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Results in Journal Acta Natura et Scientia: 36

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Albaris Tahiluddin, Mindanao State University-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography, Albaris Tahiluddin & Ertuğrul Terzi, Kastamonu University
Published: 20 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 141-147; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.08

Abstract:
Aquaculture has become important to meet the demand for animal food both in local and international markets due to the increasing world population. Tilapias are one of the significant cultured species worldwide, in which the Philippines is one of the leading tilapia-producing countries. Tilapias are the second most preferred fish in the Philippines, constituting about 12% of its total aquaculture production in 2018. Cultivation of tilapias is a practice nationwide, mostly performed in fish ponds and cages in various environments. Despite being an almost hardy fish, the investigation of tilapias for bacterial infections also allowed us to follow the changing bacterial world. In this study, we have reviewed articles that previously reported bacterial diseases and the use of antibiotics in tilapia culture in the Philippines. Streptococcosis, Motile Aeromonas Septicemia, and Pseudomonas infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. aeruginosa, respectively, were the identified fish diseases. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were among the most commonly used antibiotics in tilapia culture.
Raziye Tanrıverdi, Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı
Published: 20 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 130-140; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.07

Abstract:
It was determined that bluefin tuna fishing within the scope of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) inspections was carried out in accordance with the 19-04 ICCAT Recommendation in Turkey. In the swordfish fishery, it was observed that the 16-05 ICCAT Recommendation was not completely compatible with Turkey’s national legislation. In the 16-05 ICCAT Recommendation; the fishing gear was determined as the longline in swordfish fishery, the length of the pelagic longlines and the number of hooks were limited, the minimum weight limit was set on swordfish, and the transshipment operations at sea of swordfish was prohibited in the fishing season. However, these legal regulations were not available in Turkey’s national legislation. The following issues could be evaluated as the reasons why these regulations were not included in Turkey’s national legislation; the majority of the fishing vessels engaged in swordfish fishery in the seas of Turkey are less than 12 meters in total length, the fishing vessels of 12 meters in length or more can only use the first fishing gear, the length of pelagic swordfish longlines and the number of hooks used in Turkey are far below the regulations set forth in 16-05 ICCAT Recommendation, the caught swordfish are landed as a whole, and the majority of swordfish fishery vessels stay for a day or 2-3 days for fishing at sea. The ICCAT inspections in the swordfish fishery were carried out according to the 16-05 ICCAT Recommendation in Turkey. The necessary information and incentives should be provided for the fishing vessels of less than 12 m in length, which had obtained swordfish fishery permits, to use fuel without special consumption tax, in order to monitor them electronically via Vessel Tracking Module. In order to control the quota in swordfish fishery, it should be obligatory to use a paper logbook for fishing vessels less than 12 meters in length. In addition, an application can also be made to install a Vessel Monitoring System on fishing vessels less than 12 m that will catch swordfish.
Kamil Özden Efes
Published: 13 August 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 94-100; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.02

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the demand for new houses to ship demolition prices in Turkey through new house sales statistics and Turkish ship demolition prices. In this direction, asymmetric causality test is used which allows to separate the shocks contained in the variables and to determine the causal relationships between these shocks. According to test results, causality relations are determined from positive shocks in house sales to positive shocks in demolition price and from negative shocks in house sales to negative shocks in demolition price. On the other hand, any significant causality from demolition prices to new house sales cannot be determined. This situation shows that changes in the new house sales are determinative for ship demolition prices in Turkey.
Ahmet Gökkuş & Baboo Ali Fırat Alatürk, Ahmet Gökkuş, Baboo Ali, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Published: 3 December 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 166-176; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.11

Abstract:
This study has been carried out in order to determine the variations in the vegetative characteristics of the mixtures of legume and cereal crops. Experiments were conducted according to the randomized complete block design using three replications of flowerpots. In the experiment; 1, 2 and 4 annual grass, Hungarian vetch and hairy vetch along with their double mixtures have been taken from per flowerpot. Effects of lean and mixed cultivation on plant characteristics (plant height, number of branches, total wet and dry weight and total root weight) and nutritional characteristics (NDF, ADF, ADL, crude protein, crude ash, digestibility of dry and organic matter, and total fiber) of crops were examined in this study. According to the results of our research work, as the number of plants per flowerpot increased the total wet and dry weight and root mass increased, too, in terms of plant characteristics particularly, in mixed sowing, the amount of upper soil surface and underground organic mass increased. Ratios of NDF, ADF and fiber in the mixture of cereals with legumes have decreased, while the digestibility of crude protein, crude ash, dry and organic matter has increased in case of nutritional characteristics. On the other hand, the ratios of NDF and ADF have increased, while there was a decrease in crude protein and crude ash ratios in the mixture of legumes with cereals. This indicates that annual grass along with hairy vetch and Hungarian vetch can be cultivated in winter both for obtaining higher grass production as well as to provide more organic matter to soil. It is concluded that the most suitable mixing ratios to be the two-fold and four-fold ratios of perennial grass along with the single ratio of vetches.
Şule Gürkan, Sule Gurkan & Deniz Innal, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
Published: 1 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 118-123; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.05

Abstract:
The present study aimed to determine the presence of the sexual dimorphism based on the morphometric measurements in a total of 60 samples (♀: 26; ♂: 14, immature; 20) which were obtained in April 2017 from the population of Salaria fluviatilis which shows distribution in the brackish waters in the Karpuzçay Creek (Antalya, Turkey). As a result of the morphometric analysis performed in both sexes of samples, it has been determined that there were differences between body parts in terms of total length (TL), dorsal fin length (DFL), snout length, and eye diameters in the head area. Accordingly, it has been observed that the lengths of allometric growing body parts of males were greater than that of females. The properties of sexual dimorphism in the body parts of freshwater blenny cause significant differences between sexes in brackish water forms. The differences in male individuals such as TL and long DFL are important criteria for the selection of large male individuals for sexual selection in mating. It was thought that the increase in snout length and eye diameter in the head region gives males some advantages in various areas such as feeding performance from the habitat, male selection of females in mating, and swimming performance.
Serkan Tozakçı
Published: 29 December 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 177-191; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.12

Abstract:
Fish consumption is very important for a healthy and balanced diet. It is recommended to consume fish for the development of the brain and immune system from a young age. In order to avoid or overcome diseases such as heart, atherosclerosis and cholesterol in later ages, the importance of fish consumption should be increased. In this context, it is necessary to take measures to determine fish consumption habits and accordingly. For these reasons, this study was carried out to determine fish consumption and habits of people living in Demirköy and Babaeski districts of Kırklareli province. Within the scope of quantitative research origin, survey method was used. A questionnaire was used to determine fish consumption and habits as a data collection tool. After the applications with a total of 250 people, the data were analyzed with the SPSS 25 program. Analysis data were evaluated by tabulating frequency and percentage. In addition, the relationship between the monthly income of the participants from both districts and the frequency of fish consumed in a month was determined by chi-square analysis. It was determined that there were similarities in the fish preferences of the people participating in the study from Demirköy and Babaeski. In determining fish consumption preferences and habits, monthly income level, number of people in the family, hunting season, and freshness of the fish were also evaluated. It was concluded that the places to buy fish were different in both districts, and there was a relationship between monthly income and the amount of fish consumed in a month. It is thought that fish consumption can be increased with the opening of markets where people can buy fresh fish in all seasons, and the fish prices should be determined by associating them with monthly income.
Deniz Acarlı,
Published: 24 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 148-158; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.09

Abstract:
This paper aimed to understand the potential effects of the mucilage event on the critically endangered Pinna nobilis in Ocaklar Bay located at the southern Marmara Sea. Underwater surveys were carried out in October 2020 and July 2021. The study area covers 500 that was divided into 5 main zones having 100 areas (10×10 m). Then, each main zone was separated into sub areas covering 25 (5×5 m). The habitat structure, depth, and availability of the mucilage event were observed by SCUBA diving equipment in sub areas. During the underwater observations, the total number of dead and alive individuals was counted as 228 of which 130 individuals were alive and 98 were dead. The minimum and maximum population density (including both dead and alive individuals) of P. nobilis was found to be between 10 individuals per 100 and 112 individuals per 100 in the study area, respectively. The mortality rates were calculated as 35.96% and 16.12% for the years 2020 and 2021, respectively. This paper puts forward that the P. nobilis population could be resistant to extreme environmental stress and even juvenile individuals (smaller than 15 cm) were recruited in the study area during the mucilage event.
Nuray Çiftçi
Published: 20 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 124-129; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.06

Abstract:
The effects of sources that cause pollution in the environment in organisms can occur in different ways. The participation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the pollutants caused by organic materials, into aquatic ecosystems by washing from the atmosphere and soil causes accumulation in aquatic ecosystems and is easily transported to the upper trophic zones through the food chain. Consumption of these products with high nutritional value poses a threat to human health. The processing of these products, which are widely consumed as fresh, with different processes is another way to remain under the influence of PAH. As it is known, PAHs are formed as a result of pyrolysis and prosynthesis of organic materials that are not sufficiently burned. In this sense, smoked products that are not produced under suitable conditions may carry a risk for the formation of PAH. In this study, the factors that cause PAH formation in smoked products and the appropriate processing processes developed to eliminate these factors were compiled.
Abdullah Açık
Published: 13 August 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 86-93; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.01

Abstract:
The concept of convergence is an important issue that has gained a wide place in the economics literature. The convergence of economies is likely to have an impact on the transportation sector as well, since it is the most important supporter of economic activities, and it is directly affected by economic indicators due to its derived demand structure. However, the possible reflections of economic convergence in the transportation sector have not received sufficient attention in the literature. In this study, we investigated this issue in the European Union (EU) countries, where economic convergence is implemented as a union policy and the existence of convergence is empirically supported in many studies. We select Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) as a variable, which indicates the countries’ level of connectivity in the liner transportation network mostly used to transport intermediate and finished goods. We have determined that there is a convergence in EU countries in terms of maritime transportation network. This result shows that economic integration leads to improvements not only in the incomes of poorer countries but also in their transportation networks.
Latife Ceyda İrkin & Şamil Öztürk Özlem Yayıntaş, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Latife Ceyda Irkin, Şamil Öztürk, Çanakkale Faculty of Applied Sciences
Published: 25 October 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 109-117; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.04

Abstract:
Homalothecium sericeum (Hedw.) Schimp. is growing in habitats such as walls and roofs. It is supported by the studies that moss contains antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumoral compounds. It was aimed to determine the immunoreactivity of Cu / Zn SOD enzyme in the kidney, adrenal gland, and ovarian tissues of rats due to the increase in the dose of moss extract. In this study, 1 mL of distilled water were given control groups (G1), 50 mg/kg (G2), 100 mg/kg (G3), 300 mg/kg (G4) and 500 mg/kg (G5) moss extract were administered by gavage for 30 days another groups. At the end of the experiment period, the tissues taken from the rats were subjected to routine histopathological procedures. Cu /Z n SOD primary antibody was applied using immunohistochemical staining methods to detect immunoreactivity. The study was terminated by using the Kruskal-Wallis test, which is one of the nonparametric tests. To determine the differences between the groups by evaluating the stained tissue samples with the image analysis system in the light microscope. A significant difference was found in the dose-related positivity of the kidney, ovarian and adrenal gland tissues of the groups given moss extract p. It has been determined that H. sericeum species increases Cu/Zn SOD enzyme activity in the kidney, adrenal gland and ovarian tissues, and its cytotoxic effects shows a dose-related increase in the histopathological table.
Şafak Seyhaneyıldız Can, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Deniz Bilimleri Ve Teknolojisi Enstitüsü, Edis Koru, Semra Cirik, Gamze Turan, Hatice Tekoğul, Tuğba Subakan, 2 Ege University Fisheries Faculty
Published: 21 September 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 101-108; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.03

Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of different temperatures and different nitrogen concentrations on the lipid content and biomass of Chlorella microalgae. In this study, algae were cultured in five media with different amounts as 3, 1.5, 0.80, 0.40 g/L, and three temperatures (10, 20, 30 °C). The results of the experiments showed that the optimal temperature and nitrogen concentration for the biomass increase in Chlorella vulgaris are 30°C and 3 g/L, respectively. It was observed that biomass decreased and lipid amount increased due to the decrease in nitrogen concentration. The high lipid amount of 20.80% dry weight (DW) was obtained from the algae produced at 30°C in the free-nitrate medium. The contribution of temperature change to lipid production was not as effective as nitrogen deficiency in the study. According to the fatty acid analysis results made by GC-FID, C. vulgaris seems suitable for biodiesel production because it contains medium-length (C16-C18) fatty acid chains.
Özgür Cengiz, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University
Published: 27 November 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 159-165; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.10

Abstract:
The present work provides length-weight relationships (LWRs) of four Symphodus species off Gökçeada Island (Northern Aegean Sea, Turkey). The sampling was ensured between November 2013 and December 2014 from commercial fishmongers. This study presents the most recent and the broadest analysis of the LWRs for the following studied species: Symphodus ocellatus, Symphodus tinca, Symphodus mediterraneus, Symphodus rostratus. The b value varied between 2.81 and 3.37, whereas aligned from 0.89 to 0.95.
Mısra Bakan, Mersin University, Büşra Peksezer, Nahit Soner Börekçi, Mehmet Tahir Alp, Deniz Ayas
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 76-85; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.12

Abstract:
Total fat and fatty acid levels of Ulva linza (Linnaeus 1753), Enteromorpha flexuosa (Agardh, 1883), and Taonia atomaria (Agardh, 1848) collected from Viranşehir, Taşkıran, and Karaduvar coasts were determined. The total oil level of the samples was found to be 1.31-1.91%, 1.23%, 7.78% for U. linza, E. flexuosa and T. atomaria, respectively. The dominant saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid and stearic acid. The highest level of palmitic acid (32.27%) was found in E. flexuosa in Viranşehir beach. The highest level of stearic acid was found on the coast of Viranşehir (7.20%), U. linza. The highest level of ΣSFA was found in the U. linza species on Taşkıran coast (37.89%), and the lowest level was determined in the T. atomaria species on the Taşkıran coast (18.13%). It is oleic acid that has a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids. The highest level of this fatty acid (10.35%) was found in E. flexuosa species in Viranşehir beach. The highest level of ΣMUFA was found in the Viranşehir coast (16.67%) and the lowest level (11.39%) in the U. linza on the Viranşehir beach. The highest level of linolelaidic acid in polyunsaturated fatty acids was found in E. flexuosa in Viranşehir beach (3.34%). The highest level of linoleic acid (4.85%) was found in U. linza on the coast of Viranşehir. The highest level of ΣPUFA was found in T. atomaria on the Taşkıran coast (16.56%), and the lowest level (7.03%) was found in U. linza.
Nejdet Gültepe
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.3

Abstract:
Perceived as an indicator of the balance in wildlife and clean nature, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) is near-threatened due to the fact that its fur is valuable, the increase in environmental pollution, the decrease in wetlands, the rivers in their habitats are turned into channels. There are 86 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms legally licensed by the Provincial Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Muğla - Turkey. Since otter meets 70% of its nutrient need from fish, it is seen as a predatory species by aquaculture producers. For this reason, it is necessary to work on establishing otter habitats and breeding farms jointly with rainbow trout farmers in order to eliminate the negative effects of both rainbow trout farms and Eurasian otters. In this way, Eurasian otters that are near-threatened, will be saved and also a different contribution will be made to our economy.
Sule Gurkan & Burcu Taylan Ertan Taskavak, Şule Gürkan, Burcu Taylan, Ege University
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.9

Abstract:
In this study, we discussed the size of devil firefish Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828) specimen obtained from commercial fishermen who trawl off the coast of Taşucu, Silifke (36°3’32.70”N; 34°3’51.33”E). The obtained specimen was 335 mm in total length, 258 cm in standard length, and 0.696 kg in weight. The dissected specimen was a mature male. The testicles were weighed as 20.77 g and are in the third maturity stage. Additionally, during scuba diving to the underwater cave of Mersin Silifke, Beşparmak Island, a group of devil firefish was photographed at depths less than 15 meters. Contrary to many records on the hard rocky bottom at depths more than 20 meters, it has been observed by us that many anglers on the dock of Mersin Taşucu port were catching the devil firefish together with sympatric pufferfish (Lagocephalus sceleratus) in shallow waters of sandy bottom less than 3 meters at depth.
Özgür Cengiz, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Özgür Cengiz & Şenol Paruğ, Kastamonu University
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 40-48; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.7

Abstract:
In this study, growth parameters of 648 specimens of Spicara maena hunted by small-scale commercial fishermen around Saros Bay between January 2016 and December 2016 were studied. Of the 648 specimens analyzed, 509 were female and 139 were male. The length-weight relationship was calculated as for females and for males. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were computed as =22.1 cm, k=0.27 , =-1.42 year for the females; =20.6 cm, k=0.39, , = –1.11 year for the males. The growth performance index () was found as 2.12 and 2.22 for the females and males, respectively. This study includes preliminary information on the growth of the blotched picarel in Saros Bay (Northern Aegean Sea, Turkey).
Latife Ceyda Irkin, Çanakkale Faculty of Applied Sciences, Latife Ceyda Irkin & Şamil Öztürk, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.5

Abstract:
The sampling point of the research was determined as the shores of Çanakkale Strait, where fishing is dense. Seasonal sampling of European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) was made that caught by commercial fishing boats in Çanakkale Strait and rarely offered for consumption. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) allows analysis of trace, minor and major concentration levels of the chemical element, was used to determine the amount of heavy metals in the samples. Analysis of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) heavy metals in samples was performed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Levels of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscle tissues of European pilchard. In the samples, Cd values were detected only in autumn, Cu level was found highest in winter, Fe and Zn levels were highest in spring and the level of Mn was observed higher in winter. Pb has not been detected in fish muscle dough in any season. Mn level has been obtained above the limit values and Cd level was found under the offered limits. As a result, it has been determined that the heavy metal accumulation in the muscle tissues of European pilchard caught from Çanakkale Strait increased seasonally in parallel with the increase of pollution.
Ismail Karakaş, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, İsmail Karakaş & Bahri İzci, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 68-75; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.11

Abstract:
This research was carried out to determine the rooting performances of different rooting media (Soil, Peat and CoCopeat) on the cuttings of the plants of the Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Hemus, Sevtopolis and Drujba varieties and Super A variety plants (Lavandula intermedia). Cuttings were planted in three different environments in the greenhouse mediums. Rooting rate, root length, shoot number and shoot length were determined in the cuttings left for rooting for approximately 60 days. As a result of the research, the highest rooting rate was obtained from Lavandula intermedia Super A variety in cocopeat medium with 62%, and the lowest rooting rate was obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Sevtopolis and Drujba cultivars in soil environment. The highest root length was obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Sevtopolis variety in cocopeat medium with 3.32 cm, and the lowest root length was obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Hemus cultivar in soil environment with 2.34 cm. The highest number of shoots was obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Drujba variety with 7.93 in cocopeat environment, and the lowest shoot number was obtained from Lavandula intermedia Super A variety with 6.93 in soil environment. The highest shoot length was 5.90 cm in Lavandula angustifolia Sevtopolis variety in cocopeat environment and the lowest shoot length was 4.19 cm in soil environment from Lavandula angustifolia Hemus variety.
Bayram Kızılkaya, Hakan Ayyıldız, Aytaç Altın, Şükran Yalçın Özdilek
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 35-39; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.6

Abstract:
In this study, surface morphology and chemical structure of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) sagittal otolith from the shores of Gizli liman to Kefalos Cape in the north of Gökçeada Island, Turkey were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. According to the results of SEM analysis, the species was found to be over two years old. The age rings of P. pagrus were clearly identified on the otolith by SEM. According to the EDS results, it was examined that the element contents of age rings and regions between the sagittal otoliths obtained by EDS analysis. It was observed that calcium, carbon, and oxygen elements that form the calcium carbonate were the highest in EDS analysis. In addition, it has been found that the percentage of protein in ring structures, especially, in rings related to the age factor showed an increase. It can be said that this structural difference plays a major role in the clarification of age ring. Furthermore, the scandium (Sc) element was firstly discovered in the structure of the sagittal otoliths of P. pagrus from Gökçeada, Turkey. Scandium is one of the indicator elements in thermal regions. This study describes the presence of scandium trace element for the first time in the structure of otolith.
Seçkin Akın
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 58-67; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.10

Abstract:
In this study, a feeding experiment was conducted using different rations (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) of wheat flour protein instead of fishmeal in fry fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) feeds. In the experiment, an average weight of 2.33±0.2 g juvenile seabass was used. Seabass fries were fed with the experimental feeds for 60 days. The experiment was designed in triplicates. At the end of the experiment, the growth parameters and fatty acid composition of fish fries were examined. As a result, it was statistically determined that the use of wheat flour protein at a high rate had a negative effect on the growth parameters of the fish. Significant changes in fatty acid composition were also observed.
Evren Tan
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 49-52; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.8

Abstract:
In this study, the adsorption change of products obtained by chemical modification of waste fish bones, which are a biogenic-induced apathetic source, has been examined. Histidine (MH) and tryptophan (MT) were used for chemical surface modification, and cationic paint was used as fuchsine adsorbent. Paint adsorption was performed in water. The adsorption of MH and MT products was determined as 0.48 and 0.69 in 6.76 dye solution. The amount that MH and MT modified materials removed from the solution was 35.46 and 50.71%, respectively. As a result, it has been determined that the apatite-induced bones have affected the adsorption capacities of dyers as a result of different chemical molecular modifications. Additionally, it has been determined that the molecules with different qualities and properties affect the balance of adsorption. It has been observed that unprofitable products were suitable for chemical modification and adsorption procedures thanks to surface modification. With the development of studies in this field, it can be said that waste-resourced products will contribute to environmental use with effective, qualified, and useful materials.
Hülya Sayğı, Ege University, Aysun Kop, Hatice Tekoğul, Burcu Taylan
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 6-16; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.2

Abstract:
Data envelopment analysis is used when it is difficult to measure the relative effectiveness of organizational decision-making units due to a large number of similar inputs and outputs. Firstly, data envelopment analysis was discussed in this study. In this context, relative activities of 10 companies have been operating in fisheries sector for last nine years (2009-2017) which entered the Fortune 500 in Turkey and have sufficient data were measured using financial inputs and outputs. Relative effectiveness scores were obtained by examining the financial inputs and outputs of the companies that are in the Fortune 500 and operating in fisheries sector. In the second part of study, to reveal the technical efficiency and the ineffective ones resulting from the scale, DEA models including the input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes) and BCC (Banker, Charnes, and Cooper) model were established and the above mentioned procedures were repeated. Finally, it was investigated whether an investment system based on DEA could be established or not. DEA Frontier and DEA Solver software, one of the special software of DEA, was used for the solution of models using in data envelopment analysis. As a result of the study, the average efficacy percentage was found to be 88% for CCR and 93% for BCC. For the data obtained during 2009-2017, six companies were found to be active according to the CCR model, while seven companies were found to be effective according to the BCC model. Also, the targets were determined to activate the inactive companies.
, Selçuk Berber, Deniz Acarlı, Tekin Demirkiran, Pervin Vural, Sefa Acarlı, Bayram Kızılkaya, Evren Tan
Published: 24 January 2021
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.1

Abstract:
Two individuals of Pontastacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) were collected from Atikhisar Reservoir in Çanakkale, Turkey. The individuals were caught by using a fyke-net. The fyke-nets were collected after 3-days soaking time from the reservoir on 18 July 2020. The sampling was carried out during the daytime. The sediment of the sampling location had a muddy substrate. Both blue colored individuals of crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) were female. Blue color anomaly was observed in all parts of the bodies of both individuals. Morphometric characteristics were measured and the total lengths were 104.83 mm and 76.92 mm, and weights were 36.09 g and 11.76 g, respectively. The genetics of the mutant species should be examined in future studies to better understanding of the main factors causing color anomalies.
Sevim Hamzaçebi
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 2, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.314.4

Abstract:
The aim of the present study is to investigate spawning and larval rearing of brown meagre (Sciaena umbra). This is an important species in the Mediterranean Sea because of its beauty, calm swimming, large otoliths, souvenir potential, aggregative behaviour, excellent flesh and accessibility. Although this species is regarded as Near Threatened (in IUCN Red List Status), the demand increases the fishing. Green water technique was used for rearing the brown meagre larvae. Diameter of eggs was recorded as 1457.31±47.29 µm. Yolk was homogenous with oil globules of 371.59±18.15 µm at the centre. Hatching process began after 39 hours. Hatching rate (HR) was observed as 92.17±0.24%, and larvae inflated swim bladder around 97.33±0.94%. The brown meagre juveniles reached to 40.08±1.98 mm of total length (TL) with 10.96±0.08 mm body height (BH) and 662.27±21.23 mg body weight (BW) after 55 days of post-hatching. Survival (SR) was recorded as 72.5±0.70% at the end of study. Since the brown meagre is a threatened species, with high economic interest, is a possible candidate for commercial aquaculture both food and restocking the depleted natural fisheries.
Selçuk Berber, Süleyman Akhan, Yusuf Bektaş, Gökhan Kalaycı
Published: 19 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 82-95; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.10

Abstract:
In this research, length-weight relationships and meat yields of freshwater crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) were investigated in Apolyont Lake, İznik Lake, Manyas Lake, Terkos Lake, Küçükçekmece Lake, Sera Lake, Çıldır Lake, Ulugöl Lake and Eğirdir Lake between July and September 2010. For this purpose, 698 individuals were sampled from nine different inland water resources in Turkey. a total of 62 individuals (34♀♀-28♂♂) from Apolyont Lake, 103 individuals (45♀♀-58♂♂) from İznik Lake, 129 individuals (85♀♀- 44♂♂) from Manyas Lake, 156 individuals (89♀♀-67♂♂) from Terkos Lake and 63 individuals (41♀♀-22♂♂) from Küçükçekmece Lake, 44 individuals (24♀♀-20♂♂) from Sera Lake, 34 individuals (13♀♀-21♂♂) from Çıldır Lake, 59 individuals (16♀♀-43♂♂) from Ulugöl Lake, and 48 individuals (25♀♀-23♂♂) from Eğirdir Lake were sampled during the field studies. For female individuals, the highest mean values for both carapace length and total weight were found in Manyas Lake as 52.34 mm, 34.16 g, respectively. For male individuals, the highest values for carapace length was found in Çıldır Lake as 61.34 mm, and the highest values for total weight was found in Apolyont Lake as 43.25 g. The results of the regression analyses indicated that allometric growth was found for both male and female individuals caught from Çıldır Lake, Sera Lake, Ulugöl Lake, and Eğirdir Lake. In addition, negative allometric growth was found for both male and female individuals caught from Manyas Lake, Terkos Lake and Küçükçekmece Lake, while positive allometric growth was found for male individuals caught from Apolyont Lake and İznik Lake and with regard to the carapace length-total weight relationship. For female specimens, the highest value for total meat yield was found in İznik Lake (19.76%) and the highest value for abdominal meat yield was found in Apolyont Lake (16.08%). Moreover, the highest values for both total meat yield and abdomen meat yield of male specimens were found in Sera Lake as 20.43% and 14.28%, respectively.
Okan Erken, Bayram Kızılkaya, Aytaç Altın, Hakan Ayyıldız
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.2

Abstract:
Nowadays, it is known that many vegetables and fruits can be obtained longer-lasting products with drying methods. Therefore, dried fruits are offered for consumption in Turkey. In the present study, it was investigated fat and protein contents on dried apple and pear chips. According to the results, the amount of fat and apple chips was determined as 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the protein amount of apple and pear chips was found to be 3.84% and 3.58%, respectively. Consequently, it can be said that dried fruits can be consumed as a dietary food in terms of a low amount of fat and consumable protein.
Pınar Çelik, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Pınar Çelik & Bahadır Rıfat Yalçın
Published: 19 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 69-81; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.9

Abstract:
Malawi cichlid species belonging to the Cichlidae family are among the most popular commercial species in the aquarium industry. Females of this species begin to incubate their eggs in the mouth after ovulation. Professional producers continue to induce vomiting of the eggs from the female's mouth at many different times and grow them with artificial incubation. The aim of this study is to determine the most appropriate time to induce vomiting and artificial incubation of eggs of these species. For this purpose, rusty cichlid (Iodotropheus sprengerae), blue dolphin cichlid (Cyrtocara moorii), red zebra cichlid (Maylandia estherae) and electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus) were produced in colonies. The development of eggs and larvae obtained from broodstocks were observed. Critical times for cichlid culture have been determined. While electric yellow cichlid (L. caeruleus) completed its embryonic development on the 3rd day after ovulation, blue dolphin cichlid (C. moorii) and red zebra cichlid (M. estherae) species completed on the 4th day, rusty cichlid (I. sprengerae) completed on the 5th day. Therefore, the results of the present study revealed that it is not appropriate to apply the same incubation technique to all these species.
Pınar Çelik, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 24-35; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.4

Abstract:
In this study, two experimental studies were conducted with Tubifex tubifex, which was adapted to laboratory conditions after being collected from nature. In the first experiment, the effect of some ground materials that can be used in controlled breeding conditions on the survival rates of T. tubifex was investigated. For this purpose, 7 different ground materials (trout mud, grain, vegetables, fish offal, cow liver, cow dung, and sand) were used. Initially, 20 T. tubifex were stocked for each repetition of the experimental groups consisting of these materials. At the end of the 45-day experiment, the number of alive individuals in the groups was compared. At the end of the experiment, alive individuals were observed in 3 groups including trout mud, cow dung, and sand. In the second experiment, the mineral substance compositions of living T. tubifex samples collected from nature were compared with the mineral substance compositions of alive individuals kept at different water temperatures (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28ºC) for 90 days. In terms of magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, and zinc, statistically differences were found between the values measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, while magnesium values tended to decrease in some groups, it increased in other groups. At the end of the experiment, it was determined that the potassium level was lower in all groups. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the iron, copper, and zinc values were much higher than the values at the beginning of the experiment.
Deniz Acarlı, Sefa Acarlı & Ahmet Öktener Deniz Acarlı, Ahmet Öktener, Sheep Research Institute
Published: 19 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 109-117; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.12

Abstract:
Fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) species has been critically endangered in the Mediterranean Sea because of Haplosporidium pinnae. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the current status of the fan mussel populations at three station (Patriça Beach, Bıyıklı Beach and Çataltepe Beach) in Cunda Island Ayvalık, Aegean Sea. Underwater observation carried out on July 2020. Mass mortality (100%) was observed at all station during the study. Length of fan mussel was ranged between 39.8 cm and 79.8 cm and no individuals were in small sized.
Nuray Çiftçi, Deniz Ayas
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 43-55; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.6

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the preferences of students attending Mersin University's Çiftlikköy and Yenişehir campuses for seafood consumption preference and to what extent these preferences are related to demographic characteristics such as gender, age, income level and type of program they study. Data were obtained by random sampling method in April, May and June of 2018 on a questionnaire form based on face-to-face interviews with 550 students from different programs. Of the 550 students surveyed, 53.8% were female, 46.2% were male, 70% were between 18-23 years, 23% were between 24-28 years, 4% were 33 and over, 3% were 29-33 age group. 74% of the students participating in the survey are undergraduate, 15% are associate degree, 9% graduate, 2% continue their doctoral education. The majority of the students stated that they live with 33% of their families. 32% stated that they stayed in dormitories, 26% in dormitories and 9% in other (their own) places. The results of the survey show that students prefer 46% poultry meat, 39% red meat, 8% fish, 1% other fish products and 6% do not prefer any type of meat. The majority of the students (80%) stated that they had knowledge about the importance of fish consumption and 16% did not have any knowledge. The most common anchor, 19% sea bass, 17% sea bream, 11% trout, 8% sardine, 5% red mullet, 3% silver, 2% mullet and 7% other fish, respectively it is consumed. While students consume 89% fresh seafood, they consume 4% canned food, 2% frozen, 1% salted and brine and 3% other forms. While 44% of the students prefer frying as a cooking method, 27% prefer grilling, 20% prefer oven, and 3% prefer steaming. According to the highest rate of fish consumption, respectively; 37% once a month, 20% once every fifteen days, 17% once or twice a year, 12% never consumed any fish, 3% once a week, 1% more than once a week.
Moez Shaiek & Deniz Ayas Nuray Çiftçi, Moez Shaiek, Deniz Ayas, Institut Supérieur de Pêcheet D’Aquaculture de Bizerte Unité de Recherché "exploitation Des Milieuxaquatiques" (Ur14Agro1)
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.1

Abstract:
Deep-sea sampling was conducted by a commercial trawl in the International Waters of Mersin Bay between 14 and 17 May 2018. The sampling depth ranged between 274 and 641 meters. A total of 13 trawling operations were performed, and each trawling operation lasted approximately 4 hours. During the sampling, six of the deep-sea cephalopods species were caught. All specimens were preserved in ethyl alcohol and were deposited in the Museum of the Systematic, Faculty of Fisheries, Mersin University (Catalog no: MEUCC-18-11-2- MEUCC-18-11-7). A total of two cuttlefish species belonging to the families of Sepiidae were identified. The others were represented by the families of Sepiolidae, Octopodidae, Bathypolypodidae, and Ommastrephidae.
Şenol Paruğ, Kastamonu University, Şenol Paruğ & Özgür Cengiz, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University
Published: 19 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 96-108; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.11

Abstract:
A single specimen of Diplodus sargus with 40.5 cm in total length and 1000.00 g in total weight was caught off İbrice Bight (Saros Bay) with handline by a commercial fisherman on 25 June 2018. The mentioned sizes are the maximum length and weight values of the species for the Aegean Sea and the other Turkish coasts; however, it is the second-largest length ever reported in the Mediterranean Basin.
Bayram Kızılkaya
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 56-60; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.7

Abstract:
This study investigates lead (Pb) elimination of surface modified fish bones as a biogenic apatite source. Surface modification was performed with 4-Aminohippuric acid (MBA1) and 2-Thiophenecarboxaldehyde (MBA2). In this study, different methods were used for surface modification. Apart from that, lead elimination was performed by the method of adsorption in aqueous solution. It is detected that both of the modified materials eliminate as 7.16 mg/g in 50 mgL-1 lead solution. It was determined that MBA1 and MBA2 materials removed 99.9% of the lead in solution. In conclusion, it is seen that waste fish bones, which are regarded as worthless, can be applied to the chemical modifications and they can be transformed into useful materials. It is possible to say that transforming them into economic, efficient, qualified and useful materials can contribute environment.
Nuray Çiftçi & Deniz Ayas Mısra Bakan, Mersin University, Nuray Çiftçi, Deniz Ayas
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 12-23; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.3

Abstract:
The seasonal changes in the total lipid and fatty acid profile of Pomadasys stridens, which were caught from Mersin Bay, were examined. Total lipid changes were found as 4.09%, 7.54%, 2.56%, and 1.81% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons, respectively. A total of 30 fatty acids were defined in the muscle tissue by GC analysis. Among these, the major fatty acids are saturated fatty acids such as (SFA) palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), monounsaturated fatty acids as oleic acid (C18:1n9c) and 11-docosenoic acid (C22:1n11), and polyunsaturated fatty acids as eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3). Palmitic acid and stearic acid varied in the range of 16.92-22.74%, and 8.06-13.86%; and they were found at the level of 297.82-1567.14 mg/100g and 182.49-555.46 mg/100g, respectively. Oleic acid and 11-docosenoic acid varied in the range11.54-21.32% and 2.99-4.98%, and they were determined to range 251.20-1436.89 mg/100g and 72.56-206.06 mg/100g, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) varied in the range of 3.58-5.45% and 5.57-13.42%; the levels of EPA and DHA were found 55.27-324.59 mg/100g and 153.12-492.90 mg/100g, respectively. TheΣn3, Σn6, Σn9 fatty acid levels of P. stridens changed between 10.65-19.41%, 3.45-4.50%, 12.59-22.72%; and they were found 233.75-733.95 mg/100g, 68.40-237.76 mg/100g, 271.12-1531.99 mg/100g respectively. The change intervals of the atherogenicity index (Ai) and thrombogenicity index (Ti) levels during the year were determined as 0.32-0.42% and 0.39-0.51%, respectively.
Özgür Cengiz, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Özgür Cengiz & Şenol Paruğ, Kastamonu University
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 61-68; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.8

Abstract:
An ongoing warming trend is obviously proof in both the surface and deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The increasing seawater temperature renders this sea more receptive to invasion by thermophilic species and affects marine species and ecosystems. In this connection, a single specimen of Sparisoma cretense was caught on 20 September 2013 off the İbrice Bight at approximately 40°36’07.8”N 26°32’44.3”E (Saros Bay, Northern Aegean Sea, Turkey). This paper presents the first record of S. cretense in the Saros Bay (Northern Aegean Sea, Turkey), which is the northernmost confirmed occurrence of the parrotfish for the Eastern Mediterranean.
, Selçuk Berber, Deniz Acarlı, Tekin Demirkiran, Pervin Vural, Sefa Acarlı, Bayram Kızılkaya, Evren Tan
Published: 31 December 2020
Acta Natura et Scientia, Volume 1, pp 36-42; https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2020.313.5

Abstract:
A female albino crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) was captured from Atikhisar Reservoir in Çanakkale, Turkey on July 18, 2020. The albino crayfish is lacked melanin that is normally found on normal crayfish. The compound eyes of the albino crayfish were black as in normal crayfish. Morphometric characteristics were measured and the total length was 101.98 mm, carapace length was 50.04 mm, carapace width was 26.56 mm and weight was 35.90 g. Albinism is a widespread disorder in the animal kingdom and is triggered by the absence of melanin in the skin, eyes, or hair. Investigation on albinism has commonly focused on mice and humans. Therefore, there is restricted research on albino crayfish. In the present paper, the occurrence of albinism in crayfish is firstly reported from Atikhisar Reservoir in Çanakkale, Turkey. Therefore, this paper significantly contributes to the scientific literature by providing the first knowledge on the presence of albino crayfish in the Atikhisar Reservoir, Çanakkale, Turkey.
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