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Results in Journal Medical Science Journal for Advance Research: 42

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Ali Rashid, Abid Ali, Taiba Zulfiqar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 129-133; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.53

Abstract:
Aim/Objective:To determine the normal liver size in adults without suspicion of liver disease analyzing the variable (age, weight, & height) that has good correlation. Methods: The study was undertaken in Department of Radiology in Services Hospital (SHL)/ Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) Lahore. It was hospital based study and normal healthy adult without liver disease in the age range from 18 years to 78 years were selected for this study. 207 healthy adults without liver disease & without specification of gender were selected. Non- randomized or consecutive sampling technique was used due to limited time of 3 months from 1st December 2016 to 1st March 2016. Results: The mean age of total subjects was 34.85±14.67 years. The mean age of male was 35.6± 14.47 years and 33.8±14.95 years for female. There were 83 (40%) subjects in the age range of 18-27 years, 51 (24.6%) subjects in the age range of 28-37 years, 29 (14.1%) subjects in the age range of 38-47 years, 24 (11.6%) subjects in the age range of 48-57 years, 13 (6.3%) subjects in the age range of 58-67 years, 7 (3.4%) subjects in the age range of 68-77 years.The mean longitudinal diameter of liver of total subjects was 14.34±0.79cm (p=0.001). The mean longitudinal diameter of liver was 14.50±0.71cm & 14.1±0.84cm in male and female respectively. The mean height of total subjects was 163.56±6.7cm. The mean height was 165.74±6.0cm for male & 160.72±6.6 for female respectively. The distribution of liver sizes in the various age groups is shown in table 3. The result demonstrates that liver sizes increases with age. The results also show that males had larger liver size than females. The size of the liver was correlated with age, weight, and height showed positive and significant correlation with liver size. Conclusion:Ultrasound has been found to be both accurate and wide spread in clinical use and has no proven health hazard. The sonographic measurement of liver at the midclavicular line was shown to be an easy and practical method for routine use. Sex and body height are the most important factors associated with the diameter of the liver measured at the midclavicular line.
Abdul Haris, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 143-148; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.55

Abstract:
Background: Upper extremity fractures are the most common musculoskeletal injury seen in the emergency/trauma center. Upper extremity fractures (UEFs) may result in long-term disability. AIM AND OBJECTIVE The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of fractures in patients with road traffic accident and its association with age. Methodology: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at X-Ray unit in Aziz Bhatti Trauma Center Gujrat, Pakistan. A total of 200 patients with the history of road traffic accident were enrolled in present study. The duration of this research work was from February 2022 to May 2022. All RTA patients visited us were included. Patients who were admitted in the wards were excluded. Predesigned questionnaire form was used to collect the data. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Frequency of different findings and their associations were found out using the chi square test. These were then graphically portrayed in the form of tables and graphs. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: We observed 102(51%) fractures in a total of 200 patients. Higher percentage 98(49%) was found in the age group 16-30 years with male predominance. Injuries due to motorcycle fall 110(55%) were the main cause of upper extremity fractures in case of RTA. Radius and humerus were the most frequently fractured bone 21(10.5%) and 20(10%) respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that the frequencies of upper extremity fractures occur mostly in males and mostly due to the motorcycles fall. Our study established the frequency of upper extremity fractures and it can be considered as a useful guide to determine its occurrence in case of RTAs.
Adrash Naeem, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali, Khadija Zafar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.54

Abstract:
Background: Sonography is a significant noninvasive imaging modality to diagnose types of abdominal wall hernias. Ultrasound imaging could be effective in creating a diagnosis as well as determining the type of hernia and providing additional details like the contents of the hernia and how much of it can be reduced. These findings may influence surgical procedures and reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to identify the frequency of anterior abdominal wall hernias in Gujrat, Pakistan. Material And Method: A retrospective study was conducted at the diagnostic clinical setup Azeem ultrasound & digital X-Ray center Gujrat. . A total of 377 female patients who meet the inclusion criteria were enrolled in present study. The duration of the study was 4 months i.e. September 2021 to December 2021. Results: We observed 377 patients, among these participants age ranged from 1 year as minimum age and 70 years as maximum with mean age was 39±15.7. The maximum frequency of patients 111(29.4%) was found in the age range of 31-40 years following 79(21%) in 21-30 years. Out of these, there were 109 males (28.9%), and 268 females (71.1%). Among 377 patients, there were 59 (15.6%) positive cases who showed anterior wall abdominal hernia where paraumblical hernias and umbilical hernias were the most frequently occurring hernia 20(5.3%) and 19 (5%) patients respectively. Conclusion: According to the current study, there were more females than men , male dominance was demonstrated in inguinal hernias and female dominance in paraumbilical hernias. In the management plan for patients in whom the diagnosis of an abdominal wall hernia is uncertain, abdominal wall ultrasonography is a useful tool. The ultrasound results can have an impact on treatment choices, allowing for a more rapid and cost-effective clinical procedure.
Mustafa H. Salem, Ferdous A. Jabir
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 107-115; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.50

Abstract:
Introduction: COVID-19 is a new type of coronavirus that infects humans and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Isolated in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. Similar to discoveries relating to the coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Levels of cytokines (Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1 β ), iron and hemoglobin changed during COVID-19 disease. Hepcidin is an iron regulatory protein that is encoded by the HAMP gene . Material and Methods : Serum IL-6, IL-1 β , Hepcidin are measured by an ELISA kit and Iron ,UIBC , TIBC are measured by colorimetric methods. The genotyping was done by the ARM-PCR technique with a specific set of primers. Results : The difference in Hb and serum iron levels, UIBC, TIBC, IL-1, IL-6, and Hepcidin conc. between the patient and recovery groups is statistically significant at P≤ 0.05 . No significant difference between the two groups in hepcidin gene polymorphism because of Polymorphisms of the hepcidin gene appeared in the two groups (in most samples). Conclusions: The persons involved in this study are (most of them) heterozygous, and this indicates the presence of the mutation allele in the two groups , and it may be one of the reasons for the deficiency in hepcidin that appeared in this study.
Mahnoor Islam, Rehan Afsar, Abid Ali, Faizan Haider Naqvi
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 75-80; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.46

Abstract:
Background : The purpose of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography may be used as an useful addition to clinical and radiology profiles in diagnosing dengue fever and predicting virus severity by comparing imaging findings. The difference in sonographic characteristics observed in patients of various ages was also investigated. Objective : The goal of this study is to determine role of ultrasound for diagnosis of complications of dengue fever in Gujrat Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. From October and December 2021, 79 patients who were serologically confirmed with dengue fever were referred for ultrasound scanning of the abdomen at Aziz bhatti shaheed hospital Gujrat, and the imaging data were evaluated. The statistical kit for social science (spss) is used for data analysis. Results: out of 76 positive dengue patients there are 71(89.9%) male and 8(10%) are female .48 (60.8%) patients showed splenomegaly, 24(30%) patients showed ascites in which 8 (10%) have pelvic ascites and 16 (20.3%) abdominal ascites, 63 (79.7%) patients showed edematous GB wall thickening, 21(26.6%) showed pleural effusion while 18 (22.8 %) have bilateral pleural effusion and 3 (3.8%) have right sided. Conclusion: In patients presenting with fever and concomitant symptoms, sonographic signs of thickening GB wall, pleural effusion (bilateral or right side), ascites, and splenomegaly should strongly help in early diagnosis of dengue fever, especially during an outbreak.
Burhan Ahmad Mubashar, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali, Ali Rashid
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 123-128; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.52

Abstract:
Background: Infertility is a gynecological illness which has clinical, financial and psychological consequences that affects 1.3% to 25.7% of couples throughout the world. Hysterosalpingography is a typical imaging technique used in gynecological practice to diagnose infertility in women. Aim And Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the frequency of Hysterosalpingography findings in females presenting with infertility in Gujrat. Methodology: The prospective cross sectional study was carried out at X-Ray unit in Azeem Ultrasound & Digital X-Rays center, Gujrat, Pakistan. A total of 90 females patients with infertility were enrolled in present study. The duration of this research work was from February 2022 to May 2022. The data was gathered using a predesigned questionnaire form.. Statistical Package of Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Frequency of different findings was found out. These were then graphically portrayed in the form of tables and graphs. Results : We observed 90 female patients out of which 72 (80%) patients found to be normal. In 18 (20%) patients fallopian tube blockage was diagnosed. Out of 18 patients, 8 (8.9%) were having right sided fallopian tube blockage, 8(8.9%) were having bilateral tubal blockage while only 2 (2.2%) showed left sided tube block. Hydrosalpinx was found in 4(4.4%) patients and uterine anomaly in 2(2.2%) patients. Conclusion: Fallopian tube blockage and hydrosalpinx were common factors of infertility in our study. Hysterosalpingography provides an easy and affordable source for evaluation of infertility factors.
Atika Hasan, Muhammad Ahmad Naeem, Abid Ali, Nosheen Arshad, Syed Naqi Abbas, Hassan Mumtaz
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 90-98; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.48

Abstract:
Introduction: A congenital abnormality is referred to as a congenital illness or deformity. In the first four weeks of life, 276,000 newborns die from congenital impairments, giving birth to a total of around 3 million fetuses and babies; these fetuses and infants are affected by abdominal fetal deformities. Each demographic has a different prevalence of birth defects. Using standard ultrasonography, we set out to find out how often it is to see congenital fetal abdominal abnormalities in Gujrat District of Pakistan. Methods: From January 2022 to June 2022, researchers will conduct cross-sectional study at the Azeem Diagnostic Center Gujrat. 397 This research included pregnant women in the first, second, and third trimesters. Statistical analysis of prenatal ultrasound findings was carried out via the use of a structured questionnaire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant when using the Chi-square test to look for a relationship. Odds Ratio was used to calculate illness risk. Results: Twenty separate pregnant women who had ultrasounds had fetal congenital impairments discovered. Patients with Atresia or Renal Agenesis are nine times more likely to have an Omphalocele than those without (odds ratio = 0.994, 95 percent confidence range = 0.986-1.002). Conclusion: It is a noninvasive imaging technique that is incredibly sensitive and accurate while also being quite affordable in the hands of a skilled professional. At least during the second trimester, obstetricians should encourage their patients to get regular ultrasounds.
Amna Athar, Nosheen Arshad, Abid Ali, Akash John, Rehan Asfar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 116-122; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.51

Abstract:
Background: with the increasing numbers of elected caesarean the cases of abnormal placental implantation such as previa is also increasing. Mortality and morbidity of mother increase with placenta previa due to increase in the incidence of bleeding during pregnancy. Objective: this study was performed to evaluate the prevalence between repeated elective caesarean section and abnormal implantation of plancenta / previa. Material and Patients: It is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 4 months from February 2022 to May 2022. A sample size of 35 patients was collected using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected from Lady Atchison Hospital Lahore and Christian Memorial Hospital. Patients with history of elected caesarean without any medical emergency were included in the current study. Patients with multiple gestations, patients with placental abruption, female with gestational age less than 28 weeks, smoker, diabetic patients and hypertensive patients were excluded. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 Results: In the present study 35 patients were selected .Out of total 35 participants females aged 30yrs were more prevalent.. Regarding gestational age most femalesin this study had gestational age 28weeks In total 35 participants Placenta Previa was seen in 20 participates. Most cases of placenta Previa are seen in females who are gravida4 and para3. Conclusion: The study concluded that elected C-section and placenta previa are closely linked. It showed that pregnancies at the gestational age of 28 – 29 weeks have high privilege of placenta previa.
, Reynold Siburian
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 99-106; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.49

Abstract:
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of undergoing pandemic. Molecular testing in the form of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered as the diagnostic standard for detecting COVID-19. However, there are still certain issues with its application. We sought this study is to systematically review and summarize studies pertaining blood laboratory biomarkers for diagnosing COVID-19. Methods: The systematic review was conducted by following the PRISMA 2020 recommendations. We searched published articles in four databases (EbscoHost, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus).that assessed the implementation of routine laboratory tests examination for diagnosing COVID-19 patients from March 2020 through September 2021. Results: Three studies were selected to be reviewed, with the number of participants ranging from 100 to 485 (total: 792). Peripheral blood count parameters were assessed in all studies. The monocyte-lymphocyte ratio had the highest accuracy. Several abnormalities of laboratory indicators such as white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, NLR, MLR, LDH, AST, ALT, and CRP were significantly different between COVID-19 positive patients to negative controls,. Conclusion: No single test could identify or distinguish COVID-19 from other pneumonia causes. However, laboratory biomarkers can be used as a complement to the COVID-19 diagnostic approach.
Uswah Batool, Rehan Afsar, Abid Ali, Maryam Jameel
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.47

Abstract:
Background: Knee arthritis is one of the most prevalent orthopedic conditions that affect people of all ages and genders. The changes in height of the medial longitudinal arch is one of the causes of knee arthritis. There is evidence that knee arthritis may be caused by flat feet. However, there isn't enough proof to support the link between knee OA and cavus foot. Objectives: The major goal of this study is to explain the association between foot arch height and knee arthritis. The other objective is to find the incidence of pes planus and pes cavus in people who have knee arthritis. Methodology: 76 individuals of middle age who had knee arthritis were included, excluded people with any surgery or fracture of the lower extremity. Footprints were taken through inkpads for measurement of the medial longitudinal arch. The feet are classified into three types on the basis of the Staheli arch index. Data on knee and foot arthritis were collected through X-Ray, proforma, and footprints. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Descriptive Analysis Cross tabulation was used to assess the association between knee arthritis and foot arches. Results: The findings of this study suggest an insignificant link between foot arch height and knee arthritis. Pes rectus was present in 56.6 percent of knee OA patients. Comparing pes planus and pes cavus, pes cavus was more common than pes planus among participants. Regardless of the height of the foot arch, the majority (57.9%) had Grade 3 knee arthritis. Conclusions: It was concluded that arch height had little to no effect on age-related knee OA. Regardless of arch height, knee arthritis was quite common in females aged 41 to 50. The majority of patients had both knees affected by OA. Patients with knee arthritis were shown to have more pes cavus than pes planus in terms of foot type but that percentage was still less than normal foot type.
Murtadha M. Jawad, Asmaa H. Hussein
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 61-68; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i2.42

Abstract:
Background: This review deals with a collection of information about a protein marker that is very important and alternates presence in many cases of normal and pathological growth, as it can be observed in high concentrations in the stages of fetal development and can be expressed significantly in many cases and disorders and midkine is considered a diagnostic marker for them as in types of cancers. It has a protein structure of 121 amino acids and its expression is located on the eleventh chromosome and has several functions, especially its expression in nervous tissues during the mid-gestation. Conclusion: Midkine plays an important role in the inflammatory process in terms of its importance in the infiltration of immune cells into the peripheral organs and targeting midkine may be a viable new therapeutic option for chronic infections, especially infections of the kidneys, joints, nervous system and colon.
Alia Hussein Al–Mousawi, Bent Alhuda Hussein Neamah, Roaa Mohammed Chessab, Hadeel Haider Aldujaili, Jannat Mohammed Chessab
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 55-60; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i2.41

Abstract:
Background: Helicobacter pylori, a member of Epsilonproteobacteria, is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes gastric mucosa of about 50% of the human population. Although most infections caused by H. pylori are asymptomatic, the microorganism is strongly associated with serious diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer, and it is classified as a group I carcinogen. The prevalence of H. pylori infections varies worldwide. prevalence among middle-aged adults is over 80 percent in many developing countries, as compared with 20 to 50 percent in industrialized countries. The infection is acquired by oral ingestion of the bacterium and is mainly transmitted within families in early childhood, Humans can also become infected with Helicobacter heilmannii, a spiral bacterium found in dogs, cats, pigs, and nonhuman primates. Conclusion: H. pylori infection stimulates the reaction of autoantibodies with gastric epithelial cells, and this leads to gastritis. These autoantibodies can be directly induced to epithelial cells by activating complement, inducing apoptosis or provoking an antibody-dependent cytotoxic reaction resulting in subsequent tissue destruction.
Ameer W. Alkhalaf, Rafie S. Al-Khafaji
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 69-74; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i2.43

Abstract:
Background: Colour blindness or colour vision deficiency is an inability or reduced ability to described certain colours, there are several types of colour blindness but the more common type red-green colour blindness that inherited x-linked disorder, hence it was more distribution in males (hemizygote) but it was less prevalent in females because she had two x chromosomes, she may be affected or a carrier to disorder. We examined 2470 participant (2158 male and 312 female) by using Ishihara plate (24 plates edited). This study conducted to find out the prevalence of colour blindness in Al-Najaf province. In the present study, Among those was screened for colour deficiency, 107 of them(4.33%)were diagnosed with colour blindness, the rate was a difference among gender 105(4.87 %) in male and it was 2(0.64) % in female. The deuteranomaly was the highest type 38(35.51%) then deuteranopia was 31(28.97 %), the protanomaly was 23(21.50%), the protanopia was 10(9.35%), At last, the achromacy was lowest 5(4.67 %) among infected colour blindness. The deutan :protan ratio was 2.03:1. This rate (in our study) was approximately similar to the rate recorded in Al-Qadisiyah University (5.2 % in male and 0.4% in female) and less the rate in the centre and north Iraq (Baghdad, Duhok and Erbil province).
Zainab Abdullah Waheed, Nadia Habeeb Sarhan, Mustafa Mohammed Shaker, Israa Mahmood Kadhim Al-Zubaidy, Hawraa Ghaleb Idreess
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i2.40

Abstract:
Background: Fasting is the voluntary abstinence from food and drink for a fixed period of time while remaining faithful to certain rules. Fasting has been practiced by humans since ancient time. Fasting involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes correlated with transitioning into a process capable of Energy production and carbon-based metabolism mainly from Tissue adipose and muscular parts. The differences in the levels in the blood hormones and metabolites help to lower and eventually defend normal cells from chemical insults in the cell division and metabolic activityFasting Can induce an anti-warburg response by reducing glucose absorption Carriers (GLUTs) and aerobic glycolysis and force cancer cells to Improve in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos); It improves efficiency in cancer cells and, subsequently, toxic products of reactive oxygen (ROS). DNA, p53, DNA damage , and death of the cells , particularly Chemotherapy response,Fasting serves as improving anti-tumour immunity By Fasting or FMD. Conclusion Fasting regulates many physiological functions associated with transitioning into a process capable of producing energy and carbon-based metabolic activity mainly from adipose and muscular tissue., The fasting action is largely dictated by the levels of glucose, glucagon, insulin, GH, IGF1, and adrenaline in the blood.,Some many discrepancy in the rates at which hormones and metabolites circulate are normally found during fasting, allowing antitumor response . ,fasting reaction Protects significant nerves and glia but still doesn't prevent glioma or neuroblastoma, Cyclophosphamide, and pro-oxidant Compounds, and preserves the embryonic mouse Doxorubicide fibroblasts.
Zarish Rasool, Narjis Batool, Abid Ali, Nosheen Arshad, Waqar Mahmood Dar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i2.39

Abstract:
Background: The hypertensive disorders affect pregnant women and can create complications for the women in last trimester of pregnancy. To assess the impact of high hypertension, doppler scan is recommended in the third trimester. Objective: Present explores values of PSV, EDV, S/D ratio, RI and PI among normotensive and hypertensive pregnant women during third trimester of pregnancy in Islamabad, Pakistan. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted at PIMS hospital Islamabad with objectives to evaluate doppler indices in fetal umbilical artery among hypertensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Data were collected from 1st February 2022 to 15th May 2022. A total of 93 pregnant women were recruited from already registered at maternal child health care center of PIMS and recommended for doppler indices scan. Toshiba Aplio 300 Ultrasound System was used for the assessment. Data about S/D ratio, RI and PI was analyzed by using IBM SPSS® software platform. Results: Mean Age of pregnant women in our study conducted was 26.722 ± 4.133. Also the mean gestational week for pregnant women was 32.163 ± 2.35. Doppler indices were significantly raised in hypertensive women as compared to normotensive women. Doppler indices i.e. Pulsatility Index (Mean 1.049 ± 0.312 vs 1.360 ± 0.421), Resistivity Index (Mean 0.631 ± 0.114 vs 0.743 ± 0.01), Systolic/Diastolic flow (Mean 2.672 ± 0.512 vs 3.818 ± 0.986) were increased in third trimester of hypertensive women as compared to normotensive patients. Conclusion: In this study, among doppler indices pulsatility index and resistivity index were identified as significant after applying null hypothesis test. Doppler ultrasound should be used to identify vascular resistance and evaluating degree of fetoplacental blood flow in hypertensive pregnant women.
Ghadaq Hameed Neamah Al-Kefaei, Sarah Hasan Kadhum Al-Huchaimi, Bashaer Ahmed Alameedy
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i1.37

Abstract:
Through the samples gathered we noticed the quantity of guys with kidney stones is 188, with a pace of 72.3%. Concerning the quantity of females with kidney stones, 72, with a pace of 27.7%. We additionally noticed that the ages from 1 to 20 years are 17 contaminated individuals, and ages from 20 to 30 years, their numbers are around 52 individuals, and ages from 30 to 40 years, their numbers are around 68 individuals, and ages from 40 to 50 years, their numbers are around 51 individuals. Concerning the ages north of 50 years, the level of their numbers is a lot higher than the quantities of the previously mentioned, it is around 72 individuals with kidney stones, and they are more helpless to disease... Concerning the sorts and level of stones, we saw that whewellite stones are the most various, numbering 140, uric corrosive, 56, weddellite 25, carbonate apatite26, while cystine and struvite range in numbers from 6 to 7.
Marwa Ahmed Meri, Aaya Hamid Al-Hakeem, Rukaya Saad Al-Abeadi
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i1.36

Abstract:
Thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder which is passed down through families in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. This disorder results in the destruction of red blood cell in large number, which leads to anemia. It is caused by mutation in the DNA of cells that make hemoglobin. Thalassemia should be prevented by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis which is helpful in decreasing prevalence and future incidence of thalassemia. The most important problem in thalassemia patients are iron overload, cardiac arrhythmia, hepatitis, osteoporosis and endocrine disorder however there are typical signs and symptoms of anemia. People with thalassemia can get treatment as indicated by the degree of seriousness of their condition. Blood transfusion is the common treatment for thalassemia. This review presents the types, diagnosis, prevalence, complications and treatment of thalassemia. Thalassemias are a major public health issue in many populations which many health authorities fail to address. These requirements are notrecognized by measures such as the Global Burden of Disease project, which ranks thalassemia very low in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and fails to consider that it ranks highly in the one to four-year-oldag egroup, making itanimportant contributor to under-5mortality. Thalassemia doesnot fulfil the criteria to be accepted as a target disease for neonatal screening. Nevertheless, dependingon the screening methodology, severe cases of thalassemia will be detected inmostneonatalscreening programs for sickle cell disease. This is very valuable because: (1) it helps to prepare the affected families for having asick childand (2) it is an important measure of secondary prevention.
Ayaat Al-Hadad, Fatima. H. Al-Zubaidy
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i1.35

Abstract:
The objective of study prepare extract of Casuarina cunninghamiana leave, fruit and bark against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods: collect and prepare sample ,phytochemicals , identifying antibacterial activity. Results: The results indicated to effect of bacteria having higher value of inhibition zone of leaves compared with fruit and bark . Methanolic extract proceed both hot water and ethanolic extract in its effect and increased activity of extracts with increased concentration (500,250.125,62.5)mg/ml .Conclusion: Methanoic extracts proceed both hot aqueous and ethanolic extracts in its antibacterial activity against G+ve than G-ve .
Noor Alhouda D. Al-Garawi, Ammar A. Suhail, Marwa Ahmed Meri
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 12-19; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i1.34

Abstract:
Candida is a kind of yeast, is a fungus that infects the body.Candidiasis is known as yeast contagion because the infecting agent is a yeast, Candida albicans. Candida albicans are the pathogens that are of much significance which are present everywhere and mostly reside along side plentiful bacteria near mouth, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. Hippocrates was the first person to describe candidiasis in 1849. Candidiasis of the mouth is termed as Thrush. Cutaneous candidiasis is a skin infection that occurs in parts of the skin that have very little ventilation and are rarely moist. Deep Candidiasis occurs when fungi infiltrate the body, enter the bloodstream, and spread throughout the body.Treatment methodology are different for each case. Natural prevention is mandatory to safe yourself from being a victim to disease
Aaya Hamid Al-Hakeem, Marwa Ahmed Meri, Hadeel Haider Aldujaili
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i1.33

Abstract:
Histopathological examination of products of conception from miscarriages is part of routine clinical practice. The extent of additional clinically relevant information provided by this investigation in the setting of recurrent spontaneous abortion remains uncertain. The included studies indicated that such examination identify hydatid form moles, villous dysmorphic features suggesting fetal aneuploidy, chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) and massive per villous fibrin deposition and impaired trophoblast invasion. However, in most cases, morphological assessment cannot reliably determine the cause of the miscarriage or distinguish recurrent from sporadic miscarriage. Studies reporting on the use of additional immunohistochemically methods do not currently provide additional clinically useful diagnostic or prognostic information. Routine histological examination of products of conception in the setting of recurrent spontaneous abortion can provide important clinical information in a minority of cases.
Saif Jabbar Yasir, Taghreed Abdul Kareem Al Makhzoomy
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 107-134; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i3.30

Abstract:
The hepatitis D virus causes liver disease. It affects all ages. Some call it "delta hepatitis" (HDV). Hepatitis D patients have previously had hepatitis B, which is why they have this illness. Hepatitis D is spread when contaminated blood or bodily fluids come into contact with an uninfected person's body. Hepatitis D can be an acute infection or a chronic illness, depending on the person. Hepatitis D can produce severe symptoms, liver damage that lasts a lifetime, and even death. Hepatitis B and D viruses can infect people at the same time (coinfection) or they might develop hepatitis D after getting hepatitis B (reverse coinfection) (a condition known as "superinfection"). Hepatitis D is not prevented by immunisation. Hepatitis B vaccination, on the other hand, protects against hepatitis D infection.
Khairy A. Dawood Assit, Ruaa A. Talib, Hasanain Falah
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 102-106; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i3.29

Abstract:
Serological identification and blood pictures were done for specific IgM and IgG.10% of cases were positive IgM of Toxoplasmosis because have 10 IU/ml (mean) in comparison with control group were 0.11 IU/ml (mean). On other hand 20% of diagnosed cases were positive IgG of Toxoplasmosis because have 11 IU/ml .Two cases were followed for their history one from group IgM and other IgG , first one suffered from three abortion and now have five child three of them healthy while two have congenital defects. Second case (IgG positive ) have four abortion and now have three child , two healthy and one have congenital defect. Blood picture reveal 40% suffered from Normocytic anemia , these cases classified to three groups , first Toxoplasma group 30% (positive in ELISA test). Second group (Unknown causes), these cases not only normocytic anemia also have high total leukocytes 17 x10 (mean) and high MCV (103 ft). Third group have low MCV 78ft.
Murtadha M. Jawad, Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 95-101; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i3.28

Abstract:
The present study was aimed efficiency to evaluate the unsaturated fatty acid omega-3 in reducing the side effects that resulted from administration of cyclosporine drug in white New Zealand rabbits. (60) from white males' rabbits were used in this study, the animals divided into major four groups (15) rabbits per group and its subdivision into three groups (5) rabbits per group. The first group is orally administered with normal saline, second groups were administered cyclosporine (25mg/kg) only. Third groups were administered cyclosporine (25mg/kg) in the first day and Omega-3 (500mg/kg) in the second day, while Fourth groups were administered cyclosporine (25mg/kg) in the first day and omega-3 (1000mg/kg) in the second day for periods (21,30,60) days respectively. After ending study periods, the animals were sacrificed and the blood was collected and samples from liver were taken and the results were showed the following: the histological study showed pathological changes after administration of cyclosporine (25mg/kg) with blood congestion for period (21day), while severe blood congestion with beginning of fibrosis for period (30day) while in the period (60day) very severe blood congestion with aggregation of inflammatory cells and grow of fibroblast cells were showed. while the interaction between cyclosporine and two concentrations (500&1000mg/kg) of omega-3 were showed non-pathological changes in liver tissues. From this study concluded that omega-3 have an important role in the reducing histopathology side effects that result from administration of cyclosporine drug in white rabbits.
Almighty C. Tabuena
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 135-140; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i3.32

Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global issue that causes significant morbidity. AMR causes more serious infections and consequences, increasing hospital stays and death. AMR threatens to undermine our capacity to cure common infectious infections. In this case, a clinician at a local sexual health clinic has recently alerted a 35-year-old male who has been seen in the clinic with probable AMR gonorrhoea. Consider the case's immediate consequences and select three measures to be addressed within the first several weeks. This article used the DEPESTEL (demographic structures, epidemiological patterns, political factors, economic influences, sociological trends, technological innovations, educational factors, and legislative requirements) framework to construct the response. In conclusion, AMR gonorrhoea infections stay in the body, increasing infection risk. Rapid gonorrhoea patient diagnosis is crucial for public health and clinical care of infected patients and sexual partners. Patients must be treated to cease transmission. AMR surveillance must include seasonal and epidemiological data. Keep track of treatment failures, warn partners, and prioritize clinical care. To appropriately analyze and handle treatment failure scenarios, cross-border collaboration is essential. Traveling overseas increases AMR gonorrhoea risk. Fear of AMR in the population may cause over-reaction to STIs. The media might assist in disseminating this vital health prevention, management, and security messages. People at risk need to be informed about the possibility of resistant gonorrhoea. Age, sex, sexual orientation, specimen location, prior infections, and concurrent STIs are also needed to be better reported.
Saif Jabbar Yasir, Taghreed Abdul Kareem Al Makhzoomy
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 80-94; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i3.24

Abstract:
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response. Prion diseases in animals, Scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly known as "mad cow disease") in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans are all examples of infectious diseases. The prion protein (PrP) was identified in a patient in 2015, and it was previously believed to be the cause of all known mammalian prion diseases. However, The protein alpha-synuclein, which is thought to be responsible for MSA, was suggested to be the cause of the disease in 2015.
Sarah Ali Aljazaeri
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 76-79; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.23

Abstract:
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia results from a readiness for the bilirubin production in neonates and limited their ability to excrete it. The diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia based on yellow discoloration of the skin and whiteness of eyes, idle in the child's movement and the lack of lactation. The baby seems sick or is difficult to awaken. Bilirubin is a tetrapyrrole pigment derived from breakdown product of normal heme catabolism in senescent red blood cells. Unconjugated bilirubin normal elevation is named newborn physiologic hyperbilirubinemia, whereas the level of bilirubin of infant normally to be a bit higher after birth, In the same context the placenta in the womb of the mother. Pathologic hyperbilirubinemia is defined as odd of bilirubin from the normal level so intervention required. Many reasons for this type of jaundice
Sarah Ali Aljazaeri
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.21

Abstract:
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia results from a readiness for the bilirubin production in neonates and limited their ability to excrete it. The diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia based on yellow discoloration of the skin and whiteness of eyes, idle in the child's movement and the lack of lactation. The baby seems sick or is difficult to awaken. Serum cystatin-C, is a low molecular protein that belongs to the family of cysteine protease inhibitor, was proposed as an endogenous filtration marker. In this study sixty neonatal patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia (35 males,25female) were collected from prematurity unit (PU) in Al-Zahra Educational Hospital/Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf during the period from August,2020 to February,2021. A group of 20 randomly (12male, 8female) selected apparently healthy group. After diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia, the patients were divided into three groups according to age (1-3), (4-7) and (7-9) days. The result reveals that significant increase (p<0.05) in serum cystatin-C in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as compared with healthy group. The result of study reveals no significant increase(p<0.05) in serum levels of cystatin-C, while the study shows a significant increase (p<0.05) between male and female in serum levels of bilirubin.
Noor I. Abdul-Zahra, Zahraa K. Taiban
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 71-75; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.22

Abstract:
This study was carried out in Middle Euphrates cancer center, laboratories department, Al-Najaf holy city - Iraq; Iraqi patients have been recorded during period January 2018 until December 2018. This study has demonstrated that four different types of the following cancers: Breast cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer and Bladder cancer were registered in this study. Comparison was occured among each type of cancer was regarded in sex, age and number. The highest levels of cancer among all the other types were breast and lung cancer , the majority results in cancer epidemiology for this study, which showed 22% and 8 % respectively. While in other types, the result has showed 6%, 4.7%,for Bladder cancer, and braian cancer, respectively
Gaung Eka Ramadhan
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 51-63; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.20

Abstract:
This study analyzes the relationship between pictorial health warnings on cigarette packaging and the intention to quit smoking for Pamulang University students. This research design uses quantitative analysis with a cross-sectional method complemented by qualitative respondents, namely Pamulang University students totaling 100 respondents. This research was conducted from December 2019 – January 2020. The data analysis used univariate analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between perceptions of pictorial health messages and the intention to stop smoking, the p-value indicated this: 0.000 and the OR value 43.5; there is a significant relationship between knowledge and intention to stop smoking with a p-value: 0.000 and OR value 75.6;
Nanda Kishore Ghoshal
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 45-50; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.19

Abstract:
Ulcerations are characterized by defects in the epithelium, underlying connective tissue, or both. Due to diversity of causative factors and presenting features, diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. Tongue ulcers are open sores or cuts on the tongue. Tongue ulcers can be painful and raw and can be irritated by eating and drinking. One of the most common types of tongue ulcers is the canker sore, which may arise for an unknown reason or be linked to a number of different irritants. This article is an attempt to elaborate the treatment protocols with couple of case reports
Nanda Ghoshal
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 45-49; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.18

Abstract:
A 37 years, the old male patient reported the chief complaint of inability to open mouth since 10-11 months and recently pain and swelling resulting from wisdom teeth of both sides limited the mouth opening severely (15mm after 3 weeks, >22mm after 6 weeks,>27 mm after 9 weeks).
Murtadha M. Jawad
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i2.17

Abstract:
This review deals with the world's most important problem, which is hepatotoxicity. As a result of the distinctive location of the liver and its effect on all the substances entering the body and manufactured from it, the wastes resulting from metabolism, as well as its functional nature in the equation and removal of toxins. Therefore, the liver is one of the most influential and first organs in the human body because of the major functions it shows. Therefore, most of the research targets the liver through a number of chemicals, including carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is widely used, and its work depends on destroying hepatocytes through a group of chemical reactions with a group of chemical compounds for the liver such as fats and proteins, thus producing harmful substances such as free radicals, whose damage depends on the concentration and period of exposure to carbon tetrachloride. In order to determine the extent of the influence of the liver, there must be evidence. Our choice of Regucalcin was because it is closely related to several physiological functions, including: its role in maintaining the level of calcium on a regular basis in addition to its anti-programmed effects of cell death by inhibiting factors that break down the DNA strand by inhibiting the action of a group of enzymes. And other factors that destroy cells. Thus, the presence of Regucalcin inside and out of cells is evidence of the extent of damage and damage to hepatocytes and their dissolution. Therefore, Regucalcin can be considered a criterion for assessing the extent and degree of damage to the liver.
Murtadha M. Jawad
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 15-24; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i1.14

Abstract:
The present study was aimed efficiency to evaluate the unsaturated fatty acid omega-3 in reducing the side effects that resulted from the administration of cyclosporine drug in white rabbits. (60) white males' rabbits were used in this study, divided into four groups contain (15) rabbits per group and its subdivision into three groups (5) rabbits per group. The first group is orally administered with normal saline, the second group was administered cyclosporine (25mg/kg) only. Third groups were administered cyclosporine on the first day and omega-3 (500mg/kg) on the second day, while Fourth groups were administered cyclosporine on the first day and omega-3 (1000mg/kg) on the second day for periods (21,30,60) days respectively. After ending study periods, the animals were sacrificed and the blood was collected and the results were shown the following: Administration with cyclosporine (25mg/kg)only and for periods were led to a significant increase(P<0.05) in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein(LDL) and a significant decrease(P<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein(HDL).whereas interaction with (500&1000mg/kg) of omega-3 and to all periods showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein(LDL) and significant decrease(p<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein(HDL), while the non-significant difference in high-density lipoprotein(HDL). This study concluded that omega-3 has an important role in reducing biochemistry side effects that result from the administration of cyclosporine drugs in white rabbits.
Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity, Ali Hussein Faisal, Ali Nabeel Khaleel, Mahmoud Tuama Naeaam, Ali Sattar Jabar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i1.13

Abstract:
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a generic designation for a group of related syndromes resulting from myocardial ischemia – an imbalance between cardiac blood supply (perfusion) and myocardial oxygen demand. Visfatin (VF) is a recently discovered adipokine with different functions, Visfatin is mainly found in visceral adipose tissue and mimics insulin in lowering plasma glucose levels and, Visfatin emerges as a player in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by directly promoting smooth muscle cell proliferation, Aberrant angiogenesis is now considered a feature of the atherogenic process in both coronary and carotid diseases. This adipokine was previously known as a pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) or Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase or Nampt) an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAMPT gene and demonstrated to be an intracellular protein with a key enzyme role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
Hassanein Fadel Mohammed, Sarah Hassan Jaber
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i1.16

Abstract:
This study for the diagnosis of thyroid using pcsk9.The current study was conducted on seventy women patients suffering from thyroid disease attending in Center for diabetes and Endocrinology Unit in each of Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital and AL FURAT AL AWSAT Hospital in Al-Najaf province/ Iraq, and during the period from September until December 2017. The sample patients were divided into four study groups: premenopausal hypothyroidism patients group (20), postmenopausal hypothyroidism (15), premenopausal hyperthyroidism patients groups (17), and postmenopausal hyperthyroidism (18). The control group composed of 18 healthy women, also divided into premenopausal control and postmenopausal control. The results indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, while a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group. The results indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in premenopausal hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group, and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in postmenopausal hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group. The results indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in premenopausal hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, and a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in the postmenopausal hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, also a significant increase in pcsk9 in postmenopausal than premenopausal.
Esraa Mohammed Kadhim
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i1.12

Abstract:
The aim of the study to estimate the antioxidant action and protecting effect of ethanolic cinnamon extract against CCl4 induced toxicity in male rats. To determine the effect of different concentrations of ethanolic cinnamon extract on male rats that fed a high cholesterol diet that induced hyperlipidemia. The experiment has been conducted in the present study., aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective, role of Cinnamomum zeylanicum ethanolic extract in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats, The cinnamon and its oil reported to have many beneficial uses in food preservation due to antioxidant of cinnamon. The Phenolic compounds extracted from cinnamon such as hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde and the hydroxycinnamic acid act as scavengers of peroxide radicals and avoid oxidative damage (Mathew and Abraham, 2006; Leela, 2008). Ranjbar et al, (2006) observed individuals consuming cinnamon tea showed increased total serum antioxidant status, increased thiols such as glutathione, NADPH, NADH, SOD, and decreased lipid peroxidation.
Zainab Sajid Mohammed
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 2, pp 25-28; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v2i1.15

Abstract:
This study was conducted at the laboratory of histology and anatomy, Faculty of Medical and Health Techniques/Kufa, and laboratory of post Graduate/ Department of biology, Faculty of Science/University of Kufa, The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Prazosin hydrochloride on some organs in male rats (Rattus norvegicus), about 25 mature male rats with the average body weight of 210-290gram and three months age were randomly divided into four groups (5rats / group). The first group was given orally with distilled water as a control group and the other groups (second, third, and fourth) were also given orally with three doses of Prazosin (25, 50,75 mg /kg. b.wt.) daily for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the treatment period (eight weeks), rats were sacrificed, blood samples obtained, and organs lung, and spleen. The histopathological changes of lungs in the rats treated with prazosin at dose 25 mg/kg.b.wt for 8-weeks showed emphysema and dilation in some of the alveoli, hemorrhage distributed inside the tissue of the lung, polymorphic nuclear infiltration due to pneumonia, the pulmonary artery revealed degenerative changes in the tunica media structure (smooth muscle) and hyperplasia in the connective tissue around pulmonary artery and alveoli. These symptoms which occur in rats treated with prazosin at dose 50 and 75 mg/kg b.wt. as well as the histopathological changes of rat lung demonstrate severe hemorrhage, emphysema, thickening in the wall of some alveoli, pneumocyte necrosis (pneumocyte type 1 and pneumocyte type 2), and showed exudate among lung tissue. Histopathological changes of Spleen in the rats treated with prazosin at doses(50 and75)mg/kg b.w. for 8-weeks revealed histopathological changes, which represented by proliferation in the white pulp lead to fused white pulp together and destruction of some components of red pulp, stenosis in many splenic venous sinuses, the germinal artery show thickening in the tunica media and stenosis occurs, degenerative change in many nuclei of lymphocytes, and proliferation in the component of the white pulp.
Hawraa Natiq Kabroot Al-Fatlawy, Khwla Abd Al Kadhem Rahi, Diaa Sarhan Abd Al Zahra, Samara Rahem Hudud, Hussein Ali Hussein, Ahmed Hazem Mohammed
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 1, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v1i01.7

Abstract:
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that evolved within the past few decades and played a substantial role in the environment, industry, agriculture, and pharmacology. Nanoparticles are generally classified based on their dimensionality, morphology, composition, uniformity, and agglomeration. The shape, and morphology of nanoparticles play an essential role in their functionality and toxic effect on the environment and humans. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from microbes. For the biological synthesis of nanoparticles, microbes have been exploited all over the globe. Microbes like bacteria, fungi, and yeasts are mostly preferred for nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis because of their fast growth rate, easy cultivation, and their ability to grow at ambient conditions of temperature, pH, and pressure. Applications of Nanoparticles is a field of research with tremendous prospects for the improvement of the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. Microbial nanoparticles are found to have vigorous antibacterial activities. The nanoparticles' efficiency is probably due to their larger surface area for enhanced interaction with the micro-organisms. Nanoparticles adhere to the cell membrane and further penetrate inside by interacting with DNA, thereby interfering with the replication process or may attack the respiratory chain of pathogens. A similar bactericidal mechanism of silver nanoparticles obtained from endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus was observed against pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Zainab Sajid Mohammed
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 1, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v1i01.8

Abstract:
Alpha blockers are characterize as one of the most therapies that used for treatment of several condition such as Raynaud's disease, hypertension, scleroderma , and one of the most treatments for treated continuing pelvic pain syndrome- continuing prostatitis and also be used to treat anxiety and panic disorder such as generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (Raskind, et al.,2003) . This study was conducted at the laboratory of department of biology, faculty of science/university of Kufa , 40 male rats that was used. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Prazosin hydrochloride on some organs in male rats (Rattus norvegicus), after administration of prazosin hydrochloride at three doses (25,50,75) mg/kg b.wt. for eight-weeks, prazosin revealed significant decreased at (p ˂0.05) the hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell account, packed cell volume , and erythropoietin hormone but a significant increased at (P˂0.05) in the levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the blood, when compred with control group,the levels of HDL showed significant increment at (P˂0.05) in group that gives low dose (50 and 75)mg/kg b.wt. when compared with control, but significant decline at (P˂0.05) in the levels of very low density lipoprotein in group that gives low dose of prazosin (25)mg/kg b.wt. when equaled with control group, the levels of LDL and VLDL revealed significant decreased at (P˂0.05) in groups that gives moderate and high doses.
Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v1i01.5

Abstract:
The study was conducted on randomly selected 65 type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetes mellitus center in Al-Sadder Teaching City in Al- Najaf province , Iraq and a group of 24 apparently healthy subjects were included as a control group . The Study was carried out from August 2013 to February 2014.The patients' age was ranging of 35 to 64 years old.The results indicated a significant increase (p0.05) in serum HDL-C level in diabetic patients in comparing with healthy groups. The results have been shown significant positive correlation (P
Hasanain Fadhil Mohammed, Sarah Hassan Jaber, Ali Jabbar Al-Zubaidi
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 1, pp 25-28; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v1i01.10

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to asses PIIINP, lipid profile and BMI serum levels in patients with hypertension. The current research The results were Get it from the Draw Blood unity in Al-Sadder infirmary Teaching , Al-Najaf, Iraq, And AL HAKEEM General infirmary in AL-Najaf, Iraq, in 10 Dec 2018 – 19 Jan 2019. Age of hypertensive patients from 40 to Age 70 Normal blood pressure 40 to 70 years. The score show, serious increase (p
Rusul Arif Abd Ali
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 1, pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v1i01.9

Abstract:
Renal failure refers to a condition where the kidneys lose their normal functionality, which may be due to various factors including infections, auto immune diseases, diabetes and other endocrine disorders, cancer, and toxic chemicals. It is characterized by the reduction in the excretory and regulatory functions of kidney. Biochemically, it is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine. In the science of physiology it is described as a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hepcidin is a peptide produced primarily in the liver. Its mature form consists of 25 amino acids with a calculated mass of 2.8 kDa . Hepcidin has a key role in iron homeostasis by interacting with ferroportin. Hepcidin is the regulator of iron homeostasis in humans and other mammals. In humans, HAMP is the gene that encodes for hepcidin. 25-amino acid peptide was first identified in human urine and plasma. This peptide contains four disulfide bonds. It is synthesized, processed and secreted primarily by hepatocytes. In vitro, human hepcidin has anti-bacterial and antifungal activities. The 25-amino acid peptide of hepcidin is secreted by the liver, which seems to be the "master regulator" of iron metabolism.
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