Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal Knygotyra: 648

(searched for: journal_id:(609715))
Page of 13
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Andrej Blatnik
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 114-123; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.62

Abstract:
Based on a typological model borrowed from sociology, this article analyzes literary translation support mechanisms in the world and especially in Slovenia. It tracks the growing inclusion of translation policies in the national cultural policies and subsequent growth of the translated books in the book subsidy system and their strong presence in the reading field. With the help of statistical data it shows the status of translated litera­ture in Slovenian reading habits.
Fausta Kepalienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 141-161; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.64

Abstract:
Favorable conditions for the development of open access have been created in Lithuania: in the absence of scholarly commercial publishing, some scholarly journals in 1999 were already freely available on the Internet. eLABa, in 2011 launched as a national repository, laid the foundation for the development of “green” open access in Lithuania. Currently 13 repositories in Lithuania are maintained and various legal acts related to the implementation of open access in the country have been adopted. The aim of this article is to analyze how “green” open access is being developed in Lithuania in terms of infrastructure, regulation, and implementation. International, national, and institutional documents regulating the implementation of open access were analyzed using the document analysis method. The analysis showed that a legal environ­ment which complies with the provisions of international documents regulating open access has been formed. In the analyzed documents, the authors of Lithuanian scholarly publications are required to submit their peer-reviewed publications to eLABa or another specified reposi­tory within a specific period. This requirement, as shown by the analysis of statistical indicators of the national repository eLABa, is fulfilled to a very small extent. Only 3.4% of all scholarly publications for which metadata had been submitted to eLABa were uploaded as full text documents at the end of 2019. It means that scholars provide biblio­graphic data on publications to eLABa, but upload only a small part of the full-text documents to it. One of the reasons for the low level of activity in promoting scholarly publications to eLABa could be that most Lithuanian scholarly journals are open access in nature and are already publicly available. Also, uploading a full-text scholarly publication to a repository, not just registering it, does not have a direct impact on the at­testation of the researchers at most universities in Lithuania. However, the low use of institutional repositories as a channel for publishing scholarly publications is a common problem not only in Lithuania, but also in other countries. There is a global trend of subject repositories being used for the dissemination of full-text scholarly publications, while institu­tional repositories – for providing bibliographic information on research output and uploading student works. This situation, where only a very small proportion of all registered scholarly publications are uploaded to institutional repositories, does not allow scientific institutions to ensure the long-term preservation of scholarly works. In general, it can be seen that the debate on open access and, at the same time, the way to imple­ment “green” open access, is becoming more and more concrete, focusing on specific, practical issues. Instead of considering whether open access is needed, discussion is moved on to the question of what measures should be taken to address the lower-than-expected scholars’ involvement in the implementation of open access publishing. Therefore, the research of scholars’ open access publishing behaviour is important in order to better understand the needs of authors for the dissemination of open ac­cess scholarly publications. In the case of the implementation of “green” open access in Lithuania, it is important to find out what determines the choice of the scholars to provide or not publications to eLABa and / or international repositories as well as to investigate if there is a need to create Lithuanian subject-based repositories.
Arida Riaubienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 218-258; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.67

Abstract:
In the years 1918 through 1940, the public opinion of the society was formed not only by the local press, but also by the publications in foreign languages, which reached Lithuania. Therefore, in order to ensure the se­curity of the state and society, the publications – not only local, but also those published abroad, and also imported in Lithuania – were censored in Lithuania in the interwar period. During the discussed period, the censorship of foreign publications was aimed to protect the country from publications that propagated anti-state ideas and instigated national discord. Institutions for the supervision and control of the press watched that content disagreeing with the moral values of the time and various publications by religious sects would not get into Lithuania. Already in the year 1919, the Law on Press established that the Minister of the Interior had the right to prohibit the import and distribution of publications in Lithuania, contrary to the establishment of the inde­pendent state of Lithuania. The censorship of foreign publications was performed by the Units of the Citizen Protection Department of the Ministry of the Interior, the names of which changed. After the year 1923, the censorship of foreign publications was related to the stages of development of the security service in the Ministry of the Interior. The books published and printed abroad were inspected at the customs posts near the state border of Lithuania. The customs officers inspected the publications in the presence of the railway police. When performing the censorship of foreign publications, an important position was taken by the border police, especially that which protected the wall with Germany, through which many smuggled goods were carried. The censorship of foreign publications intensified in the year 1933, after the establishment of the State Security Department. The activities of this institution are illustrated by the records about the detention of books in post offices, made by the officers of the Press Unit of this Department, the private persons’ requests to issue the permits for taking the publications from the post office, the permits to subscribe to the books or to import them by applying preventive censorship, and the other documents in the Office of the Chief Archivist of Lithuania. Lists of prohibited books also illustrate the foreign censorship activities. One of the earliest lists is a list of pu­blications prohibited for import and distribution in Lithuania, compiled since 1926. Sixteen lists of still nowhere announced foreign publications and books prohibited by censorship to be distributed are provided in the Appendix to the Article.
Miha Kovač,
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 17-37; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.58

Abstract:
The paper is based on a survey that was conducted among publishers in Slovakia, Iceland, Lithuania and Slovenia in May and August 2020. The paper looks at how publishers reacted to the COVID-19 crisis in their respective countries, what was its impact on book sales and how did the publishers adapt the production of new books to changed circumstances. In addition, the paper analyses changed attitudes of publishers towards e-books and other digital book formats that become more popular in lockdown times. The research revealed that COVID-19 lockdowns resulted in decreased sales of printed books in all four small book markets. However, sales of e-books and audiobooks slightly increased during that period. This increase in digital sales did not contribute significantly to overall results of book industries due to its small market share in all four countries.
Ana Kvirikashvili
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 92-113; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.61

Abstract:
This paper analyses translation support in the Georgian literary field by studying the case of the translation grant program “Georgian Literature in Translation” (2010-2018). Accordingly, it offers a quantitative and qualitative study of the selection of translation projects that have received grants from the Georgian National Book Center as of 2010, when the translation policy program was first launched. This study will consider a) which authors are being promoted by the state and which titles are being translated; b) which publishing houses have benefited the most from these subsidies; and c) which target languages are used in said projects, relying on the frameworks of the sociology of translation (Heilbron and Sapiro). The hypotheses of this paper are 1) that there is a strong impact of the Frankfurt Book Fair and an increase of state-supported translations; 2) a great role of German as a target language in these projects; and 3) relatively active translation flows in the region where Georgia is located. Fieldwork from the 2018 Frankfurt Book Fair will serve as a complementary source, as well as the interviews that I have conducted with agents of the Georgian literary field.
Miha Kovač, Arūnas Gudinavičius
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 7-11; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.57

Reda Griškaitė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 259-326; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.68

Abstract:
The article analyses a particular 19th century manor, classed among the category of the so-called intellectual manors – Teodor Narbutt’s (or Teodor Mateusz Ostyk-Narbutt, 1784–1864) Šiauriai manor (Pol. Szawry; Grodno Province, since 1843 – Vilnius Province, Lyda County). All the texts by Narbutt – fictional as well as the scientific works, including the famous Dzieje narodu litewskiego (The History of the Lithuanian Nation, vol. 1–9, Vilnius, 1835–1841) – were collected in this place. Throughout the years, the manor became a unique workshop for the historian in which one could find a rich library, collections of manuscripts, and Lithuanian artefacts. Up until now, the researchers have focused most of their attention on the contents and the assembly of Narbutt’s collection of books and periodical publications, while the collection of artefacts has received less limelight. The collections of historical documents, numismatic objects, and art pieces, which for the landowner-historian were no less important, have also been left on the margins. The aim of this article is: by employing the already analysed and completely new archival resources, take a different look at the col­lections once stored in Šiauriai, while, at the same time, cultivating the idea that the gathering of them was particularly purposeful and was perceived as a formation of a “compulsory” material, necessary for the writing of the history of Lithuania.
Žiedūnė Zaveckienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 327-329; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.69

Anna Klamet
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 38-65; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.59

Abstract:
Trade publishing houses in small nations operate in a challenging market environment: digitisation and the spread of the internet have lowered the market entry barriers and increased the international competition. This is especially prevalent in English-language markets and increasingly so in the markets with a high English language proficiency amongst second language speakers due to the amount of English content readily available online. Moreover, traditional audiences are eroding, and global players push for multi-platform publishing for a global audience. However, the impact of digitisation on small nation publishers operating in large lan­guage markets lacks scientific exploration. Hence, the impact on small trade publishing houses in Austria and Scotland is explored through qualitative case study research. An overview of the state of the publishing industry in those nations is presented, followed by an analysis of the opportunities and challenges of publishing in an online world where borders are disappearing, thus changing the competitive situation of publishers competing with larger entities in neighbouring nations with the same language. The research found that small nation publishers are benefiting from the possibilities offered by digitisation to reach a wider readership abroad, but at the same time it is becoming increasingly difficult for these pub­lishers and their products to stand out amongst the abundance of content online. Thus, small publishers choose market niches and collaborations to create sustainable business practices. Furthermore, these results provide a basis for further research into e-publishing in other small na­tions. Additional comparative research is needed to better understand the cultural specificities of small book markets and how to best support publishers in and for those nations.
Jurgita Girčienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 124-140; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.63

Abstract:
This article, based on interviews with representatives of Lithuanian publishing houses, describes the editor’s role in contemporary publishing. It is showed that editors contribute to strategic and managerial processes within the publishing houses and are responsible for the process of editing manu­scripts. Even though certain publishing houses retain the habit of referring to the senior or chief editor as the one engaged in strategic activity, today many of the houses have project manager positions tasked with shaping the publishing portfolio. Today’s editors engage in managerial activities rarely; their main field of responsibility remains editing manuscripts. The clearest functions are associated with microlevel text specialization: copyeditors, proofreaders, and editors handling book layouts. Lithuanian publishing houses are yet to develop a clearly defined role of content editors, which is customary in other countries wherein the publishing industry had developed more consistently. According to the publishers, Lithuanian publishing houses face a lack of experts able to refine the contents of the manuscripts, i.e., to offer macrolevel text editing services.
Oksana Petrenko
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 199-217; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.66

Abstract:
This article sheds light on the first research attempt to establish the biblio­graphic and statistical accounting of the books that were published in Ukraine in the 19th century. Besides, the article has analysed the begin­ning of the institutionalization of the children’s books’ publishing statis­tics in Ukraine. The author seeks to answer the question of who was at the origin of the formation of the children’s books’ publishing statistics. Library and museum funds became reliable sources of attribution of the children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine. The results of received data on old-printed children’s books have been studied, systematised and compared with the data of other old-printed books that were found in other library collections. According to this, there is the conclusion about the primacy or repetition in the bibliographies of old-printed children’s books that became the basis for creating a summary table. This article of­fers insights into the chronology of publishing children’s books in Ukraine from the beginning of their publishing to the start of the state registra­tion of publications.
Aušra Navickienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 330-331; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.70

Miha Kovač,
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 7-16; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.71

Abstract:
This special issue of Knygotyra is a result of long-lasting collaboration between researchers of few small language countries. We hope this issue will contribute to better understanding the peculiarities of publishing on such markets.
Filip Horvat, Zoran Velagić
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 66-91; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.60

Abstract:
The paper examines and presents the scale and structure of recent (2012–2018) academic publishing in Croatia, with a focus on academic books and journals, the participation of institutions and publishers, scientific fields and disciplines, and invested financial means. As Croatian academic production to a large extent depends on subsidies, the paper is based on the analyses of data from seven years of subventions, which the Croatian Ministry of Sciences and Education allocates to national academic publish­ers, regardless if they are academic institutions or privately owned publish­ers. Conducted analyses provide detailed insight into the model of supply-side academic publishing and into national academic publishing in general. The topics – academic publishing and system of subsidies – have rarely been addressed in recent research. Thus, this paper offers new insights for researchers (e.g. providing knowledge about the scale and structure of academic publishing), provides evaluation possibilities for policymakers (e.g. to design the tools for monitoring and improving the system of public subsidies), and provide comparable perspective for national academic pub­lishing in the context of European academic publishing setting.
Published: 28 December 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 75, pp 162-198; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.75.65

Abstract:
Despite various global and local economic crises, the shift of some readers to screen reading, growing online shopping habits, and the shorter time spent on reading books, physical bookstores are able to change and retain their customers. This research is a continuation of a 2013 study in order to capture the current situation and identify the changes that have taken place in Lithuanian physical bookstores over the past five years. During the research, the list of bookstores operating in Lithuania compiled in 2013 was updated and clarified, and an analysis of the collected data and comparison with the data of 2013 were performed. The results showed that from 2013 to 2018 the number of bookstores in Lithuania decrea­sed by 18.8%, to 168 units. On average, the number of inhabitants per Lithuanian bookstore increased by 16.2% and reached 16,720 inhabi­tants per bookstore; the number of municipalities with no bookstores at all increased to 15 (9 in 2013). The largest Lithuanian bookstore networks remained the same: Vaga and Pegasas, which maintained almost the same number of bookstores – 33 bookstores at the end of 2018. The number of medium-sized bookstore networks decreased, and only one of the nine small bookstore networks (2–3 bookstores), which owned two bookstores in 2013, remained. Such changes show that the two major bookstore networks Vaga and Pegasas are strengthening their market position. Calculated by the number of bookstores, in 2018 they already ran 39% of the market. The range of available books in physical Lithuanian bookstores has decreased – from an average 9 thousand titles in 2013 up to 6 thousand titles in 2018. It seems that the 2004–2008 race between physical bookstores for the largest range of book titles in the past is now witnessing an increase in the choice of additional goods in bookstores, sometimes even exceeding their book sales. The decrease and change in the number and range of physical bookstores in Lithuania since 2008 was due to several reasons – from the economic crisis at that time, the continuing decline of the population to the decline of book reading ha­bits, and the transition of some readers to on-screen reading and online shopping.
Asta Petraitytė-Briedienė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 123-140; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.48

Abstract:
The article briefly presents the US National Archives, where a number of documents important for the history of the Lithuanian diplomacy, as well as a document significant for the history of the Lithuanian diaspora and its political organizations, are preserved. One of them is Memorandum of Conversation dated 2 February 1949 and prepared by John D. Hickerson, an official of the US Department of State. It extensively describes his meeting and conversations with members of the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania, the Prelate Mykolas Krupavičius and Vaclovas Sidzikauskas, who for the first time visited the US and were accompanied to the meeting by the then Lithuanian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Povilas Žadeikis. Memorandum of Conversation is introduced into scientific circulation through methods of archival document monitoring and case analysis, as well as additional tools (such as periodicals and memoirs, archival documents) and based on the principles of document publication. The document published for the first time, as a primary source, supplements the data of Lithuanian historiography, gives a broader content to the known fact, reinforces the scientific research base on the history of Lithuanian diplomacy, the history of the Lithuanian diaspora’s political organizations and separately – the history of Lithuanian-the US bilateral diplomatic relations.
Vytautas Rinkevičius
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 247-257; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.55

Abstract:
LEMEŠKIN, ILJA. LITHUANICA ALITER. VILNIUS: LIETUVIŲ KALBOS INSTITUTAS, 2019. 440 P. ISBN 978-609-411-255-3
Tomas Čelkis
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 229-238; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.53

Abstract:
Seeks to cover interdisciplinary research topics on book and digital media history and culture, including book history and historiography, traditional and digital publishing, research on media literacy and reading, printed and digital heritage etc. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2018.
Jolanta Budriūnienė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 188-208; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.51

Abstract:
The article examines the publication of the cultural press in English by the Lithuanian community in the United States (1950-1990), focusing on the analysis of the need for such a press and its intended addressee. The article is based on the analysis of the content of the mentioned publishing production, works dedicated to the history of the Lithuanian diaspora of this period. By reviewing the research of the Lithuanian press in the USA in the 2nd half of the 20th century, it has to be noticed that this field of research has not yet sufficiently exhausted, although the general research of the Lithuanian diaspora is really abundant. However, they mainly focus on the historical, sociological, literary, linguistic description of the problems of the diaspora and migration. Research on publishing of the Lithuanian diaspora in the Lithuanian language in the early period (end of the 19th century – first half of the 20th century) has been carried out and published in the scientific works of Ass. Prof. Dr. Bronius Raguotis, Prof. Dr. Remigijus Misiūnas. At the end of World War II, the tendencies of the press of other languages of Lithuanians, who chose a forced exile, in the conditions of DP (DP – displaced people) were also presented by Prof. Dr. R. Misiūnas. A detailed analysis of the Lithuanian cultural press published in the German DP camps was presented in the monograph by Prof. Dr. Dalia Kuizinienė. Meanwhile, the press of other languages of Lithuanian communities in both the United States and other foreign countries had not yet reached the attention of researchers. In the presented study, Pierre Bourdieu, a theorist of literary sociology, uses the insights of literature as an important social factor covering all elements of cultural practice and allows for a systematic interpretation of their interrelationships; the approaches of the communication strategy of the Lithuanian American cultural press in English are analyzed. The article presents the main content of the cultural press and the social and cultural environment that formed the background of its creation, as well as the efforts of the creators of the cultural press and the ideological attitudes of the intellectuals and ideological leaders of the community that determined them. The article concludes that the main addressee of this press – members of the US communities, while the main focus of the content is the representation of symbols of the Lithuanian national identity.
Alma Braziūnienė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 258-264; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.56

Abstract:
Seeks to cover interdisciplinary research topics on book and digital media history and culture, including book history and historiography, traditional and digital publishing, research on media literacy and reading, printed and digital heritage etc. Indexed in the Scopus database from 2018.
Viktorija Vaitkevičiūtė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 7-34; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.45

Abstract:
Incunabula are considered a particularly important part of the documentary heritage. 520 incunabula are preserved in eight different Lithuanian memory institutions. The engagement of Lithuanian libraries in the development of the international database of incunabula provenances, Material Evidence in Incunabula (MEI: https://data.cerl.org/mei/_search), intensified research on incunabulistics, as it led to a closer examination of the marks of the former owners. The article presents the latest data on the distribution of incunabula in different Lithuanian memory institutions, as well as analyzes various book marks that were not recorded in Nojus Feigelmanas’ catalog of Lithuanian incunabula or was revised and supplemented, and evaluates their significance in the printed book culture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The analysis is performed using the provenance method, however is not limited to property marks, but also includes margins – marks left by a reader on the pages of books, and other marks not related to property or reading, providing significant information on book history, culture and peculiarities of reading at that time. In the 15th century, there were no printing houses in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, so the main spread of books was by trade. The entries with prices identified in the incunabula reveal a relatively early time of purchase of the incunabula and testify that the books in the 16th-17th centuries were an expensive commodity. They usually mention groschen, the common currency in the territory of Lithuania-Poland, less often – florins or ducats. In this case, the large variety of prices does not allow to draw more specific conclusions on the prices of incunabula in the relevant period, but these data as a source of book history will serve in general when studying the value of the old books and the circumstances of their acquisition. Purchase records usually also provide information about a former owner of a book. The article focuses more on lesser-known owners on whom new information has been found or existing data have been updated, attention is also paid to female donators. The article also discusses the records left by the incunabula rubricators, which allows to determine the period of the book entry into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as well as to look at them as one of the first readers. Various inscriptions left by anonymous owners require the most effort. Entries of the 15th-16th centuries, mostly in Latin, many of which are abstracts of an existing book or notes on it, additions to the text, are still awaiting detailed reading and research. Identified Lithuanian words will be a valuable source of the language history for researchers of the old Lithuanian language. Various marginalia – reviews on a book, notes from everyday life, counting the year of the book, as well as graffiti, different drawings that can be seen as feather attempts, amateur illustrations, caricatures or even as an expression of reading boredom, will be an important material to describe a reader’s relationship to the book at the time, for which the incunabula, like books of other ages, were not only the object of study or research, but also a kind of notebook for important thoughts, synopses, everyday details.
Sondra Rankelienė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 35-95; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.46

Abstract:
In this article, the latest data about the personal book collection items of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II Augustus in Vilnius University (VU) Library are presented. The authors that have been doing research on these books have not ascertained all of the embossed images that were used for cover decoration and have not identified the locations of where these books were bound and have not disclosed all of the provenances. In order to amend the lack of knowledge about the books of Sigismund II Augustus in VU library, the book covers of the King’s personal library were reviewed de visu and decorative ornaments were described. The ownership signs of the books were registered once again. While describing and comparing these books with the copies in various libraries of the world, the number of physical books (14) and publications in composite volumes (21) kept in VU library was assessed. The name of one book and a publisher’s imprint of two books were specified, eight provenances that were not mentioned by previous authors were registered. While describing book covers, the embossed images were given provisory names. Connections between the supralibros, dates of binding, decorative wheels, single embossed images, and other decorative elements were detected and lead to a reasonable conclusion that eight out of fourteen books from the Sigismund II Augustus collection were bound in Kraków, five were bound by bookbinders in Vilnius, while one was rebound in the 18th century. The identification of tools used by craftsmen that worked in Kraków and Vilnius will allow to ascertain the manufacturing location of similar book covers made in the middle of the 16th century.
Greta Lemanaitė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 239-246; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.54

Abstract:
HAYKOWSKI, MICHAŁ. HENRYK BUKOWSKI. IMIĘ ŻYJE NADAL. WARSZAWA: POLONIKA, 2019. 498 S. ISBN 978-83-66172-18-0
Žydronė Kolevinskienė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 168-187; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.50

Abstract:
The article was inspired by the World Congress of Lithuanian Writers held in Vilnius, in May 2019, during which the literary canon was discussed – not only in Lithuania, but abroad as well: what determines the entry of some books into the school canon, their assessment with literary prizes, various nominations, and why other books remain less noticed by readers and / or literary critics. The theme of this article was further highlighted by the heated debate on the elections of the Book of the Year that took place throughout the autumn (and is still ongoing). Various top five, top ten, top twelve lists, debates over the update of the contents of the curriculum of secondary schools inevitably raise the issue of the literary canon. Therefore, it is considered that perhaps the problem is not what falls or does not fall into the literary canon, but rather how much power society gives to the literary canon itself. The main tasks of the research: to introduce the main theoretical aspects of the literary canon; to discuss the issue of literary canon and women’s creative works; to identify the dominants of the literary canon in the diaspora. The article discusses the issue of the literary canon precisely in women’s literature that was created and is still being created in the diaspora. Research sources: various literary and cultural presses of the Lithuanian diaspora in the US (Aidai (The Echoes), Darbininkas (The Worker), Draugas (The Friend), Gabija, Naujienos (The News) etc.), Literatūros lankai (Literary Folios) (Buenos Aires, 1952-1959), the book by Vladas Kulbokas Lithuanian Literary Criticism in Exile (Rome, 1982). The main reason for this discussion of (non)canonization of women’s literature is that statistically female authors write more on emigration topics. There were more women writers outside Lithuania in the second wave of emigration (DPs); more women than men give a sense to their exile experience even today. The article emphasizes that women’s involvement in public life has never been either simple or natural. Even greater challenges awaited the creating women in 1944, when they moved to the West – Germany, Austria, and from 1949 – to the US, Canada, Australia. Questions are raised as to how and why public attitudes towards the writing, creative woman have changed; how the community of the Lithuanian diaspora, influenced by a new context, new economic and political conditions in the US, thought about new creative challenges, what kind of goals and objectives were set for it. If feminization processes call for rebellion against the dominant (male) canon, if today we are talking about not a single existing canon, but rather about canons, if it is emphasized that the canon is nonetheless a changing thing related with a system of certain time values, then the canon may not exist at all and it cannot exist? The article also actualizes modern migration processes and their reflections in literature (created both in Lithuania and abroad, outside Lithuania; written not only in Lithuanian but also in English) as well, opens new possibilities for reading and interpreting women’s works – and above all – the article dedicated to the World Lithuanian Year, seeks to create a dialogue field that can help deepen the understanding of today’s (e)migration.
Tomaš Božerocki
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 96-122; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.47

Abstract:
During World War II, in 1939–1944, there was a Polish armed resistance movement in Eastern Lithuania, which was called Armia Krajowa (Home Army) in the In researching the activities of Armia Krajowa (AK) in Eastern Lithuania, not only historiography is valuable, but also surviving documents and memoirs, as well as the Bernardine Fund preserved in the Lithuanian Central State Archives. So far, this Fund does not seem to receive much attention from scientists researching the activities of AK in Lithuania, as well as archives compiled by Poles residing in other countries. Based on the concept of storage medium, the article analyzes the case of the Bernardine Fund in the context of archival research of the Polish diaspora. During the analysis of the documents kept in the Bernardine Fund, it was observed that the said Fund held significant documents that could supplement / replace the existing narrative about Kmicic’s AK partisan brigade. Kmicic’s AK partisan brigade is noteworthy, as it is the first armed AK unit to launch a consistent armed resistance, but so far there are no separate studies dedicated to the activities of this brigade. The storage medium is the basis of memory communication that gives authenticity to the constructed memory narrative. The Bernardine Fund is a storage medium that originated in the past and reached the present unchanged / slightly changed, and that contains a certain memory narrative about AK. The Bernardine Fund and the documents contained in it are valuable storage media that can help reveal the situation of the residents of Eastern Lithuania during World War II and shed new light on the military activities of AK. In the context of research and preservation of the written heritage of the Polish diaspora, this medium has not yet received the attention of scientists, although the example of the Kmicic’s AK brigade proved that this Fund contains documents that reveal hitherto unknown aspects of AK activities. A fact turns into an event only when certain groups draw their attention to it, when they give meaning to it and start talking and writing about it, and it begins to be remembered. All significant events are just someone’s creations, created just to justify the present in a way that is convenient for the collective, the political elite, or the heads of state. The case of Kmicic’s brigade has proven that no fact is completely lost. If a fact is not currently updated and used, it does not mean that it will be the case all the time. The documents kept in the Fund reflect that during the formation of the historiographical narrative, the collective memory of the said brigade, part of the events was deliberately omitted in order to give integrity to the narrative being formed.
Daiva Dapkutė
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 141-167; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.49

Abstract:
Following World War II, Lithuanian academic youth, who found themselves and continued their studies at the US universities, joined various organizations, as a result active social, cultural and societal life of students took place. The main organizations uniting Lithuanian students in the US (the Lithuanian Student Union, the Catholic Student Union Ateitis, the Academic Scout Movement, the Lithuanian student group Santara) perceiving the impact of information, took special care of their press publications that had become one of the main tools in helping to gather academic youth, to disseminate organizational / ideological ideas not only among students but also among the wider society. This article presents and analyzes one-time and continuous publications published by Lithuanian students in the US, which have not received wider attention from researchers so far. The main attention is focused on the publications published by one of the organizations - Lithuanian student group Santara (since 1957 Santara-Šviesa Federations), as well as the analysis of the publications published by other organizations - the Lithuanian Student Union, the Academic Scout Movement, the Catholic Student Union Ateitis - their repertoire, content, significance in student life. The study covers the period of the 1950s-1960s allowing the observation of the most intensive activity of Lithuanian students in the US, their active participation in the public life of the Lithuanian community and a great deal of attention to own press problems. At that time, the main Lithuanian student organizations published various publications for their members and the general public: from one-time (humorous, occasional or camp) publications, newsletters intended for members only to successful and none too successful attempts to publish their own periodicals. The Lithuanian American Student Union established in 1951 for the purpose of informing members since March 1954 began publishing Lietuvių Studentų Sąjungos JAV biuletenis (the US Newsletter of the Lithuanian Student Union), which soon became a serious student magazine, Studentų gairės (Student Guidelines), published by in a printing house, and from 1954, students launched the English-language magazine Lituanus, which became an academic magazine for foreigners, published to this day. Ideological organizations (scouts, members of Ateitis and Santara), which had student columns in the major Lithuanian press, and published various one-time or continuous publications, took a very active part in the press work. The organizations had their own newsletters: the Academic Scout Movement (ASM) published the newsletter Ad meliorem for ASM members, the Catholic Student Union Ateitis in Cleveland since 1951 published Gaudeamus, in 1957-1961, Santara published the newsletter Žvilgsniai (Glances). Newsletters of separate columns (such as New Yorko Santara - New York Santara) also appeared, although they were irregular, often only published for a short time. Various one-off publications were popular among young people: occasional, humoristic (e. g. Krambambulis, Sumuštinis - Sandwich), a gathering or a camp publications (Arielkon – To Homemade Vodka, Niekšybės paslaptis - The Secret of Villainy, Po nemigos - After Insomnia etc.). These publications were self-published in a very small circulation and distributed only among members of the organization. Many of them have not survived or if survived are kept by private archives or archival institutions. The place of publication and circulation of these publications were usually not indicated, unmarked; publishers, editors, authors of articles and illustrations are left unknown, periodicity of publications and even the number of published publications – unclear. The content of most student published publications was analogous. The publications contained a variety of information – from serious texts analyzing issues on Lithuanian identity and social activities relevant to the young generation of the diaspora, as well as brief organizational information, humour columns, photographs and friendly banter addressed to self and colleagues. Despite their quality and sometimes seemingly insignificant content, these publications become an important, often the only one source revealing to researchers the peculiarities of the little-known American youth camping, the peculiarities of student social and community life.
Jana Dreimane
Published: 9 July 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 74, pp 209-228; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2020.74.52

Abstract:
In the USSR-reoccupied Latvia (1944−1990), almost all the Latvian literature, published abroad after World War II, was forbidden to the general public. There were only two incomplete and restricted collections of emigration literature, available to prominent scientists and highest Soviet officials. As the Soviet censorship weakened in the late 1980s, libraries could begin start a systematic acquisition of exile books and some periodicals. The donation of the whole library of the Uppsala Latvian society to the State Library of Latvia (now the National Library of Latvia) in 1989, before the renewal of Latvia’s independence, started the flow of emigration books, documents, and artefacts to the memory institutions of Latvia, where the most important cultural heritage from the Latvian exile has found its home. Using the documents of the Uppsala Latvian Society kept at the National Archives of Latvia, the National Library of Latvia, and the Academic Library of the University of Latvia, the history of the library and the importance of its donation in the accumulation of exile cultural heritage in Latvia has been characterized. The study shows that despite the library manager’s efforts to provide readers with the best emigrant Latvian literature, the library collection in exile was not properly valued − its readership gradually decreased as Latvians became more and more integrated into Swedish society. After the transfer to Latvia, the library became the basis of the of the unified collection of Latvian literature, in which exile publications are constantly utilised as an important part of the national cultural heritage.
Liucija Citavičiūtė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 320-324; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.42

Abstract:
Pluhařová-Grigienė, Eva. Die migration der bilder. Das memelgebiet in fotografisch illustrierten büchern (1889–1991). Böhlau verlag Köln Weimar Wien, 2017. 495 p. ISBN 978-3-412-50585-1.
Aušra Navickienė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 230-263; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.39

Abstract:
Eduardas Volteris (1856‒1941) is one of the first book theorists in the Eastern European region and developer of the most important memory and higher education institutions of independent Lithuania. This article analyzes the early 20th c. phenomenon of the institutionalization of book science. It attempts to answer the question of how Eduardas Volteris contributed to establishing the very first Eastern European societies of book researchers, to consolidating the sciences of bibliography, bibliology and book science within the realm of academia, and to professionalising of book scholarship. The sources for examination of the social aspects of book science are: documents belonging to the Russian Society of Bibliology, which was active in St. Petersburg in 1899–1931, materials in scholarly serial publications on book science of the early 20th c., theoretical papers published by E. Volteris, and the results of the historical studies on the history of European book science.
Ona Aleknavičienė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 113-202; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.37

Abstract:
This article deals with materials and data on the manuscripts that were present in the personal archive of Martin Ludwig Rhesa (or Ludwig Jedemin Rhesa, 1776–1840) – professor at the University of Königsberg, scholar of folklore, editor and researcher of the Bible, Church historian, publisher of Kristijonas Donelaitis’s “Metai” and his fables. These manuscripts are traditionally referred to in Lithuanian literary historiography as the Rhesa Archive. The history of the manuscripts’ preservation after 1840 is described: relocation to the Royal Secret Archive in Königsberg, the placing of a part of the archive in the State Archive of Gdańsk in 1903, and its appearance in Lithuanian libraries after the Second World War. The principal aim of this study is to determine the manuscripts that had belonged to Rhesa’s personal archive in the 19th c., i.e., to reconstruct his previous archive. It is sought to determine the current location where it is being kept (the library or fund). In evaluating Rhesa’s attempts to collect sources on the Lithuanian language, literature, history, and folklore, the scholarly and cultural interests that these writings attest to are demonstrated.
Ina Kažuro
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 26-61; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.33

Abstract:
This article focuses on the 18th century printers’ ornaments as an important group of sources of the history of the book. Until now, most studies in Lithuanian had focused on the decorations of books from the 16th– 17th centuries as well as contemporary publications. The present study through several perspectives analyzes the ornaments of the institutional printing houses of Vilnius from the second half of the 18th c. The importance of the chosen topic is substantiated not only with the scarcity of studies but also with the issues associated with the attribution of anonymous publications that had been disseminated during the hand-press period. The study’s sources were images of ornaments in the early printed books as well as European printers’ manuals and inventories of Vilnius printing houses from the period of 18th–early 19th c. The first part of the study has found that in the late 18th c., the Vilnius printers had used printers’ flowers (ornamental pieces of type) and six kinds of decorative blocks, which were carved in wood or metal (i.e., headpieces, tailpieces, vignettes, initials, factotums, and decorations of initial letters). Despite the clear function of these blocks, Vilnius printers freely experimented by placing them in unorthodox places within the books. In the second part of this study, based on a comparison of the printers’ ornaments, the ways of interaction between the Vilnius printing houses are disclosed and interpreted: ornament inheritance, division of labor, the renewal of publications in another printing house, and the falsification of publications. Also, the article discusses cases of ornaments migrating and being copied, which complicates the attribution of anonymous publications. Despite the exploratory nature of the study, it reveals new facts from the operations of 18th c. Vilnius printing houses and allows us to perceive some peculiarities of late GDL culture.
Ilkka Mäkinen
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 203-229; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.38

Abstract:
When reading in the 18th century became an activity common among an ever growing part of the European population and thereby a socially more visible cultural phenomenon, a need arose to create concepts and linguistic terms to refer to the new types of reading behavior. The new masses of readers did not seemingly have a rational goal for their reading, they just read for the sake of reading itself. Therefore, an explanation for their behavior was that they had a love of reading. To speak about people’s love of reading became a recurrent feature of the discourse on reading, a sub-discourse of its own, the discourse on the love of reading. The birthplace of the discourse may have been in 17th century France, wherefrom it was mediated into other countries and language areas. Even the contemporaries believed that the reading mania was contagious, and expected, feared, or hoped that something similar would happen in their own country. This caused debate and the use, even invention, of words and phrases that belong to the discourse on love of reading. Even the words and phrases used for speaking about reading migrated over linguistic, political, and social borders. The initiation, growth, and diffusion of the discourse can be followed by searching the typical words and phrases that indicate the presence of the discourse. Data were obtained from Google Books Ngram Viewer and national full-text databases of books and newspapers. A map representing the geographical diffusion of the discourse in Europe until the 20th century is constructed. The historical conditions for the diffusion of the discourse are discussed. Methodological problems are discussed and future research is outlined.
Anna Sylwia Czyż
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 79-93; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.35

Abstract:
This article presents two printed epithalamia from the 17th c. related to marriages contracted in the Pacas family. Each of them was adorned with a graphic decoration conforming with the allegoric meaning of the Gozdawa coat-of-arms. This determined not only individual virtues but also, together with the relevant quotations and symbols, became a prognostic of a satisfactory marital life. It also demonstrated the connections of the Pacas family, which were crucial in terms of strengthening the position of both the family and its individuals against public and family issues.
Iryna Tiurmenko, Liudmyla Bozhuk
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 289-319; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.41

Abstract:
A higher education reform in Ukraine, and the emergence of the new integrated program “Information, Library and Archival Studies” instead of “Records Management and Information Activity” in the educational space in particular, brought about various interpretations and sharp discussions. In general, the university community met these innovations without enthusiasm. The scientific thought of Ukrainian scholars on how to develop archival education in Ukraine was generally based on the tradition enshrined in the complex of the developed academic disciplines and tested in practice in conditions of intense competition among students.The approach of the Department of History and Records Management of the National Aviation University to modern training of the archivist was prompted by the needs of the labor market and the challenges of the digital society.1 It consists of finding ways to train modern specialists who possess interdisciplinary competences in the field of archival studies, records management, information activity, and socio-communicative sciences. This led to a study aimed at finding an up-to-date profile of a records manager/archivist.The research analyzes the approaches to the education of archivists in Ukraine at various stages of its socio-economic development and summarizes the current experience of the National Aviation University in this sphere.
Aušra Navickienė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 16-25; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.32

Abstract:
Knygotyra (“Book Science”) is one of the longest existing scholarly journals among the periodicals published by Vilnius University. It has been in print since 1961. Until 1969, it was published under the title Bibliotekininkystės ir bibliografijos klausimai (“Issues of Librarianship and Bibliography”). During 1981–1991, as part of the series “Research Work of the Higher Education Institutions of the Lithuanian SSR,” it appeared in two volumes: one devoted to the problems of book history, publishing and distribution, and the other – to issues of libraries, bibliography, and information science. In 1990, the first volumes were turned into Knygotyra, a serial published by Vilnius University, while the second volumes were published independently under the title Informacijos mokslai (“Information Sciences”). Since 2003, Knygotyra has been regularly published twice a year as a scholarly journal. For decades, it has been referred to in Lithuanian and international databases as an open access, peer-reviewed journal and, since 2018, it is included into the Elsevier Scopus database. Domas Kaunas is the most experienced member of the Editorial Board and has been an Editor-in-Chief till 2019. Docent Genovaitė Raguotienė had been in this position for three years (1970‒1973), Professor Levas Vladimirovas – for fifteen years (1974‒1989), when Domas Kaunas subsequently joined the editorial board in 1979 and served as the Editor-in-Chief for three decades.
Inga Strungytė-Liugienė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 94-112; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.36

Abstract:
This article studies the Lithuanian treatise „Stebuklingo Meile warginga Griekininko=Szirdis priesz Jezaus kruwinos Ronus“, published in 1752 and currently stored in Berlin, in the Secret Archive of Prussian Cultural Heritage. Questions are raised regarding the attribution of the original version as well as the translation of the treatise, its composition and contents are discussed. The article provides the historical context of the 18th c. as well as the penetration of the Moravian movement and its attempts to consolidate within Prussian Lithuania. It was determined that the treatise is a Lithuanian translation of a theological treatise written by Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700–1760), leader of the Moravian movement, and titled „Die erstaunliche Verliebtheit eines armen Sünder-Herzens gegen die blutigen Wunden Jesu“. This publication is unknown to book historians and is not registered in Lithuanian bibliographical issues. The translation was most probably done by Adam Friedrich Schimmelpfennig the Younger (1699–1763), Priest of Papelkiai, a well-known author of Prussian Lithuania, editor of the Lithuanian Bible (1755), translator of religious hymns and compiler of the official Evangelical Lutheran Church hymnal (1750).
Aile Möldre
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 264-288; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.40

Abstract:
This paper explores the dynamics of publishing of non-Russian Soviet literatures in Soviet Estonia, establishing the output of titles and the most popular source literatures. The analysis follows the position of Soviet national literatures during four periods in political history: the Stalinist years, the Thaw, Stagnation, and Perestroika. The study uses statistical yearbooks, bibliographies, archival material, as well as research literature as sources. The publishing of Soviet literature was strongly regulated by the publishing authorities and dependent on ideological directions. The analysis demonstrates that the proportion of the non-Russian Soviet literatures started to increase during the Thaw period, but the peak of its production was reached during the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s due to official pressure. The total number of source literatures was 49, demonstrating the diversity of translation production, although they were represented equally. The top source literatures were Latvian, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian. The interest of the literary circles and reading audiences in the translations was rather weak, although the top authors attracted the attention of the more intellectual segment of readers.
Kšištof Tolkačevski
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 62-78; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.34

Abstract:
As a form of literacy, graffiti has existed throughout the ages. Many researches on epigraphy show that many examples of graffiti were left intact from the period of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, the purpose of their appearance was merely disputed in the scientific community.The main aim of this research is to ascertain the motives of the habits of inscribing graffiti among Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealths citizens. This study is a qualitative research that seeks an in-depth understanding of the phenomena of writing graffiti. Basic material for the research was gathered from ego-documents that are focused on the personal lives and experiences of the writers. The research is based on a detailed contextual analysis of several cases (case study method).This article examines several cases and gives some light on how and why graffiti were made. However, for more ample and accurate results, more extensive research must be done.
Aušra Navickienė
Published: 13 January 2020
Knygotyra, Volume 73, pp 7-15; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.73.31

Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 274-280; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.29

Abstract:
Grāmata un sabiedrība Latvijā līdz 1945. gadam: rakstu krājums. Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka; Galvenais redaktors Andris Vilks; atbildīgā redaktore Sanita Briežkalne. Rīga: Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka, 2019. 367 p.: diagramma, faksimili, ilustrācijas, portreti, shēmas. ISSN 1691-5941. (Zinātniskie raksti, 4 (XXIV)
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 183-205; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.25

Abstract:
The personal archive of Martin Ludwig Rhesa (1776–1840), who had gathered and prepared the first known collection of Lithuanian songs, contains the letters of two of Rhesa’s respondents from the country – of Enrikas Budrius (1783–1852), teacher of the Brėdausių estate school, and of Wilhelm Ernst Beerbohm (1786–1865), chief inspector of littoral fishing. The archive itself was taken to Königsberg after the Second World War and is today stored in the Manuscript Department of the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. Budrius wrote his letters during 1818–1827 and contained in them songs that he had heard in the Pilupėnų area. He was one of the contributors who had captured the melodies of the songs, which he would hear performed during Lithuanian feasts or other types of gatherings. Budrius has sent more than 20 songs, yet only one – Žvirblytis – was eventually included in the printed collection; Rhesa himself gave a copy to Budrius. The letters contain discussions on Lithuanian songs and their melodies; we see some talks regarding a project to write the Lithuanian history using the Lithuanian language, and there are some personal motives present in the letter as well. Beerbohm, the other respondent, corresponded with Rhesa during the former’s last years, during 1835–1839; these two men were from the same region and had met several times in Königsberg. Beerbohm’s letters contain ample supplementary content – songs and regional vocabularies, fishermen phraseology, Lithuanian names of littoral plants and sea fish, etc. The drawings and schemes of vytinė trading boats and ice fishing, complemented with Lithuanian terms, are the first Lithuanian visual and explanatory dictionaries. Some of these words are not included in any of the Lithuanian dictionaries – not now, and not even then. Each of the respondents have authored a poem dedicated to Rhesa. Budrius wrote his poem in Lithuanian. Four Beerbohm’s letters and three written by Budrius are extant. Judging by the circumstances referred to in the letters, it is possible to state that Rhesa wrote at least four or five letters to these individuals.
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 166-182; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.24

Abstract:
Martin Ludwig Rhesa sent Lithuanian books to Abraham Jakob Penzel in Jena twice: in May 1818 and in the spring of 1819. Although this is a well-known fact, there is a lack of knowledge concerning which and how many books were in those two packages. Rhesa himself, in a letter to Scheffner dated April 1819, mentioned the following three books from the second package:Martin Ludwig Rhesa sent Lithuanian books to Abraham Jakob Penzel in Jena twice: in May 1818 and in the spring of 1819. Although this is a well-known fact, there is a lack of knowledge concerning which and how many books were in those two packages. Rhesa himself, in a letter to Scheffner dated April 1819, mentioned the following three books from the second package:1) A new edition of the Lithuanian Bible published by Rhesa (1816);2) Gottfried Ostermeyer’s Erste Littauische Liedergeschichte (1793);3) Gotthard Friedrich Stender’s Neue vollständigere Lettische Grammatik, Nebst einem hinlänglichen Lexico.But it is a mere drop in the ocean, as it is known that Rhesa not only bought books for this occasion, but also added 12 books from his own book collection, and a bundle from Ostermeyer.We also know little about the content of the first package sent to Penzel in May 1819. There are few books in the Latvian Academic Library that have inscriptions with the name Penzel in them. As it is clear from the published copies of the inscriptions (see pictures in this paper), in all of those, Rhesa is mentioned as a sender – all except for one book without any coherent record, which this paper concludes is also one of the books sent by Rhesa. This paper concludes that the following is the list of the books from 1818 (the first three in the list were noticed years ago by Tumelis and Jovaišas): 1) May 29, 1818 Christian Daniel Hassenstein Nuſidawimai βwento Karawimo (1814) (LU AB sign: D6 5813);2) May 31, 1818 Nathaniel Friedrich Ostermeyer Graudenimo balsas (1818) (LU AB sign: D6 5787);3) June 1, 1818 Nathaniel Friedrich Ostermeyer Nedel=Dienos knygeles, krikſʒ́ćʒoniems ſuraβytos (1818), (LU AB sign: D6 5517);4) June 2, 1818 Adam Friedrich Schimmelpfennig Iß naujo pérveiʒdėtos ir pagérintos giesmiû=Knygos (1791), kartu su Danielio Kleino Naujos labbay priwalingos ir Dußoms naudingos Maldû Knygélos (LU AB sign: D6 5515);5) (without a provenance of Penzel himself) Christian Daniel Hassenstein Kaip krikßcʒonißzka Wiera bey Baznycʒia, Ʒmonû pagadinta (1818) (LU AB sign: D6 5518);6) (supposedly) Christian Donaleitis Das Jahr in Vier Gesängen: Ein Ländliches Epos (1818).
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 141-165; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.23

Abstract:
The founder of the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Tadeusz Stanisław Wróblewski (1858–1925), began to enrich the library of his parents, which he inherited in 1891, through his acquisitions of books, manuscripts, periodicals, collections of iconographic documents, and other valuables. One of such book collections, offered to him for sale in 1907, was from the Pustynia Estate located near the town of Kraslava, then part of the Vitebsk Province (Kraslava now is a municipality center in the Republic of Latvia, situated not far from Daugavpils and near the border with the Russian Federation). This collection belonged to Count Henryk de Broel-Plater (1868–after 1926). Having studied its catalogue, Wroblewski purchased from the count his entire collection (over 6000 volumes) on October 30, 1907, for 2.5 thousand roubles. However, Plater had hid several hundred of his most valuable books, which he later offered to Hieronym Wilder’s antique bookshop in Warsaw. Wroblewski had to exercise a considerable effort to reclaim the books he rightly owned. Based both on archival materials kept in the Wroblewski Library of LAS and on evidence collected about publications carrying the Pustynia Estate pro­venance mark (350 copies have been identified so far), the article discusses the circumstances of the purchase of Plater’s book collection and overviews its content and development. The Pustynia estate library was rather universal by its content and contained extremely valuable editions. Wroblewski purchased from the count, among other rarities, Joannes Radvanus’s Radivilias (Vilnae, Metropoli Litvanorum: ex officina Ioannis Kartzani, 1592), a Latin biography by the Lutheran pastor Paul Oderborn Ioannis Basilidis magni Moscoviae ducis vita (Witebergae: excudebat haeredes Ioannis Cratonis, 1585), and a treatise on the differences between the Catholic and the Orthodox faiths by the Kraków canon Jan Sakran, Elucidarius errorum ritus Ruthenici (Cracoviae: typis Joannis Haller, post V 1501). There are no more copies of these and several other Plater’ s books in Lithuania.
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 206-232; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.26

Abstract:
The Lithuanian national movement of the 19th c. had mostly manifested itself in the literature, which, under the Lithuanian press ban, was being published both in East Prussia and in Lithuanian communities in the United States, and which was being distributed likewise in Lithuania, East Prussia, and the United States. That same time period saw the forming of a new system designed to inform readers of new releases, which was utilized to help any members of the Lithuanian diaspora to keep updated on the newest literature affairs. This system had encompassed the press of both East Prussia and the United States, and it would inform the readers of the newest publications both from the location of where the newspaper was being released and about the new books and periodicals that were being published in foreign countries; thus, it had created a reflection of Lithuanian literature as a whole. The aim of this article is to analyze the circumstances surrounding the informing of readers about the newest publications as it had occurred in the American Lithuanian press up to 1904; main focus is paid here to the information regarding Lithuanian and Lithuanistic publications released in East Prussia and elsewhere in Europe. The basis of this study is a list of 322 Lithuanian and Lithuanistic publications released in Europe; the list itself took shape after overviewing 11 Lithuanian newspapers published in the United States. The 322 publications had been distributed in Lithuanian communities in the United States and were announced by the local Lithuanian press.This study has showed that the first announcements about the new books appeared in the US Lithuanian press in the late 1890s, and in the early 20th c., designated columns for publishing news became an ordinary practice. Unfortunately, a lack of authors capable of writing critical reviews of the new publications forced the émigré press to be content with mostly annotations and very laconic commentaries about the pros and cons of new publications. The fact that announcements were made about books (mostly publications released in Europe) that were not part of the American salespeople’s repertoire allows us to believe that the editorial boards of the newspapers behaved thus acting upon the informational mission of their newspapers, their societal role, and in seeking to support the national movement and the dissemination of its ideas as well as the mission of its consolidation. In evaluating the repertoire of the introduced publications, we may speak not only of the dissemination of information on these works but also of a particular perspective that the editorial boards of these periodicals had and which was based on a particular set of values. Attention is paid to Lithuanian literature, its growth and place in the society of that time, and how it matches the needs of the readers. The introduced literature repertoire was dominated by secular works that had reflected the growth of Lithuanian...
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 233-254; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.27

Abstract:
During 1904–1940, a total of 26 periodicals were published in Lithuania and in foreign countries in which the Lithuanian language was used alongside others. The demand for multilingual periodicals had emerged during the first part of the 20th c. as new cultural, economic, and political conditions took shape in Eastern and Central Europe. For the governments and businesses of Lithuania, Germany, Latvia, and Poland, the development of economic relations was of the biggest importance, and this process was to be stimulated using the multilingual publications that were being released in these countries. Also, particular importance was granted to the political cooperation of the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Cultural relations, on the other hand, were less expressed in the multilingual periodicals and not characterized by commercial success. For propaganda purposes, a considerable number of multilingual publications were released by Germany during the First World War. Apart from Lithuanian, these multilingual publications were marked by the use of German, English, Polish, French, Latvian, and Russian languages; among the rarer instances were Belarusian, Yiddish, and Estonian texts. The emergence of multilingual periodicals and the presence of the Lithuanian language in these publications reflected the international recognition of the Lithuanian nation and its state. It represented an understanding of multiculturalism and peculiar needs within the society and resembled the dialogue occurring across the political, economic, and cultural dimensions.
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 62-89; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.21

Abstract:
Based on the initiative of Duke Nicolaus Christophorus Radziwill the Orphan (1549–1616), Great Marshal of Lithuania (1579–1586) and Voivode of Vilnius (1604–1616), a map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, titled Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae caeterumque regionum illi adiaciencium exacta descriptio…, was printed in 1613 in the printing house of Willem Janszoon (Blaeu), which was famous at that time for the manufacture of globes and wall maps. It was drawn by Hessel Gerritsz (Lat. Gerardus) and prepared by a team of professionals gathered by N. Ch. Radziwill. The written part of the map (which addresses the reader), separately published also in 1613, glued together from three pages, and designated to the buyers of the wall map of the GDL, was prepared by the famous GDL painter Tomasz Makowski (1575–1630). From 1613 to 1631, this map of the GDL functioned only as a wall map. When W. Blaeu began to publish atlases as well, he included the 1613 wall map of the GDL, which was pressed from four copper plates and included a narrow ornamental edging, in his atlas Appendix Theatri A.Ortelii et Atlantis G. Mercatoris. The readers of the atlas could not observe the territory of the GDL in its entirety, as it was depicted in four pages. Thus, already in another edition of the atlas that was published during the same year of 1631, the map of the GDL was changed and its copper plates were reordered: the segment depicting the lower part of the Dnieper was cut away, and the whole ornamental edging of the map was discarded. Two maps then took shape: one of the GDL’s territory, glued together from four disproportionate plates, and one depicting the lower part of the Dnieper, glued together from two plates. Such a large map of the GDL’s territory (73 × 75 cm) was collapsible and would be included in Blaeu’s atlases near a written piece on Lithuania in the editions of 1631, 1634–1649, and even in one that was published in c. 1670. This map, unconventional for usage in atlases (as it was not bound), was replaced in 1649 by another map made on the basis of the original 1613 variant by W. Blaeu’s son, Joan. This particular specimen was a smaller-scale version of the GDL’s map and was oriented toward the west, not the north. However, as Blaeu’s printing house began to include the 1613 map of the GDL in its atlases, this does not mean that it had also stopped publishing it as a wall map – the buyer could have it made in the same printing shop and purchase, for example, a wide ornamental edging as a supplement to their order (e.g., the specimen belonging to the Uppsala University Library). Only two copies of this 1613 wall map of the GDL are extant, and these can be found in the Uppsala University Library and the Herzogin Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. These specimens are unique in that they allow us to see how an authentic 1613 wall map of the GDL looks like, together with T. Makowski’s text about Lithuania, also marked by a 1613 date. Knowing...
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 255-273; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.28

Abstract:
In this article, one of the most important sources of Baltic mythology of the 16th century – The Yotvingian Book – is analyzed: the possible circumstances of its creation, purpose, dating, and the problems of authorship are described.The written source, also called by its original title Der vnglaubigen // Sudauen ihrer bockheiligung mit sambt andern Ceremonien, so sie tzu brauchen gepflegeth, is a conventional, probably the most exhaustive, and the most important description of the ethnocultural tradition of the tribe that spoke Yotvingian, one of the two languages of Western Balts, recorded during the Reformation period. It is based on the source of information disseminated in several variants of manuscripts, and later in small printed books (reprints).The Yotvingian Book has been repeatedly discussed by many art workers of different epochs and branches of science. The dating and its possible authorship were differently interpreted. The most valuable analysis was carried out by W. Mannhardt. It was very essentially supplemented by the Lithuanian scientist I. Lukšaitė. Based on the hypotheses advanced by her, it is possible, and necessary, to once again reconsider the known facts, the actual material, and the structural typology of the source. Therefore, the purpose of this article was a study of the above issues.In this article, the question of the meaning of the latent acrostics is addressed anew. They are found in the Bible, in extrabiblical sources, and in ancient Eastern literature. There are various explanations for the phenomenon, and in each case, the function of the acrostic should be determined through a comprehensive analysis of the composition itself.It is highly believable that the author of The Yotvingian Book concealed the latent message. It is to be assumed that his personal name of Semitic origin is encoded in the catalogue of theonyms of The Yotvingian Book. The name is composed using the numerological system of Gematria in accordance with the alphanumeric code of M.-Hebr. mispār heḵǝraẖi combining it with the AvGag alphabetic sequences (i.e., partly replacing each letter with the next one): Ishmǝrai Sābā bēn Āḏām, i.e., Ishmerai Saba, Adam’s son. The surname M.-Hebr. Sābā (“an old man; a man with grey hair”) is a synonym to the G. Graumann “ditto” and Gr. Πολιανδρος “ditto.” These surnames indicate the author of The Yotvingian Book – Johannes Poliander, or Johann Graumann. He was a German pastor, theologian, teacher, humanist, reformer, and Lutheran leader.Based on the results of the analysis (cf. the list of theonyms of The Yotvingian Book which presupposes a reconstruction of the demonological order of the mythonyms), it is possible to make the statement that The Yotvingian Book should not be regarded as a material of the Episcopal inspection (therefore, it should not be related with Agenda Ecclesiastica or its authors) or an odd fragment of a more extensive source written...
Published: 9 July 2019
Knygotyra, Volume 72, pp 281-285; doi:10.15388/knygotyra.2019.72.30

Abstract:
Encyklopedia książki. T. 1: Eseje, A-J. T. 2: K-Z, pod red. Anny Żbikowskiej-Migoń i Marty Skalskiej-Zlat, Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2017, 776, 770, [2] s., faksymilia, fotografie, errata, ISBN 978-83-229-3543-9.
Page of 13
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top