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Results in Journal Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics: 30

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Ambalika Guha
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2223

Abstract:
The primary discussion of the paper is centered on two polar question particles in the Eastern Indo-Aryan language Bangla. One is ‘ki’ and the other one is ‘naki.’ These two polar question particles also appear as interrogative disjunction morphemes in alternative questions. This further leads to the argument that there exists a disjunction operator in both polar and alternative questions and the polar question particle is the lexical realization of that disjunction operator.
Badia Elharraki
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2222

Abstract:
In the present piece of research, we argue that translation cannot be effective unless the purpose and the audience are clearly identified. One of the main lessons we have learned during this journey is the need for a thorough register analysis of the source text before translation, in addition to the necessity of embedding the target text in its immediate cultural environment within a critical discourse analysis. In this respect, an analysis of the article “Asymmetric struggle for the hearts and mind of viewers: Can the media actually trigger sympathy towards terrorists? (Maoz, 2010), which was translated by Badia Elharraki (2012), will give the reader an idea about the difficulty of translation because this article, if translated without some modifications at the lexical level, will have huge undesirable effects on the Arab/Muslim audience.
Pranav Badyal
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2221

Abstract:
This paper explores several political and historical events intersected with concepts from sociology to examine the growth and development of the English language in India during the pre-Independence and after independence eras. This development is viewed in parallel with the changing societal setup by utilising concepts like westernisation and modernisation that helped facilitate education and promote social equality among the people by shrinking the persisting barrier of caste system to a profound extent and diminishing the role of indigenous concepts of social upliftment like Sanskritisation. After foreseeing the number of speakers of English that gives rise to the standard variety of English in India, i.e., Indian English, its potential in a socio-cultural context, and the interest among subsequent learners of the language, the paper concludes that the growth prospects for English appear to be vital, and it will continue to emerge as an essential language in the coming generations in India.
Chandan Kumar
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-45; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2213

Abstract:
The paper proposes that Magahi, a modern Indo-Aryan language, presents the phenomenon of multiple determiners in the syntax of modification and argues that the phenomenon is not a simple case of agreement in definiteness in the noun phrase whereby the additional determiner carries a similar semantic feature. I present examples that contest the possibility of it as a case of concord or agree. For the semantic motivation of the phenomenon, following Plank (2003) & Kumar (2020), the paper claims that the definite determiner /-wa/ in Magahi is not an exclusively dedicated definiteness morpheme, and therefore, the language needs an additional linguistic element. I claim that the additional determiner weakens the definiteness of the definite determiner /-wa/, creating a projection problem in the overall referentiality of the NP. By further describing the individual semantics of the determiner on the noun and the adjective, the paper claims that the determiner on the adjective exudes the semantics of specificity that can co-occur with the numeral. However, the determiner on the noun has the semantics of familiarity or identifiability. The paper further provides an exhaustive account of semantic and structural description and motivation of the phenomenon.
Arvind M. Nawale, Apurva Nawale
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2211

Abstract:
One of the fundamental purposes and goals of learning and teaching around the world has been the active participation of students in higher education institutions. The teacher's knowledge alone is insufficient to ensure that the students understand the subject during the curricular transaction. The manner in which the lecture is delivered is equally important. As a result, in addition to the conventional method, PowerPoint presentations are being used on a larger scale. Furthermore, it enhances students' sense of pleasure and commitment and assists the teacher in attaining its objectives. It can also play an important part in creating a dynamic environment for teaching and learning when deployed as an efficient cutting-edge tool. In this paper, the focus is given on understanding using PPT as an effective cutting edge tool for innovative teaching-learning and impressive presentation through a questionnaire-based online survey of 915 students and teachers from 20 different states and 2 Union Tertiaries of India and 6 overseas countries too. The analysis of the collected data confirms that using multiple modalities in PPT might bring together all types of learners, kinesthetic, auditory, and visual and provide them the opportunity to be active learners and increase their interactivity.
Albina Narzary
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 13-31; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2212

Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to document and investigate the reduplication in Hajong. Hajong is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Bangladesh and Indian northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh. The present study is based on the data collected from 12 Hajong speakers of the Goalpara district of Assam. Reduplication is a widespread phenomenon that is common in the languages of Southeast Asia. However, grammarians have ignored this phenomenon primarily because they follow the Western grammar description model, where reduplicated structures do not exist or are rare (Abbi, 1992). The aim is to study the reduplicated structures, expressive and echo-formation and its semantic aspects in Hajong. There are mainly two types of reduplicated structures in Hajong: Morphological reduplication and Lexical reduplication. The morphological reduplication is expressed through expressive. “Expressive behave and function like regular words and thus form a part of the lexicons of Indian languages” (Abbi, 2018). The semantics of expressive morphology in Hajong represent five senses of perception, states of mind and manner of an action, and kinship terminology. However, lexical reduplication is constructed through the process of echo-formation (partial reduplication), compound, and complete word reduplication. Echo-word Formation acquires the status of a meaningful element only after it is attached to a word (Abbi, 1992). Echo formation is formed by replacing the initial consonant sound in the reduplicant. The common replacer sounds in Hajong are /ʧ͡/, /t/, /tʰ/ /m/, and /s/. The semantics of Hajong's echo formation represent generality, plurality, intensity, and sets or types.
Yantsubeni Ngullie
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2016

Abstract:
The paper gives an account of pronouns in Lotha, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Nagaland, India. Lotha is a generic name and refers to both the linguistic group and the ethno-cultural entity. Lothas are racially Mongoloid and linguistically, it has been classified under the Central Naga group of the Naga sub-branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages. Pronouns in Lotha are free forms which can function solely to fill the position of a noun phrase in a clause. Personal pronouns are typically deixis to the speech participants for each of the three grammatical person i.e. first person, second person and third person. In annex to person, numbers i.e. singular, dual and plural are also distinguished on pronouns. Personal pronouns in Lotha are independent and free-standing and for that matter it takes case-markers and postposition in similar ways as full noun phrase. The first, second and third personal pronouns take case marking only when it serves as a subject and does not take any case markers when it serves as an object. Demonstrative pronouns function in several ways based on proximity and distance in time. Lotha has three-way distinction of identifying demonstrative pronoun i.e. proximate, distance and remote marked by ʃi ‘this’ (near the speaker), ci ‘that’(near the hearer) and o-ci ‘over there’( far away from both the speaker and hearer). The interrogative pronouns kvə, ndo and otʃɔ are attached to the bound nominal suffixes. Indefinite pronouns can be formed from the question words which can change to affirmative by attaching the indefinite suffix -sana and its negative particle counterpart mek. Reflexive pronoun in Lotha is expressed by the reflexive lexeme bɔbɔ ‘self’ which is a free morpheme.
Palash Das, Madhumita Barbora
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2021

Abstract:
Word formation by derivation is very productive in Assamese. A significant amount of words in Assamese owe their origin to derivation. The analysis in this paper takes into account the derivational processes related with lexical word categories, and, numerous bound morphemes that are used in the derivational process in the language. This analysis helps us to understand some of the important aspects of Assamese morphology. These aspects are - role of class maintaining and class changing morphemes, derivation of word from synonyms, productivity of derivational morphemes, morphophonemic changes in root as a result of affixation of derivational morphemes, presence of allomorphs of various bound morphemes, ability of a morpheme to derive words from different word categories. The significance of this papers lies in the fact that these word formation processes could help develop morphological rules that can be used for developing computational morphological tools like- stemmer, spell checker, tagger etc.
Imu Oghoghophia Famous
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2113

Abstract:
This paper examines case role in the Urhobo language. Case theory is used as theoretical frame work, the specific objectives is to investigate type of cases and to relate cases roles to argument structures in Urhobo. The study reveals that in the Urhobo language every lexically headed NP must receive case from a case assigner. The Case theory requires that the case assigner govern the NP to which its assigns case. Tense, verb and preposition are case assigners. The infinitive ‘to’ and the passive participles are not case assigners. Case assignment can take place only when the case assigner and the NP to which it assigns case bear a structural relation to one another. It also reveals that irrespective of the theory and its arguments, Urhobo verbs are the basses and centre of its expansion of its constructions. This research also finds out, that the argument structures identified in universal grammar (UG) align with the argument structure of the Urhobo language; the verb assigns arguments to the noun phrases in a sentence. This is traced to the structure of the Urhobo language which is subject-verb-object (SVO). Finally, the study reveals that the function of the nominative case is to mark the subject of the sentence; the vocative is the case of address; the accusative is used to mark the object of a transitive verb; the genitive is the case of possession, ablative case is to mark the instrument with which something is done and the dative case marks the indirect object in the Urhobo language.
Virginus Onyebuchi Aruah, Jacinta Ukamaka Eze, Stella Nkeiruka Aruah-Buchi, Augustina Ngozi Eze
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2013

Abstract:
This study examines how analogical mapping is used to analyse ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect. The objectives of the study are to analyse the attribute and relational mapping of selected ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect. The data of the study are drawn from ọmaba chant of Ụmụdịaka in Nsukka area of Enugu State, through an audio recording of Ụdara Nwa onyishi (Ọmabe) chant and also the study uses introspection since the researchers are indigenous speakers of the Ideke lect. The research desgn used in this study is a qualitative research paradigm. The study was done descriptively and purposive sampling was used to sample the population. The analogical mapping theory is adopted as the framework for this study. The study finds out that ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect has abstract meanings which contradict the physical (source concepts) image. Another finding of the study proves that in Ideke lect, ọkụkọ as used in this study possess different semantic impulse due to the sociolinguistic environment where such proverbs are being used. These different shades of meanings will be gotten by aligning the physical concept to abstract concept(s). During the analysis of ọkụkọ proverbs in Ideke lect, it is evident that source domain is liable to form various new abstract semantic realisations which was not the initial semantic usage of the linguistic expression. From the semantic purview, proverbs are complex cognitive tasks which links source domain to the target domain.
Mohammed Yakub
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2011

Abstract:
In the field of Onomastics, many researchers have delved into the study of personal names, place names, church names and school names, among others. This paper gathers another exciting data, (i.e. names that are ascribed to pets in Nzema society) and seeks to examine the morpho-syntactic features of the ‘pet names’. The paper employs the qualitative research approach in providing a descriptive analysis of the linguistic properties that feature in pet names among the people of Nzema. In this paper, ninety (90) pet names are discussed. Relying on Haspelmath’s notion of Framework-free Theory of Grammatical Analysis, the paper demonstrates that the morphological structures of Nzema pet names include single root morphemes, lexical compounding, derivational and inflectional processes, lexical borrowing, and reduplication. These word formation processes are accompanied by some phonological processes such as vowel elision and harmony. At the syntactic/sentential level, the pet names function as simple declarative sentences, imperatives and interrogatives. Compound and complex-embedded clauses were also prevalent in the structure of the pet names. It is ascertained that these pet names are grammatically insightful and can provide a window to understanding the morphosyntactic features of the Nzema language.
Terfa Aor, Pilah Godwin Anyam
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 27-37; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2124

Abstract:
Metathesis, the transposition of letters and syllables, is a minor phonological process that is found in both English and Tiv languages. This phonological process has not received much attention it deserves because most scholars considered it as a figure of misspelling which is not worthy of researching. This paper investigates the nature of English and Tiv metatheses. The objectives of this paper are to classify English and Tiv metatheses, discuss the formation of metatheses in English and Tiv and state the functions of metatheses in English and Tiv languages. This paper used comparative linguistic theory which compares the nature of English and Tiv metatheses. The researcher used participant observation tool for elicitation of data for this study. Secondary materials such as journal articles, textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopaedias and Internet sources were used. This study links phonology, historical linguistics, onomastics and language pathology (speech disorder). The study has established that metathesis has phonological, orthographic, metrical and onomastic relevance. This paper provides an in-depth material for teaching and learning of English and Tiv languages. It has been recommended that lecturers in the National Institute for Nigerian Languages, Departments of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages should write books and critical works on Nigerian or African languages.
Mulugeta Asnakew Tadesse
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2114

Abstract:
This research paper investigates the factors that affect student’s interpersonal communication skills in English language and literature regular students at Kabridahar University. It focused on English Language and Literature regular students in Kabridahar University. The objective of the study was to investigate the major factors that affect student’s interpersonal communication. The researcher collected data from the students by using Questionnaire, Interview and observation in order to get an appropriate finding. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis. The study shows that, the students have interest to communicate and interact with each other. But, some of barriers like mother tongue influence and variety of language affect their interpersonal communication as well as their relationship. Also, factors like weak relationship to others, lack of interest, inexperience, lack of practice and gender issues are the major barriers which affected student’s interpersonal communication.
Asmaa Adel Abdulrahman, Ramamoorthy L
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2145

Abstract:
This experimental study aims at investigating the English word-stress patterns used by Yemenis, learning English as a foreign language, and the erroneous stress patterns used by them. Accent or stress is a feature of high significance in English speech. At the level of a word, one syllable gets accentuated with primary stress. To achieve the purpose of this study, and to find out to what extent word stress of Received Pronunciation English poses difficulty on Yemeni Arabic speakers using English as a foreign language, 120 subjects of various scientific disciplines, were chosen for data collection. They were recorded and their utterances went through deep analysis based on the auditory impression of the researcher and on the spectrographic evidence resulting from the speech analysis of the software program PRAAT. The most significant findings reached by the researcher were that word-stress in the four-syllable target words were the most problematic for the speakers in which 53.2% of them put the stress, randomly, on the wrong syllables in words. Three-syllable target words appeared to be less problematic as 44.4% of the participants placed the stress inaccurately in words. The least difficulties encountered by the speakers were with the two-syllable target words where 70.6% of the speakers managed to pronounce the words with correct stress placement. It is noteworthy to mention that there was a tendency among the speakers who produced wrong stress patterns, to accent either the first syllable or the one including a long vowel or a diphthong in the words.
Chenliang Zhou
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2143

Abstract:
This paper has adopted a quantitative approach to carry out a linguistic study, within the theoretical framework of dependency grammar. Translation is a process where source language and target language interact with each other. The present study aims at exploring the feasibility of mean dependency distance as a metric for automated translation quality assessment. The current research hypothesized that different levels of translation are significantly different in the aspect of mean dependency distance. Data of this study were based on the written translation in Parallel Corpus of Chinese EFL Learners which was composed of translations from Chinese EFL learners in various topic. The translations were human-scored to determine the levels of translation, according to which the translations were categorized. Our results indicated that: (1) senior students perform better in translation than junior students, and mean dependency distance of translations from senior group is significantly shorter than the junior; (2) high quality translations yield shorter mean dependency distance than the low quality translations; (3) mean dependency distance of translations is moderately correlated with the human score. The resultant implication suggests the potential for mean dependency distance in differentiating translations of different quality.
Megaptche Megaptche Yvan Rudhel, Xu Wen
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2144

Abstract:
In translation studies, it is sometimes assumed by some scholars that bilinguals are in possession of an innate competence for translating. In this research, aspects of bilingualism and translation competences are investigated. The questions driving the research are: is being a bilingual enough to be a translator? And what are the competences a translator needs to perform a good translation? This article addresses these questions through a comprehensive literature review and a small-scale empirical study. First, relevant literature on bilingualism and translation competence was reviewed. Second, an empirical investigation was carried out in which bilinguals and professional translators translated a source text to generate empirical data on the use of two languages and relevant translation competences. The results have shown that being a translator is more than being bilingual and going to a translation school is not a guarantee to be a good translator. The subject matter knowledge also matters. The research not only yield insights into the description and development of translation competence, but also provides potential avenues for translators’ self-improvement.
Virginus Onyebuchi Aruah
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2141

Abstract:
The study seeks to find out the linguistic adulteration of the Igbo language through a sociolinguistic process known as multilingualism. Many scholars are lamenting that the Igbo language is going into extinction just because it is losing its original linguistic structures via multilingualism. Such alteration brings to the limelight of the study in order to address these issues on Nigerian indigenous languages in general and the Igbo language in particular. A descriptive approach is used to harvest some of these language contact issues among the Igbo populace and language. A random sampling is used to ascertain the population of the five Igbo states: Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States on how communication and written aspects of the language have been dealt with negatively. Participant observation and students’ essay writing in the Igbo language are used to collate these sub-standard Igbo grammar structures. The study expounds at a length the intricacy of the proper Igbo written forms and as well as pulling the Igbo language away from the effects of multilingualism. The findings of the study prove that the different types of multilingualism abound among the Igbo language native users. They also exemplify some linguistic related issues on the bold face of multilingualism among the Igbo interlocutors and how they vary among the Igbo speech communities in Nigeria. The study also finds out the effects of multilingualism on the standard Igbo teaching. The study goes further in suggesting some quintessential solutions to recuperate the status quo of the Igbo language.
Sabbah Qamri
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 9-22; https://doi.org/10.54392/ijll2142

Abstract:
This paper includes a detailed discussion on the intelligibility of the speakers of four regional dialects of the Indo-Aryan language of Assamese. Prior research on Assamese dialects mostly being confined to examining structural variation lends this study relevance and urgency. The dialects of Standard Assamese, Central Assamese, Kamrupi, and Goalparia, covering three varieties each, were considered for the study. Using a functional intelligibility testing approach, the rate of overall intelligibility as well as of inter- and intra-dialectal mutual intelligibility of the dialects were determined. 24 speakers (1 male and 1 female from each variety) were asked to record ‘texts’— words, sentences, and connected speech in their native varieties of Assamese. 11 listeners from each variety (132 in total) were then tested on their comprehension of texts from non-native varieties. Thereafter, their rates of comprehension were used to determine the rates of mutual intelligibility between speakers of the different dialects and varieties of Assamese. This paper establishes that the rates of mutual intelligibility are unequal and asymmetric among the dialects— the native speakers of the Standard and Central Assamese dialects were more intelligible to the speakers of Kamrupi and Goalparia than vice-versa. Finally, the paper finds that the rate of intelligibility is the lowest for words in isolation and reinforces the important role of context in intelligibility.
Girish K.S, Abhishek B.P, Deepak P
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 13-21; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2132

Abstract:
Word retrieval difficulty is commonly seen in persons with aphasia. The cues would repair word retrieval difficulty. The effect of cues during verb retrieval was gauged via Action Naming Test (ANT) in Kannada and English languages in persons with aphasia (PWAs). A total of eight persons with bilingual Aphasia (Broca's, conduction, and isolation type) were recruited for the study. The participants were expected to have a minimum quantum of verbal output were considered for the study. Specifically, the study used phonemic, semantic, and verbal contextual cues to assess verb retrieval abilities. The result of the study manifested that all participants of the study were able to perform better with phonemic cues followed by semantic and verbal contextual cues in both Kannada and English languages.
Suhasini Dash
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2131

Abstract:
The paper discusses in detail echo formations and expressives found in the Odia language and the strategies for forming them. The complex semantic structure as well as the wide semantic and conceptual space they occupy, make them complex categories that have been ignored both by Western and Asian linguists because they are a prototypical grammatical feature not fitting the traditional grammar writing (Abbi, 2018). Odia has morphological fixed segmentism with the variants /ph/ and /m/. Morphological fixed segmentism is a kind of affixation, and so it resembles affixing morphology generally. [ɡaɽɪ > ɡaɽɪ phaɽɪ ‘car and other transport’ ; ʧɪra > ʧɪra mɪra ‘ torn and such’ ] This paper endeavours to find the reason behind this particular choice of phonemes by Odia speakers. Furthermore, the paper investigates if Odia base-reduplicant structures follow the Syllable Contact Law (Vennemann, 1988). According to the Syllable Contact Law, sonority should fall across syllable boundaries. This paper proves that Odia base-reduplicant structures follow the Syllable Contact Law as rise in sonority across syllable boundaries is a marked feature in Odia.’
Ambreen Safdar Kharbe
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 43-52; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2115

Abstract:
Class, caste and, gender systems prevail since ancient times in society. Lot has been said and studied about it but yet society is not free from these stigmas. The division of society on the basis of class, caste, and gender has hindered the progress of society at the same time has treated the lowest castes also known as Dalits or former ‘Untouchables’ as underdogs and have tremendously ill-treated this section in the society. The mainstream has made them marginalized and unheard. Dalit women are triple victims and are the most sufferers in Indian community. Though the Indian Constitution talks about equality, freedom, and justice to all Indian Citizens, irrespective of caste, class, creed, religion, and sex there are many who are not privileged for the same. This research paper focuses on the understanding of class and caste system with addition to Dalit women as the triple victim of class, caste, and gender with the background of social structure in India and Dalit and Non-Dalit writers unveiling their plight and sufferings. Select works of major writers such as Mulk Raj Anand, Munshi Premchand, Mahasweta Devi, Urmila Pawar, will be considered for this research. The research makes the unheard voice of Dalit women reach the masses and ignite the spark of justice and respect for them in society.
Terfa Aor, Torkuma Tyonande Damkor
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2111

Abstract:
All levels of language analysis are prone to changes in their phonology, morphology, graphology, lexis, semantics and syntax over the years. Tiv language is not an exception to this claim. This study investigates various aspects of phonological or sound changes in Tiv language. This paper therefore classifies sound changes in Tiv; states causes of sound changes in Tiv and explores implications of sound changes. The research design used in this paper is purposive sampling of relevant data. The instrument used in this paper is the observation method in which the author selected words that showed epenthesis, deletion and substitution. It has been noted that the use of archaic spellings in the Modern Tiv literatures shows their ancientness. Phonological change is not a deviation but a sign of language growth and changes in spellings result in changes in sounds. The author recommends that scholars should write papers or critical works on lexical/morphological, syntactic, semantic, graphological changes in Tiv language. Students should write projects, dissertations and theses on language change and diachronic linguistics. This study introduces Tiv historical linguistics and diachronic phonology which serve as catalysts for the study of Tiv language. The understanding of Tiv sound change provides students with a much better understanding of Tiv phonological system in general, of how Tiv phonology works and how the phonemes fit together
Stephen Shiaondo Ajim, Iorember Margaret N
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 16-26; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2112

Abstract:
Nominalization is a linguistic process of deriving nouns from other word classes or linguistic units. Nominalization is evident in many languages of the world. The Tiv language also exhibits nominalization. This paper critically analyses nominalization in Tiv. The objectives of the paper are: to determine the processes through which nominalization takes place in the Tiv language, the extent to which the processes of nominalization are productive in the Tiv language, and the classes of words and linguistic units that are nominalized in Tiv. Data were sourced from the native speakers of Tiv using the researcher – participant technique. The researchers documented the lexical items used during the interaction, determine the basic components of the lexical items and the word classes such lexical items belonged to. The intuitive knowledge of the researchers as the native speakers of the language was harnessed. The secondary data were sourced from the already existing literatures such as textbooks, journals and the internet. The theory adopted in the paper is Hokett’s (1954) structural theory whose models are the Item-and-Process (I.P) and Item-and-Arrangement (I.P). It has been found out that the processes through which nominalization takes in the Tiv language are prefixation, prefixation plus some modifications, tonality and desententialization (sentence deconstruction). These processes are discovered to be very productive in nominalization in Tiv. It has also been found out that verbs roots and adjectives are the classes of words that are nominalized (lexical nominalization) in the Tiv language together with sentences (syntactic nominalization).
Ocheja Theophilus Attabor
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2014

Abstract:
Languages of the world have certain similar linguistic features in terms of a finite set of fundamental principles which are universal to all languages on one hand, and a finite set of parameters which determine syntactic variability amongst them. In order to substantiate evidence of linguistic universals, there is need for comparative analysis of languages. The thrust of the paper is to expound the diversities and similarities in Ígálá and English linguistic systems in the area of patterns of pluralisation. The paper is hinged on Inferential-realizational theory. The paper observed that the noun class in Ígálá is marked for number through three inflectional markers [ám(á), ìb(ó) and áb(ó)] while the noun class in English is inflected for number by the following exponents: [-s, -es, -ies, -en, -ren, -ves] not losing sight of zero concept. Germane to this work is the fact that Ígálá and English exhibit extended exponence- a linguistic situation where a particular morphosyntactic property could be expressed by more than one morphological marking in the same word depending on the lexeme’s root. Plural markers in Ígálá are prefixes while plural markers in English are suffixes. In conclusion, English and Ígálá are uniform in one specific sense of the capacity to inflect words for grammatical purposes, but have different structures in the process of inflection or associating an inflected word with a specific set of morphosyntactic properties.
Chioma Magdaline Akaeze, Jacinta Ukamaka Eze, Juliana Ginika Mamah, Virginus Onyebuchi Aruah
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2015

Abstract:
Thematic study is an area in any literary study that cannot be easily overlooked. It is an area that cuts across the three major genres of literature. This paper examines the literary text Ajo Obi which is written by I.G. Nwaozuzu in form of drama with the view of studying the theme of infidelity as portrayed in the text. This work aims at showing the ambiguity of the claim of innocence by the accused in the text. It also brings to light how cultural divergence brings about different interpretations of an action. The data for this study are drawn from intensive study of the literary text Ajo Obi. Following a qualitative research paradigm the study adopts reader response approach in its analysis. Findings show that there is a kind of uncertainty in the claim of innocence by the accused in the text. Again cultural divergence is also found to bring about differences in interpretation of an action.
Ambrose Chinenye Lynda, Idegbekwe Destiny
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2012

Abstract:
There are greater possibilities for a language utterance to have more meanings than what is stated. It is also possible for the hearers/audience to interpret what the speaker has in mind beyond what the speaker has put out in words. These meanings derived in this form are echoic and they are arrived at by choosing meanings that contextually relevant involving the least effort. How echoic relevant definitions are achieved has been studied using different language instances. Still, none in the researchers' knowledge has investigated how the COVID 19 social media memes, as used by Nigerians, communicate deeper meanings that are contextually relevant and how the echoic interpretations reveal the users' attitude. On this basis, therefore, the present study investigated the echoic nature of COVID 19 related social media memes as used by Nigerians. The study used Sperber and Wilson (1986) relevance theory as the theoretical framework and qualitatively analyzed Ten (10) purposefully selected memes. In the end, the study found out that interpretations of memes are significantly linked with the shared cognitive background knowledge which the speaker/meme creator and the hearer/audience have. Also, memes could echo the attitude of concern, disdain and fear while also harboring deeper meanings that contextually relevant and implicit.
Agniva Pal
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2121

Abstract:
This is a neuro-linguistic research which compares Bangla speaking right hemisphere damaged (furthermore to be called RHD) male participants to age and gender matched normal males who have been selected from the same family as the right hemisphere damaged participants. RHD or right hemisphere damaged participants are those who have lesions or damages in the right hemisphere of the brain or both. This paper pertains to the understanding how a lesion or a damage in the right hemisphere can cause changes in the pattern of communication of adult males in the age group of 45 to 70. This paper discerns the difference in durations of controlled speech in RHD males compared to age and gender matched normal controls. It will be measured with the help a predetermined passage. A passage will be played to them, using a media player (to make sure everyone listens to the same recording, ruling out chances of error there) and then they will be asked to repeat the same passage, as much as they can remember. In this research, we will be looking at the time they would take to narrate the whole passage without missing out on anything.
Muna Salah Hasan
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2123

Abstract:
The image of the child in its various shades is one of the common images in Arabic poems from the pre-Islamic era to the modern era, but it did not receive the attention of scholars, and it was not studied in depth showing its connotations and symbols. Hence came my study entitled "The Child in Contemporary Iraqi Poetry", which is an attempt to clarify the symbols of the word (the child) and what it indicates according to the context in which they are mentioned, as well as the statement of the aesthetic aspects of how to employ these symbols through the selection of poetic texts of modern poets in which the image of the child was mentioned Where this image was linked to the intellectual and political framework of the trends of Iraqi poets to create with it multiple connotations that were in harmony with the successive conflicts and revolutions that the poet employed to express intellectual, political and artistic positions. Modern Iraqi poetry by this expression means what many poets wrote in a non-traditional or traditional (classical) poetry curriculum in the literature of their languages. It appeared in Arabic literature at the end of the first half of the twentieth century, especially at the hands of Al-Rihani, Al-Sayyab, the angels and the Arab diaspora in a number of European countries that they went to settle in, especially Italy, France, Britain and then the American states. One of the most prominent differences raised by this trend was what was raised about (authenticity and contemporary) in his book and its production, over decades of years, which lasted about a century.
Afrida Aainun Murshida
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2122

Abstract:
This paper is a detailed Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the novel The To-Let House that represents the indigenous struggles, the politics of identity and the construction of a ‘woman’s identity’ amidst the unsettling environment of violence in the historical context of the North Eastern part of India. The paper would analyse and explore the underlying discourse operating in the novel and investigate the core theories and its impact through the conscious choices of the ‘language in use’ by the author. Daisy Hasan’s The To-Let House is primarily marked with the identity constructions and its gradual evolution. The author not only just unravels the struggles that the characters undergo but also counterfeits a sense of identity instituting it towards one’s self identity. The characters in the novel are unable to affiliate themselves into any one particular cultural identity; rather they constantly are struggling within themselves inwardly, in the midst of the violence surrounding them outwardly. This weakness and inability to assign an identity turns out to be a strong narrative that constructs a powerful discourse highlighting the nuances of ‘belongingness.’
Imu Oghoghophia Famous
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.34256/ijll2125

Abstract:
This paper examines verb valency in Urhobo, using minimalism as a theoretical framework. Verb valency deals with the question of how many participants a specific verb logically presupposes in order for the event denoted by the verb to be realizable. The method of data collection is categorized into two main sources: primary and secondary data. The preliminary data refers to the information obtained using intuitive knowledge, the secondary source refers to documented information obtained from the library, internet, and other published materials. The study reveals that where we have one argument structure, we have one theta function. There are two place predicates we have two theta roles or functions, and also, three arguments predicates possess three theta roles. This goes a long way to say that Urhobo verbs can take different arguments, and their syntactic and semantic well-formedness will still be intact. It also reveals that it takes only one individual to carry out one event, such as òvwèrẹ̀ (sleeping event) in the Urhobo language. Finally, the paper identifies three valency classes in the Urhobo language (Mono-valent verb- takes or involves one entity, Di-valent verb- takes or involves two entities, and Tri-valent verb- takes or involves three entities).
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