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Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, , Siamak Rimaz, Ali Alavi Fomani, Azita Tangestaninejad, Mohammad Taghi Ashoobi, Yousha Pourahmadi, Mohammad Mojtaba Rohani
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports pp 201-205;

, Mohammad Akhoondian, Adele Jafari
Published: 20 October 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 142-149;

The nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of norepinephrine in the brain, is connected to memory processing regions such as the hippocampus and baso-lateral amygdala (BLA). The LC and its mostly associated noradrenergic projections, play an important role in memory formation parallel to other neurotransmitter systems. It has been suggested that the unique response characteristics of LC to various situations strengthens different memories formation. Here, we review key related findings of LC effect on memory (avoidance, spatial, cognitive) formation, memory processing regions, memory molecular mechanisms as well as its role in memory related disorders. Literature review was conducted by extensive search on ISI, PubMed and Scopus, online databases from May 2021 to July 2021. According to the obtained results, LC noradrenergic projections to memory processing areas of the brain, can modulate the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval for different memory types. Also, the LC regulates neurogenesis and neural plasticity in different areas of the brain. Evidences suggested that dysfunction of the LC and its associated noradrenergic system may lead to cognitive impairment or a variety of memory-related disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Finally, it can be concluded that the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system may be a suitable target for the treatment of different memory/cognitive disorders.
, Ali Bazzi, Seyede Marzieh Adyani,
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 185-191;

Nursing students experience a number of emotional challenges during their educations, leading to high levels of stress among them. One of the strategies of stress management in nursing students is the use of mindfulness. This study aimed to assess mindfulness and related factors among Iranian nursing students. In a cross-sectional study, 100 nursing students studying at Nasibeh Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran was enrolled. Data were collected via census sampling from May to June 2018. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Kentucky Mindfulness Skills scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-squared, and ANOVA tests. The mean score of mindfulness of nursing students was 117.35 ± 12.89. The mean scores of mindfulness in the dimensions of observation, description, act with awareness, and acceptance without Judgment was 36.33 ± 6.0, 25.68 ± 4.91, 28.17 ± 4.49, and 27.17 ± 3.80, respectively. The mean score of anxiety in nursing students was 14.17 ± 3.78. There was a significant relationship between age and dimension "description" of mindfulness (r = 0.22, p = 0.029). There was a significant relationship between dimension "observation" of mindfulness and experience stressful events during the last six months (t = 2.327, df = 96, p = 0.022). Therefore, due to the importance of mindfulness among nursing students, it is possible to reduce the risk factor by creating the necessary conditions such as continuing education.
Ali Farzanegan, Halala Khalandi, , Parisa Kardouni Khoozestani
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 150-158;

Oral mucosal diseases, communications of opportunistic fungi with oral bacteria, host defense, and predisposing factors can affect oral hygiene. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction with multifactorial etiology that is affected by oral hygiene. One of the most important factors that affect this condition is fungi, particularly Candida albicans. Accurate identification of etiologic agents of stomatitis at the species level is essential for selecting an effective drug and definitive treatment. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors that are affected by oral hygiene with priority on the effect of Candida spp. on denture wearers.
Niloofar Mesbah, Nooshin Barikrow, Masoumeh Heshmati
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 192-200;

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is considered as a proper tool for biological activities and treatment of diseases and cancer. Here, the suppressing effect of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the amniotic membrane (AM-MSCs) on colorectal cancer (HT29 cell line) was studied. MSCs were isolated from the human amniotic membrane and identity tests were performed. AM-MSC and HT29 cells were co-cultured and MTT assay was used to determine proper inhibitory concentration. The apoptotic effect of AM-MSC on HT29 cells was studied by Acridine orange staining. Expression of CDK2 protein and the antioxidant effect of AM-MSCs on HT29 was performed by immunocyto chemistry test. The effect of MSC on the HT29 cell line migration was determined by Scratch test. The result showed that AM-MSC had proliferation-inhibitory effects and caused apoptosis of the HT29 cell line. Real Time-PCR assay showed the increase of gene expression of p53, Caspase3 in apoptosis, and p21 in tumor cell line treated with AM-MSC. AM-MSC arrested the cell cycle of tumor cells by reduction of CDK2 protein. The migration of HT29 and ROS expression levels was decreased. Altogether, AM-MSC may play a role in suppressing colorectal cancer HT29 cell line by inhibiting angiogenesis, cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis and has antioxidant properties.
Sasan Ghaffari, Hanif Kazerooni, Amir Salehi-Najafabadi
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 159-167;

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still poses a serious threat to every human on the planet nearly 1.5 years after its beginning. Unfortunately, the current diagnostic methods, although highly sensitive and specific, still suffer from many shortcomings. Faster and easy-to-operate diagnostic systems are undoubtedly sorely needed. The CRISPR/Cas platform has gained much attention in recent years in a wide range of biomedical sciences. Besides its treatment potential and drug and vaccine development, it can be used for disease diagnosis. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas-based system holds great promise for providing a rapid and easily deployable COVID-19 detection and is on par with the conventional diagnostic approaches in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In this review article, we discuss the latest advances of CRISPR/Cas technology as a fast and reliable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection method.
Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Azam Khalili, Omid Ardalani, Amin Mohsenzadeh, Hoda Sabati, Parvaneh Jafari
Published: 30 December 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 176-184;

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors associated with the emergence and development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis. The hypocholesterolemic effects of probiotics have been indicated by numerous studies. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and cytochrome P450 7A1 or cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) are two important genes in choletsterol metabolism. In this study, the effects of Bacillus subtilis JQ61816 on lipid panel, hepatic enzymes and expression levels of HMGCR and CYP7A1 were investigated. Twenty-one male Wistar rats were randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups; a) negative control group (ND) fed with normal diet, b) high-fat diet group (HFD) fed with high cholesterol diet, and c) probiotic group (BS) fed with high cholesterol diet supplemented with probiotic B. subtilis. Serum analysis of treatment groups was performed to measure fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile parameters, hepatic enzymes, urea, and uric acid. Our results showed that B. subtilis could reduce the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and it also could increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and uric acid were significantly lower in BS group compare to HFD group. Furthermore, up-regulation of HMGCR and down-regulation of CYP7A1 were observed in BS group. The results of our study suggest that consumption of probiotic B. subtilis JQ61816 may prevent or decline the development of hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular diseases.
Mohammad Haghighi, Hossein Khoshrang, Siamak Rimaz, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Zahra Atrkar Roushan, Samaneh Ghazanfar Tehran, Paniz Rezaei, Niloofar Faraji
Published: 22 November 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 168-175;

Assessing the severity of the disease at the time of hospitalization can reduce the mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For this stance, various scoring systems have been described to predict mortality rates. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) is one of the scoring systems which have been used in this study. In order to calculate the SOFA score, demographic and characteristics information, clinical status, and laboratory findings were recorded from 154 patients with COVID-19, who have been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for a period of 6 months. SOFA score was calculated in three time periods at the time of hospitalization, 72 hours after hospitalization, and the last day of hospitalization. Based on the outcome of the disease (death or recovery), patients were divided into two groups, and the results were analyzed in both groups. Statistical analysis has represented that the SOFA score was significantly higher in patients who died to compare with recovered ones in all time periods. Our findings suggest that SOFA scoring system can be used to predict mortality rate in ICU admitted COVID-19 patients.
Sousan Akrami, Seyede Mahla Mavalizade, Mehran Varnaseri Ghandali, Aram Asareh Zadegan Dezfuli, Zahra Farshadzadeh,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 136-141;

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a prevalent disease among children. This study is an attempt to find the bacterial agents of UTI and antibiotic resistance in children. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 1316 clinical samples of children at Abuzar Hospital in Ahvaz that had positive urine culture. The strains were determined through biochemical tests and differential culture media. The pattern of antibiotic resistance of the studied strains was determined by the disk diffusion method. Out of the 1316 children surveyed, 821 were girls and 495 were boys. The most isolated strains from urine cultures were Escherichia coli (57.52%) followed by Enterococcus (12.15%). E. coli isolates demonstrated the highest resistance to ampicillin (57.06%) and amikacin was recognized as the most effective antibiotic with a sensitivity of 91.94%. E. coli was the most common causative agent of UTI in children. Amikacin was recognized as the appropriate choice against urinary tract pathogens. Because, in different regions and over time, the frequency distribution of antibiotic resistance varies, it is recommended to carry out periodic monitoring of antibiotic resistance for infection control.
, Sudipto Datta, Amit RoyChowdhury, Pallab Datta
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 95-106;

In December 2019, there was a health emergency worldwide named novel coronavirus or COVID-19 by the world health organization (WHO). It originated from the Wuhan seafood market, Hubei Province, China. Till now Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 or SARS-CoV-2 spread over 216 countries with 177,108,695 confirmed cases and 3,840,223 confirmed death cases has been reported (5:31 pm CEST, 18 June 2021; WHO). Analyzing the risk factor of this pandemic situation, different government health organizations of all the countries including WHO are taking several preventive measures with ongoing research works, even the vaccination process started. In this study, we tried to analyze all the available information on pandemic COVID-19, which includes the origin of COVID-19, pathogenic mechanism, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and control-preventive measures, also the additional treatment and prevention taken by the Indian government is being studied here.
Maryam Hafiz, Gholamreza Hashemi Tabar, Mehrnaz Rad
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 125-130;

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are known as one of the most important infections around the world, and Escherichia coli is the most important cause of UTI. Also, the empiric treatment and misusing of antimicrobial agents has led to increasing multi-drug resistance around the world which is a worldwide concern. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) is an enzyme group that is produced by the Enterobacteriaceae family. The three main ESBLs enzyme are as follow: blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV, additionally, there are several types of each of them by the same mechanism. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL genes among E. coli isolated from UTI patients. A total of 105 isolates were collected from UTI patients at two hospitals in Mashhad from 2017 to 2019. Bacterial identification was performed by standard microbiologic methods. The assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility was accomplished by the disk diffusion method. The presence of ESBL genes was investigated by multiplex-PCR. The prevalence of UTI, among females, was identified more than males. Furthermore, the blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes were detected in all isolates, but only six isolates (5.7%) were harboring blaSHV. The considerable role of E. coli in UTI infection, as well as the presence of ESBL genes in E. coli strains, emphasize the need for surveillance of antimicrobial therapy to prevent the extension of resistance among clinical strains.
Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Ahmad Jiriaie, Omid Ardalani, Amin Mohsenzadeh, Hoda Sabati, Parvaneh Jafari
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 107-113;

Skin plays an essential role in the prevention of pathogenic microorganisms entrance. It is also considered as the first line of immune defense in our body. The therapeutic effects of probiotics on wound healing are well reported over the past decade. Nevertheless, there are limited publications about the impact of probiotics on skin wound healing. Here we assessed the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei TD3 on cutaneous wound healing in male Wistar rats. During this research, thirty-six male Wistar rats grouped into control positive, control negative, and trial groups, then the skins of rats were incised to make a full-thickness wound. An ointment produced from probiotic L. paracasei TD3 was administrated to the trial group, and immunohistological factors of each host were evaluated and compared with control groups. The final results showed that although L. paracasei TD3 could proceed the wound closure earlier than other groups and could induce angiogenesis in trial group, it could not cause any significant changes in the levels of monocytes, lymphocyte, mast cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the trial group compared to control groups. This probiotic bacterium may be effective besides other probiotic bacteria.
Behrouz Khakpour Taleghanie, Saba Abedi, Adele Jafari, Mojtaba Hedayati Ch
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 90-94;

The novel coronavirus, termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is a major public health challenge all over the world and is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since December 2019 the outbreak of COVID-19 has become a major epidemic issue all over world. In this pandemic, preterm and term neonates with infected mothers are becoming more vulnerable each day. Although we mostly witness asymptomatic neonates, getting symptomatic may not be a rarity in the future. After entrance of COVID-19 into the body it could affect the balance of microbiota combination which can result in microbiota dysbiosis and eventually leads to immune imbalance. Intrauterine microbiome dysbiosis in COVID-19 positive mothers and transmission of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may restructure the environment of the developing fetus with possible short/long-term impact on the individual’s health and disease. Therefore, assessing the changes in microbiome of neonates from infected mothers via exploring meconium could be valuable. It is also logical to measure LPS level and balanced its levels by using prebiotics and probiotics as a supplemental therapeutic procedure to prevent medical challenges in future. The aim of this essay is to review the potential conception that detection of COVID-19 and the meconium microbiota and LPS quantity could be used as a source of prognostic information about the COVID-19 severity in the fetus of pregnant women with COVID-19.
Parastoo Jafarzade, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim‑Saraie, Shahab Rezaie, Elham Maghareh Abed, Majid Ahangari, Golbarg Rezaei, Kouroush Delpasand, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 131-135;

The most important factor in tooth decay and periodontal disease is the attachment of oral bacteria, especially streptococci, to different levels of the mouth and teeth. Therefore, by changing the microbial ecology in the mouth using probiotic producing bacteria, we can help prevent tooth decay and periodontal infections. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of probiotic producing Lactobacillus against several streptococci that cause tooth decay. Antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of probiotic lactobacilli was determined by disk diffusion method and standard broth microdilution, respectively. Antibiofilm activity was assayed by a microtiter-plate screening method. The five isolates of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic properties include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus brevis were tested against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Most of tested Lactobacillus strain at concentrations above 125 µg/mL showed antibacterial properties. Also, examination of the MICs showed that probiotic bacteria had greater effects on S. sanguinis. While, the tested probiotic bacteria did not show a significant antibiofilm effect. Our results suggest that lactobacilli with potential probiotic properties can be effective used for eliminating oral streptococcal colonization.
Shahab Dastmardi, Morteza Rahbar Taromsari, Hamid Mohammadi Kojidi, Ardalan Majidinia, Fariba Asgari Bozayeh, Kourosh Delpasand
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 120-124;

Substance abuse is one of the major behavioral problems in today's human society. One of the medical uses of drugs is to relieve the pain and suffering of patients. Today, due to the widespread use of narcotics and psychotropic drugs in the control and treatment of the disease and also its use among medical students, the present study aimed to determine the attitude and practice of medical students towards the use of narcotics and psychotropic drugs. The present study was a cross-sectional analytical study that was performed on 102 medical interns of Guilan University of Medical Sciences who were selected by available methods. To collect information, a researcher-made questionnaire was used which has three sections including a checklist of demographic information, attitude assessment questionnaire of medical students and performance assessment questionnaire. The mean age of the interns was 23.8±0.21 years. In the analysis of the results, it was found that there is a significant relationship between marital status and residence status with performance score. Based on the results of the present study, the level of students' knowledge about narcotics and psychotropic drugs among them is not at the desired level. Therefore, due to the lack of knowledge of medical students about the dangerous side effects of these drugs, education on the nature, symptoms, and side effects of psychotropic substances is recommended.
Hamid Mohammadi Kojidi, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Fatemeh Daneshsefatdoost, Alireza Badsar, Paria Okhovat,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 114-119;

Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is a serious problem in medicine. One of the most common reasons for this issue is the improper prescription of antibiotics by physicians. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of using antibiotics in the toxicology ward of Razi Hospital. In this retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study, 338 patients admitted to the toxicology ward of Razi hospital were enrolled from March 2018 until March 2019. A checklist of investigated factors including age, gender, fever, paraclinical findings, type of poisoning, and type of antibiotic prescribed was completed for all patients. About 52.1% of the participants were males and 47.9% were females. The mean age of participants was 37.07 ± 17.36 years. Antibiotics had been prescribed for 49 patients. The most common form of poisoning was benzodiazepines. Also, ceftriaxone was the most common antibiotic prescribed to the patients. Fever existed in 69.4% of the patients receiving antibiotics. The most common paraclinical finding was abnormal complete blood count (CBC) in patients (leukocytosis) which was seen in 83.7% of them. The antibiotics mostly had been prescribed in the first two days of hospitalization. In the present study, antibiotics were prescribed in the toxicology ward for only 14.5% of the poisoned patients. Considering that ceftriaxone has been the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, its use has to be based on clinical evidence based on the necessary indications according to scientifically substantiated sources.
Mohaya Farzin, Parastoo Jafarzade, Niloofar Faraji, Seyedeh Maral Mousavi, Mostafa Yousefi
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 69-73;

Ghrelin does an important role in neurological functions such as memory, learning, and cognition as well. There is some evidence that ghrelin can improve memory. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ghrelin on rat memory. A systematic search was conducted to identify papers published by Iranian authors in the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar electronic databases from January 2010 to December 2019 with the PRISMA statement. Totally, 547 animals were listed in our systematic review. All of the animals were male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 250±280 g. The Morris Water Behavior behavioral test and the passive avoidance task were performed to evaluate memory. Truly, injection of ghrelin appears to enhance the compactness of the synapse dendritic spines in the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that ghrelin has a prospective role to recover learning and memory ability in animal models, suggesting it as a candidate therapy for memory.
Elham Maghareh Abed, , Hoda Sabati, Mohammad Amin Khajavi Gaskarei, Kourosh Delpasand, Marzie Ghasemi
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 44-50;

Coronavirus is a beta virus that has caused a worldwide pandemic since December 2019. Many treatments such as antiviral drugs, immunosuppressive drugs, neutralizing antibodies, and monoclonal antibodies have been tested on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that most of them were effective. Given that nanotechnology-based approaches have been successful in detection and treatment of viral systems such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), they also seem to be effective in detecting and treating COVID-19. Nanotechnology is used in various methods for early and rapid diagnosis of the disease. Nanoparticles can be used in products for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. These substances are very effective in the controlled delivery of antiviral drugs and biomolecules and they are also used in the manufacture of personal safety equipment, widely, and the production of anti-virus coatings for surfaces, air filters and the production of vaccines. In general, nanomaterial can play an important role in controlling the disease, based on strategies to prevent the virus from entering the host cell, inhibiting virus replication, virus delivery systems, and nano-based vaccines. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary tool that can offer a variety of solutions based on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Uchejeso M. Obeta, Goodluck A. K. Ohanube, Maureen O. Ekpere-Ezeugwu, Eno C. Mantu, Nkereuwem S. Etukudoh, Muhammad Akram, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 85-89;

The worldwide influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compelled the global health organizations to prioritize the situation over all other related community health issues. The lack of specific treatment modalities against COVID-19 is a major concern nowadays. Here is a case of a 44-year-old man of 176 cm height and 87 kg body weight, who took some powdered mixture equally composed of bitter kola, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, and turmeric sweetened with three teaspoons full of honey. All ingredients were dissolved in 100 ml hot water and taken three times a day during isolation as a positive COVID-19 patient and reversed all associated signs and symptoms after 7 days as confirmed with rapid diagnostic techniques (RDTs). This case revealed that homogenized herbal tea in Jos Nigeria possesses a potential therapeutic that could be a treatment protocol against COVID-19.
, Ali Farzanegan
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 74-78;

Human cadaver is imperative learning material for medical students. The cadavers expose to microbial contamination every time anatomists work with them. The microorganisms found in preparations’ cadavers could be pathogenic. Although the cadaver has supported a preservation method but does not inhibit microbial germination. The purposes of this study were evaluation the use of the routine solution to decrease potential contamination. Samples were collected air dissection hall and cadavers' sections after drying the cadavers, and after use of routinely glycerin and phenol solution (1.5 g phenol in 100 cc glycerol), inoculated on eosin methylene blue agar (EMB), blood agar (BA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), and SDA with the addition of chloramphenicol (50 mg/l in ethanol solution) (SC), in a Petri dish and incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. After 3-5 days, the morphology was studied macroscopically and microscopically. We found Sporothrix schenckii; Streptomyces, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus flavus, Geotrichum candidum, on the samples of dryness cadavers and air dissection hall, respectively. But fungus and bacteria contamination was decreased after the use of glycerin and phenol solution. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that glycerol and phenol solution can be used at least once a week to reduce microbial contamination and prevent the spread of the disease from the cadavers to students and professors.
Amin Mohsenzadeh, Alireza Fazel, Shirin Bavari, Sanaz Borji, Sahar Pourasghar, Taher Azimi, Hoda Sabati
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 56-61;

Biofilm producer bacteria cause nosocomial, chronic, and recurrent human infections. It is hard to treat biofilm-embedded bacteria because they are more resistant to antimicrobials than planktonic bacteria. The present study aimed to investigate different methods for detecting biofilms in the clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran, from January 2019 to June 2019. A total of 320 clinical samples were collected from educational and medical centers in Tehran, Iran which from them 100 isolates of E. coli and P. aeruginosa were identified by standard microbiological procedures and subjected to biofilm detection methods. Biofilm detection was tested by Congo red agar (CRA), tube method (TM), microtiter plate assay (MTPA). The MTPA was considered to be superior to CRA and tube TM. From the total of 100 clinical isolates, MTPA detected 38 (38%) isolates as biofilm-positive phenotype, of which 30 as strong, and 8 as moderate biofilm-forming isolates. It can be concluded from the current study that the MTPA is a more quantitative and dependable assay for the detection of biofilm-forming microorganisms as compared to other methods, and it can be recommended as a general screening method for the detection of biofilm-producing bacteria in laboratories.
Behzad Dehghani, Zeinab Shahsavani, Abbas Dehghani
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 79-84;

HIV has been introduced as a causative agent for AIDS which is still considered as a major health problem for the country and a burden on the health care system. Raising awareness and knowledge plays a critical role in controlling HIV infection in all social groups. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and attitudes of factory workers regarding HIV/AIDS infection in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 factory workers in Shiraz, selected via the random sampling technique. A standard researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. Around 84% of participants were male and 65.2% had 30 years of age or more. The majority of responders considered shared syringe as the main transmission route in Iran. The awareness level of the general aspects of HIV infections and possible transmission modes were high. A large proportion of responders believed that patients should be supported by the governments and that they have the right to lead a normal life, meanwhile they were scared for their children having an infected classmate. It can be concluded that the public programs to increase awareness had a positive effect on factory workers' knowledge. However, some misconceptions toward HIV patients were identified that need to be corrected. In addition, further studies should be conducted in other cities to reach an accurate estimate of HIV/AIDS awareness among factory workers as a big part of our society.
Zahra Farhoud, Sepehr Bozorgchenani
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 51-55;

Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are often ineffective in treating refractory or chronic tumors in children. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have also improved the outcome of many human tumors, resulting in significant responses in patients who have previously refused to respond to other treatments. The immune system is made up of cells and proteins that work together to maintain immunity against pathogens. Cancer cells can adapt and metastasize over time, express different neoantigens, or express more immune-suppressing mechanisms, allowing them to be identified and eradicated. In this study, we focus on immunotherapy for pediatric cancer and its progression using natural killer (NK) cells, chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), and oncolytic virus cells in these patients. For all intents and purposes, toxicity is a concern. Although immunotherapy is believed to have fewer long-term side effects than chemotherapy and radiation therapy, they may have a high rate of short-term side effects, depending on the cause and purpose. These complications can lead to life-threatening illnesses, from mild illnesses such as fever and headaches to more severe illnesses such as autoimmune, neurotoxicity, and opportunistic infections. Any of the problems listed, for example, cytokine release syndrome, can be fatal. Different intensities require multiple tests and trials.
Fatemeh Samimi, Ali Mohammad Ahadi, Nafiseh Boroomand, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Rostami
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 62-68;

Phenytoin as an anti-seizure medication, is useful for the prevention of tonic-clonic seizures and focal seizures. In this study we focused on the probable effects of Phenytoin drug on gene expression profile of liver related to lipid metabolism balance in mouse as a model. In this study, a group including 7 male mice of BALB/c were treated with phenytoin 3–5 mg/kg/day orally and a group including 7 male mice of BALB/c were took standard food. Liver tissue samples were isolated. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized. Expression of Akt1, Leptin, Adipoq and GLUT4 genes was measured using Real-time RT-PCR method. Results showed an increase about 15 and 3 fold changes in Akt1 and Adipoq gene expression respectively in treatment group compare to control mice. Also, we detected decreasing in Leptin and GLUT4 genes expression in the mice treated with phenytoin drug. Several studies indicated that phenytoin can promote hyperglycemia in human and animal. We proposed here that this effects may resulted from an interference between the phenytoin drug and gene expression profile in liver. Decreasing of leptin level here may be a result of glucose level elevation in blood that can induce a satiety situation result in decrease of leptin production. It may that Akt1 gene expression is increased to compensate the low level of GLUT4 protein. We concluded that phenytoin is a relatively high-risk antiepileptic drug for obesity and metabolic syndrome, but more studies are needed.
Mohammad Asadul Habib, Akibul Islam Chowdhury, Monia Afroze,
Published: 9 December 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 38-43;

Experimental studies demonstrated a positive effect of administration of Nigella sativa L. (Back cumin) and its active chemical components on cancer and tumor through the antioxidant and anti-cancer activity. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effect of the use of black cumin in patients with cancer and tumor. This systematic review includes 4 randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of the administration of black cumin in human cancer. Articles were searched in PubMed, Cochrane library, Semantic scholar and directory of open access journal (DOAJ), open grey and grey literature report databases for studies from 1983 to 2020 before May using the following keywords, Nigella sativa, black cumin, cancer, tumor, etc. The results examined that N. sativa is much effective in treating breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, brain tumor, and acute myeloid leukemia. According to the limited evidence from the study, black cumin may have favorable effects on cancer and tumor. However, more research is needed on different types of cancer to confirm and establish the above findings.
Hedyeh Maghareh Abed, Pardis Piri Dizaji, Hamed Hekmatnezhad, Hoda Sabati, Donya Zare
Published: 12 February 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 3-7;

Few would have thought that in this century, a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 would kill many people around the world, cripple the economy, and leave the medical staff helpless. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus that first appeared in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly around the world, and strict quarantines did not prevent the severe prevalence from spreading worldwide. Antiviral drugs do not work well enough for everyone. The mortality rate in the world is still significant. The only thing that gives hope to the people of the world is the hope of being vaccinated, so by producing vaccines in the shortest possible time, science has once again saved humanity. Thus, from the very beginning, pharmaceutical companies started to produce safe vaccines. Currently, more than 200 types of vaccines around the world are undergoing various stages of production, and about 30 vaccines have entered the clinical trial phase, of which 9 vaccines have entered phase 1 to 3 of clinical trials. DNA and RNA-based vaccines were first developed and were not licensed before coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Other types of vaccines, including non-replicating viral vectors as well as inactivated vaccines, are undergoing clinical phases. There are currently 9 common vaccines Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna, BioNTech/Pfizer, AstraZeneca, CanSino Biological, Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V), Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm, Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm, and Sinovac Institutes in the world. Vaccination with the Pfizer vaccine, which is approved by the World Health Organization (WHO), is underway in many countries. The WHO predicts that by the end of 2021, one billion people worldwide will be vaccinated by the company.
Mohammadreza Mobayen, Siamak Rimaz, Arghavan Malekshahi
Published: 21 February 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 27-31;

We investigate characteristics of burns in children aged up to seven years and hospitalized at Velayat burn center unit for two years to evaluate clinical and laboratory causes of burns in pre-school children. In a retrospective study, all patients under 6 years who were admitted to Velayat hospital due to burn injuries between 20 march 2016 and 20 march 2017 participated in this study. Baseline data and information collected from hospital HIS system and patient records. The burn-injured children were 283 patients, of which 54.1% were male and 45.9% were female. These injuries mostly were caused by hot liquid (78.7%). The greatest number of burn victims were boys between one and two years old. Almost all the accidents occurred in the home environment (90.1%). A significant correlation was observed between contact burns, serum albumin level, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with burn severity. Our data demonstrate the importance of developing a program for the prevention of pediatric scalds with the education of family members to be aware of the danger. This knowledge may contribute. the most important and major discovery in our studies so far has been the hypothesis of estimating Albumin 1b peptides (A1b) and CRP laboratory factors during the initial week of hospitalization in the prognosis of children and its constant relation with the severity level of the burns.
Mohsen Nazari, Zohreh Youzbashi, Mansoor Khaledi, Javad Fathi, Hamed Afkhami
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 14-20;

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are the top urgent antibiotic resistance threat in the world. The aims of this study were the determination of carbapenem-resistant genes and virulence genes among isolates from hospital environments. In this study, A. baumannii isolated from hospital environments and evaluated its antibiotic resistance, virulence factors, and resistance genes. Of 258 samples, 58 showed growth of the target organism. Antibiotic susceptibility test results considered all the A. baumannii to be multidrug-resistant isolates with the highest resistance being 36.2% to ciprofloxacin; while the most effective antibiotics with 98.3% susceptibility was piperacillin-tazobactam. Of these 58 hospital environment isolates, 18 isolates were positive for Metallo beta-lactamase. Overall, 65% of the isolates from hospital environments had many virulence factors. PCR assays demonstrated the highest and lowest positive results in csgA and cvaC gene among hospital environment isolates. Results indicate that the determination of carbapenem-resistant genes and virulence genes among isolates from hospital environments is very important.
Helma Ebneali, Fereshteh Saffari, Alireza Zandi,
Published: 4 February 2021
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 21-26;

Dacryocystitis is a lacrimal sac and duct inflammation. It can be inherited or congenital. Two primary forms are acquired dacryocystitis, acute and chronic. The goal of this study is to recognize common bacteria causing nasolacrimal duct infection in children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. This cross-sectional research was conducted from January to February 2017 in the Department of Ophthalmology affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (center of Iran). Using phenotypic and genotypic approaches, identification of specimens was performed. Disc diffusion method was used for checking antibiotic susceptibility. All of the 59 isolates from the culture of specimens belonged to Gram-positive cocci. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species (n= 44, 74.6%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 11, 18.6%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n= 2, 3.4%) and each of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n= 1, 1.7%). Totally, the highest resistance was found against erythromycin and tetracycline while, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin showed the highest susceptibility. The current research is useful in evaluating the suitable antibiotic in our area for the systemic treatment of dacryocystitis. The most effective agents against the most common isolates were chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Since the bacteriology of nasolacrimal duct infections varies from region to region, it is recommended that further studies in other areas of our country can be detected the etiology of bacterial pathogens involved in acute infections.
Maryam Saeidi, Fatemeh Rouhollah
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 8-13;

The new coronavirus, which originally broke out in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, increase quickly around the world, causing a pandemic all over the world. The virus uses its spike protein to enter the human host cells. Protein S binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor and enters the host cell. For the more successful binding, several proteases facilitate and optimize this binding, the most important of which are transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), furin, and cathepsin L proteases. After binding of protein S to the ACE2 receptor, cleavage of protein S is required for membrane fusion by protein S, which causes viral entry into host cells. This proteolytic activity may be cathepsin L-dependent and occurs with changes in pH in cell endosomes, or it may occur through serine proteases activity at the surface of the host cell membrane or within vesicles. Finally, the cell becomes infected with the virus. Several studies have tried to reduce the rate of viral infection by using inhibitors of these proteases.
Mohammad Moshtaghi Moghaddam, Arman Keymoradzadeh, Rashed Ghorbandoust
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 2, pp 32-37;

It suggests that non-surgical periodontal therapy without systemic antibiotic therapy may not achieve a significant improvement in glycemic control and systemic inflammation in diabetic patients. However, it is important to highlight that the decision of whether or not to use antibiotics to treat periodontitis. Thus this study aimed to evaluate over 3 months the consequence of non-surgical periodontal treatment without systemic antibiotic therapy on serum levels of HbA1c and C-reactive protein (CRP). Forty-two participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and moderate periodontal disease were randomized into intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups. The IG received non-surgical periodontal therapy in the form of full-mouth scaling and root planing. Participants were followed up for 3 months. The CG received non-surgical periodontal therapy after 3 months. Clinical parameters, including plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and HbA1c and CRP levels, of all patients were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. A p-value less than 0.05 considered significant. At the end of 3 months, IG showed improvement in all the clinical parameters compared to CG. There were no significant differences in HbA1c and CRP after 3 months when compared to the baseline level in both groups. Clinical parameters were significantly improved by the employment of non-surgical periodontal treatment without systemic antibiotic therapy, but HbA1C and CRP levels were not significantly affected.
Farshad Kakian, Javad Fathi, Fatemeh Alvandi, Mahnaz Moumivand, Abbas Rabei Gholami, Abolfazl Gholipour, Mohamad Hossein Rezaei,
Published: 5 December 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 73-76;

Broad-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes capable of destroying the antibiotics of β-lactam, cephalosporin, and Metallo-β-lactamase enzymes can also deactivate all β-lactams and carbapenems. This study aimed to determine ESBLs and MBLs enzymes and the frequency of NDM-1 gene­. In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates of women with urinary tract infection were collected (100 inpatients and 100 outpatients). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ceftazidime and meropenem was determined by E-test. A phenotypic confirmation test was used to detect ESBL enzymes. MBLs production was performed with modified Hodge test (MHT) and EDTA disk synergy (EDS) test. PCR was used for detecting the presence of NDM-1 gene. From 200 isolates, 93 isolates produce ESBL enzymes. Overall, 97 isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and 38 isolates resistant to meropenem. The results of the MHT and EDS positive tests were 41 and 16 isolates, respectively. NDM-1 was not found in any of the patients. The prevalence of E. coli isolates producing both ESBLs and MBLs enzymes, is a serious threat to clinical infections. Accordingly, for the control and treatment of these strains, rapid and accurate identification can be greatly helpful.
Maryam Mahdavi, Diba Bagheri, Elmira Vanaki, Mehdi Shamsara, Ehsan Hashemi, Saeed Ansari, Mojtaba Dashtizad,
Published: 20 November 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 58-65;

In the process of implantation, metalloproteinase enzymes play a key role in basement membrane degradation and endometrial extracellular matrix. The activity of these enzymes is impeded by binding Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMP). The oxygen concentration in the mammalian uterus at the time of implantation is about 2-5%. It is seen that the imposition of hypoxia on cancer cells increases the expression of metalloproteinase enzymes and reduces the expression of metalloproteinase inhibitors, resulting in increased cell invasion. To know the effect of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) and other related factors, we decided to evaluate hypoxic conditions on endometrial epithelial cells of the uterus and roll of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on angiogenesis and invasion of the embryo during implantation. In this study, human and mouse endometrial epithelial cells were incubated for 24-48 hours in hypoxic conditions. Subsequently, the expression level of TIMP-1 was measured in mouse and human epithelial cells by Real-Time PCR technique. The cell viability in hypoxic conditions was evaluated by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that hypoxia reduced the quantitative gene expression of TIMP-1 in the human and mouse endometrial epithelial cells compared to the control group. It can be concluded that applying hypoxic conditions by reducing the TIMP-1 expression and consequently increasing MMP expression, may improve the embryo implantation rate.
Negar Rabiee, Roohollah Nakhaei Sistani, Ali Mohammad Ahadi, Reza Baharloo
Published: 28 November 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 66-72;

Obesity is a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by various factors such as behavior, diet, environment, metabolic and genetic. This disease is the result of an imbalance between energy absorption and expenditure. Mutations in genes that are responsible for appetite control and metabolism are considered as the genetic component of obesity. Adiponectin protein is one of the most effective adipokines in regulating the body's energy homeostasis and fat storage, which is expressed by the ADIPOQ gene and secreted from white adipose tissue. The concentration of this protein in the blood decreases in obesity. In this study, the relationship between rs266729 polymorphism in the ADIPOQ gene with the level of biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol and triglyceride and HDL and LDL in the blood of obese people in Borujen (a city in Iran) was investigated. This study was performed on 100 people who referred to the Tamin Ejtemaee clinic due to obesity problems in Borujen. In this study, the ARMS-PCR method was used to determine the genotype of individuals. Based on the results of this study, no significant relationship was found between biochemical parameters including total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL with rs266729 polymorphism genotypes in ADIPOQ gene in obese subjects. We concluded that rs266729 polymorphism cannot be useful as an index parameter for predispose genotype for imbalance in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels in a person.
Behzad Dehghani, Iraj Rasooli
Published: 5 December 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1;

There was an error in the author list of the published article.Two authors (T Hashempour, Z Hasanshahi) requested to remove from the authors lists. After obtaining the agreement of the authors and the corresponding author, Editor-in-Chief accept the corrections as listed below.The correct author list is:Behzad Dehghani, Iraj Rasooli We apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused. Erratum for:Immunogenicity, antigenicity and epitope mapping of Salmonella InvH protein: An in silico studyB Dehghani, T Hashempour, Z Hasanshahi, I RasooliJ Curr Biomed Rep. 2020; 1(1): 9-16.
Published: 25 November 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 52-57;

Emerging of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide outbreak and a major public health problem. The present review was conducted to provide brief information about the origin, symptoms, transmission, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the virus. A search was performed in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google scholar with English keywords including 2019-nCoV, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), SARS-CoV-2, and novel coronavirus from December 2019 to 15 March 2020, and the search results were evaluated. Selected studies have shown that the virus may have originated from the bat. It has also been shown that the virus receptor is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is also the SARS virus receptor and is expressed in most human tissues. The most common way of virus transmission was suggested through respiratory droplets and close contact. It is also transmitted by asymptomatic patients, but vertical transmission from mother to fetus has not been confirmed. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, but chest computed tomography (CT) can be more sensitive to detect positive cases. Since no effective vaccine or drug for prevention and treatment of this disease has not yet been identified and also because of the high incubation and infection period, easy transmission, and the lack of complete recognition of the characteristics and stability in different environments, the best way to control of COVID-19 is to prevent the spread of the infection in different ways and take seriously personal and public hygiene.
Goodluck A. K. Ohanube, Uchejeso M. Obeta, Chinaza R. Ikeagwulonu
Published: 31 October 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 77-80;

This case study was based on the novel opinion that daily intake of vitamin C can serve as a prophylactic and curative intervention for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) via homeostatic and epigenetic mechanisms. To substantiate this hypothesis, some Nigerians who used vitamin C based regimen consented to share their experience in the prevention and management of the coronavirus irrespective of their country of abode. Participants all agreed to the use of their information for the public, albeit anonymous, via appending their signatures on an informed consent form. The documented cases took place from March 15 to September 1, 2020, this was to allow for more time to be able to observe the participants. The study provided evidence that regular use of Ascorbic acid tablets and vitamin C enriched plants could improve the immunity needed against the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Zahra Malayejerdi, Omid Pouresmaeil
Published: 23 September 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 48-51;

In the human body there are many microorganisms with a variable genetic content. These microorganisms play an important role in the metabolism, homeostasis, immune system and generally human health. Over the millions of years, different microorganisms adapted to each other, and different environmental communities formed on Earth. Microbial communities, known as microbiome, could exist in living or non-living environments, such as human body and plants, as well as in soil, oceans, and air. The main purpose of microbiome engineering is mostly human microbiome and is now used in the treatment of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, etc. The research data in this thesis were collected from the main medical article sources including Web of science, Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus. Articles on microbiome which published during 2010-2019 were reviewed. The widespread impacts of the microbiome on the ecosystems and the increased attention to microbiome recognition are factors contributing to the creation of microbiome engineering science, and recent advances in genome sequencing and metagenomic science have made microbiome analysis apart from cultivation process. Microbiome engineering has advantages and disadvantages. So, according to the positive aspects and efforts to increase applications, this science could lead to advances in microbial engineering, and have positive effects on human health. Although microbiome engineering is a new field, there has been lots of progressions in recent years that can be an important strategy for improving human health by microbial manipulation leading to the changing of microbial population.
Kimia Sharifian, Razieh Dowran
Published: 10 September 2020
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 43-44;

Sakineh Poorhosein Fookolaee, Somayyeh Talebishelimaki, Mohammad Taha Saadati Rad, Mostafa Akbarian Rokni
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 32-37;

Leptospirosis is known as a zoonotic disease of global importance originated from infection with the spirochete bacterium Leptospira. Although several leptospirosis vaccines have been tested, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research. Therefore, this study was conducted to predict B cell epitopes of the hemolysis-associated protein 1 (Hap1) for vaccine design against leptospirosis. For prediction of linear epitopes, the sequence of extracellular region of Hap1 was submitted to ABCpred, BCPREDs, Bcepred, Bepipred and Ellipro servers. DiscoTope 2.0 and B-pred servers were used for prediction of conformational epitopes from the entire PDB structure of Hap1 that obtained from the homology modeling method. Further analysis for solvent accessible areas and relative solvent accessibility of all the residues on the PDB structures using Naccess program and NetSurfP server defined that predicted conformational B cell epitopes had higher solvent accessible and their residues were exposed on the surface therefore, immunoinformatics analysis showed that hemolysis-associated protein 1 can properly stimulate the B cells immune responses.
Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Rostami, Saman Shalibeik,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 38-42;

Akkermansia muciniphila is an anaerobic species of gut microbiome that has been proposed as a new functional microbiota with probiotic properties. Recent research has shown the amazing abilities of probiotic bacteria, A. muciniphila, which resides in most people's intestines. These bacteria affect the body if it increases or decreases abdominal fat. The presence of A. muciniphila has opened new ways for the use of this plentiful intestinal symbiont in next-generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucosal thickness and enhancing bowel barrier function. As a result, host metabolic markers improve. The host functions that are disrupted in various diseases with a particular focus on metabolic disorders in animals and humans. A specific protein in the outer membrane of A. muciniphila called Amuc-110 could in the future be a strong candidate for drug production. As a result, we suggest that microbes and our microbiology or gut microbiome knowledge could be a new source for future treatments. The objectives of this review are to summarize the data available on the distribution of A. muciniphila gut in health and disease, to provide insights into the environment and its role in the creation of microbial networks at the mucosal interface, as well as to discuss recent research on its role in regulation.
, Reza Abouali, Mohammad Mostafa Olapour, Rozhin Heidary Lal Abady, Hamid Yazdaninejad,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 23-26;

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent infections among women, and if untreated could lead to severe complications. The treatment of UTI is difficult due to the appearance of pathogens with increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. This study thus aimed to determine the bacterial etiological pathogens of UTI and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the pathogens isolated. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from March to September 2019 on a total of 339 women referred to Imam Khomeini Teaching Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from the patients and were cultured. The presence of significant bacteriuria was determined using the plate count method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by the standard disk diffusion method. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (54.8%), Klebsiella (18.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.9%), Proteus (8%), and Acinetobacter (5.1%). E. coli, as the most common pathogen of UTIs, showed the most resistance to cephalosporins and the least resistance to imipenem. According to the findings, E. coli was the most common cause of UTI in our region. Considering the rate of UTI, and the importance of preventing its severe complications, a survey of regional resistance patterns and timely treatment can control the development of its resistant bacteria.
Behzad Dehghani, Tayebeh Hashempour, Zahra Hasanshahi, Iraj Rasooli
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 9-16;

InvH is an indispensable part of T3SS-I and has a significant role in SPI-I mediated effector protein translocation. The InvH mutations have significant effects including reduced secretory and inflammatory responses that result from preventing the normal secretion of several proteins. Our team previous studies showed the capable ability of InvH to induce the humoral immune system to prevent almost all Salmonella strains infections. The current study aimed to determine all aspects of this protein using several bioinformatics tools and find the differences among all Salmonella strains. This data could pave the way for further studies about InvH protein and the production of an effective vaccine against Salmonella infections. InvH sequences for all Salmonella strains were obtained from GenBank and analyzed to determine physicochemical properties, B-Cell and T-Cell epitopes, and reliable structures. Results showed some minimal differences among Salmonella strains. B-Cell and T-Cell epitopes predicted by numerous software approved the ability of this protein to induce both humoral and cellular immune systems remarkably. This study provided a comprehensive data to determine all features of InvH protein and our results showed the ability of this protein to design a capable vaccine and the effect of amino acid changes on structure and physico-chemical properties, and epitopes. Erratum in: Erratum: Immunogenicity, antigenicity and epitope mapping of Salmonella InvH protein: An in silico study B Dehghani, I Rasooli J Curr Biomed Rep. 2020; 1(2): 81.
Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini-Alfatemi,
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 27-31;

Clostridiumdifficile is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium that recognized an important pathogen of humans.The present study aimed to evaluate the intestinal level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) as a disease activity marker in the south of Iran. This cross-sectional study conducted from October 2017 to June 2018 on patients referred to Nemazee and Amir Hospital in Shiraz, South of Iran. Patients less than two years old were excluded from the study. The study population was consist of 46 cases (Symptomatic patients that confirmed as a CDI), and 21 control individuals (Asymptomatic patients colonized by C. difficile). C. difficile isolates were identified by conventional microbiological producers and amplification of housekeeping gene by PCR method. The level of NGAL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the instructions of the kit manufacturer. The results showed that the level of NGAL in symptomatic patients'(case group) was higher than asymptomatic carriers (control group), 5.9 ng/mL vs. 4.1 ng/mL; however the observed difference was not statistically significant. Also, in both groups, the mean level of NGAL was significantly higher in patients with gastrointestinal diseases than others. In summary, despite all the limitations, the results of the present study indicate that the intestinal level of NGAL is a biological indicator of intestinal inflammation, regardless of CDI. However, further study needs to elucidate the role of NGAL in inflammation caused by bacterial infections.
Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Tayefeh-Arbab, Zohre Baseri, Mojtaba Taghizadeh Armaki, Mohsen Karami, Saman Alhooei, Abazar Pournajaf
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 17-22;

Salmonellosis is an important public health concern among children in worldwide. Extended-spectrum β-lactams (ESBLs) cause resistance to clinically important beta-lactams which are generally used to treat invasive Salmonella infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of SHV, TEM and CTX-M genes in different strains of Salmonella isolated from children with acute diarrhea and to determine their resistance profile. In this cross-sectional study, 300 fecal samples were collected from children referred to the Amirkola Children's Hospital, Babol, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done according to the CLSI guideline. ESBLs-producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test method on the Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Multiplex-PCR was performed using oligonucleotide specific primers to detect of SHV, TEM and CTX-M genes. In total, 7% (n; 21/300) salmonella were isolated, which 61.9%, 28.6% and 9.5% were Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhi, respectively. The prevalence of the ESBL-producing isolates were 52.4%. M-PCR results showed that 42.8%, 38.1% and 14.3% of isolates were carried CTX-M, TEM and SHV genes, respectively. Also, 18.2% of isolates harbored CTX-M, and TEM genes, simultaneously. The high rate of ESBLs-producing Salmonella strains in the pediatric patients is an alarm. It is also recommended that alternative drugs be used with less resistance, which requires further investigation.
Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh Namvar, Meisam Ruzbahani, Seyed Asghar Havaei
Journal of Current Biomedical Reports, Volume 1, pp 3-8;

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main significant human pathogens which can produce various toxins such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) which is known as a prominent toxin associated with S. aureus infections. PVL-positive strains can cause a wide variety of skin, soft tissue, necrotizing pneumonia, fasciitis and life-threatening infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluating the molecular characteristics of PVL-positive strains such as the presence of mecA, SCCmec types, agr types and exfoliative toxin genes. In this study, a total of 152 S. aureus strains were collected from clinical samples of patients who referred to Isfahan’s Alzahra hospital (Iran). The isolates were confirmed phenotypically by conventional methods and then PVL-positive isolates were identified by PCR molecular test. Thereafter, antibiotic resistance pattern, agr groups (I, II, III, and IV), exfoliative toxins (eta and etb), mecA gene and SCCmec various types were carried out. Totally, 52 (34.2%) of strains were positive for PVL. Six PVL-positive strains harbored mecA gene, one strain had SCCmec I, and 5 strains SCCmec type IV. The highest ratio of agr groups belonged to group (I) and the (eta) gene was also detected in 18 isolates. The PVL-positive S. aureus strains can cause more serious infections, so identification of the genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance monitoring of these strains is necessary.
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