные) sentences. If in Russian the negation belongs to "Deeprichastie", in Georgian this inversion is conveyed through the verb without the particles expressing the negation.
Tsiuri Akhvlediani, Giorgi Kuparadze, Ketevan Gabunia
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.503

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Phraseologisms are used in everyday speech, in works of art, in journalism. They give expression to utterances and are the means of creating images. Phraseologisms have their specificities in every language, they reflect and represent the national mentality, the consciousness of perception of the surrounding world and its expression lexically and grammatically; The peculiarities of the use of phraseological units are also very important. The purpose of the present article is to study and analyze phraseologisms in terms communicative perspectives of foreign language teaching. When mastering a foreign language, it is inevitable to come across the difficulties in understanding authentic texts containing phraseological units, including proverbs, sayings, and comparisons.
Tsisana Modebadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.510

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Phraseologisms represent the important and valuable legacy of the nation as they reflect not only cultural and historical ideology, but customs and traditions as well. The given research deals with the establishment of symbolics and semantic context of “Fire” in German phraseological units. German phraseological dictionaries are used as the research object. Fire is a guarantee of improving human lives. It is the symbol of creative energy and destructive force as well. When the fire flame is under the human control it brings warmth, light and kindness. As soon as human reveals less care towards it the fire instantly turns into a dangerous, destructive force bringing death and collapse. Fire has different symbols in different religions. In Hinduism, fire is the symbol of creativity, absolution and demolition, in Islam – birth and destruction, in Buddhism – wisdom, in Christianity it is the symbol of reanimation. Human ensures his/her welfare and safety with the help of fire. Fire is the symbol of native home, native land and family: Das heimische Feuer – native fire/hearth. Fire can figuratively express different emotions. Phraseologisms expressing love are mostly found out: Feuer der Liebe – fire of love. In a figurative way, fire also indicates such human traits as intrepidity, bravery, sympathy, goodwill, hatred, anger, enthusiasm and hope. Figuratively fire also has the mission of increasing the power of trait.
Tamar Makharoblidze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.508

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The presented paper describes the negation system in Georgian Sign Language (GESL) exposing the proper examples for each case. In GESL negation is conveyed by the following four types of lexical-grammatical forms: Negative particles; Negative grammatical elements; Negative modal verbs/words; Negative words (nothing, nobody. Never, etc)
Eka Kobiashvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.501

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This article is about 1924 rebellion, which is valued differently by historieans of diferent times.In modern Georgian historiography, two conflicting assessments have been made about the failure of 1924 and its consequences. The vast majority of the authors emphasize the heroic episodes of the rebellion in their research, positively remembering and praising the patriots who sacrificed their lives for the independence of Georgia, condemning and at the same time expressing their sorrow and grief. The issues of the national struggle against the Soviets, in particular the history of 1924, were reflected relatively broadly from the position of national interests, however, sometimes by the authors from an individual point of view. It is well known that one of the main roles in the study of any historical problem and its scientific solution is based on source science.
Zhana Chitanava, Nana Zarnadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.498

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Anthropogenic pressure on the biosphere has become a common process of the 21st century. Among substances synthesized by humans, genotoxic agents which include pesticides are considered to be particularly dangerous. The number of pesticides used in agriculture is gradually increasing, accumulating and circulating in the biosphere. The use of pesticides is accompanied by their involvement in food chains and accumulation in individuals. They are characterized by a fairly high stress index and cause genetic changes in living organisms. Various test methods have been developed to study these issues. B. Wig and Al. Podok suggested a genetic line for soybean containing a mutation of the chlorophyll-synthesizing gene. The genetic line is characterized by a phenotypic effect. Indicator, genetic line owner soybean, diploid, heterozygous, give three phenotypically different sprouts: green (genotype Y11 Y11), lettuce-color (genotype Y11 y11) and yellow (genotype y11 y11). 1: 2: 1 ratio is observed between the sprouts. This type of ratio is typical for incomplete dominance. Through the spots detected on the leaves it is possible to study the recombinogenic and mutagenic activity in soybean induced by chemical and physical factors and to record the induced changes in somatic cell. Using these systems, we first studied the effects of pesticides karate and Bordeaux on plant growth and sprouting processes and the genetic changes induced by their influence. Both pesticides had an inhibitory effect on physiological processes, also, the frequency of direct mutations was determined by the "dose-effect" phenomenon.
Elene Pilashvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.512

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The article deals with One of the features of the language of Guram Dochanashvili's works is the frequent use of verbs, Dynamic narration of the action process, Which is often loaded with the semantics of multiplicity. Multiplicity with the writer is expressed both through lexical means (Often, Olways, A thousand times, Many times, Several times, Everyday, Tsamdautsum ...), So in the form of a specific sequence (Present, Continuous, Iterative...). All this reveals the great functional-semantic possibilities of the Georgian verb-listener.Observation reveals that the writer's language is characterized by a particularly abundant use of verb-listeners, often burdened with the semantics of multiplicity. The semantic-functional possibilities of the Georgian verb-listener are limitless with the writer. Means of Frequency as a semantic category is very interesting in the language of Guram Dochanashvili's works. It is expressed both in verb forms and in separate words and particles. Sometimes the writer even uses descriptive production to express multiplicity. Means of Frequency are found not only in the para-parasitic construct but also in the hypotaxic construct components of the sentence, both in the main and in the dependent. It is also abundantly proved in the hypotaxic construction containing the time-dependent sentence.
Manana Mikadze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.509

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At the End of the XXth and at the beginning of the XXIst Century the population of Georgia has decreased by 9,1% . This decrease has been influenced by demographic processes as well as by those connected with long-term emigration. In terms of numbers, the largest emigration occurred bertween 2003 and 2010 when approximately 1,5 mln people left Georgia. Emigration has decreased in recent years; however, every year several tens of thousands of Georgian nationals leave Georgia. For an extended period of time Georgia lacked any systematic studies grounded in statistics regarding the lives of those Georgian nationals who had emigrated; however, in recent years, the number of researchers studying the Georgian Diaspora continues to extand. One of the most extensive studies devoted to researching the life of the diaspora is the study the Georgia’s emigrant communities: national identity, translational relationships and the politics of the diaspora, which has conducted in 2014-2016 by a research group from the Ministry of Foreign affairs of Georgia. The Georgian languuage situation in the diaspora is analyzed based on the statistics from this study.
Khatuna Tumanishvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.507

Abstract:
As is known a proverb (both formally and semantically) is the micro-model of the life and mentality of the world where it was created and where it operates. Its basic function is grasping the wisdom seen from the viewpoint of the given ethnos – the general regularities. It is figuratively constructed of the specific material which is recorded in “the sensory material of perception” of the given ethnos, i.e. in its experience linked with this specific part of the universe. Therefore, it is difficult to understand fundamentally proverbs of a foreign language and to identify the relevant frames (sphere of use) of the respective general semantic domain. Its study implies (along with that of the language) the study of the ethnic “metaphorical thinking”, practically ethnopsychology of the people that created it.
Maia Baramidze
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.504

Abstract:
The Tao dialect is one of the southern dialects. The remnants of a dialect, spread across once extensive territory, are now preserved in a number of minor villages of Tao (Eliaskhevi, Tsitleqari, Khevai, Quabagi, Phishnarkhevi, Baslekari, Balkhi, Qvenobani, Balkhibari, Gaghmaqobai, Chevreli), as well as in the village, bordering Tao and Klarjeti – Binati.The Tao Georgian is noteworthy due to many aspects.The abstract looks upon some phraseological units, spread in the Tao Georgian dialect.The phraseological units of the Tao Georgian are diverse both from the semantic and structural point of view.The first component of a phraseological unit in Tao dialect is usually the word ‘eye’, the next ones are mostly often the verbs ‘hold (keep)’ or ‘have’, the meaning of the phrase being ‘appealing, taking to or falling in love’: is aqevr vinme gogoze t’vali k’onebia ki. In addition to the mentioned meanings of ‘keep/hold an eye’, more variations are realized through this expression in Tao dialect, such as ‘jinx or overlook in an evil way’: nonas t’valma dimicira.Somatic phraseological units express pain, having as their second consistent component the verb ‘inflamate’: ik’ kar gevdet’, ak’ t’avi ement’o; clikebi ent’eba. Fainting, connected with grief and distress is expressed by phrases, which have brain as their essential component: esa cevda, c’em kac’ma ckva dimilia, cevda ert’i t’ve ar vxedavdi, imaze imaze ckva cevda; aman ckva dimilia.
Nanuli Amashukeli, Dali Gaganidze, Mariam Aznarashvili, Shorena Kharadze, Neli Sturua, Tinatin Sadunishvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.488

Abstract:
Fire blight is a devastating disease of fruit trees that first appeared in Georgia in 2016. Above 40 samples – fruit trees twigs, buds, flowers and fruitlets, suspected on the fire blight disease were collected in the Mtskheta-Mtianeti and Shida Kartli Regions, eastern Georgia in Summer of 2020. Based on visual observation and immunological test (Ea AgriStrip), 20 plant samples were selected for further study. PCR analysis was performed to detect pathogen in these samples with primers pair A: 5′-CGG TTT TTA ACG CTG GG-3′ and B: 5′-GGG CAA ATA CTC GGA TT-3 ′ and 2XPCR BIOTAG Mix using PCR BIOSYSTEMS. The pathogen Erwinia amylovora was detected in 6 samples: N10 and N11 apple samples (Ksovrisi);
Lali Elanidze, Tea Khositashvili
Published: 24 September 2021
,,intercultural Dialogues“ Transactions, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.52340/idw.2021.491

Abstract:
In the paper showed organoleptic and chemical analysis of sulguni that is made of traditional technology and sulguni in beeswax has been carried out to study the effects of bee wax layer on the organoleptic and chemical parameters of sulguni. Some main factors are obstacle those make influence on sulguni, such as: cheese weight loss, fat oxidation and enzymatic breakdown. On the base of analysis the use of beeswax layer improves the physical stability of sulguni, at the same time the visual and tactile characteristics of the surface are improved as well. Moreover, it prevents the existence of mucus and mold on the surface, as well as protects the cheese from moisture loss and sulguni also retains its taste properties. Vacuum packaging cheese production in beeswax layer can be considered as the new, ecologically clean and safe alternative.
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