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Results in Journal ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE: 330

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Fabiana Natali, Giacomo Branca
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10412

Abstract:
Water has important economic values, mainly in the agricultural sector. Beside enhancing agricultural output and crop diversification, irrigation generates positive externalities which have been little emphasized by the literature. The purpose of this review is to investigate the direct, indirect and potentialbenefits of water use in agriculture by taking an additional step towards the identification and economic evaluation of the observed positive, social, environmental and ecological effects of irrigation. Five categories of contributions are examined: irrigation returns flows for groundwater recharge; biodiversityand wildlife habitat; landscape aesthetic and cultural values; nutrient recycling and retention; and improved health, nutritionand living conditions. Knowing the economic value of  such positive externalities would help to get the right policy incentives for better water use and increased water savings in a context of growing water scarcity.
Alberto ZambottI
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10411

Abstract:
The southern slopes of the Alps are facing a changing climate. This is acutely perceived in areas ideally suited to highquality agriculture, such as the Val di Non, in the northern Italian Province of Trento. Here agriculture has been constantly improving in technology and management. Drip irrigation now covers 100% of fruit tree cultivation, notably apple and cherry representing 90% of the over 8,000 hectares of farmed land.Cooperative management of resources, both in irrigation and land management, underpins and strengthens the agricultural sector in the Province of Trento. The Province's primary legislative control over agriculture and environmental protection maximizes the legislator's closeness to the interests and needs of agricultural producers and economic actors. This article illustrates the norms regulating agriculture and environmental protection in the Province of Trento. Secondly, it presents the ongoing complex research aimed at striking a new balance between environmental concerns (namely, the preservation of the quality of water streams in Val di Non) and growing demand for water for local agricultural production. The needto provide adequate water supply for agriculture conflicts with the necessity to guarantee minimum flow levels in local water streams, as provided for by law (environmental flow), as well as to preserve adequate quality of flowing water. The article proposes to connect existing irrigation infrastructure – irrigation networks, reservoirs and pumping stations. Itanalyzesa range of issues – parasite management; insurance against spring frost; labor protection; processing and marketing of produce. It connects with local research centers – the University of Trento for climatological research, the Mach Foundation for agronomic research and the Kessler Foundation for the application of new technologies to data harvesting and management.
Giacomo Giannoccaro, Ruggiero Sardaro, Rossella De Vito, , Bernardo C. De Gennaro
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10409

Abstract:
The overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation purposes is a general problem affecting the management of common resources. The objective of this study was to analyze some of the policy options when facing this issue. A choice experiment was performed in order to elicit farmers' stated preferencesfor four policy instruments, namely i) implementation of a compulsory measurement system of groundwater extraction; ii) improved monitoring of rural areas in order to limit illegal access to groundwater; iii) reforming the groundwater tax system; iv) increasing the supply of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation. A survey was conducted in the Puglia region on a representative sample of 187 farmers, selected in the main hot-spot irrigated areas. A Random Parameter Logit Model was estimated using two covariates (i.e. size of irrigable farmland and farmers' awareness of groundwater shortage). Findings highlighted the farmers' preference for increasing the supply of water for irrigation (i.e. wastewater supply). Among the measures aiming to handle groundwater demand for irrigation, the respondents positively valued the enhancement of rural area monitoring to prevent illegal access, but they rejected a compulsory groundwater metering system. Finally, the methodological approach proved to be an effective tool to improve policy design, making the decisionmaking process more participatory.
Pierangelo Carbone, Debora Siviero, Raphaela Itimura De Camargo, Amirhassan Masoumi
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10408

Abstract:
The pressure of growing urbanization, industrialization and water scarcity resulting from climate change imposes limitations on the amount of water allocated to agriculture.There will need to be an increase in food production of almost 50% by 2030. This will be an enormous challenge, requiring a significant increase in irrigable land area in the forthcoming years. It is necessary to improve water 2 systems based on the knowledge that high efficiency can be achieved with less wateronly by the adoption of more effective water-management plans, especially in agriculture, which is the major consumer of this precious resource. Water management in agriculture has a dual task: improving both water networks and how treated wastewater is used and re-used. Farmer participation in wateradministration will play a key role in agricultural production growth. The paper highlights current concern regarding the management of water supply for irrigation from the River Arda in Piacenza province, Italy. The approach proposed by the Consorzio di Bonifica di Piacenza for the reduction of water loss in the irrigation network is the replacement of the traditional system of open canals with a new underground pipe system, to be available only for irrigation, in such a way that the hydrogeological structure of the territory would not be altered. The project's technical and economic feasibilitydepend on architectural quality and technical functionality. During the project phase tools and methods were also considered, seeking to involve techniques, materials and equipment that would make the pipe system less invasive and more affordable, efficient and manageable, not only regarding the final results, but also the project's development and construction stages, as well as its post-construction ordinary maintenance.
Ruggiero Sardaro, Piermichele La Sala
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10410

Abstract:
Apulia has a considerable demand of irrigation water, however high inefficiency levels of the collective water networks force most of the regional farms to use groundwater, with a consequent worsening of its quality, as well as of soil and crops characteristics. Therefore, the use of sustainable supply methodsfor irrigation water is desirable both through improvements of the collective networks and by appropriate economic tools.However, making the correct choices in these matters requires knowledge concerning the effects of the present water supply systems on the economic performance of farms.The objective of this study is to measure and compare the technical efficiency of winegrowing farms in northern Apulia that use different supply systems for irrigation water: groundwater from private wells, irrigation water from collective networks, and irrigation water from both private wells and collective networks. The results enable to understand if and how different supply systems of irrigation water affect the management of productive factors and inputs. These findings also provide useful information for appropriate policies aimed at preserving groundwater and its externalities, as well as at improving the economic performance of Apulian farms.
Cinalberto Bertozzi, Fabio Paglione
Published: 1 September 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2-2020oa10413

Abstract:
The Burana Land-Reclamation Board is an interregional water board operating in three regions and five provinces. The Burana Land-Reclamation Board operates over a land area of about 250,000 hectares between the Rivers Secchia, Panaro and Samoggia, which forms the drainage basin of the River Panaroand part of the Burana-Po di Volano, from the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines to the River Po. Its main tasks are the conservation and safeguarding of the territory, with particular attention to water resources and how they are used, ensuring rainwater drainage from urban centres, avoiding flooding but ensuringwater supply for crop irrigation in the summer to combat drought. Since the last century the Burana Land-Reclamation Board has been using innovative techniques in the planning of water management schemes designed to achieve the above aims, improving the management of water resources while keeping a constant eye on protection of the environment.
Riccardo Vecchio, Gerarda Caso, Luigi Cembalo,
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10069

Abstract:
Participant attentiveness may represent a major concern for all researchers using online self-report survey data, as findings from non-diligent participants add noise and can significantly decrease results reliability. Therefore, attention checks have become a popular method in survey design across social sciences to capture careless or insufficient-effort of respondents, thus increasing quality of samples and the internal validity of the research. The aim of this note is to offer an overview and categorization of the different techniques adopted to flag inattentive respondents and present the potential drawbacks of not considering the issue in social sciences research.
, Lucie Plzáková, Jan Hán, Jan Kašpar
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10067

Abstract:
This article explores attitudes of hospitality stakeholders (HSs) and consumers towards fish gastronomy in the Czech Republic with an emphasis on traditional recipes and the impact of globalization. For the exploration of HSs' attitudes, qualitative investigation via in-depth semi-standardized interviews was employed with 19 fish restaurant HSs. The abstraction, appearance of ideal types of HSs, and integration with four aspects of Ritzer's McDonaldization theory were done. For the exploration of consumers' attitudes, sensory evaluation of seven fish dishes with 1698 participants was used. Lastly, a focus group was conducted with regular fish food consumers.Three ideal types of HS named progressive innovators, taste defenders, and occasional traditionalists appeared. For all of them, aspects of McDonaldization were obvious, meaning shift towards rationalization in Czech fish culinary culture and possible dilution of the original identity. As the main reasons for deauthentication of Czech fish gastronomy, a high laboriousness of traditional fish dishes causing high time consumption for restaurant staff, and the inclusion of bones in most of the traditional Czech fish dishes as the main barrier for consumers were identified. Paradoxically, consumers preferred traditional dishes more, showing a discrepancy between the attitudes of consumers and HSs. This result drew attention to the need for marketing research on the part of HSs. When already prepared dishes were presented, consumers preferred to choose more time-consuming fish dishes with more input ingredients. In the restaurant, consumers more often choose bone-free dishes. On the other hand, in households, consumers prefer the cheaper purchase of whole fish with bones. Ways of defense against food globalization were outlined: promotion of traditional fish dishes not contradicting the McDonaldization aspects, supporting food with strong national traditions, and the usage of glocalization when the skills, specificity, or original ingredients are sustained despite globalization.
Carlos Moreno Miranda, Raúl Moreno, Pablo Moreno
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10066

Abstract:
The Protected Denominations of Origin in agricultural goods through recognized chains, have a fundamental economic role. In Ecuador, the pdo cocoa bean certification becomes a protagonist since it presents an opportunity to boost the social performance of smallholders. A substantial amount of research focused only on examining the crop performance of pdo products. However, there is a shift in the agricultural chain perspective towards more sustainable models. In this respect, social, economic, and institutional aspects are consequential and tribute to the agricultural sector development. Also, the current rise of market opportunities at the local and international levels is a driver to support them. This study aimed to analyze socio-economic and governance components to understand the pdo Cocoa Arriba (Theobroma cacao) chain sustainability performance and bring forward potential strategies. Principal Components Analysis was introduced to contribute with relevant insights.The framework applied accounts with a revision of primary and support activities. The investigation clustered pre-production, production, and post-production tiers. Also, it executed the food chain mapping and identification of chain actors. Results stated several viable long-term strategies. Examples of those strategies are the enhancement of national regulation to assist chain actors and the stimulus of young producers and associations empowerment. The main research contribution is the application of governance mechanisms to assess the chain performance comprehensively. Based on the results, our recommendation is to incorporate new indicators to analyze the environmental and institutional components profoundly.
, Sedef Akgüngör, Valeria Borsellino, Alessio Ishizaka, Christine Mauracher, Simona Naspetti, Søren Marcus Pedersen, John L. Stanton, Stefanella Stranieri
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10054

Søren Marcus Pedersen, Kim Martin Lind, Orjon Xhoxhi, Attila Yazar, Sven-Erik Jacobsen, Jens Erik Ørum
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10063

Abstract:
In order to look for a more diverse and sustainable cropping system with high value crops in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, the drought and salt tolerant crop quinoa was analysed as an alternative to the current major crops, for instance wheat.This study investigates the conditions for growing quinoa in Adana, and how they are perceived among farmers in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research was employed to group farmers into segments according to their willingness to adopt quinoa. Findings from this study indicate that farmers in Adana perceive quinoa as a crop likely to be adopted in their cropping system if they can gain market access with the new crop. Farmers' previous knowledge regarding the crop, concerns about drought and salt risk and farm characteristics also appear to be determining the farmers' attitude towards new crops.
Samuele Trestini, Alice Stiletto
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10064

Abstract:
The regulation 1169/2011, which aims to protect the consumers in relation to food information, stresses the fact that the country of origin is become a key attribute for consumers in their purchasing decision. In 2014, the Italian Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies, with the Decree of 9 December 2016 - based on art. 26 of Reg. 1169/2011 – introduced the obligation of labelling the country origin of milk used in all dairy products and therefore for the first time for uht milk. In this context, the aim of the study is to evaluate the price premium of different quality attributes on uht milk sold in Italy, with particular regard to the country of origin of milk.From the analysis, it emerges that Italian origin of milk has a significant and positive effect on price, together with the type of retailer (i.e. hypermarket), notorious brands, plastic packaging, high and middle placement on the shelves, organic attribute and the enrichment with omega 3, phosphorus or fibre.
Franco Mari
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10065

Abstract:
In countries with a post-industrial economy, where agriculture evolves towards rural development, canine breeding can be a good opportunity to integrate agricultural income. Despite this and despite being an agricultural activity in all respects, cynophilia is not contemplated among the productive activities for which the calculation of Standard Output is envisaged, an economic variable set by the EU to measure the economic size of farms aimed at the granting of aid. Considering the inconvenience that this causes to canine breeders, the present contribution proposes a methodology for estimating the variable under examination consistent with the community legislation and based on a method of breeding that meets theprinciples of animal welfare. As dog breeding is not intended for production of food or other material goods other than puppies, its production cycle is not suitable for a subdivision based on homogeneous categories of age or weight, as occurs in traditional farms. The consistency with the community legislation, which is realized in the quantification of the annual production of the breeding, has therefore been obtained by means of the financial discounting of the costs and revenues obtainable throughout the entire production cycle and in calculation of their annual share. The compliance of the breeding technique with the principles of animal well-being, on the other hand, stems from compliance with the rules laid down in the Ethical code of the breeder of dogs prepared by Enci – Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana (Italian National Body for Cynophilia). The data needed to estimate the costs and revenues associated with dog breeding are almost completely available online and the results obtained are congruous and very interesting.
Eduardo Barberis, Daniela Freddi, Raffaele Giammetti, Paolo Polidori, Désirée Teobaldelli, Elena Viganò
Published: 1 July 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag1-2020oa10070

Abstract:
This article aims to analyse the European pig sector and its transformations (e.g. vertical integration and phase specialization).In particular, we will both explore the specialization and territorial concentration of pig production, and the significant changes which have taken place in the trade among European Union countries. Using the network analysis (betweenness centrality, node strength and community detection) applied to Eurostat and fao datasets on production and trade in the period 2000-2016, we will show the emergence of national players and international connections that lead to a larger continental market. Finally, this evidence will be used in the discussion and conclusion to raise wider concerning the working of agrifoodvalue chains, in terms of social, economic and environmental sustainability, as well as regulation. This calls for more interdisciplinary analyses of value chains.
, Malgorzata Grazyna Juchniewicz
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 659-676; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003005

Abstract:
The research problem presented in the article concerns the evaluation of competitive factors of EU Member States' food industries. Having adopted the concept of factor competitiveness, the focus was put mainly on the level and effectiveness of the use of resources owned by food producers. To this end, the following indices were calculated: a particular country's share in the total number of food industry enterprises in the EU, productivity, and labour costs. While considering the great significance of innovative activity in developing competitive advantage, innovative activity of food industries in particular countries was evaluated. It was found that food producers used various competitive factors. In the more technologically advanced countries, these included labour productivity and innovation. The so-called "new" Member States are still competing using low labour costs.
Elena Viganò, Federico Gori, Antonella Amicucci
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 587-611; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003002

Abstract:
The central role of quality agri-food production in the promotion of a given territory is actually widely recognized by both the economic and marketing literature and the stakeholders involved in the enhancement process of rural systems. On this basis, this work analyzes one of the finest Italian agri-food products: the truffle. This work tries to point out the main problems characterizing the current regulatory framework, the trade and the production of the Italian truffle sector, emphasizing their causes, consequences and possible solutions.
Comitato Di Redazione
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 577-585; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003001

Justyna Agnieszka Franc-Dabrowskaa
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 677-696; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003006

Abstract:
The article examines the financialization process in Western and Central and Eastern European countries using the example of agriculture, in particular, agricultural land. The phenomenon discussed is identified as ‘crawling financialization' in Central and Eastern Europe. Countries whose economies underwent a socialpolitical transformation in the 1990s proved to be resistant to the heavy impact of the 2008 financial crisis. Agriculture is one area that should be examined for the phenomenon of financialization, because agricultural land is a desirable investment resource (after exhausting relatively safe opportunities in the financial market), and because investors from capital markets are increasingly moving into commodity markets to speculate on raw materials and agricultural products. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the extent of this phenomenon - whether it's defined as aggressive investment or the crawling financialization of agricultural markets. This paper outlines the determinants of the development of financialization in the food sector, and examines the concept of both ‘galloping' and ‘creeping' financialization and their implications for the agricultural sector, with particular emphasis on agricultural land. Considering the fact that ‘financialization' is a fuzzy concept that is open to interpretation, an attempt was made to concretize it by dividing countries into developed or developing. In addition, attention was paid to the decline in the share of agricultural land in the long-term, and the transfer of investors' free cash from high-risk markets to the agricultural land market. This is prompted by the specific features of land, such as its inconsistency, non-reproducibility, and theoretically also indestructibility.
, Ana Oliveira Madsen, Teresa Coelho
Published: 1 January 2020
ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE pp 855-872; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003016

Abstract:
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are powerful tools in an extremely unstable and turbulent world, being a vital weapon in an era of electronic communication, full of unpredictability and entropy. Portugal is Europe's leader in consumption of fish and ranks third in the world. It is with this historical, economic and food galaxy interpretation of the world that we have decided to study the fish consumption supply chain in Portugal, distributing and analyzing 2 different surveys on purchase and consumption behaviors. 1393 respondents participated in surveys, one survey being for the general of the population and another one specifically for generations Y and Z. Being ICTs so vital to young people and being generation Y and Z the future in consumption, we have focused our study on how to build a support for the coming generations. To do that we have design communication strategies for fishing sector, including point-of-sale communication, underlining the issue of shopping experience, which in the case of young consumers is, very closely linked to ICT, based on creating sustained value for society underpinned by a relation of cooperation and proximity. Following Toffler's permanent adaptation survival rule, it is vital to the food supply chain (in our case, fish) to rapidly understand that the future of consumption is in the hands of the "Z/Post-Millennials" generation, meaning that product, place, price and promotion have been replaced by Ettenson's Solutions, Access, Value and Education.
Nino Adamashvili, Filomena Chiara, Mariantonietta Fiore
Published: 1 January 2020
ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE pp 825-846; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003014

Abstract:
Food loss and waste remains a big academic and policy concern all over the world. Reduction of flw is one of the ways to enhance the food quality and security as well as environmental sustainability and economic wellbeing. The aim of the article is to tackle the issue of the flw and investigate the results that derive from worldwide implemented projects and strategies. To do so, the paper brings together the findings of the main fieldworks related to the flw issue categorizing them along the several phases of the food supply chain: harvesting, processing, storage, transportation and consumption. Besides the analysis of academic literature on the topic, we have collected and described several good practical cases and initiatives related to flw problem carried out similarly to the results of the authors cited in the theoretical part of the paper. Findings show our point of view on the importance of optimal and sustainable use of resources, as well as the ways through which food related expenditures can be reduced. An aware, bottom-up and crosssectional approach appears to be crucial for facing this global issue and for making it more manageable over time.
Nino Chkhartishvili, Londa Mamasakhlisashvili, Irma Tchanturia, Demetre Bakradze
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 809-823; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003013

Abstract:
Preserving rare grapes is not just a matter of variety. Recent dna research has shown that unusual and unknown grape varieties provide clues to wine history. During the centuries, 525 Georgian grape varieties had been known but most of them were degenerated. Nowadays, more than 437 rare Georgian vine varieties are preserved in the geo 038 collection of Agricultural Research-Scientific Center, established in 2014 under the Environment Protection and agriculture ministry. Study of the genetic pool of Georgian grape varieties determine the sustainability of the sector and enrichment of the modern wine market. For this reason the studies of the rare aboriginal grape varieties have begun by their ampelography, phenology, chemical, and oeno-caprological characterizes. The aim of this study is to investigate rare, Georgian, aboriginal wine-grapes by their ampelography, chemical and oenolo-caprological characterizes, and to offer different style and aroma wines to the market, enriching the modern wine assortment. The present study investigated firstly the rare Georgian aboriginal grape variety (Chvitiluri) by its characterizes. In this study grapes caprologycal indication, dynamic development of the sugar accumulation, TA and pH in berries, polyphenols extract in skin and seeds, and phenolic compounds were determined. The grape has been compared with Georgian and French wine-grapes and their products as well. The results show that the grape variety - Chvitiluri, and vinification technique (aging on lee) have the significant impact on the total phenol content in wine. White varietal wine contents high alcohol 13,2%, total phenols 733-500mg/l. Wine has specific, varietal characterizes color, taste, aroma. This study indicates that the rare local, aboriginal variety presents the perspective sort for wine production and can be returned in wine production.
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 793-806; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003012

Abstract:
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the relative importance of the selected inputs for cereals yields in Poland, especially the importance of certified seed. The following data have been used in research: inputs of artificial fertilizers per hectare, consumption of pesticides per hectare, certified seeds per hectare and average soil quality. All data were calculate for provinces level for each year in the period 2000-2017. The patterns of source of productivity were investigated using two methods: interpretation of estimated parameters in Cobb-Douglas production function and analysis of squared semipartial correlations. The results from both methods applied in the research are similar. The paper argues that the least "pure impact" is connected with certified seeds, medium impact to chemical originated inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) and the largest impact - to soil quality. The findings of the study indicates that: - pure impact of "certified seeds" is 7%; - impact of chemical origin inputs is circa 30% - (influence of pesticides and artificial fertilizers are not to be separated because its strongly depend each other); - pure impact of "soil quality" - about 60%. Domination of chemical inputs in yield formation is visible. It was also stated, that interaction of four inputs constitute from 35 to 62% of total influence on cereals yield. From this perspective it can be concluded that level of all other inputs have to be adequate to soil conditions and one of most important factor is interaction between variety, soil and fertilizing.
, Josu Takala, Oskar Juszczyk,
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 771-791; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003011

Abstract:
The concept of circular economy is becoming increasingly important not only for academics, but also for other stakeholders. Notably the local government representatives are implementing such solutions, in response for the population growth and development, connected with increased consumption. This paper aims to recognize existing local solutions of circular economy as well as to identify possible ways for its development. Mixed methodology is used, including constructive approach, swot analysis, descriptive statistics or weak-market test. An analysis emphasizes a positive impact of circular economy on local development of the investigated municipality. However, it is still necessary to continue and intensify information and education activities for increasing public awareness of waste prevention, their removal under communal waste collection and collection systems, and proper management of municipal waste (especially biodegradable waste).
Ryszard Kata, Magdalena Cyrek, Piotr Cyrek
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 709-731; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003008

Abstract:
Changes in the consumption model are inherent in the processes of socio-economic development the indicator of which is the enrichment of the population. Such changes include the emergence of new proportions in the consumption of particular categories of goods and services, and, according to the regularities observed by Engel, lower the share of expenditure on a broadly understood category of food. Increasing incomes are also linked to changes in the internal structure of food consumption. This study is to assess the changes in the level and structure of food expenses resulting from the enrichment of the European Union (EU) societies. The study covered the co-occurrence of differences in food consumption with households' income differences in the EU countries. The analyses presented in the study relate to the period after the EU enlargement in 2004 and are based on the Eurostat data. The research allows for a positive verification of the thesis that the higher the incomes, the more balanced the structure of food expenses. In more affluent economies, the consumption of a more diversified basket of goods is observed. This finding is supported by the high negative correlation between the structure concentration ratio for food expenditure and the households' income level. In addition, the identification of country clusters based on consumption expenditure broken down into food categories makes it possible to confirm the thesis that there are income differences between economies with different consumption models. It is confirmed by the variance analysis concerning income level for countries in three groups: the South Europe with the highest food expenses, the Central and Eastern Europe with the most limited spending and the lowest income, and the affluent "old" EU members with high expenses on luxuries consumed for social reasons. However, the analyses presented here do not allow for validation of the thesis that food consumption patterns among the EU countries become similar, but rather point to the predominance of the consumption divergence processes, which occur despite the declining income differences. This claim is based on the observation of increasing average Euclidian distance between food expenses in the EU countries in 2005 and 2015. Nevertheless, some signs of shift towards Mediterranean consumption patterns may be found for many societies.
Monika Gebska, Barbara Golebiewska, Carmen Hubbard
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 733-752; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003009

Abstract:
In the last two decades, public concerns regarding animal welfare have increased significantly worldwide. These in turn, put pressure on policy-makers to act, by imposing stricter regulations on how animals are reared and treated. This is particularly the case in the European Union, who leads globally in the development of international conventions for the protection of animals and where animals are officially recognised as ‘sentient beings'. Research into animal welfare within the natural and social sciences has also flourished. Given the growing public concerns, more research regarding a better understanding of consumers' attitudes and behaviour regarding animal welfare friendly products is needed. This study aims to examine consumers' awareness regarding farm animal welfare. More specifically, it focuses on Polish consumers' attitudes towards animal welfare when making decisions on purchasing animal products. Respondents were divided in two major categories of consumers, i.e. farmers and non-farmers. Research conducted in Poland among farmers being consumers of animal products shows that less than 50% have encountered the concept of animal welfare. In the case of the non-farmers, the share of respondents familiar with the concept of animal welfare was lower (38%).
, Søren Marcus Pedersen, Giacomo Carli, Maria Rita Tagliaventi
Published: 1 January 2020
ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE pp 637-656; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003004

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyse the environmental benefits of precision agriculture technology adoption obtained from the mitigation of negative environmental impacts of agricultural inputs in modern farming. Our literature review of the environmental benefits related to the adoption of precision agriculture solutions is aimed at raising farmers' and other stakeholders' awareness of the actual environmental impacts from this set of new technologies. Existing studies were categorised according to the environmental impacts of different agricultural activities: nitrogen application, lime application, pesticide application, manure application and herbicide application. Our findings highlighted the effects of the reduction of input application rates and the consequent impacts on climate, soil, water and biodiversity. Policy makers can benefit from the outcomes of this study developing an understanding of the environmental impact of precision agriculture in order to promote and support initiatives aimed at fostering sustainable agriculture.
Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu, Olusayo Olubisi Idowu
Published: 1 January 2020
ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE pp 613-636; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003003

Abstract:
Evidence of upsurge in food insecurity incidence and its vulnerability of households in both rural and urban areas in Nigeria has led to enquiries about the richness of available food baskets and evenness of their consumption. The objective of this study was to examine the dietary diversity among rural households in Nigeria from a gender perspective. Data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey- Integrated Survey on Agriculture (lsms-isa) 2016 were analysed using Simpson Diversity Index, Cross tabulation and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Most of the rural households were male-headed (85%) with an average age of 53 years old and had household size of 8 persons. Dietary diversity score was slightly higher in female-headed households than among their male counterparts. Fish and seafood had the highest food share expenditure among female-headed households while cereals had the highest in male-headed households. Low dietary diversity was predominant among households where the head was 31 to 40 years old male with at least 16 members, while the high dietary diversity was highest among households with 51 to 60 years old female heads and 11 to 15 members. Difference in mean of aggregate dietary diversity between male- and female-headed households revealed a gap of 0.0155 in favour of the female-headed households. There were significant gender differences in household endowments such as household size, income, tangible assets owned and farm size, which explained dietary diversity among rural households in Nigeria.
Grzegorz Slusarza, Marek Cierpial-Wolan
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 753-770; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003010

Abstract:
The values of the natural environment in the subject literature are commonly indicated as an asset conducive to development shaping the competitiveness of areas with such values. The paper attempts to assess the use of endogenous potential of such areas in shaping the multifunctional, sustainable development of rural areas that have such qualities. In particular, the aim was to check to what extent the sme sector, dominating in the economic structure of rural areas, solves the key problem of labour market imbalance and population migration in environmentally valuable areas. The area of detailed research is Podkarpacie, the Polish region considered as a peripheral, border region, the least urbanized region with the highest share of areas covered by various forms of nature protection and forestation, with one of the lowest gdp per capita indicator in the country. For the purpose of implementing the research assumptions, a taxonomic unit (using the complete linkage method) consisting of powiats with the highest concentration of features characteristic for rural areas of high natural values was separated. Synthetic indicators calculated on the basis of the Hellwig taxonomic development pattern method and a positional method using Weber's median were used to assess the diversity of entrepreneurship level. The research confirmed that the non-agricultural economic activity sector is less developed in areas of high natural value. Despite positive developments in the enterprise sector, their potential is too weak an economic base for addressing unsustainable labour market problems, as evidenced by high unemployment and a high negative migration balance. This limits the use of the endogenous potential of these areas and is not conducive to the concept of multifunctional, sustainable development. Migration poses a threat to the depopulation of these areas with all the negative consequences associated with such processes. This is a challenge for the studied areas and regional policy.
Krzysztof Firleja,
Published: 1 January 2020
Economia agro-alimentare pp 697-707; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003007

Abstract:
Prices are considered to be an only, directly observable market parameter, deciding on a degree of implementation of functions of market entities. The variability is inherent to prices, in accordance to an attribute of functioning on competitive market. Examination of factors affecting the prices is particularly significant on account of occurrence of many potential variables which may impact their levels and still increasing market ties among particular economies. Potato is one of the basic agricultural raw materials in the world. Potato is of high economic value, mainly through the universal usability both by manufacturers as well as consumers. The purpose of the article was to determine of variables characterizing strong dependency on evolving level of potato prices in the EU countries. Attempts of building a model aimed at depicting potato prices evolution in the European Union countries under an influence of particular variables was performed using panel data models. Conducted analyses allowed to indicate the occurrence of regional variation of potato prices in particular European Union countries. It was also shown that essential impact on a potato prices level is potato production volume, value of gross domestic product and potato import volumes.
Irakli Shalamberidze, Merab Akhobadze
Published: 1 January 2020
ECONOMIA AGRO-ALIMENTARE pp 847-854; https://doi.org/10.3280/ecag2019-003015

Abstract:
The study aims to highlight that nowadays, finding ways to manage the current processes both in the regions and in cities with big agglomeration is the most important and difficult problem. A fortiori, when it concerns developed regions. While designing urban system development, management, and reconstruction projects, both managers of the cities and urbanists must take into account the opinions of specialists, who have different categories of mindsets and they "talk different languages" (Sociologists, ecologists, businessmen, etc.). Summing up the aforementioned languages in a common denominator is possible only by mathematics and computing tools. Nowadays, the problems of city management are united in the concept of "Smart city", which is usually referred to as "informational city". "Smart City" - this is an integration concept, which involves the usage of the so called "integrated imitative model" for systematic, stable, optimal decision making, as the city is a whole dynamic unity. Today's managers of the cities, urbanists, investors, businessmen, sociologists, etc. have to deal with a huge amount of parameters, opinions and data in a nonsystematic manner. Our proposed study "Unified Web Platform of the Region and Smart Management" includes: website, Google Map, pointing object in the map, saving the objects and their parameters, mathematical and programmatic tools, cloud computing, python computing libraries, Restful api as a web service, etc. As for the web service or restful api, any software can have access to the data of the united web platform of the region through a specially defined protocol. Objects presented in the map have assigned specialized and standardized parameters, which are used by the system algorithm for the analyses and the presentation of all the structural creators of the dynamic processes of the city. This gives us the opportunity to see the whole chain of interactions, which are caused by the actions on any object of the city. Users register on the website and they can see the parameters of the objects that are set in the map. The objects in the databases are classified by their purpose, affiliation, destination and other marks. There is an ability for users to define the status of an object on their own. Users can also add or remove objects on the map and can manipulate with the updated parameters on the map. They can evaluate the chain of results both in the time and dimensional manner. For the built-in mathematical tools and algorithms in the system, we use Algebraic topology methods, Graphs theory non-linear differential equations, the theory of disasters and bifurcation, Chaos theory, methods of mathematical statistics and more. Web platform includes all the mathematical tools and programmatic packages that are necessary for stable development of small and medium-sized business.
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