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Results in Journal Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management: 36

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Abdulkadir Kurt,
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 137-149; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.9

Abstract:
The function of money plays an essential and indisputable role in the development of trade. Typically, banknotes and coins have always been introduced by central authorities. Emerging after the 2008 crisis, however, Bitcoin, considered to be the original cryptocurrency, contributed to money in an unprecedented dimension as it is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network. Cryptocurrencies are in constant interaction and the casualty relationship, among other variables, with Brent Oil. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between Bitcoin, Ethereum and Brent Oil price movements using 210 daily data from 10.12.2019 to 01.10.2020, featuring the period of the start and the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, the casualty relationship among Brent Oil, Bitcoin and Ethereum was examined with the Granger Causality test. As a result of the study, a bidirectional casualty relationship is determined between Brent Oil and Ethereum. However, a one-way causality relationship is found between Brent Oil and Bitcoin. On the other hand, there is no causality relationship between Ethereum and Bitcoin.
, Igor Ivanovski, Marija Tasheva
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 114-130; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.8

Abstract:
DEA is a frequently used non-parametric methodology for measuring the relative efficiency of Decision-Making Units (DMUs) that use the same inputs to produce the same outputs. Emrouznejad and Yang (2018) provided a literature survey on DEA with 10,300 peer-reviewed journal articles from 1978 to the end of 2016. Our article focuses on DEA applications in the insurance industry in convergence with the existing relevant literature as Kaffash et al (2020), who have surveyed 132 DEA articles in the insurance industry for the period from 1993 to 2018. We include particular keyword analyses necessary to identify research hotspots in different periods. This article aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis of DEA-published documents (articles in journals and book chapters) in the insurance industry from 1993 to 2021, focusing on identifying research hotspots based on keyword co-occurrence analysis. We have analyzed published documents from relevant databases, such as Scopus, Web of Science, Ebsco and ProQuest. We use descriptive analytics and text mining as the main methods in our analysis. We provide descriptive statistics for articles per year and category of the insurance industry, geographical distribution, top five journals and authors by citations, and citation analysis. An additional qualitative factor of our article is in-depth keyword co-occurrence analysis by using text mining to identify research hotspots in the insurance industry. Our analysis aims to contribute to researchers and insurance practitioners as an empirical and applicative point for initiating and developing research.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.1

Abstract:
Changes in consumer behaviour, coupled with shifting purchasing habits, have led to a new setting, one in which the retailers are seeking novel means of keeping potential consumers inside their stores for the maximum duration possible. This prolonged time span contributes to the increased frequency of impulsive actions, thus resulting in greater customer spending. Impulsive buyers are the most crucial target audience for retailers, for they are purely driven by emotion, making decisions without prior preparation or information gathering. Through the grasp of psychological science, behavioural and cognitive functioning, it is possible to discern the factors that make specific retailers and their stores more appealing than others. The main purpose of this paper is to point out a relatively new concept and a technique, called “nudging”, and to showcase the methods of gaining new customers through its utilisation within the Croatian retail market. The nudging technique is not a forceful one, opting to employ imperceptible and subtle means, such as playing certain music, utilising carefully selected scents, colours and lighting within the store, which all serve to improve consumer perception and satisfaction. The retailer can stand out from the competition, precisely by using nudging, which intertwines sensory perception and other psychological factors, incorporating them in the overall store design. For this particular purpose, a survey was conducted among Croatian customers, which examined the presence of specific nudging techniques in retail, as well as their effects on the consumer behaviour. The research results concluded that the Croatian retailers do indeed utilise some nudging techniques which, although perceived by their customers are ultimately left unaware of the impact they have on their respective decision-making process and behaviour
, Ahmed Adamu
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 10-24; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.2

Abstract:
We examine whether countries that have high levels of financial inclusion have fewer non-performing loans and loan loss provisions in their banking sectors. The fixed effect panel regression methodology was used to analyse the effect of financial inclusion on bank non-performing loans and loan loss provisions. Using data from 48 countries, we find that greater formal account ownership is associated with high non-performing loans. Bank loan loss provisions are fewer in countries that have high levels of financial inclusion only when financial inclusion is achieved through the combined use of formal account ownership, bank branch supply and ATM supply. Also, non-performing loans are fewer in countries that experience economic boom and high levels of financial inclusion
, Anca Băndoi, Mariana Paraschiva Olaru (Staicu), Alina Mădălina Belu
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 166-176; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.11

Abstract:
The internal control and audit system is a component of a company’s management system that focuses on defining individual employee tasks, identifying and implementing the most efficient methods, implementing the most effective information system, and meeting all stakeholders’ needs, expectations, and requirements. The different parts of the internal management control system can be integrated with the other parts of the general management system in order for the internal control objectives to complement the general objectives of an entity, such as development, financing, profitability, and the environment. This integration can make resource planning and allocation easier, formulate complementary goals, and evaluate the entity’s overall efficiency. This reflects the current internal control and auditing method at the entity level regarding organizational culture. The study aims to use organized, statistically measurable (by applying markers of dispersion, central tendency, and correlation) evaluative, predictive, and causal methodologies to verify the theories and hypotheses proposed on the subject. Insurance and counselling add value to the entities’ activities and aid management in maintaining efficient and effective internal audit and control, assessing the reliability of the information, evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of operations funds and public property management processes, and ensuring compliance with laws, regulations, and contracts
, Doruntina Ajvazi
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 150-165; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.10

Abstract:
The minimum wage has long been regarded as a vital tool for ensuring labour market stability, and its impact and implications on employment, poverty reduction, the informal sector, and economic development, in general, have sparked a multi-year discussion. Based on a poll of 635 respondents, we present an analysis of the minimum wage in Kosovo’s economy in this study. Our poll results reveal that our respondents had good attitudes toward the minimum wage and its increase in the Kosovo economy, as measured by the standard of living, employment, private sector, poverty reduction, and other factors. Kosovo has the lowest minimum wage in Central and Eastern Europe – 130 euros for those under 35 and 170 euros for those over 35.
, Ionеla Stanеci, Costinеl Cristian Militaru
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 185-196; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.13

Abstract:
Because of its impact on an institution’s functionality and performance, organisational culture is one of the most discussed topics in management, organisational behaviour, and sociology. The majority of the debates centre on this organisational phenomenon’s ability to significantly contribute to the entity’s competitive evolution by mobilising its resources, particularly human resources. Even though there is still debate about the definition of organisational culture, experts agree that most of its components contain the fundamental values of any institution. Moreover, any institution considers a robust organisational culture essential for outstanding performance. This paper aims to highlight the concepts of organisational culture at the organisational level from the standpoint of modern economics. A questionnaire was used as a research tool, and the data collected from it was analysed using quantitative statistical-mathematical analysis. The non-implementation or functioning with deficiencies in organisational culture can raise concerns about the entity’s functioning and the managerial act’s quality and efficiency.
, Fatma Moroğlu
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 83-113; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.7

Abstract:
There is no agreed and precise definition of the concept of financial failure. This situation causes the studies of the concept to be associated with bankruptcies. Although not every company experiencing financial failure goes bankrupt, it can be noted that economic fluctuations that happen on a global scale cause many companies to face the risk of financial failure and even bankruptcy. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has also affected the economic policies of countries and thus affected the operations of companies. This study aims to analyze the financial failure risk of Borsa İstanbul (BIST) manufacturing companies before and after COVID-19. In the research, financial statements of BIST manufacturing industry companies published quarterly between the years 2019-2020 were used. Within the scope of the research, the quarterly financial statements of 146 BIST companies listed in the manufacturing industry for the years 2019-2020 were analyzed with the financial failure models of Altman (1968), Springate (1978), Taffler (1983) and Zmijewski (1984).
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 59-74; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.5

Abstract:
The paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on competitiveness and how organizational commitment and productivity have changed as a result of changes in processes, practices, or regulations. This paper analyses how employees fared during COVID in two countries, namely Afghanistan and India and the impact on organizational commitment and productivity. The research paper is based on secondary data and conceptual analysis of COVID-19 conditions or how this covetous environment affects their competitors, work environment, or fight for their rights. Moreover, the authors delved into how human capital management lead to organizational efficiency. Factors like (1) workplace safety, (2) targeted recruitment, (3) self-managed decision-making teams and decentralization, and (4) pay policy were all investigated. Employee engagement is widely assumed to influence organizational commitment, employee productivity, employee dedication, and, most importantly, it will generate comparative advantages for organizations. The primary goal of this research was to discover how people work efficiently and effectively with commitment and dedication during COVID-19.
Rezan Öztürk,
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 146-157; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.10

Abstract:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is rapidly transforming the global financial services industry. The new digitalization model is powered by artificial intelligence technology, and AI has the potential to disrupt and refine the existing financial services industry. The increasing amount of data in banking has revealed the need for fast and reliable service. Banks are financial service organizations that have used AI effectively in recent years. This paper reveals the general profile of artificial intelligence adoption by banks. Based on the evidence from all 17 banks operating in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey, it is concluded that AI technologies are applied in almost every area of the banking sector to improve the overall service offered. Moreover, the use of AI is evaluated as a potential that provides ease of use and reduces costs. As for the operations in future, the participants think AI will provide high levels of benefit to banks in their financial services in the incoming years. Given no similar study, this study appears to provide an original contribution to the literature regarding the use of AI in banking services within the Turkish context.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 75-82; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.6

Abstract:
Green concrete is concrete produced using waste materials obtained from various sources to develop an eco-friendly construction and reduce carbon emissions. The present experimental study is carried out to produce concrete using waste material from different industries to partially replace traditional concrete. Many research studies have been made using different waste materials which are available and useful as a replacement. The present study deals with industrial waste such as foundry sand (FS) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) in the concrete so that the emission can be reduced and contribute to the environment. This study prepared two mixes for M35 Grade by replacing industrial wastes partially in the concrete mix. The first mix was prepared by partially replacing foundry sand with fine aggregates in proportions of 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%. The second mix was prepared by partially replacing the ground granulated blast furnace slag with cement in proportions of 30%, 40% and 50%. Test results were conducted to check the workability and compressive strength of the mixes prepared. These were then compared with the properties of conventional concrete at the end of 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that 25% of FS and 30% of GGBS are the optimum percentages of industrial waste to use compared to conventional concrete properties at the end of 7 and 28 days. The present study also indicates the economic benefits of partially replacing the waste materials by reducing carbon emissions, and the study is beneficial to produce eco-friendly green concrete.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 158-169; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.11

Abstract:
To protect against risks arising from fluctuations in spot prices and better manage risk, investors might evaluate futures markets. The role of price discovery in the futures markets and the possibility of reducing certain risks increase the importance of researching the relationship between spot and futures prices. This study aims to determine whether there is a relationship between the Bitcoin spot prices and the Bitcoin futures prices. To this end, the relationship between the two markets is analyzed using Johansen Cointegration analysis and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) using the daily data of the period 02.23.2017 – 08.31.2021. Unit root tests show that each series are not stationary at the level values and that the first differences of the series are stationary. The results of the cointegration analysis show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the bitcoin spot market and the bitcoin futures market, and it is a single cointegration vector. The Granger causality test based on the vector error correction model was used to determine the causality relationship between the series. It has been determined that there is a unidirectional causality relationship from the Bitcoin spot market to the Bitcoin futures market. Bitcoin is a new financial tool that attracts the attention of investors. Investors make transactions on Bitcoin for speculative purposes. Therefore, unlike other investment instruments, spot prices in the bitcoin market affect futures prices.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 36-58; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.4

Abstract:
It has long been acknowledged that the various burgeoning problems inflicting the world are deeply rooted in human behaviour. Governance often entails policy formulation and strategies that initiate behavioural change to alleviate such problems and foster sustainability. However, this often appears as a strenuous endeavour, especially at the macro level. For this reason, implementing the behavioural spillover mechanism is deemed befitting. Few studies have directed their attention towards the relationship of individuals’ sustainable behaviour across different settings, and such a perspective could indicate the way forward required within various future policy frameworks. Hence, the following intervention study attempts to examine behavioural spillover, which entails the transfer of attitudes from one domain to another, in this case, from a work-home perspective. This chapter builds upon such notion through a case study from the Maltese islands, the smallest EU member state, by providing insights from public officers. Such sampling population was selected as these individuals work closely within governmental structures and should act as agents of change in this regard. The methodological framework employs a positivist paradigm, based on a quasi-experimental design through an identical pretest and posttest Likert-scale questionnaire distributed to 14 public officers who undertook an educational module about sustainability at the University of Malta. These tests aimed to examine whether spillover of sustainable behaviour occurs within a spatio-temporal context – across the two different domains and during the entire intervention adopted. Quantitative findings are utilized to address two core research questions, from which various trends have been identified. Results show that positive spillover occurs for those behaviours which involve the least time, cost, and effort. It transpires that respondents are not willing to adopt drastic lifestyle changes. Such findings lay the foundation for the recommendations delineated in the current study, which might be helpful to other practitioners in public policy, management, and sustainable development.
Salih Acikalin,
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 170-184; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.12

Abstract:
The Covid-19 virus, which emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, spread all over the world in 2020, bringing commercial, social and economic life to a standstill. Governments have applied many support practices to reduce the impact of the virus on the economy. With public banks’ social life support loans, those who lost their income due to the pandemic were supported. In 2020, when the most intense effects of the Covid-19 pandemic were experienced, public banks’ loan and deposit volumes grew significantly. Banks profit by using the deposits they hold or collect as loans. Therefore, the efficiency of fiscal and monetary policies is increased through banks. The study aims to investigate whether the Covid-19 pandemic has caused a change in the clustering of banks by using the financial and size data of the deposit banks in the BIST Liquid Bank Index. The study tried to determine which banks included in the Borsa İstanbul (BIST) Liquid Bank Index were clustered using the values published in the 2019 and 2020 year-end annual reports. Cluster analysis was applied using the SPSS program. The study’s findings determined that the pandemic process affected the clustering of banks and that public banks were in a different cluster compared to 2019.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 131-145; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.9

Abstract:
In an environment where competition is becoming increasingly fierce, the primary concern of entities is to find effective solutions to cope with the risks to which they are exposed. In this context, through the entire collection of mechanisms available to corporate governance, companies can limit their risk exposure and thus achieve their goals more quickly. This research aims to study the relationship between the characteristics of corporate governance and the financial performance of the top 65 listed American companies. The research was carried out over a period of 5 years (2015-2019). Regarding the characteristics of corporate governance, four variables were used: the duality of the CEO, the size of the Board of Directors, the independence of the Board, and the frequency of its meetings. In addition, to reflect financial performance, we tracked the rate of financial return (ROE) and return on assets (ROA). The data were processed using the SPSS statistical program, using multiple linear regressions as the quantitative method. The analysis results indicate the existence of a significant positive relationship between the variable of corporate governance represented by the frequency of Board meetings and the financial performance expressed by ROA and ROE. However, variables relating to the duality of the CEO, the size and the independence of the Board were statistically insignificant.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.2.3

Abstract:
Developed countries have well-designed and developed economies in macroeconomic terms. However, not all countries benefit from the fruits of such an economy. Therefore, some countries are still faced with an economy that requires macroeconomic restructuring and development. People in these countries face high unemployment, evolving fiscal and monetary policies. The state is forced to borrow either internally or externally, where the latter is usually preferred. This paper aims to show the effects of government debt on private consumption with a particular focus on transition countries. Thereby explaining the factors that influence private consumption and the types of debt that governments take into account. The countries in regions, which are facing this problem, will be analysed in more detail. Kosovo is one such country, which will be analysed in detail, particularly the relationship between national debt and private consumption. This study is carried out using the statistical software STATA, whereby private consumption is a dependent variable, whilst national debt, gross fixed capital formation, foreign direct investment, consumer price index, export of goods and services and GDP growth are our independent variables. This paper is a compilation of information from multiple sources to describe the reality that transition countries are faced with when borrowing.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 177-200; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.12

Abstract:
Global warming, climate change, reduction of natural resources, damage to biodiversity all increase poverty and unemployment, amongst other things. Environmental and social problems result from an unconscious lifestyle, excessive production and consumption activities. The starting point of sustainability originates from these environmental problems that have been increasing. Sustainable development means meeting the needs of today without endangering future generations and harming natural resources and attaches importance to environmental and social development as well as economic development. For businesses to survive, they need to consider all dimensions of sustainability. Banking is one sector that has come to the forefront in recent years regarding sustainable management. Although the banking sector does not directly affect the environment, it does have indirect effects. This study aims to examine the extent to which the six banks that signed the Responsible Banking Principles from Turkey pay attention to the dimensions of sustainability in their risk management activities announced on their websites. Although there are studies on sustainable banking or risk management in the literature, there is conceptual confusion when the analysis methods are examined. In this study, the author tries to clarify this issue. Results show that the six banks that signed the Responsible Banking Principles paid attention to the sustainability of the environmental and social aspects in their risk management activities
Pedro Adalid Ruiz, Cantürk Kayahan
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 201-215; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.13

Abstract:
Entrepreneurs are the leading creators of employment, facilitating the economic-social regeneration of countries. The crisis that occurred in recent years, together with the negative impacts generated by COVID 19, has given rise to an unprecedented scenario, which leads to the need to deepen the study of the determinants of entrepreneurship in youth. This work aims to carry out a bibliographic review on the primary motivators for entrepreneurship in young people in Spain and Turkey and the challenges to overcome under the current scenario. The results show that although there is a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship among young people, they focus on working independently, being an alternative to unemployment or increasing income sources. Due to the devastating global economic-financial crisis that the pandemic has generated, their actions have had to either stop, be limited, or not be able to start. However, those who have done so have found a good option in the digital environment.
Kaya Pelin, Şenol Babuşçu, Adalet Hazar
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.1

Abstract:
This paper aims to explore the bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of the banks’ profitability by dividing the Turkish deposit banks into large-scale and small-scale entities. For this purpose, panel data analysis was applied using a fixed effects model, based on quarterly data for the period from March 2009 to September 2020 for 24 deposit banks. Return on assets and return on equity are used as a measure of the banks’ profitability. According to the results, the determinants of profitability differ between large-scale banks and small-scale banks. With respect to the bank-specific determinants, the findings show that the equity/assets, deposits/assets and liquidity ratio have a significant impact on the profitability of large-scale banks, whereas they have no relationship with the profitability of small-scale banks. The profitability of large-scale banks is negatively affected by their asset quality ratios. On the other hand, while the ratio of loans to total assets has no impact on the profitability of small-scale banks, the non-performing loan ratio has a positive impact. While the asset size and income-expense ratios have positive and significant impacts on the profitability of small-scale banks, they exhibit no relationship with the profitability of large-scale banks. With regard to macroeconomic indicators, small-scale banks’ profitability is negatively affected by economic growth, whilst large-scale banks are not. This study is aimed to contribute to the literature by analysing the determinants of Turkish deposit banks’ profitability under the classification of large-scale and small-scale banks.
, Selver Diyar
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 101-117; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.7

Abstract:
Global risk factors have great impacts on the economies and financial markets. It is observed that the stock markets of countries are affected by globalization especially in times of global crisis. To this end, CDS, VIX and Credit Ratings have started to be examined recently in order to decrease global risk factors. CDS, VIX, and Credit Ratings were determined as global risk indicators and these variables used as independent variables to detect the effect on BRICS-T (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and Turkey) stock market returns. Daily data set of these variables from 2008 to 2020 were gathered for each country. After preliminary analysis, ARDL model was determined as the best-fitted model for each data set. According to ARDL Bound test approach, except for China, it was detected long-term relationship between variables for the all-remaining (Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa, and Turkey) countries. It means that global risk indicators affect the returns of stock markets in emerging markets.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 84-100; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.6

Abstract:
Managing customer relations is one of the main contemporary challenges facing banks, especially in terms of new social changes and major changes in human behaviour, generated by the COVID-19 crisis. The currently drifting economic climate affects all of the existing and potential customers and consumer behaviour, being much more demanding on the products and services purchased, their particularities, the conditions proposed by banks, prices and the bank-customer relationship. The new segmentation generated by the pandemic puts additional pressure on banks, which have a difficult task: to better understand these new behaviours and to meet consumer requirements with relevant products and convenient services. Whatever the options, banks must be receptive to the current needs of consumers of financial products and services and to the behaviour they must adopt in order to remain relevant on the market. The general objective of this study is to provide a practical perspective on the impact of the pandemic crisis on consumer behaviour of banking products and services.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 118-136; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.8

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic and the accompanying uncertainties deeply affected the activities and financial structures of businesses and caused negative effects on their financial statements in many respects. Sports clubs are at the top of the list of businesses that suffer the most from the negativities of the pandemic process and experience a lot of loss in their financial and operational activities. Considering the developments both in Europe and in the World, the temporary postponement of sports matches, the start of competitions without spectators, the restructuring of club debts have seriously affected sports clubs, which are currently experiencing economic difficulties, deteriorate their liquidity, cash flows and increase uncertainty by making debt payments difficult. In addition, as the impact of risks on future performance increases, risk management practices have gained importance. In this context, information on the current ratio, cash ratio, financial leverage ratio, financing ratio, debt/equity ratio, and financial risk ratio obtained from the financial statement data for the period of 2019 and 2020 were used to evaluate the financial risk levels of 12 sports clubs. The deterioration in the financial structures of the sports clubs most affected by the pandemic process was examined and the risks encountered were discussed. In addition, the comparative financial analysis results were evaluated by analysing the effect of the financial structure and financial reporting of the clubs.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 75-83; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.5

Abstract:
According to the global pandemic conditions, tourism and therefore, the travel insurance market faces new challenges. This study is aimed to determine appropriate approaches that will contribute to tourism development during and post-pandemic period. Tourism insurance is one of the most important contents of travel planning, which protects tourists from certain financial risks and wastage that can occur during travelling. This wastage can be minor, such as delayed luggage, or significant – a medical emergency overseas. Within pandemic conditions, emergency medical care, which will cover Covid -19 has become an inevitability part of an offered insurance packages. The design of the article includes secondary data review, theoretical explanations and empirical evidence (survey) regarding insurance updates in the travel planning, development of proposals for the future tourism development in Georgia’s without significant wastage or outcomes from the pandemic conditions. There are proposed some ideas and examples about to enhance knowledge in insurance adapting accordance with the requirements of the modern situation, with an aim for the future tourism unceasing development. It has been identified several approaches in terms of enhancement quality and gullibility of supplied tourism services, which is most important in the last pandemic period. This is a first attempt describing and identifying issues related to the Georgian tourism sector in terms of travel insurance adaptation to the Covid-19 conditions. It is a valuable piece of information for tourism product makers to adopt the article’s proposals for the improvement of future tourism development.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 56-74; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.4

Abstract:
Through globalization, the increased integration in financial markets has made the relationship between exchange rate and stocks important. The study aims to model the exchange rate volatility using daily data for the period 04.01.2010-15.10.2020 and investigate the causality relationship between sector returns and exchange rate return volatility. In order to model the volatility of the exchange rate return series, the GARCH model was used to reveal the possible asymmetry feature in the series. As a result of the model applications, GARCH (2,2) was determined as the most suitable model to measure volatility modelling. Then, the Granger causality test was used to see whether there is a relationship between BIST sector return indices and exchange rate return volatility. As a result of the study, one notes that there is a uni-directional causality from the exchange rate return volatility series to the service, technology, and industrial sector indices. There is a bi-directional causality relationship between the financial sector index and the exchange rate return volatility series. It is noteworthy that the causality relationship between the BIST100 index and the exchange rate is towards the volatility of the exchange rate return series from the BIST 100 index, unlike the sector indices. According to this result, it is seen that the changes in the dollar exchange rate affect the decisions of the investors who will invest in the relevant index. The results show that in the case of Turkey, mostly traditional theories are valid.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 19-38; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.2

Abstract:
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are grouped under three main titles; economic development, environmental sustainability, and improvement of social well-being. Environmental sustainability is one of the most important components of sustainable development goals because it is obvious that without a sustainable environment, economic and social development goals will be abandoned. While the unplanned use of the environment and natural resources threatens environmental sustainability, it can be said that one of the most important actors in this process is sports. Mass production and consumption, facility establishment, and increase in organizations in sports accelerate environmental and natural destruction. The sustainability of sports is directly proportional to environmental sustainability. Therefore, reduction of the sports-induced negative environmental impacts will make great contributions to environmental sustainability. In this way, it will be possible to transfer both the natural environment and sports to future generations. This study was limited to environmental sustainability, which is one of the three main titles set for sustainable development goals and the effects of sports on environmental sustainability were evaluated in the light of available literature. Again, regarding the existing literature, suggestions were developed to reduce the negative environmental impacts of sports.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 8, pp 39-55; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.8.1.3

Abstract:
In this study, the impact on inclusive development of information and communication technologies in Turkey’s economy is analyzed. Information and communication technologies are represented by mobile phone penetration measured by mobile cellular subscriptions, and inclusive development is measured by the human development index (IHDI) adapted to inequality. The annual data used in this study covers the period 1990-2019. After examining the stationarity of the series of variables, the cointegration between variables was investigated using the ARDL approach. As a result of the ARDL test, a cointegration between inclusive development and information and communication technologies has been determined. Toda-Yamamoto causality test was conducted to find the direction of the relationship between variables. The findings obtained from the analysis of causality determined that it has an impact on inclusive development of information and communication technologies in Turkey.
, Ivona Jukić, Antonija Roje
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 25-38; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.1.3

Abstract:
Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new topic of interest within the academic and the literature on it is limited. With the increase of interest in recent years from various interest groups, the concept of social enterprise has become more widespread. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between social entrepreneurship and voluntourism, as one of the types of special interest tourism. Voluntourism, according to the concept of sustainable community development, relate all the stakeholders of such development. Moreover, social entrepreneurship could become an important vehicle for sustainable development of destinations. This paper proposes that niche tourism products and more specifically, voluntourism projects, under the prism of social entrepreneurship, can become the means towards Croatian product diversification and long-term environmental, social and economic sustainability. Quantitative research was conducted and the methodology entails a case study approach. Results indicate that there is a limited number of projects concerning social entrepreneurship in voluntourism in Croatia and also that discussed projects are not recognized. This study assessed the situation in Croatia and although it was comprehensive under conditions of limited data availability, it cannot speak to social entrepreneurship in voluntourism globally, but it can offer a foundation for future research in this area.
, Karl Cachia, Norbert Tabone, Simon Grima, Frank Bezzina
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 14-41; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.2.2

Abstract:
The objectives of this paper are to investigate the relevance of guidelines on good corporate governance (CG) to family public interest companies (PICs) within the small state of Malta and to recommend how existing guidelines may be improved and tailored for such companies. An explanatory mixed-methods empirical approach is adopted with a structured questionnaire being first administered to 17 respondents in 12 PICs owned by different families. This was then followed by semi-structured interviews with the representatives of 11 of these PICs. Findings indicate that there is a need for the existing guidelines to be improved for them to become more in line with the needs of PICs which are characterised by dominant family interests. In this respect, this paper recommends possible principles and guidelines that may be used by the relevant authorities either to improve the existing PIC guidelines or to issue a new set of guidelines aimed specifically for family PICs. Given the peculiarities of such companies, it is clear that the guidelines have to contain elements that address the CG structure, such as the need to formally document a family governance plan. Clearer guidance is needed on the appointment and composition of the Board of Directors, on the employment, conduct, compensation and performance evaluation of managers, as well as on the composition of the ownership of family PICs. Additionally, the paper concludes that a relevant factor for family PICs in carrying out improvements to their CG is that they continue to place more importance than other PICs to their continued existence.
, Alin Dumitrescu
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 55-58; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.2.4

Abstract:
Starting from the research assumption that the Corporate Governance Code issued by Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) aims at building an internationally attractive capital market in Romania, based on best practices, transparency and trust that encourages companies to build a strong relationship with their shareholders and other stakeholders, communicate effectively and transparently and show openness towards all potential investors, in this paper we would like to present the degree of compliance of the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange with the principles and provisions of the Corporate Governance Code. The aim of this paper is achieved by presenting and commenting on the principles issued by the BSE regarding the corporate governance and by analysing the Corporate Governance Reports of the companies, presenting at the same time the compliance of the listed companies with these principles and provisions, by using the data issued in 2018 by the entities included in our study, namely the listed companies on the main market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Our analysis reflects that, although the provisions and principles of the Corporate Governance Code are not mandatory for the listed companies, they are largely implemented in the activity of companies because an efficient corporate governance system can represent a competitive advantage for any economic entity in the context of globalisation.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 70-86; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.2.5

Abstract:
The purpose of the study to reveal how interest rates on loans offered to consumers by banks in Turkey are affected by macroeconomic factors. For this purpose, the personal loan interest rate is considered as the consumer loan interest rate, mortgage loan interest rate and vehicle loan interest rate. Macroeconomic factors, inflation, gold, exchange rate and money supply are included in the analysis. Three models have been established using monthly data for the period January 2009-June 2020. Firstly, cointegration test was applied to the models and it was determined that there is at least one cointegration relationship in each model. Long-term estimation results for the models are obtained by using the FMOLS method. In general, it was observed that the increase in the exchange rate tended to increase the bank loan interest rates, while the increase in the money supply lowered the bank loan interest rates. As a result of the causality analysis, bidirectional causality relationship from consumer loan interest rate to money supply and inflation, unidirectional causality from interest rate to gold price, unidirectional causality relationship from exchange rate to interest rate was determined. Unidirectional causality relationship from mortgage loan interest rate to money supply, unidirectional causality from exchange rate to interest rate was found. While it was determined that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between vehicle loan interest rate and money supply, gold price and inflation. It is expected that these results may guide banks and policymakers to determine interest rate policies.
, Illena Tache
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 42-54; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.2.3

Abstract:
This paper’s analysis was triggered by the outbreak of the new virus COVID-19. In December 2019, the Chinese officials alerted the World Health Organization (WHO) of the existence of an unknown deadly virus. Coronavirus has rapidly spread across the world - to Europe, Middle East and the USA, forcing the World Health Organization to declare COVID-19 a global pandemic. Its spread has generated major concerns for the health and economic sectors. Meanwhile, all countries hope for the development of a vaccine. Using as a research method the EGARCH model, this paper investigates if it can be applied to model the trend of volatility of the pharmaceuticals and biotechnology markets, especially during the health crisis. More specifically, this paper tries to identify whether different specifications of univariate GARCH models can usefully anticipate volatility in the stock indices market. The study uses estimates from both a symmetric and an asymmetric GARCH models, namely GARCH (1, 1) and EGARCH models, for the Dow Jones Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology index (DJUSPN). The dataset is extracted from “Investing.com” and covers the period September 2019 - August 2020, resulting in a total of approximately 252 daily closing prices. The data focuses on the response of the highest capitalized pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies from the US to combat the outbreak of the coronavirus. This study concludes that the EGARCH model is better than the unconditional volatility and the conditional GARCH (1, 1) volatility and it is best suited for modelling and forecasting the fluctuations of the stock indexes.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 39-52; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.1.4

Abstract:
Certain tasks in the Republic of Slovenia are in the domain of the state or local community. In order to carry out these tasks, state-owned or public companies have been established.The management of such companies is not always good and transparent, and as a result, it often leads to considerable damage to public property. Such situations are mostly caused by poor management by the management boards, and rarely by poor and inadequate control by the supervisory boards. They are also the result of poor and inadequate communication between the management and supervisory boards. Unfortunately, poor governance does not occur in isolated cases and the mismanagement of such companies is often only introduced to the public through affairs that are presented in the media.There are, however, also some positive exceptions with good and transparent corporate governance that bring profits to the shareholders and, consequently, lower the prices of individual services for citizens.
, Rebecca Dalli Gonzi, Eleftherios Thalassinos
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 53-73; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.1.5

Abstract:
The preparedness for outbreaks of pandemics such as the COVID-19 is a major concern for health authorities and leaders as extensive studies in the past have been reported and well documented. However, engaging with the response to an outbreak demands many decisions with enormous implications on a population and its regions. A review of past response mechanisms sheds light on different scenarios to provide an understanding of the challenges that will emerge, depicting trends, changes to GDP and the impact on the economy and employment. With this article, we aim to identify and bring to light the challenges faced by Malta during the pandemic we are currently facing – COVID. This will help risk managers and leaders understand the devastating social and economic impact of such disruptions and act proactively to avoid repetition and embarrassments of being unprepared. Moreover, we aim to provide an understanding of the expected cascading economic domino effects, which may result from the workforce unavailability, during a pandemic and the mistakes in the estimation, if any, that could have been avoided. A desk research study technique was adopted whereby data was collected from existing sources, including government websites, online statistics, published reports, trends and internal data to the local Maltese markets. The COVID-19 phenomena led to new measures being taken worldwide as professionals, leaders, academics and businesses took unprecedented steps to change their business as usual strategies. This in turn brought about various questions and discussions on how islands like Malta controlled their situation.
, Marina Dabić, Marli Gonan Božac
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.1.1

Abstract:
Absorptive capacity (ACAP) as a function of systematic knowledge management is widely recognized as the catalyst for successful innovation performance in firms, particularly when it comes to identifying business opportunity information from the outside world and assimilating it into a firm’s innovation process. The concept of absorptive capacity became a widely researched topic in the area of organization and management, consequently, the definition of the ACAP components, its operationalization and outcomes, is extremely heterogeneous and has greatly affected the research production on ACAP. Therefore, the question arising is: Which approach to absorptive capacity will enable it is being truly recognized as a concept at a global level, and in which areas of economy and business is ACAP most frequently encountered, particularly when it is connected to innovation processes? Based on a sample of 1288 papers within Web of Science Core Collection, this paper presents a bibliometric analysis of relevant publications on ACAP with the specific aim of gaining a deeper insight into the relevance of the impact of absorptive capacity on a firm’s innovation strategy. The results were systematized in a form of quantitative bibliographic review. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the existing level of the empirical and theoretical efforts in the research on ACAP, with a particular focus on firms and their innovation processes as well as knowledge management processes.
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 15-24; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.1.2

Abstract:
The institutional environment in which multinational companies act is unique and complex. It is unique in the sense that the subsidiaries of multinational companies are facing dual pressures from both the host country and the country of the parent company. Further, the complexity of the environment presumes the need for global integration and the need for the local adaptation. Although some countries are characterized by a more favourable institutional environment for establishing and expanding business, in other countries the institutional environment is a challenge for multinational companies. In this paper, the author will present the current theoretical knowledge and references in already conducted research regarding the institutional distance in the context of multinational companies and their subsidiaries.
, Tibor Pintér
Journal of corporate governance, insurance and risk management, Volume 7, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.51410/jcgirm.7.2.1

Abstract:
Lately, economists and policymakers have been paying even closer attention to the hidden economy. Indeed, it makes a difference to the economy how much money goes into the state coffers. To uncover the hidden economy, however, it is necessary to be familiar with its nature and manifestations. In this paper, with the aid of previous research and literature, we attempt to illustrate the characteristics of the hidden economy in Hungary before and after the regime change and to map out the steps that have been taken to uncover it. This publication was preceded by a systematic literature review on the definition, causes, and effects of the hidden economy, consisting of the collection of both data and literature related to the domestic hidden economy. The following summarizes the results from the synthesis of literature: The Hungarian hidden economy existed even before the regime change and took a variety of different forms. These include tips, bribes, informal payments, unauthorized work and patchwork, moonlighting, unauthorized rental of real estate, use of the social property for personal gain, gains from the infringement of customs and exchange law, tax fraud by craftsmen and retailers, theft of public property, and corruption. Since 1990, not only have the dynamics of the hidden economy strengthened, but its types of activities have changed significantly as well. These include, but are not limited to: omitting a portion of revenue from the register; recognizing non-incurred material production costs among expenditures; including an excessive portion of personal household maintenance costs among production costs; organizing business and study trips abroad; finder’s fee; end-of-year depreciation or ‘transfer’ of inventories; wages of registered employees paid out of pocket; employment of unreported employees; parallel company formation; the economic activity of unincorporated individuals and the income generated thereby. The following are among the concrete steps taken in recent years to uncover the Hungarian hidden economy: the temporary employment booklet; the simplified entrepreneurial tax; the Electronic Trade and Transport Control System; online cash registers; the connection of vending machines to the tax office.
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