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Results in Journal Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: 260

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Shumaila Kausar, Muhammad Zeshan Butt, Naseem Kousar, Rana Muhammad Adeel-Farooq
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 926–934-926–934;

In the patriarchal society of Pakistan, women are viewed as inferior to men. This gender prejudice is also evident in the agriculture industry. This study intends to investigate men's perceptions of women's role in agriculture-related activities. Utilizing a qualitative study design, the researcher conducted six focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews with the men in Multan district, Punjab, thematic analysis was performed on the data in order to deeply comprehend the phenomenon. The bulk of the male population partially recognises women's contributions in the agriculture sector, the study revealed. Most of the population believed that poverty is the primary reason why women work in agriculture. In men’s views, women are weaker than men and, as a result, unable to conduct agriculture-related activities, particularly the activities requiring extra force. Their attitude was strongly patriarchal in that they viewed women as unpaid or low-paid workers. The vast majority of the population recognises that their contribution is of crucial importance to food security. It can be concluded that the majority of male members view women as lesser and weaker workers than males. Men's sexist attitudes toward women demonstrate the urgent need to confront patriarchal society, which not only hinders women's development in the agriculture industry but also affects their productivity and food security.
Ali Junaid Khan, Fatima Farooq, Abou Bakar, Muhammad Murad
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 913–925-913–925;

Brand equity development has become a challenge for modern brands. Marketing innovation and changing consumer value perceptions are causing consumers to leapfrog, posing a challenge for brand equity development. The data for this study was collected with random sampling techniques. 450 respondents were considered to collect data on the Likert scale questionnaire. The Partial Least Square (PLS) method of data analysis was used in this study for data analysis. According to the findings of the study, brand personality, customer satisfaction, consumer lifestyle, marketing innovation, and consumer changing value perception all have a significant impact on brand equity. The significant framework of this study is a contribution to the body of knowledge as it describes the significant relationship between different variables critical for brand equity development. Furthermore, this study provides business implications for brands working in Pakistan to improve brand equity with realistic results to influence the consumers for brand equity.
Habib Asghar, Muahammad Ayub, Syed Khurram Shahzad, Salyha Zulfiqar Ali Shah
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 904–912-904–912;

This research study is about the impact of two major economic vices namely inflation and unemployment on the economic growth in Pakistan. The research study brought to light the varying effects of both variables on economic growth in different time eras. The researcher has chosen data on the Pakistan economy ranging from 1972 to 2021. The data has been sourced from authentic sources like WDI, IFS, and different issues of Pakistan economic surveys. The significance of the research study was in throwing light on the prevailing scenario where Pakistan is faced with multiple challenges both internally and externally. The study has adopted the Augmented Dickey-Fuller technique for checking stationary, the ARDL approach for checking long-run and short-run relationships, and the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests for stability of the coefficients.
Arfat Rauf, Amir Razi, Afia Khalid, Yasir Hassan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 898–903-898–903;

The purpose of this study was to assess the usage patterns of credit/debit cards across various demographic characteristics and to check their association with factors like card usage preferences, financial conditions, budget control, and money shortage. A close-ended questionnaire was used to record demographic information and responses to assess the comparative use of debit/credit cards in urban and rural areas of Lahore and Kasur. The estimated sample size was 225 consumers. After cleaning of data, the final sample analyzed consisted of 200 subjects. The empirical analysis was done through SPSS. The result shows that gender, occupation, area, and income play a significant role in the different usage patterns of credit/debit cards at the time of purchase.
Andleeb Ismail, Shabbir Ahmad, Karim Khan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 862–890-862–890;

Access to quality education is the intellectual right of every child, and it was first acknowledged in December 1948 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Recently, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) reinforced the importance of education as a universal right regardless of color, language, race, gender, economic condition, and social origin. It is possible to improve the quality of education by efficiently using inputs. This study aims to measure the performance so that it can analyze how much chance of improvement is available. The total factor productivity uses the inputs and output at the district and then at the individual school student level, decomposed into its efficiency components. This study implements Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) using the DPIN software for the analysis. Panel information from 2013 to 2016 of the 112 districts is used for this study. Technical, mix, and scale mix efficiency is calculated, and the determents that can explain the difference in the performance are measured. Results show that the health and education index are the key indicators that can explain the high performance of some districts. Whereas the living standard shows a negative effort on efficiency.
Ayesha Zahoor, Muhammad Ajmal Khan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 891–897-891–897;

Malik Feroze Khan Noon’s novel Scented Dust provides a postcolonial perspective in retrieving India’s local history, indigenous traditions, and social norms during colonial times. By asserting the cultural distinctiveness of India, Noon has negated not only European perceptions of the East as a mysterious, exotic, superstitious, irrational, and barbaric place but also countered European purport of superiority and centrality. The novel unfolds the disparity between colonizers and the colonized regarding their social, political, and cultural affiliations. By revisiting the historical colonial encounters represented in the novel, this study showcases colonizers’ fallacious treatment of the natives as uncivilized and brings out the true colours of Indian culture and heritage. It has been found that the novelist has been able to distinctly provide a postcolonial perspective on colonial India by impartially documenting the colonial encounters between the Indians and the British.
Erum Fayyaz, Muhammad Murad, Shahid Yaqub, Muhammad Naeem Sharif
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 849–861-849–861;

The online brands in Pakistan are facing brand loyalty issues as the market is new and emerging for Pakistani consumers. The less satisfaction of consumers with different operations of online businesses is the fundamental reason for this loyalty challenge. The purpose of this study is to identify different factors that are contributing to the brand loyalty of online businesses in Pakistan. The Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data from the Pakistani people with a random sampling technique. The Partial Least Square (PLS) method is used to test the relationship between different variables of the study. The study highlights that effective payment method, low distribution charges and low transit time has key responsibility for brand loyalty of the Pakistani customers with moderating role of effective management. The study is a contribution to literature and knowledge as the framework of the study contains significant variables. The practical implications of this study would provide a way for online businesses in Pakistan to develop brand loyalty.
Muhammad Nouman Shafiq, Xiuyun Yang, Muhammad Atif Nawaz
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 830–841-830–841;

Considering that one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to promote education, in this regard, remittances have been suggested as a preferred motivator, especially in developing nations. In recent decades, migration from underdeveloped to developed countries has grown, which benefits the country economically and socially. Although, literature has witnessed the favorable impact of remittances on macroeconomic variables. However, little research examined these implications on education. The current study explores remittances' impact on education in developing countries. Data is taken from 90 developing countries over the period 1991-2020. Data is collected from two main sources: World Development Indicators and ICRG. For the analysis, remittances are an independent variable, whereas education is the dependent variable. Control variables include GDP per capita growth, education expenditures, urban population, and democracy. Results obtained from dynamic panel GMM indicate remittances' positive and significant impact on education. Similar results were found in the case of all control variables. The study suggests developing suitable incentives for migrants to remit, particularly the strategies persuading the costs and networks of remittances
Ejaz Ahmed
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 842–848-842–848;

The problem of free will is still an issue and in the classical literature we find two extremes; either humans have free will or they are determined to act. In the current debates over free will we find compatibilism as the best solution to the problem of free will but compatibilism reveals a hopeless result and turns out to be a mere rational twist to defend determinism. On the other hand, naturalism’s metaphysical thesis of ‘physical causal closure’ also defends determinism. Current philosophical literature reveals the compliance of the analytic philosophers with naturalism to a great extent. Thus the problem of free will is discussed deterministically in the current neurophysiological theories. It is suggested that the problem of free will can be resolved only if the problem of consciousness is taken into account. John Searle complies with naturalism and defends his doctrine of biological naturalism and endorses the scientific explanation of consciousness. Richard Swinburne defends substance dualism as he also endorses the evolutionary notion of naturalism while discussing the emergence of consciousness. Both philosophers present different views about the problems of free will and consciousness. This article concludes that Searle’s notion of free will does not cohere with his view of consciousness due to his compliance with naturalism’s physical causal closure. Swinburne’s ‘personal explanation’ is plausible to address the problems of free will and its relation to consciousness.
Saira Niaz, Ghulam Ali Buriro, Niaz Hussain Soomro
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 813–821-813–821;

Since the internet network's establishment, the World Wide Web is considered as the most important tool used by billions of people across the world. It allows people to share the media, read, write, publish and interact with others via the internet. Since its advent, the World Wide Web has evolved from a read-only medium technological network to the collaborative one where learners are interlinked in various ways. Through its various stages of evolution, English language learning was transformed from simple to an interactive, collaborative, and learner-centered environment. This paper will present the conceptual review of the literature, in chronological order, on how English language learning has evolved over the past years, particularly from web 1.0 to web 3.0. It also aims to present the analysis of the evolution of the World Wide Web (www) technologies from a learner perspective; therefore, it will elucidate various web-based tools, technologies, trends, and applications used by learners in their education.
Farzana Shaheen, Hafiz Muhammad Ather Khan, Riaz Hussain Khan Sindher
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 822–829-822–829;

The study shows how classroom processes relate to students' learning outcomes in Urdu and English. For this purpose, five tools were used by the researcher in the Government Schools of Bahawalpur. The observation checklist by (Allwright, 2014); was used to personally observe the lectures of Urdu and English subjects by the researcher to check the verbal interaction between teacher and students and record these lectures. Second tool; test of English for 9th class, third tool; for the test of Urdu 9th class, fourth tool; for the test of English for 10th class and fifth tool; for Urdu 10th class were developed and conducted in same classes where observations were taken. After analyzing the data, the result was concluded, showing that classroom interaction is highly related to student learning outcomes. There was a negligible relationship between classroom management and students' learning outcomes. It was found weak but positive relationship between students learning outcomes and repetition reinforcement. There was a weak but positive relationship between students learning outcomes and encouragement and evoking stimulus by teachers. Research confirms that there was a negligible but positive relationship between teacher information explanation during lectures and students' learning outcomes. So Teachers should spend more time on students' learning instead of classroom management, discipline, and behaviors. Teachers are the lighthouses; who are working to guide the learners. Policy recommendation for Government Schools is; that highly qualified teachers should be appointed in Schools who are experts in the subject language, have effective communication skills, and have command of teaching and learning processes. Government should provide facilities to schools like language laboratories for language teachers for the better and more effective learning environment
Farah Kanwal, Samar Fahd, Allah Yar Malik
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 804–812-804–812;

The existing phenomenological study explored the existential issues of Pakistani breast cancer women. Moderately interviews were conducted to obtain information, which were digitally recorded and transcribed. Purposive sampling technique was employed to obtain a sample. Ten breast cancer-diagnosed women were included in this research. The qualitative information was investigated using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Personal Cluster and Social Cluster evolved from the statements of existential issues by breast cancer women. The clusters were further sorted into the following categories: Existential Anxiety, Death Anxiety, Meaninglessness, Hopelessness, Loneliness, Body Image Discomfort, Guilt, Loss of autonomy, Lowered Self-Esteem, Pessimistic, Abashment, Peace of Mind, Dissatisfaction, Personal Loss of Control, Mobility Loss, Personal Responsibility, Loss of Personal Identity, Loss of Personal Relationships, Demoralization, Shame, Disappointment, Loss of Female Identity, Helplessness, Dependency, Loss Freedom of Choice, Powerlessness, Rejection, Social isolation, Burden to Others, Loss of Dignity, Integrity Loss, Loss of Outdoor Mobility, Social Responsibility, Loss of Social Identity, Loss of Group Identity, Loss of Family Identity, Loss of Professional Identity, Loss of Social Relationships, Futility, Alienation, Ignorance. The findings have significance for clinical psychologists, counselors, and therapists who work in primary and secondary health care settings.
Muhammad Farhan Riaz, Muhammad Azmat Hayat
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 782-796;

The current literature shows the ambiguous relationship between corruption and shadow economy, specifically in the case of developing countries, because most of the earlier research system on judicial corruption was not incorporated while measuring different corruption indices. This study has used dynamic judicial indicators to observe corruption control as a latent variable to contribute to an advanced analysis of the nexus between shadow economy and corruption. It has employed an unbalanced panel data of 65 developing countries from 2000-2019 to investigate this relationship empirically. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicator and Multiple Causes Models are used to estimate the magnitudes and signs of various dimensions and causes of corruption control, shadow economy, and their nexus. The results of this study suggest that robust judicial indicators and a more independent judicial system significantly reduce corruption and consequently shrink the shadow economy. Thus, it supports the maxim that the shadow economy and corruption, particularly those in developing countries, are complementary while empirically contradicting the notion that the shadow economy and corruption are substitutes. This study finds a substantial and positive connection between cash holdings and labor force participation rate with shadow economic activities and also predicted an inverse relationship between GDP per capita with the shadow economy.
Altaf Hussain, Ramsha Saleem, Muhammad Azhar Bhatti, Ruqayya Ibraheem
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 771-782;

China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is an amalgam that addresses employability in Pakistan. The perception of creating millions of jobs in the next few years is vital for strengthening the relationship between China and Pakistan. This economic corridor aims to enhance job opportunities, which may increase the general public's education level and standard of living. This paper aims to estimate the perception of the employability impact of Bahawalpur's solar power project and Sahiwal's coal power plant within a radius of 15km2. This study measures the employability impact perceived by the workers through qualitative and descriptive procedures. The data is collected from employees of both the power plants. This study contributes to the existing literature, explains the negative and positive perceptions regarding CPEC projects, and is concluded in support of CPEC and suggests that uplifting to technical skills of the local labor force should be of utmost priority in such types of projects. The study also suggests developing a linkage between education institutes and industry to make the required skill set available to provide more abundant opportunities to the local employees.
Nasir Mehmood, Khurram Shahzad
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 797-803;

This article critically evaluates Olaf Caroe’s book “The Pathans” by using the framework of critical discourse analysis”. The book consists of a total of four hundred thirty-eight pages. The study explores how the author has wrongly ascribed the authorship of some passages to Khushhal Khan Khattak. Moreover, it also investigates how certain events of Pathan’s history have been misrepresented. The study is significant as it highlights loopholes in one of the most important books of Pathans history. The text which forms the data for the present study is the chunks selected from “The Pathans”. After evaluating the text, it is found that the author of the book, in some places, presents his weak appraisal of the events and expresses statements that do not conform to the ground realities. Lastly, after a careful analysis of the evidence, the study concludes that the author has insufficient knowledge of the historical events; particularly those concerning Khushhal Khan Khattak, which, ultimately resulted in misinterpretation of the historical facts. Hence the study recommends that there is a dire need to rectify some of the historical events from their true historical perspective.
Husniyah Almas, Euis Sunarti, Irni Rahmayani Johan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 762–770-762–770;

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on family well-being. The impact will depend on how the family manages stress during an unstable situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to analyze the effect of family and work characteristics, sources of stress, coping strategies, and stress symptoms on the subjective well-being of families. This study uses an online questionnaire as a data collection tool. Data collection was carried out in DKI Jakarta that involved 100 health workers (60 health professionals and 40 health support personnel). Processing and analyzing data use Microsoft Office Excel 2016, SPSS 25.0, and SmartPLS 3.3.2. Data analysis performed were descriptive, independent sample t-test, and SEM analysis. According to the results, health support workers are more likely to feel the source of problems due to change and work compared to professional health workers. The lower stressor and stress symptoms increase the family’s subjective well-being. Furthermore, stressor and stress symptoms are intermediate variable that affects subjective family well-being. The results of this study can be used as a consideration for intervention for related parties in the event of a new pandemic situation in the future.
Shumaila Ali
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 738-749;

Travelling to a foreign country for higher education has its own challenges, as apart from dealing with academic stress, international students have to overcome various obstacles mainly because of linguistic and cultural differences between their native and the host country.The study explores a series of narratives shared by a Kenyan male student who had been in Karachi for the last five and a half years for earning a Pharm-D degree from a public sector university in Karachi. The aim of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to conduct an in-depth study of the challenges the Kenyan student faced during his five and a half years in Pakistan along with exploring how he succeeded in dealing with culture shock and adapting to the new academic, linguistic, and sociocultural environment in the host country.The data for this study were collected through a series of conversations with the participant collected in the form of stories, spanning over a period of 16 months. The collected data were analyzed through ‘a critical events approach’ based on highlighting critical events contained in the stories of experience. Although the findings of the study provide insights into the life experiences of only one international student, many international students, particularly the Kenyans can relate to it, as they pass through somewhat similar experiences during their academic journey in Pakistan. The findings of this study call for the need to facilitate international students irrespective of their race, religion, and nationality so that they do not feel marginalized in the host country.  
Muhammad J. Khawaja
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 750–761-750–761;

It is imperative to explore the stability of the money demand function (MDF) due to its effectiveness in the strength of monetary policy. This paper employs the ARDL approach to examine whether the M3 MDF is stable for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) consisting of six Arabian Gulf countries. The paper also uses CUSUMSQ and CUSUM tests for this purpose. Unit root test results indicate that variables have unit roots with varying degrees. The results reveal that M3 has a cointegration relation with inflation and real output, however, the interest rate is statistically insignificant for most countries across the period under study. However, the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests indicate that M3 MDF is unstable across all the GCC countries. It implies that the governments in GCC countries have to be very careful in implementing monetary policy to achieve stability and growth targets.
Syed Nouman Shah, Gulshan Majeed, Farooq Arshad
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 730–737-730–737;

The paper evaluates the priorities of the US and China with regards to economic, geopolitical, military technology, and alliance formation. In the economic aspect, we will study China's BRI policy and USA's B3W counter project. The goal of both states in this regard is to dominate the international market. Both the countries are investing in Hyper Sonic technology to gain an upper hand in the Military expanse. The formation of alliances is another clever tactic in the name of establishing mutual security. China's relationship with the US arch-enemy Russia and the Chabahar Port and CPEC projects with Iran and Pakistan respectively appear to be an alarming situation for the US. To counter China's increasing advancement, the US formed QUAD and AUKUS with India, Japan, Australia, and the UK, along with the Reciprocal Access Agreement to limit the escalating approach of China. The blame game between the US and China regarding the COVID-19 pandemic also sparked many controversies. The increased threat perceptions and more crucial political elements between the two powers are dynamics of global hegemony. Analytical and Descriptive methods of research are applied in the paper.
Farhat Nasim, Hakim Ali, Muhammad Latif Javed, Rabia Bahoo
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 702–710-702–710;

Teaching competence refers to the knowledge, skills, attitude, and professional qualities needed to carry out a teacher's duties at the required level. This study's primary objective was to examine how teachers at different school levels were judged to be in terms of perceived teaching competencies. The researcher applied a quantitative survey approach in order to assess the competence of the teachers working in the public schools in the Multan district. A sample of 1009 teachers representing gender and school location was selected using a stratified sampling method. A questionnaire based on Passi and Lalitha's (1994) format was developed to obtain data. Both descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated that gender had a significant impact on how competent teachers were evaluated to be. The results showed that teachers' perceived teaching competencies differed significantly depending on their teaching experience and teacher designation. Finally, this study's recommendations were presented for the enhancement and development of teachers’ performance
Amani Sharif, Ghulam Murtaza
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 720–729-720–729;

For the past five hundred years, Native Americans have been subjected to bloodshed, violence, and dislocation at the hands of the Euro-American colonisers. The trauma experienced by Native Americans over the years has been passed on to succeeding generations, leading them to resort to drug abuse, violence, isolation, and suicide. They have resisted the onslaught of their culture and civilization by reclaiming their traditions and ceremonies. There There by Tommy Orange underscores the violent legacy of Euro-American colonization and the subsequent endeavours by Native Americans to defy absence and erasure and ensure their visibility and presence. Orange depicts the ways historical trauma impacts the lives of Native Americans and demonstrates various strategies of survivance they have adopted in the face of this trauma. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the theory of historical trauma by Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart and the theory of survivance by Gerald Vizenor. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart defines historical trauma as the collective emotional wounding that spans generations and leads to anger, suicidal tendencies, and depression. Anishinaabe theorist Gerald Vizenor describes survivance as active survival in which modern-day Native Americans adapt to contemporary times while still adhering to their traditions and customs. The findings of the textual analysis of this research demonstrate Native American anguish and suffering as a result of centuries of colonization and their efforts to safeguard communal survival. The paper encapsulates the historical trauma experienced by modern-day Native Americans residing in urban locales and underscores their endeavors to preserve their culture despite obstacles.
Rashid Naweed Rashid, Shahid Maqbool, Azka Shafiq, Maria Afzal
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 695–701-695–701;

The purpose of this study is to determine Pakistan's export competitiveness in the construction services sector on the global market. The competitiveness of Pakistan's service sector has been assessed using a variety of revealed comparative advantage indices from 2005-2020. The data have been collected from International Trade Center UNCOMTRADE statistics for exports of the services sector of Pakistan. The findings of the RCA, RSCA, Vollrath index, and InRCA indicate that Pakistan benefited from comparative advantage in the worldwide market for construction services from 2007 and 2016-2020, while Pakistan faced a comparative disadvantage in 2005-06 and 2008-15. Pakistan enjoyed a competitive advantage in the imports of the construction service sector by utilizing RMA index during 2006-2015 and in the year 2020, whereas Pakistan faced a competitive disadvantage in the imports in the other selected years. The RTA index portrays that Pakistan faced a net comparative advantage in the concerned sector in the years 2006-08, 2013-15, and 2020, while a net comparative disadvantage was observed in the remaining years. The trade balance index (TBI) highlights that Pakistan has become a net exporter in the services sector in the years 2007, 2014, 2015, and 2020, while Pakistan faced a net importer in the reaming years of the world economy. The present study recommended a method and strategy for addressing bottlenecks in the services sector's growth and for implementing a package of policy reforms to position the services sector as a critical sector for growth, employment, and poverty alleviation Information technology (IT) is ideally suited for cluster-based development in the services industry.
Ali Raza Fahad, Amani Sharif
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 688–694-688–694;

The study aims at investigating the relationship between the human mind crisis in relation to its immediate environment in Leslie Silko’s Ceremony. Ecological psychology is the study of the psychological origins of the ecological crisis, as well as the interaction between the human mind and the Earth's ecological crisis. An entirely new perspective and research methodologies have been provided by Ecological psychology for post-traumatic psychological healing as well as the proper handling of man-nature relationships. From an ecopsychological perspective, post-traumatic psychological resilience should be guided by ecological psychology theory, starting with ecological psychology regarding post-traumatic resilience, to establish a green eco- psychotherapy system, to attain harmony between nature and man, pay heed to trauma, and continue to grow. In the 1990s, the field of ecological psychology grew in popularity. Ecological psychology has made a positive attempt to investigate the core causes of the problems that human society and psychology have faced. It has a significant value in enforcing environmental consciousness, strengthening environmental learning, and expanding psychological research and application. In Ceremony, Tayo’s character is suffering post-traumatic conditions and environmental disconnection. When he refurbishes his relation with nature he gets healed and his mental peace returns. The study exhibits how significant it is to renew a good relationship between man and nature to bring and maintain joy and peace on Earth.
Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Javad Iqbal Khan, Zahra Shahid
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 711–719-711–719;

De-radicalization refers to a situation in which a person not only gets radicalized but also follows a route of rhetoric that leads to violent extremism. De-radicalization is the only disease emerging from the turmoil of terrorism. Pakistan is at a crossroads, where religious extremism is thriving every day and the scourge of terrorism is engulfing Pakistan. De-radicalization in the course of counter-terrorism is used as a soft approach without violating the basic ethics of human liberties. Radicalization, intolerance, sectarianism, Islamic militancy, and terrorism are not only spreading quickly over the globe, but they are also negatively impacting Pakistan's social security, religious peace, economics, good governance, democratic reform, and system of education. The study aimed to highlight the gaps and challenges faced by Pakistan during identify its nature and extent methodological investigation at the local level is accomplished This is a quantitative study to investigate the challenges and strategies for de-radicalization. To gather data primary and secondary sources were used. Pakistan needs to formulate its own, home-based strategies and paths to counter radicalization. Radicalization, administration, extremism, governance, Islamic insurgency, intolerance, violence, and identification are all addressed in this study. The key underlying causes of insurgency and radicalization have been identified, which will aid in the fight against Islamic militancy, radicalism, extremism, and intolerance in Pakistan. The study's findings and recommendations will be used to combat extremism and Islamic insurgency in Pakistan. This work will assist Think Tank experts, scholars, educators, and legislators, who will use the results and suggestions for broader objectives.
Muhammad Rashad Qamar Rao, Muhammad Aleem, Muhammad Imdad Ullah
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 678–687-678–687;

This study gauges the associations between Human Resource (HR) practices and the perceived performance of employees at Autonomous medical institutions'(AMI), Punjab (Pakistan). The HR practices thrashed out in this study are Recruitment & Selection, Training & Development, Compensation, complaint resolutions procedure, and Job clarity. 220 respondents were selected randomly from the 13 AMI’s of Punjab. The data was collected through a personally administered questionnaire. A personally administered questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The study's findings demonstrate that in the health sector, recruitment and selection, training and development, salary, and job clarity all have a substantial association with employee performance, but the complaint resolution method has no such relationship. The study provided a strategic tool for the improvement of employee performance by using these practices.
Syeda Hina Zahra Bukhari, Shahnawaz Malik, Muhammad Zahir Faridi
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 669–677-669–677;

Poverty is one of the most common and challenging issues in the world, especially for developing economies. The development pace will never be speedier until this issue is resolved beforehand. In the case of Pakistan, poverty is still persistent and increasing due to multifactor. The current study endeavors to investigate the multi-dimensional relation between educational attainment level and its impact on household poverty in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 800 households are selected as a sample. Ordinary Least Square and Binary Logistic methods are used. It transpired from the outcomes that variables that have a positive impact on poverty include the size of the household and family system. On the other hand, age of the head of household, education of the head of household, natural log of assets of the household, employment status of the household head, spouse participation in income generation, area of residence of the household, foreign remittances and unemployment status are adversely affecting. This study is endowed with regional and divisional level comparisons. It emerged from the result that amongst the three, Dera Ghazi Khan (DG Khan) is the most vulnerable. Family size, family system, and employment status have adversely affected the economic face of this division. It is recommended that an effective family planning regime, along with improved education attainment level and urbanization of the rural areas of this vicinity be strongly focused on a priority basis.
Zubair Tanveer, Waheed Ahmad, Nabila Asghar, Hafeez Ur Rehman
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 658–668-658–668;

Efficient use of energy resources is one of the best solutions for protecting the world's ecosystem and achieving sustainability of economic growth. The present study has investigated the estimated symmetric and asymmetric relationship between energy consumption (EC) and CO2 emission in Pakistan. For empirical testing, ARDL and NARDL approaches are employed from 1976 to 2019. The outcomes of NARDL found that positive and negative shocks in EC substantially increased CO2 emission in the short run. However, in the long run, negative shock significantly decreases CO2 emission, and positive shock insignificantly increases CO2 emission in Pakistan. It is suggested that government should concentrate on clean energy production initiatives to promote the use of renewable energy. Similarly, it is anticipated that environmentally-conscious planning throughout the capital spending stage of manufacturing activities and the proper application of environmental levies will be beneficial in lowering carbon footprints associated with all sectors of the economy.
Misbah Rehman, Rabia Hanif, Maria Rafique, Ayesha Malik
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 651–657-651–657;

This research reflects the special role of VET on the different levels of Anxiety Depression and Stress. The population selected for the study was women living in the village of Mureed Khan. By using the purposive sampling technique 120 women were selected from the population. The sample was divided into two groups i.e., targeted, and non-targeted groups. Women with age 14 to 25 years old were selected to become part of the study. SPSS-22 software was used for testing of hypothesis. Pre-test and post-test differences in study variables show that VET is an effective intervention and caused significant changes in the participants.
Hina Ali, Mazhar Hayat, Malik HaqNawaz Danish, Doshab Azher
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 644–650-644–650;

Hosseini in his third novel And the Mountain Echoed endeavors to portray the social, political, and historical background of different cultures and highlights the core issues running parallel within the situation of Afghanistan, entangled in challenges of political instabilities, social unrest, insecurities due to foreign invasion, the rise of Taliban and the status of Afghanistan after 9/11. By keeping tabs on Afghan culture, this research has explored Hosseini’s paralleled narratives of other cultures such as Paris, America, and Greece. To generate a power discourse, these narrations construct an identity and authoritative stance by invoking the influential backgrounds and histories that cause these different ethnicities to revolve all around the world, a global movement towards the reevaluation of the old notions and concepts about the fixity of boundaries of nation-states. By observing the cultural taboos in different countries, Hosseini points out the distressing factors that weaken a culture by referring to the Afghan wars and a certain political agenda in counter countries. By highlighting these cultural taboos, different nations uphold a discourse of power against rival cultures. Through counter-cultural practices, cultural values and taboos are set forth to evaluate the nature and function of different cultures presented in the novel. His indecisive affinity with his own native place shows his monomaniacal focus on a transcultural outlook. This research combines the technique of textual analysis with a qualitative mode of study. Hosseini’s ambivalent approach towards divergent cultural narratives inclines towards advanced and innovative aspects of the new historicist theory by Greenblatt. His radical ideas about culture and history have been utilized in the present study to analyze the text. His idea of anecdote in new historicism exists between de-nationalization and re-nationalization, between de-territorialization and re-territorialization authenticates his view of culture as being a gigantic text which embraces small events that skirmish with each other in a way that exemplifies a text on the basis of which the author constructs a melodrama to back up non-fiction elements within fictional taste. To support the power factor in cultural analysis, Foucault’s notions about the power structure are employed within Greenblatt’s two-sided cultural concept. The complicated nature of culture has been traced by the analysis of historical incidents and dialogue by different characters having contradictory and complex nature as per the complicated procedure of cultural phenomenon.
Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh, Rashid Ahmad, Furrukh Bashir, Sana Sultan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 626–633-626–633;

Crime is a major issue all over the world mostly in developing countries. Many social and economic determinants may cause crime such as poverty, ignorance, lack of education, unemployment, inflation, etc. This paper is an attempt to explore the crime-related and socio-economic crime factors in district jail Multan, Pakistan by collecting data through interviewing method from 172 male prisoners by random sampling technique. Two kinds of crime are linked through the purely crime-related variables and socio-economic variables by applying cross-tabulation analysis. The study has identified that crime is the upshot of many social, economic, and purely crime-related factors like the type of crime, economic, social, political & psychological factors, Criminal friendships, Revenge, joint family, rural area of residence, low education level, lack of support, Social deprivation, private-sector job, etc. The study has suggested some policies to reduce the crime rate.
Adnan Anwar, Atif Aziz, Sahar Qabool
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 634–643-634–643;

Corporate reporting has been considered a formal and widespread source of information within organizations. According to standards and accounting rules, financial accounting provides a representation of the financial situation of companies. This representation is communicated through financial statements at the end of each accounting period and under the legal requirements and tax regulations. Thus, corporate reporting has been limited to preparing financial statements for legal purposes and producing historical accounting and financial information. This study is a meta-analysis of prior literature to understand the concept of corporate reporting and identify the key domains that are still not explored by the researchers.
Eshrat Abbas, Amber Ferdoos
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 613–625-613–625;

Selection of a mate to get married is a quite common cultural practice worldwide and the criteria of spouse selection for women are very so often difficult. For the first time in this qualitative study, the preferences of highly qualified women in spouse selection and the influence of background individualities of spouses from Skardu, Gilgit – Baltistan, Pakistan were testified. A total of 15 unmarried but employed women were designated as respondents and data were obtained through purposive sampling from different institutions of Skardu like hospitals, colleges, and banks. An interview guide was used and the obtained data were evaluated thematically. The obtained results were characterized as the top criteria, important criteria, moderately important, and not important criteria for the choice of spouse. Results displayed that majority of women from the area consider higher education level, personal attributes, educational homogamy, financial stability, parental background, and sociability as top criteria before choosing a future spouse. While physical attractiveness and similar cultural/linguistic backgrounds were not deliberated as important measures to accept any proposal. It is therefore concluded that spouse education and some personal attributes are the top preferences of highly qualified women from the Skardu district of Gilgit - Baltistan Pakistan.
Kaynat Khudadad, Sana Nawaz, Musarrat Azher, Alia Zainab
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 602–612-602–612;

This research paper aims to find out how the two main groups of the subcontinent namely: Hindus and Muslims, face a clash of ideologies at the same time, what were the effects of this clash of ideology on their social lifestyle values and code of conduct as depicted in Nasim Hijazi’s novel “The Last Flight”. How perception about religion and power imposing groups have changed through a chain of events. In this study, the “Last Fight” (translated version) has been keenly analyzed by keeping in mind the subcontinent's historical perspective and relating these ideologies with the present time. The framework of Van Dijk's ideology and discourse analysis (2006) with reference to social, cognitive, and discursive components is employed to investigate how language is used to understand and communicate ideologies and their impact on the thought processes of groups, systems of beliefs, values, cultural manifestations, and society altogether. This paper is significant in portraying the framework and implications of ideology and discourse analysis. However, the text under consideration can be analyzed and explained in other multiple dimensions.
Muhammad Zeeshan Akram Malik, Afshan Abbas, Beenish Pervaiz
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 589–601-589–601;

The present study focuses on the frequency, collocations, noun modification, and semantic similarities and differences of three English adjectives: wondrous, prodigious, and stupendous to compare and contrast the similarities and differences in terms of meaning and collocation. The data was collected from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English and The British National Corpus. The three adjectives were found to have the same fundamental meaning but differ in terms of specific meanings, degrees of formality, noun modification, and collocational patterns. Consequently, the three Adjectives cannot be used interchangeably in all situations. In addition, it was found that the corpus provides some additional data which is non-existent in the dictionary.
Muhammad Zahir Faridi, Sheneela Altaf, Anum Fida, Asad Ali
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 580–588-580–588;

The study is about the examination of the classical theory of inflation in Pakistan. The data covered, the time period from 1972 to 2020. Time series data is used and collected from World Bank. The ARDL model estimation technique is used to analyze the data. The study shows a research gap based on testing the classical inflation theory in Pakistan which is different from previous related studies. The novelty of this research is to test the positive and direct linkage of doubling the money supply will double the price level in the case of Pakistan believing the classical model of inflation. The stationarity of data is checked through the unit root test. The results show that there is a positive relationship between nominal money supply and inflation in Pakistan, as classical believe that doubling the money supply will double the price level and the value of money becomes half. The findings of the study support that classical inflation theory is valid in the case of Pakistan. Inflation is taken as a dependent variable as a proxy of GDP deflator and a list of independent variables are such as per capita income, nominal money supply, interest rate, taxes, and government current expenditures. The empirical, theoretical, and historical facts are supporting this study. The study has explored the existence of inflation in Pakistan. It is observed that inflation is a monetary phenomenon and it is connected with the money supply which leads to an increase in the general price level. In order to curtail inflation government should control the money supply which will help to reduce prices.
Hafiz Ahmad Yar
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 571–579-571–579;

Besides affecting the global socio-political situation, the 9/11 attacks gave rise to newer forms of literary productions with distinct post-9/11 traits. Since most of the post-9/11 literary and political debates have focused on the fight between terror groups presumably based in the Muslim world and the secular west led by the United States of America, the practices of profiling, stereotyping, and counter-stereotyping have been common. We have explored racial profiling and stereotyping in Terrorists by John Updike to understand the novel’s contribution to post-9/11 political propaganda. We provide textual analysis of Terrorists by drawing evidence of profiling along racial, religious, political, cultural, and geographical lines. We conclude that various forms of propaganda including polemical fiction have eroded the inter-communal harmony in the post-9/11 American society. Finally, we recommend measures against the menace of terrorism that may be effective without compromising the civil liberties of citizens.
Sidra Riaz, Tauqir Ahmad Ghauri, Rizwan Ali Shinwari, Arbab Masood
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 527–541-527–541;

The present study is conducted in Pakistan and will investigate the relationship between psychological well-being and marital conflicts among parents with Down syndrome children. The study was conducted in institutes of Islamabad, which include the Al-Farabi Institute and the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. The study was conducted in the speech and physiotherapy department of institutes and included those patients who were suffering from Down syndrome. Purposive sampling was used to acquire the data from 60 parents (30 mothers and 30 fathers) of Down syndrome children. Regression and correlation analysis was performed to determine the link between independent and dependent variables as well as the impact of psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, personal growth, self-acceptance, and positive relations) on marital conflicts. The results show a positive and insignificant relationship between autonomy, positive relations, personal growth, self–acceptance, and marital conflicts but also reveal a negative and significant relationship between environmental mastery, purpose in life, and marital conflicts due to a poor environment. The research will help parents to lessen their stress and improve their environment. It will also guide the NGOs and civil society to encourage the parents and give them awareness about the coping strategies to deal with these situations.
Sana Khan, Sarwar Sultan, Hina Khan
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 541–545-541–545;

The purpose of the study was to examine the dental anxiety predicting poor oral health quality of life (OH QOL) and explore mediating effects of cynical hostility among dental patients. Using the survey questionnaire methodology, the study further analyzed the demographic differences (age, gender) among dental patients. The researchers wanted to see if there was a link between dental anxiety and oral health quality of life (QOL) as well as cynical hostility in a group of dental patients. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Cynical Distrust Scale (CDS), and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) were all completed by 353 dental patients. Additionally, demographic information was gathered. Regression analysis shows that dental anxiety results in poor oral health QOL (p<.05). Mediation analysis via Hayes process macro showed cynical distrust impact as a mediator in a relationship between dental anxiety and oral health QOL was significant. The mediation found that cynical hostility was a significant factor in the link between dental anxiety and oral health quality of life. Results of the study have major implications in domain of oral health and can be used in health programs to improve the quality of treatment.
Tania Shaikh, Musaib Junejo, Waseem Malik, Aqsa Shah
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 558–570-558–570;

This study has investigated undergraduate students’ perceptions of ‘Waiting for Godot’ at a public-sector university, in Pakistan. The study has explored how students identify existentialist themes and how do they relate to identified themes in the play. Rosenblatt's (1938, 1994) reader response and Sartre's (1956) existential model have guided this study. The findings are based on data supplied by 15 participants through semi-structured interviews. The study has applied a qualitative mode of inquiry employing the Thematic Analysis method by Braun and Clarke (2006). The key arguments based on findings reveal that participants’ responses were affected by their social and educational background. It highlights that participants connected existentialist themes that were very close to their life experiences and observations. It reflects that the play raised a sense of questioning as the spirit of posing introspective questions was more evident among male respondents. The play served as a source of motivation for participants to struggle for life’s meaning. It also highlights the role of teachers in developing participants’ understanding of the play. The results are important for teachers, curriculum designers, and researchers as they bring some implications in the context of literary pedagogy.
Rabia Maryam, Rabia Khawar
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 546–557-546–557;

The present paper attempted to analyze the existing task-based measures of affective flexibility and to provide a strong database for further development and validation of culturally relevant task-based measures of affective flexibility. The Articles in which affective tasks were developed are included in this review. Only those articles which had been transcribed in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from the year 1995-to 2021, with a sample of youth (15-35 years) were included. Key terms were effective flexibility, emotional flexibility, assessment of affective flexibility, and measures of affective flexibility. A systematic search of multiple computerized databases including Science Direct, Pub Med, Google scholar, and Psyc INFO was accomplished to find out the relevant articles. Both keyword search and citation search was performed for the current review. A total of 116 relevant articles were initially evaluated, 101 of them were excluded due to not meeting the inclusion criteria, and finally, 15 articles were retained. Analysis revealed that utilization, psychometric properties, and measurement accuracy were higher for several databases. Most of the studies have used standardized picture databases as stimulus material using a switching paradigm predominately. Correlation and t-tests were predominately performed for statistical analyses of the data. Strengths, limitations, and implications of the databases for affective flexibility had also been discussed.
Ubedullah Amjad Ali, Atif Aziz
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 514–526-514–526;

It is crucial to develop an understanding of the factors of customer purchase intention. It is also imperative to study these factors in the context of online purchasing. The reason its dissemination among consumers. Therefore, the present study developed a theoretical model and test by exploring the attributes of website experience such as information quality, security and service, and website credibility and its effect on online purchase intention in the presence of perceived risk as a moderator. The study opted quantitative method through survey application. PLS methodology was adopted to evaluate the measurement and structural model. The study adds knowledge to the literature through the support of empirical shreds of evidence in the context of Pakistan’s retail sector. The indication of findings points out the meaningful association among constructs that maximize the profitability of the online retail service sector if addressed carefully and may also create greater competition for online retailers. The study also showcases Implications, limitations, and future recommendations that were also canvassed at the end of the paper.
Ambreen Sarwar, , Maria Faiq Javed, Ismat Nasim
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 503–513-503–513;

The present study investigates the impact of fiscal decentralization (FD) on the efficiency of public service delivery (PSD) in the education sector of Punjab, Pakistan, from the year1982 to 2017. Firstly, the efficiency coefficients for secondary school enrolment are estimated using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Secondly, the impact of FD on PSD in the education sector of Punjab, Pakistan, is analyzed using the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method of estimation. The findings suggest that revenue decentralization positively enhances PSD efficiency in the education sector. In contrast, the effect of expenditure decentralization is negative on the efficiency of the education sector.
Hina Ali, Hina Shafiq, Khizra Sardar, Maria Iftikhar
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 483–490-483–490;

For confronting the majority of today’s mankind needles, this paper considers some under-developed and current methods or techniques for advancing solar (sunlight) energy harvesting. Usually, modern energy or power systems presume continuous accessibility of energy, but the energy of the sun or sunlight isn’t available or accessible at night time. So, storage of energy nowadays is an imperative concern. Moreover, the usage of current solar power is not so cheap it causes high production costs. Therefore, there is a need to introduce substantiate solar energy harvesting methods to improve efficiency and reduce costs. Therefore, this research highlighted that storage of solar energy can surely be increased by using flywheels or superconducting magnets, mimic. To uplift the storage of solar energy at night time antennas can be used. Moreover, solar energy efficiency can be surely increased by using gold nano-particles, changing solar panels connects ways.
Nabeel Ahmed Minhas, Nadia Anwar
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 491-502;

The paper intends to examine the socio-political implications of Arundhati Roy’s discourse in her novel, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness. It aims to analyze the linguistic significance of the selected text and its role in countering the established social discourses. Further, it will be seen how the author’s use of particular words challenges and undermines the existing dominant social structures. Roy uses persuasive language to make the downtrodden sections i.e. trans-genders, Dalits, and Kashmiris in Indian society reject marginalization. It is qualitative research that employs Norman Fair clough’s Three-Dimensional Model along with the principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. Persuasive Linguistic Devices are identified and used as tools to analyze the linguistic significance of the selected excerpts from the text. The analysis of the text reveals that Roy’s unapologetic and powerful language allowed her characters to realize their potential and consider themselves a valuable part of Indian society.
, Naimatullah Hashmi
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 254-259;

The objective is to assess the awareness level of hemophilia among schoolteachers. We used a closed questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional study on hemophilia knowledge. Teachers of hemophiliacs students in Faisalabad took part in the study. A Cronbach's alpha was used to validate the questionnaire (a= 0.775). 9 schools having 111 teachers consented to the study. About 86.48% of the participants were female, while 13.52% were male. High school teachers accounted for 45.94%, middle school teachers for 24.32%, and preschool teachers for 29.74%. Furthermore, 33.20% of the participants had no understanding of hemophilia, 14.50 percent had a low level of information, 35% had a fair level of knowledge, and 17.30% had a high level of knowledge. Teachers in high school were the most knowledgeable about hemophilia (11.7 %). The greatest knowledge gap was in treatment, where just almost half the percentage of the teachers (47.7%) were aware of the proper treatment for hemophiliacs. One-third of the sports teachers had no idea what hemophilia was. It was found that no teacher had the ability to provide basic first aid to hemophiliacs. A large proportion of teachers at school going hemophiliacs had little or no understanding of hemophilia, and just a few teachers knew about the disease. As a result, more educational initiatives are needed to raise critical awareness.
Memoona Batool, Laraib Ahmad, Rashida Sadaqat, Shahnila Tariq
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 214-223;

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social media, narcissism, and the mental health of young adults. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a relationship between narcissism, social media usage, and mental health in early adulthood. A correlation research design was used to collect data (online) from (N= 160) university students (male =31; female=129) with the age range of 18-25 years (M=19.58, SD=5.27). The sample was recruited by using a convenient sampling technique from different private sectors universities. Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS-SF), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and 16 items pair of narcissism were used to collect data. Patient Health Questionnaire introduced by Robert, Janet, and William. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis showed that mental health is positively correlated with social media whereas narcissism is negatively correlated with mental health. Implications show that seminar is very important for awareness about mental health and excessive social media usage. Results show that using hours of social media is significantly predicts mental health. Virtual problems, virtual communication, virtual information social media significantly correlated with mental health. Moreover, there are no gender differences in social media and mental health. So our hypothesis is proved. Our results contradicted the results of previous research which showed a relationship between Narcissism, Social Media, and their impact on mental health.
Sahib Khatoon, Quratulain Mirza, Shumaila Memon, Sadia Memon
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 474–482-474–482;

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is still in the early stages of integrating technology into educational institutions in Pakistan but, in Pakistani classrooms, using technology in language instruction is growing as a popular trend.Thus, the current study’s goal is to investigate the language learning strategies in CALL contexts should be modified/improved and can they bring some positive results or not. In doing so, a mixed-mode pre-test post-test research methodology, using one identical test (pre-test and post-test) before and after studying in a CALL setup was used. Moreover, semi-structured interviews were also used to explore the opinions of learners (n=6). As a result, one group (experimental) of male college students (n=55) was chosen at random for the investigation (experimental group). The findings of the study revealed positive results in both analyses (QUAL+QUAN). The study presents future recommendations also.
Syed Mumtaz Ali Kazmi Kazmi, Syed Muhammad Imran, Khalid Farooq Farooqi, Muhammad Shahid
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 298-303;

Low-income economies have characteristics of high corruption and political instability. The underdeveloped corrupt financial system of low-income nations with political instability may constrain firms’ performance. The objective of the current study was to estimate the effect of corruption and political instability on firms’ performance in low-income economies. The recent study used firm investment in human capital and exports as a proxy to measure the firm’s performance. We have applied logistic regression to the World Enterprise Survey dataset to find the probability of firms’ investment in human capital. The study concluded that corruption and political instability decrease the likelihood of a firm’s human investment in human capital. Firm-specific characteristics increase the probability of firms’ exports. For policy purposes, corruption must be reduced to increase firms’ investment in human capital.
Muhammad Aqeel Raza, Farhat Nasim, Muhammad Latif Javed
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 234-240;

This study aims to compare the teaching competencies of primary school teachers through academic qualifications. It may be helpful to find out the abilities of the teachers in government primary schools. It may also help the administration for training programs according to present needs. The population of this study comprises headteachers of all high schools (administrating primary section), of both genders of Multan district. There were 119 male head teachers of high schools and 63 female headteachers of high schools. The sample was selected by using cluster sampling and systematic random sampling technique, which resulted in 25 male head teachers of high schools and 25 female headteachers of high schools being included in the sample. For data collection, two questionnaires based on Likert’s Scale about their primary teachers’ competencies, one for highly qualified and one for low qualified teachers were used. The analysis of the data shows that majority of teachers have no such required competencies but highly qualified teachers are better than low qualified teachers. To improve the outcome through developing the competencies of teachers some recommendations are also presented in the last section of the study.
Ali Ahmad Kharal
Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 10, pp 466–473-466–473;

This paper focuses on the authorial intervention technique in postmodern fiction with reference to Urdu novel, Hassan Ki Suratehal: Khali …Jagahain…Pur…Karo (Hassan's State of Affairs: Fill…In…The…Blanks). The paper reviews author's role in different phases, specifically in fictional writings, including the phase of the declaration of the authorial death to subsequent resurrection and then flipflop appearance and disappearance in postmodern fiction. The case of Mirza Athar Baig's authorial intervention has been reviewed through the reading of his Urdu novel. Taking clues from Mark Currie and Peter Damian-Grint's theoretical elucidation and support of the study of Brian McHale on postmodern fiction, Foucauldian and Barthian views about authorial demise and subsequent postmodern resurrection have been analyzed to move further. This has led to postmodern authorial flipflop and its interplay upon in/direct authorial intervention in the text and textual interpretation. The resultant short analysis demonstrates that not only has Athar Baig intervened rhetorically but also, he has intruded the story editorially. At some places, Baig has confused his intervention with his persona too, a new authorial intrusion technique deduced from this analysis. The study has been undertaken in Urdu language with self-translation for evidences to support the claims deduced from the mentioned theoretical perspective.
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