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Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 46-55; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.5

Abstract:
This study attempts to investigate elementary students’ attitudes toward teaching and learning English vocabulary through Total Physical Response. It involved a class with 40 elementary students in the fourth grade. All of them were attending English classes at Nguyen Khuyen primary school in Bien Hoa City, where the case study was conducted. The qualitative data were obtained through two instruments: semi-structured interviews and classroom observation. Content analysis was employed for data analysis. The results revealed that the elementary students had positive attitudes toward the use of TPR in vocabulary teaching and learning. This study is expected to shed light on the implementation of teaching vocabulary methods in the Nguyen Khuyen primary school context and other similar contexts.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 106-113; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.9

Abstract:
Krio, like other pidgin languages, borrows lexical items from other languages to a greater extent from the English Language. These words “borrowing” and “usage” have resulted in some similarities in the phonological, morphological and syntactic structures of both Languages. These two languages are so linguistically related that the usage differences between them can hardly be realized. As a result, users of both languages unconsciously use Krio lexemes and structures in place of English. This interlanguage phonological, lexical, and syntactic transfer has an enormous impact on the correct use of written and spoken English by senior secondary school pupils. This research is therefore intended to investigate the impact of Krio on the written and spoken English Language of senior secondary school pupils and will also provide recommendations to remedy the situation. This study is of immense relevance to teachers of English, curriculum planners, government, and other education stakeholders as it helps them to identify the extent to which Krio impacts the use of English among pupils. It, therefore, guides them to plan and provide appropriate strategies as solutions to remedy the situation. The study investigates the ways in which Krio impacts the teaching and learning of English in senior secondary school and the extent to which it is being used in schools by pupils and teachers. The study further provides strategies for assessment of the English Language teaching methods used by the teachers of English, and thus gives relevant conclusions and recommendations based on the findings of the study an assessment of the English Language teaching methods used by the teachers of English, and thus gives the relevant conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study with the help of well-structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and personal observations. Forty pupils and eight teachers of English were selected for the study, and the findings showed that pupils’ written and spoken English are marred by incorrect and substandard usage principally as a result of the impact of Krio on the use of the English Language.
Nguyen Thi Loan
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 81-105; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.8

Abstract:
English communication skills are now considered a passport-like requirement for students seeking a secure profession with a higher wage. Additionally, English proficiency is thought to be one of the variables affecting the success of foreign businesses investing in Vietnam, as well as Vietnamese businesses looking to collaborate internationally to develop their brands into new markets abroad. The integration of various linguistic skills demonstrates the value of speaking. The main objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and importance of using direct speaking strategies by non-English-majored students at Dong Nai Technology University. The study involved 90 students who are second-year undergraduate students at Dong Nai Technology University in Bien Hoa city, Dong Nai province. At the time of the study, the participants were aged 18-19, and they had already attained elementary level. This research uses questionnaires and interviews by applying the SPSS application to analyze the main points relating to the research questions. According to research, direct speaking strategies significantly affect the English speaking skills of Dong Nai Technology University students. At the same time, the difficulties and orientations when learning speaking skills using direct speaking strategies were revealed in the conclusion of the study. To maximize direct speaking strategies and advance the field of study, recommendations have been made for non-English-majored students.
Thi Hong Minh Nguyen, Linh Nguyen Thi Thuy
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 71-80; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.7

Abstract:
The ultimate goal of language learning is to communicate effectively and sensibly in that language, yet during the history of language teaching and learning, a focus on linguistic competence has remained dominant, which has undoubtedly resulted in language learners’ lack of sociolinguistic competence or ―intercultural competence allowing them to be a successful speaker of the language. This study aims to increase students' intercultural awareness and strengthen their understanding of their home culture by integrating local culture contents into English lessons for 9th graders. The intervention lasted 10 weeks in the second semester of the academic year 2021-2022, and 40 students in 9th grade at a junior high school in Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam, were engaged in the study as participants. The study utilized tests and questionnaires as the fundamental research instruments to gather data on augmenting local culture contents into English teaching in order to increase students' intercultural awareness of their surroundings. SPSS version 26.0 was used to process and analyze the results of the pre and post-tests as well as the pre and post-questionnaires. The results showed that the supplementation of local culture contents into English lessons has a positive effect on the participants’ intercultural communication competence. It is therefore proposed that local culture contents should be more regularly integrated into English lessons to develop students’ knowledge of local culture.
I Made Sujana, , Eka Fitriana, Dew Suryani
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.4

Abstract:
The results of needs analysis from Competency Standards of Indonesian Medical Doctors (SKDI) and the Profile of Faculty of Medicine, the University of Mataram, Lombok Indonesia, show that English has a strong position for students at this Faculty. English is needed for study preparation, graduation requirements, apprenticeship in a hospital, a job competition, and professional development. However, the high demand for English is not supported by well-designed language programs. This article is a part of a three-year project aiming at redesigning language programs based on the gaps between necessities (TSA) and current levels of English. It employs R & D approach. From the analysis, seven syllabi are designed to fulfill various demands, i.e., short-term, mid-term, and long-term goals. These goals produce various kinds of syllabus such as General Academic Reading, Academic Reading, TOEFL Preparation Course (Listening, SWE, and Reading), English for Communication, and English for Presentation. Those syllabi are realized by employing different approaches to syllabus design, depending on the goals and characteristics of the courses. The study yields a number of approaches to cater to students’ needs, i.e., Structural-Based (for TOEFL – SWE section), Skill-Based (for Reading and Listening on TOEFL), Genre-Based (General Academic Reading and English for Presentation), and Content-Based (for academic English), and Topic-based. Syllabi (for English for Communication). This study signifies that different purposes of language learning need different approaches to syllabus design.
Eleonor Amat, , Ramil Ilustre
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.3

Abstract:
This recent journal offered a brief review of significant research findings on second language acquisition related to two language approaches, namely, Content-Based Language Teaching (CBLT) and Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT). Based on different research provided in this journal, the following strengthen the role, effectiveness, and importance of CBLT and TBLT in a language classroom by improving language instructions and learning processes during the acquisition of a second language.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 113-124; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.11

Abstract:
To help ESP college instructors improve the English curriculum taught at polytechnic institutes, colleges and universities, the current study proposes a model for designing English for Polytechnic Purposes (EPP) courses for undergraduate students majoring in mechanical engineering, chemistry, technology, economics, textile industry and other applied sciences. It aims to show instructors the following: how to identify students’ needs; how to assess students’ proficiency level in English; how to define the EPP learning outcomes (course objectives); how to identify the language skills and language elements that should be taught to a particular group of students; how to select technical terms and topics related to the students’ area of specialization; how to select the course content and material to be used; how to integrate the content and skills while teaching, i.e., how to teach content and listening skills, content and speaking skills, content and reading skills, content and writing skills, content and technical terms, content and grammar, and how to integrate current global events in the course; how to develop students’ prior knowledge in their area of specialization; teaching students how to search for information in online resources; the types of technologies that can be integrated in EPP instruction; the kind of assignments, practice and application activities to give to the students and assessment.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 10-23; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.2

Abstract:
Previous studies showed that educational context factors like schools could influence the English proficiency of students. One of the greatest predictors of proficiency among language learners is the type of school they are attending – either public or private. Empirical data also suggested that English proficiency had an impact on students’ performance in science and math courses. Hence, this study examined which type of senior high school (SHS) – public or private school – could produce more proficient students in using the English language. The data gathering process focused on SHS students from both public and private schools, who were enrolled in the academic track of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The study investigated their English proficiency and looked into their profile variates; the difference in their English proficiency in terms of grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension, which turned out to be significant whether they were in a public school or private school; the relationship between their English Proficiency and the type of school they attended which was also significant; and the relationship between their English proficiency and their academic performance in English courses which was found to have nothing to do with the former.
Lanlan Shi
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.3.1

Abstract:
Semantic and functional transformation of words is a common feature of all languages and has been one of the hot topics in language research. Being a common word in modern Chinese, “si” (death) has gone through the process of semantic transformation many times and has had multiple meanings. Previous researches mainly focus on the classification of various meanings of “death”, the differences and characteristics of the meaning of “si” (death) in different syntactic positions, and the intuitive research on the causes and paths of semantic transformation, but the latter is not systematical. In order to solve the problem, cognitive linguistics has put forward prototype category theory to find out the general rules of semantic and functional transformation. Prototype category theory emphasizes the motivation of the semantic transformation of words when guiding us to study the semantic transformation of words. Our study finds that the relationship between the new meanings derived from semantic transformation and the original meaning of “si” (death) can be reasonably explained by the prototype category theory in cognitive linguistics. This discovery proves from the reverse side that the prototype category is the main way of semantic and functional transformation of Chinese words, which fully demonstrates that the semantic and functional transformation of Chinese words conforms to the cognitive law of human beings, having strong motivation.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 168-176; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.15

Abstract:
The founding fathers of Lagos could not have fathomed nor ever imagined what today's image of the city would be like. Birthed several centuries ago, Lagos today has become a megacity and a force to reckon with. Small wonder poets, using their imaginative abilities, have painted and are painting what everyday life in Lagos looks like, from issues of traffic jams to armed robbery, prostitution, overpopulation, and sundry matters. This paper, therefore, uses the analytical tools of the Speech Act theory tool of Discourse Analysis to decipher the messages of selected contemporary poets on Lagos and everyday life in the city, thus bringing to the fore the environmental issues of overpopulation, traffic jams, poor hygiene, and unemployment, among other matters that are typical of a mega city much in need of proper planning like Lagos.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 140-150; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.13

Abstract:
This preliminary study aims to identify the problems in writing faced by Malaysian Yea 2 pupils in a primary school. A document analysis design was employed to gather qualitative data from 75 participants who were purposively selected due to accessibility. The main instruments used in this study are the reports from English School-Based. The pupil’s essays and worksheets were then analyzed. Findings revealed that 58.67% of the students are only at Band 3 in the School-Based Assessment (SBA) for writing skill performance which indicates that they were only at a satisfactory level. Analysis of the pupils’ work revealed a clear problem with writing skills; where 36 out of 72 (50%) pupils were not able to write simple sentences properly. This implies that early intervention is needed to cater to this issue.
Pham Minh Thu Ngo, Thi Yen Nhi Ha
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 51-167; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.14

Abstract:
In recent years, due to the remarkable explosion of the Internet and technology as well as the globalization orientation, language teaching has witnessed many new and innovative teaching methods and materials in ESL classrooms. Many teachers have taken advantage of this trend and made the language classroom more attractive with visual aids and interactive teaching methods using technology. Moreover, besides traditional classroom contexts with textbooks, instructors or teachers, whiteboards, and markers, learners themselves nowadays have better access to many other channels of language learning, such as Youtube, one of the most internationally popular platforms, Netflix, BBC, Ted Talks, the news, radio podcasts, etc. where they can actually learn the language as well as an approach to the content they want at their own homes. In fact, it is undoubtedly true that in recent days, it is very difficult to find a teenager or young adult without a smartphone or Internet access, and young Vietnamese students are not excluded. The sharp increase of high school and university students who own a Youtube or Netflix account and the amount of time they spend watching TV shows, viral video clips, soap operas, or movies every day made the researcher wonder if we could use these endless captivating sources of materials to actually enhance learners’ motivation and listening ability in Vietnamese ESL classrooms.
Ngoc Nguyen
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 125-139; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.12

Abstract:
The goal of this study is to see if there is a link between the usage of metacognitive reading strategies by non-English major students and their reading comprehension performance. This research was conducted at Dong Nai Technology University with 70 students ranging in age from 19 to 22 years old. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the investigation. These students were asked to complete a TOEIC reading test to assess their reading ability, followed by the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002) to assess their metacognitive use. Semi-structured interviews with four high scorers and four low scorers from the sample were used to acquire qualitative data. The findings demonstrated that students' metacognitive reading strategy use is at a moderate level, and the most frequent and least frequent strategies that they used are Problem-solving and Global strategies, respectively. Additionally, it found that more proficient readers used metacognitive strategies more frequently, more successfully, and more appropriately than less proficient readers and vice versa. Some qualitative results were also mentioned. The results of the study have some implications for both teachers and students to employ appropriate metacognitive reading strategies in second language acquisition.
, Tran Trung Nghia, Pham Hong Thy, Ha Thi Yen Nhi
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 102-112; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.10

Abstract:
This study focuses on the influences of self-efficacy beliefs in English learning between male and female university students. There was a total sample of 128 university Non-English majors from Dong Nai Technology University in Bien Hoa city. The quantitative component used a questionnaire asking about students’ background and their self-efficacy beliefs in learning English. Ten students were individually interviewed to be able to clarify the reasons that affected their self-efficacy beliefs and their English performance. T-test was used to find out the gender differences in self-efficacy level and English achievement degree. The result showed that there was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and achievement. Differences between male and female students in their confidence levels and English learning performance were found. The thesis finishes with a set of recommendations for teachers to pay attention to the importance of self-efficacy because it influences learning English achievement.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 95-101; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.9

Abstract:
This study aims at examining the attitudes of English as a foreign language undergraduates’ towards learning basic writing skills through using Blackboard at the University of Tabuk for the academic year 2022/2023. The sample included 30 undergraduates selected purposively. It was distributed over two groups each 15 undergraduates (experimental and control groups). The theoretical framework of the study was based on Tubaishat and Lansari‘s (2011) Model of E-learning. The researcher used SPSS (Version.26) for data analysis. Findings showed statistically significant differences at level (0, 05) for the means of the achievement test for the two groups in favor of the experimental group that was taught using blackboard. Also, findings revealed statistical significance differences at level (0, 05) in developing the correlation between English as foreign language undergraduates towards basic writing skills as a result of the use of blackboard. This research recommends that the blackboard be activated in teaching all the subjects because of its positive effect on the achievement of the faculty members and developing their attitudes towards teaching English as a foreign language.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 86-94; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.8

Abstract:
This research study investigated the attitudes and motivation toward English language learning in senior high schools using Accra Senior High School as a case study. The study employed a quantitative approach using descriptive-correlational design to investigate the relationship between students’ motivation and attitude in the learning of the English language toward their English language achievement. This study adopted a questionnaire to gather data from 100 English students and 5 English teachers who were randomly selected through a simple random and convenience non-probability sampling technique. The findings revealed that students are instrumentally driven to learn the English language in comparison to integrative and personal motivation. The majority of the students indicated they learn English because they need it for their studies. The majority also indicated they learn English because it makes it easier to contact English-speaking people and get a well-paid job. Second, students' attitude towards the learning of the English language was found to be positive. The study revealed students were very interested in speaking the English language. The teachers attested to this and revealed students take active participation in class and make an effort to speak English. Lastly, there existed a moderate positive and statistically significant correlation between English learners' motivations (r = .45) and attitudes (r = .35) towards the English language with their English performance. It was concluded that as English learners’ motivations and attitudes in learning the English language grow, their English Performance improves. In addition, there existed a strong positive correlation between English learners' motivations in the English language and their attitudes towards the language. This implied that learners' motivation in learning English had an influence on their attitude towards the English language. The study recommends that instructors or teachers should assist in the creation of an environment that is favourable to reducing feelings of nervousness or shyness.
Amal Abdelsattar Metwally, Dalal Mahmoud Elgemei
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 73-85; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.7

Abstract:
The present paper is a corpus-based study that proposes a collocational criterion to computationally identify metaphor with special reference to metaphor in the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān. The study draws on studies on metaphors in the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān, the conceptual theory of metaphor (1980), studies on collocations as well as computational studies of metaphor, in general, to finally arrive at a collocational marker for metaphoricity toward a computational identification of metaphor in the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān. The study adopts a quantitative as well as a qualitative approach in investigating and analyzing metaphors in the corpus to contribute to the input of computer software for identifying metaphor candidates (i.e., lexical items that are likely to have been used metaphorically). The corpus of the study is two surahs from the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān, namely Sūrat Yūsuf and Sūrat Ar-Rā’d. The manual identification of metaphors on the two Sūrahs of the study is achieved by referring to authentic exegeses of the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān and interpreting the meanings of the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān. The paper ends by suggesting a collocational marker for metaphors in the Ever-Glorious Qur'ān, which could be adopted and applied to other corpora.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.4

Abstract:
Many EFL students have limited opportunities to listen to native speakers, practice English out of class, have problems in listening comprehension, oral expression and lack oral fluency. This article proposes using YouTube videos to improve EFL students' pronunciation. It aims to show the following: (i) How YouTube videos can be integrated in EFL instruction to teach pronunciation; (ii) the advantages of integrating YouTube videos: They are free, provide variety of topics, speakers, difficulty level, can be easily downloaded to the laptop or mobile phone and can be viewed anywhere and anytime; (iii) show how examples YouTube videos that target a specific pronunciation skill can be located; (iv) criteria for selecting online videos such as the video length in minutes, topic familiarity, difficulty level, speed of the speakers, students’ proficiency level, and students’ interests; (v) pronunciation subskills that can be developed through supplementary YouTube videos; (vi) teaching and learning with YouTube videos before watching a video, while watching the video and after watching the video. Further recommendations for developing students’ pronunciation are given.
, Mohammed Moubtassime
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 53-66; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.5

Abstract:
This study seeks to investigate the effect of the flipped classroom model on university students’ writing proficiency. To evaluate the state of the art in the Moroccan context, this study utilizes a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with control groups. The sample of this research consists of (148) first-year university students enrolled in the department of English studies. This sample is divided into experimental and control groups to meet the objectives of the research design. For the purpose of data collection, this study uses a pre-test and a post-test of writing achievement. The data collected for this research is analyzed using independent samples t-tests. The findings of this study disclose that the flipped classroom model has a significant positive impact on students’ paragraph-writing skills in general and on the writing of most of the paragraph’s constructs in particular. The findings of this study suggest that English language teachers need to adopt student-centered teaching/learning models that integrate face-to-face with online learning modalities in order to improve students’ writing proficiency.
Trần Yến, Thi Minh Hang Tran
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 27-43; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.3

Abstract:
Nowadays, critical thinking ability is one of the most important skills in the 21st century; however, not many high school students have a good critical thinking ability in English. Therefore, the aim of the research is to improve the critical thinking ability of high school students by organizing activities for students to debate in English. The specific objectives are to investigate the current situation of critical thinking ability among high school students as well as organize activities for students to debate and then evaluate the impacts of debating activities on their critical thinking ability. To conduct the study, a mixed-method research design, which combines qualitative methods and quantitative methods, was used along with the survey. There was 16 grade 10 students from CTN Debate Club at Thai Nguyen Specialized High School, Vietnam, who volunteered to take part in the research. All of these students were required to take part in speaking pre-test and post-test as well as pre and post-questionnaire about their opinions of using debating activities. The results show that using debating activities played a significant role in improving and enhancing the critical thinking ability of high school students. Students’ feedback concerning the use of debating activities are, in general, also quite optimistic. Besides, the research proposes some suggestions for minimizing the drawbacks of using debating activities to enhance the potentiality of this method and make it more interesting, meaningful and effective.
Lin Yi
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.2.1

Abstract:
Conflict talk, also known as controversial discourse, is a kind of confrontational communicative behavior arising from differences between two or more parties in views, interests and desires. This study regards conflict talk as a kind of compound speech act. Based on the observation and interpretation of the linguistic data, this study mainly collects the conflict talks between couples in the American sitcom Modern Family and adopts both qualitative and quantitative approaches to analyze the pragmatic characteristics and pragmatic functions of the conflict talks between American couples from the perspective of locutionary act, illocutionary act, perlocutionary effect on the theoretical basis of the speech act theory. The research verifies the feasibility of speech act theory in analyzing conflict talks between couples in Modern Family. It helps us to understand conflict talks between couples from the point of pragmatics better.
, Fatima Joy Aradilla
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 84-93; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.8

Abstract:
Metacognitive Instruction in Listening is a pedagogical procedure that allows the learners to enhance their awareness of the listening process and, at the same time, helps them develop their listening skills. This is a quasi-experiment study conducted on ninety (90) Grade 10 students to determine the efficacy of Metacognitive Process-Based Listening Instruction on students' listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design consisting of two (2) heterogeneous intact classes were used to establish the effects of the Metacognitive Process-Based Listening Instruction on the level of listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness among the Grade 10 students of Malaybalay City National Science High School for the School Year 2019-2020. The instruments used were: (a) validated teacher-made pretest/posttest and an adopted metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire (MALQ). Descriptive statistics such as mean, percentage and standard deviation were utilized to identify the level of listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness, while t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to identify the significant difference between the students' listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness. The results of the study revealed that the listening comprehension level of students in the Metacognitive Process-Based Listening Instruction (MPBLI) was in the Elementary Level (37.60) in the pretest and then became Advanced Level (62.67) in the posttest, while the students in the Non-Metacognitive Process-Based Listening Instruction (NMBLI) were in the Elementary Level (34. 89) in the pretest and then became Upper Intermediate Level (58.15) in the posttest. For the metacognitive awareness level, the students in the MPBLI was Moderately Positive (3.74) in the pretest, which later turned to Positive (4.11) in the posttest. On the other hand, the students who were in NMPBLI had a Moderately Positive (3.62) in the pretest and remained Moderately Positive (3.82) in the posttest. There was also a significant difference in the two groups' listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness with a probability value of 0.00. Generally, the Metacognitive Process-Based Listening Instruction helped the students to improve their listening comprehension level as well as enhanced their metacognitive awareness level.
Nhat-Anh Nguyen Khuong
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 72-83; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.7

Abstract:
Since the initiation of Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 Motivational Self System model (L2MSS) in 2009, research on the second language (L2) learning motivation has witnessed unprecedented achievements. This recent study offered a brief review of significant research findings on L2 motivation that drew on the L2MSS framework from 2009 to 2021. Studies included in this review were categorized by two universal research approaches: quantitative and qualitative. Besides main research results that contributed to the L2 learners’ learning motivational profiles and the theoretical refinements of the L2MSS, brief descriptions of research instruments employed were included to provide insight into research methodologies currently used in L2 motivation and L2MSS studies. The reviewed research findings showed that while the quantitative paradigm remained dominant among studies that employed L2MSS, qualitative studies offered a deeper understanding of L2 motivation and emergent themes of the framework obtained by narrative data. The review provided theoretical and practical implications for future L2 motivation research drawn on the L2MSS.
, Valeria Eraso Ibarra
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 64-71; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.6

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of implementing the didactic briefcases (maletas didácticas) from El Museo del Oro in the EFL classroom as a means to foster culture through the use of a theme-based approach. To this end, a bibliographical review was carried out by searching different research articles master and BA theses in order to know about the implementation of the didactic briefcases in Colombia. Thus, the information presented in this paper is to help EFL teachers to realize how beneficial it could be to integrate the didactic briefcases and Theme-Based Instruction (TBI) in their lessons to make them more didactic, flexible, engaging, collaborative, and dynamic while integrating culture in the curriculum. In fact, some studies showed that the didactic briefcases have been used in different areas of Colombian education, such as Arts and Social Science, but not in English. Finally, the results showed that it is possible to implement the didactic briefcases through a theme-based approach because it allows students to open their minds to their own roots and become more critical when interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds.
Aziz Thabit Saeed, Hayat Al-Khatib, , Khaldun Nour
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 44-63; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.5

Abstract:
This study investigated the effectiveness of the adopted and adapted teaching methods, procedures and techniques in the virtual EFL classes during Covid-19 from the viewpoint of both learners and tutors. Data in the study were collected through two instruments: a tutor survey that elicited information from 42 randomly selected English language skills tutors, teaching at the English language foundation program at the nine branches of the Arab Open University (AOU); and a student survey that elicited information from 911 responding EFL learners enrolled in the foundation program. The tutor survey drew data pertaining to the teaching practices utilized by the tutors in their virtual teaching, their effectiveness, the extent to which learners were receptive to such practices, etc. The data collected through the learners' survey pertained to such matters as quality of internet connectivity, the effectiveness of the teaching procedures, interaction with tutors, assessments, etc. The study demonstrates that the tutors utilized a variety of teaching methods, techniques and procedures that were, as reported by participating tutors and learners, conducive to effective teaching and learning English despite some obstacles and that the tutors were quite pleased with the overall practice and outcome of the virtual teaching-learning process. The students' responses showed that, despite some technical hurdles, they were generally comfortable with the online mode of teaching and learning. This virtual style of teaching and learning is perceived to have more advantages than originally thought. The paper delineates the major findings of the study and concludes with implications and recommendations.
, Hassan Alshami
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.4

Abstract:
The study aimed to find out the most frequent Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) that had been used by the Sudanese EFL learners at the Faculty of Education, Alzaiem Alazhari University. A (VLSs) questionnaire was designed and handled to 159 EFL learners in 1st year. The questionnaire adopted Schmitt’s (1997) taxonomy with slight changes of items. There was a significant agreement among them in using vocabulary learning strategies to expand their vocabulary. Cognitive and memory strategies were the most frequently used, while social was the least used. The study recommended that teachers can help their students to become initiative and take responsibility for their success by providing them with a sense of what vocabulary learning strategies are, to enhance their vocabulary knowledge. Moreover, teachers should present a wide range of (VLSs) to their students for both a classroom-related setting and self-directed vocabulary learning.
Hamad Abdullah H Aldawsari
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 09-16; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.12.2

Abstract:
Many people use pause fillers such as um, erm, and er in order to signal to the other person that they have not finished speaking yet. This paper aims to investigate pause fillers and their relationship with the two sociolinguistic variables of age and gender. The data-driven analysis is based on the British National Corpus (BNC). The results show that the sociolinguistic variables of age and gender influence the use of pause fillers among British English speakers, which is proposed to be linked to the advancement of age and an improved fluency among female speakers.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 30-36; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.3

Abstract:
Advertising is increasingly important in every corner of the world. It has become an indispensable part for both producers and consumers in modern society to boost the production and consumption of the products. To succeed in advertising, one component advertisers cannot ignore is cultural values because they are one of the determinants of customers’ behavior. Of the cultural dimensions, individualism and collectivism are considered the most important one. This study, therefore, sets the light on an overview of how individualism and collectivism is manifested in advertising in term of advertising themes, advertising creative tactics and linguistic advertising features in empirical studies. It then specifies what have and has not been done on the topic alike so that anyone interested in the field will find the gaps for their future research.
, Vanessa Veiga
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.2

Abstract:
This descriptive study aimed at identifying tertiary Ecuadorian students' beliefs about learning a foreign language. The sample was composed of 200 (n=200) students enrolled in the first semester of Agriculture, Nursing, Pedagogy, and Psychopedagogy in a public university in the Los Rios province, Ecuador. Among the participants, 168 were female (84%), and 32 were male (16%). The mean age was 21.49, varying from 18 to 44 years old. The data was collected using the Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory questionnaire (BALLI), and it was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results demonstrated that participants reported strong beliefs in the categories of aptitude for learning the language, motivation and expectations, and learning and communication strategies. The results of this research will unblock a new field of studies to be conducted in the country. The authors recommend doing qualitative studies to deeply understand the reason for each one of the most salient beliefs.
Maha Alshehri
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 01-21; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2022.4.1.1

Abstract:
This study traces potential changes in the motivation of Saudi students studying English as a second language (L2) in the UK. It investigates whether the beliefs and motivations of these students have changed during their learning experience, and identifies the pedagogical implications of such change for English teaching, not only to Saudi students in the UK but also to Saudi students enrolled in Saudi higher education institutions. It aims to identify the reasons behind changes in motivation as well as the impact these may have on students’ attitudes towards learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Data from questionnaires, interviews, and observations are used through three phases of the English academic programme. The study subjects are newly arrived Saudi students (three PhD students and 29 Master’s students) studying in four different universities in the UK under the fields of Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, and Translation. The conceptual framework is based on Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System Theory and Dörnyei & Ushioda’s motivation and L2 self-framework. Changes in motivation are usually accompanied by changes in students’ classroom involvement, attitudes towards the target language, and positive or negative impacts on the students’ outcomes and language competencies. Similar to other types of learning, L2 learning cannot take place in a vacuum. The present study has various contributions to the field of SLA. First, it validates earlier studies about the issue of motivation in linguistics, attitudes towards language, and changes in one’s self-identity as an outcome of language development. Second, it serves as an addition to the body of knowledge pertaining to motivation and attitude of Saudi students towards English as L2 and the important role of culture in this process. Further, it serves as an important contribution to how Saudi students’ L2 acquisition is understood using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.13.4

Abstract:
It has been observed that many users of English in Nigeria do not possess the required level of competence in the language despite its second language status, with its attendant high functional load. This paper seeks to discover the role of literature in achieving proficiency in the use of the English language. To this end, it is targeted at exploring literature in English as a veritable resource in achieving the required proficiency among Nigerian users of English as a second language. The study population consists of final year students of the Department of English language and Literature of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka in Nigeria. Questionnaires and participant observations were adopted as the instruments for data collection. It was discovered that students who have more exposure to literary works are more proficient in using the English language. It, therefore, concluded that making students read literary works, listen, dramatize, and recite them will acquaint them with the comprehensible input they need to achieve the requisite competence in the language.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.13.3

Abstract:
This article proposes a model for teaching interpreting for tourism purposes. It shows the aims of the model, interpreting materials, training strategies, training environment and assessment techniques. The model aims to train students to interpret in English with or without prior preparation or knowledge of the topic and without taking or reading form notes. The training model consists of the following exercises: (i) breathing exercises; (ii) memory training exercises; (iii) shadowing exercises; (iv) sentence paraphrasing; (v) summarizing sentences, then whole paragraphs about tourism; (vi) listening to single words, sentences, and a short paragraph about tourism and interpreting them; (vii) listening to familiar and easy tourism topics, then more difficult ones with a variety of tourism sub-topics. In a multimedia language lab, the students may listen to tourism podcasts, watch tourism documentaries or TED Talks and interpret the content from English to Arabic and vice versa. Simulations (role playing) of tourists and interpreters in teams of three or more may be conducted. Students may also visit a local tourist attraction, interpret, or give a commentary on-site. The training program objectives, types of interpreting, interpreting exercises, training materials, teaching and learning strategies and assessment techniques are described in detail.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 08-16; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.13.2

Abstract:
As an attempt to shed more light on the effectiveness of alternative assessment in second language learning, the current study sought to explore the effects of peer assessment (PA) and collaborative assessment (CA) on the Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing ability. To fulfil the purpose of this study, 36 Iranian EFL learners studying English at Kadous English Language Institute in Rasht, Iran, were homogenized as intermediate learners based on their performance on Oxford Solutions Placement Test (OSPT). The final pool of qualified candidates was assigned to one control and two experimental groups comprising 12 learners. All the participants sat for a pretest of L2 writing so that their initial level of writing could be appraised and their homogeneity in writing could be determined. The experimental groups received treatment on English writing through utilizing PA and CA strategies. On the other hand, the control group was taught through the conventional method (i.e. teacher assessment, TA). At the end of a twelve-session experiment, a post-test measuring the effectiveness of the treatments and the participants' writing ability was administered. The results of descriptive and inferential analyses revealed a statistically significant difference among CA, PA, and TA strategies. The results also demonstrated that the CA and PA groups outperformed the control group. However, the CA group performed significantly better than the PA group. Based on the findings of this study, language teachers, materials developers, and education authorities can concentrate on employing CA as the main strategy to foster the writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. However, PA may also be utilized to teach writing where possible.
, Abdullah M. Alazemi
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.13.1

Abstract:
Knowledge of pre-service teachers' difficulties and the obstacles they face during their practicum is supremely important to designing and implementing a successful field experience. Based on this, the current study explored and discussed the most frequent problems that Kuwaiti English language pre-service teachers face during their practicum course. The purpose of this research is to learn more about the challenges and obstacles that female pre-service Kuwaiti English language teachers (n = 45) may experience throughout their practicum period. To achieve the intended outcomes, the study used a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with female pre-service English language teachers at the college of Basic Education in Kuwait. The College of Basic Education plays a key role in providing qualified female teachers to the Ministry of Education through a training program that prepares potential English instructors to fulfil the career requirements of English instructors. According to the findings of the research, different issues have been aroused by the participants as they have complained about some aspects of the practicum course, including preparing lesson plans and workload, relationship with colleagues in the department, classroom management (especially dealing with students who have special cases), and academic supervisors. Interpretations of the results and recommendations are discussed in relation to the context of the study.
Xiaodong Yang
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.12.4

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of reforming academic English writing instruction via the perspective of the syntactic complexity of L2 learners' practice. The present study evaluates 14 measures of syntactic complexity as indicators of language growth in academic writing by 52 Chinese undergraduate students. The findings indicate that an intensive academic teaching design can be used to help students enhance their academic writing output ability. The findings of this study provide direct quantitative evidence for altering classroom instruction, textbook compilation, assessment practice, and curriculum development at the undergraduate level for academic English.
Bushra Wahid Ali, , Rabaa Said Mohamed Aljngawi
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 17-22; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.12.3

Abstract:
This study investigates why Arabic researchers do not employ English references and citations in their studies. Even though many colleges and universities teach English in their undergraduate and postgraduate stages, Arabic researchers face real challenges in using English language references. This is due to apparent weakness in their English language competency, and teaching, learning, and assessing at schools, colleges, and universities. As a result, graduates with poor English language skills from colleges and universities with various scientific credentials and specialties, particularly the humanistic specialization, are produced. This, in turn, has a significant impact on the quality of the research and studies they perform both before and after graduation. This weakness is also due to their independence and general ignorance of the English language, so they rely primarily on Arabic references, rarely using English language references. As a result, they miss out on a significant amount of information, valuable studies, significant research, and a vast amount of scientific areas. The study data consisted of 76 Arabic journals to determine to what extent Arabic researchers employ English references in their studies compared to Arabic ones. The findings revealed that the researchers depend on Arabic references when they do their research. Indeed, this will impact the overall quality of Arabic research and development, resulting in a frail motivation towering over the world's correspondences. Some recommendations were made to develop remedies and enhance researchers in the Arab world.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.12.1

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the erroneous use (misuse) of homographs among EFL learners of the College of Foreign Languages to determine the misuse of homographs among EFL learners, find out the ability of EFL learners to distinguish homographs, and enrich learners with different usage of some words included in the homographs. The sample of the study consisted of 30 participants, 15 each of male and female students, randomly selected from 7th – 8th levels of the College of Foreign Languages in Albaha University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The participants were assigned to (2) different experiments. A homograph definition was given to them at the beginning of the experiments to make sure that they were equivalent and homogenous. Two different tests were undertaken by the students and the results were obtained. The findings revealed a significant deficiency of students in the first experiment in which they were required to give multi-meanings for each homographic word. This led to the conclusion that there is a serious learning problem as seen in the students’ competence and performance.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 52-64; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.7

Abstract:
The objective of this research is to reveal the application of the Cooperative, Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) method to increase the reading comprehension of Indonesian EFL learners at junior schools. The CIRC method is one of the teaching methods that English teachers adjust to encourage their students to learn reading comprehension (Gupta & Ahuja, 2015); Zarei, 2012). One reason the researcher investigates reading is in the late time, the EFL learners are very less to spend their time on their reading habits (Derinalp, 2021). The EFL learners are very less to spend their time on their reading habits (Fan, 2016). Reading comprehension is one of the important skills of a language. Much information from the text form problematic issues (Riazi, 2017). It needs a complex skill to acquire this language skill. Therefore, the language learner who concerns with transforming information must prepare a strategy to work. This research applied a quasi-experimental method with a non-equivalent control group design. This study took the junior high school students in Parepare, Indonesia, as its subjects. Two groups of students were involved in the study, one as an experimental group and one as the control group. The data were collected using a comprehension test of the reading content. Management of analytical data was tested by the t-test and the accumulation of the percentage value. The results showed that CIRC improves the reading comprehension of Indonesian junior high students.
Thanh Diem Dang, Thi Thu Han Mai, Thi Lien Nguyen
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.6

Abstract:
His article presents the results of a study designed to measure the evaluation of learners on an online English course. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 20-course attendees, who are tourism workers in Ninh Binh province. The results of the survey reveal learners’ positive attitudes towards (1) the course content, (2) the course approach, (3) the course materials, (4) the course management, and (5) the perceived course outcomes. Besides, semi-structured interviews were carried out to pinpoint the difficulties learners encountered throughout the course. Based on the preliminary analyses of this questionnaire form, suggestions for a more efficient application of this online course are proposed.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.5

Abstract:
During the covid 19 pandemic, online learning, and its terms are not strange things in East Nusa Tenggara. The establishment of Learning from home was started from March to June 2020 to prevent the spread of Covid-19. This research is a case study of eleven English teachers who serve in certain areas around East Nusa Tenggara; five teachers of Senior High School/Vocational School, five teachers of Junior High School, and one Elementary School teacher. Its purpose was to describe the methods in the English teaching-learning process in a pandemic situation. The data of this descriptive study were obtained through WhatsApp non-facial interviews and analyzed by reducing and categorizing similar results. The results showed that the teachers applied two methods, both offline and online. From March to June 2020, the teachers managed their classes in the online process by using some applications. Whereas, in the Uneven Semester 2020-2021, the safe areas return to face-to-face learning in limited learning duration. The most prominent obstacle in online learning was the limitation of gadgets since the students did not have adequate tools. Financially, parents' income has decreased for they could not meet the needs of internet data packages. Students who returned to their hometown also experienced problems regarding network services. These conditions cause more obstacles to teachers in managing online classes. Therefore, teachers implemented several strategies to solve these obstacles by creating a WhatsApp group or arranging them into small groups based on their locations and there were students with smartphones to browse for materials or send the assignments. In addition, students were allowed to consult and collect the assignments at school based on scheduled agreements. The situation continues to Even Semester 2020-2021 and gradually turned to limited face-to-face meetings at school in the Uneven Semester 2021-2022.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.4

Abstract:
It is the dream and aspirations of every nation to achieve development. Hence, the policies and laws of any nation whether developed or developing is geared towards achieving development in every sector. To promote socio-economic development globally, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals were signed (SDGs). The SDGs are the seventeen goals set and signed by the 193 UN member nations in 2015 and agreed to be achieved by 2030. They represent a shared commitment by all member countries of which Nigeria is one to promote and ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and life-long learning opportunities for all, good health and well being for all, gender equality and empowerment of women and girls among other time-bound goals through partnership. Before the SDGs were the eight Millennium Development Goals which were signed in 2000 by 189 heads of state to eradicate inter alia hunger and poverty, diseases, gender inequalities etc. Four years after the 2015 target of the MDGs and four years into the SDGs 2030 target, there is still gender disparity in access to quality education between the boy-child and the girl-child in favour of the former in many countries including Nigeria. This paper therefore examines and tries to find answers to the following questions: (a) how do respondents perceive girl-child education? (b) What factors pose the greatest challenge to gender parity in access to quality education and training in Nigeria? The paper concludes with cogent recommendations.
, Rosalva Quito, Louis Macías
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 11-31; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.3

Abstract:
Reading represents a significant skill for knowledge acquisition. Nevertheless, many people cannot read properly, which may entail a serious limitation to their study, work, or other aspirations. The purpose of this research work is to determine the reading comprehension level and reading speed of English language students at the University of Cuenca, Ecuador, as well as the impact of sociodemographic factors and the use of reading strategies on these levels. The participants were 400 students who were taking English courses during September 2019 to February 2020 semester. The students completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, took reading tests to determine their reading speed and comprehension, and then completed another questionnaire on reading strategies. The results show a high level of reading comprehension in English but a below-average reading speed, in part due to certain external factors. Given these results, research-based intervention is highly recommended to improve reading levels.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 07-10; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.2

Abstract:
There is no doubt that agism is an important topic of study, especially in academic circles, as we aim to build towards a more inclusive and equitable environment for those whom we benefit. In the succeeding annotated bibliography, a list of resources that can aid in the teaching of aging to undergraduates, particularly, although not exclusively, in the context of general education or humanities coursework, and specifically, in the discipline of composition studies is put forward. These resources include content on why agism is important as a topic, its importance in the university classroom, and ideas as to how this can be done most effectively. To achieve this, this annotated bibliography draws from evidence in research related to gerontology, educational psychology, and social justice pedagogy, amongst other areas. It is hoped that this paper can serve as a guide to academics interested in educating and empowering their students to become more aware of this major form of discrimination
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.1

Abstract:
The institutionalization of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines through the Department of Education order no. 74. series of 2009 outlining aspirations for a culture-centered mother tongue-based instruction is positioned to focus on the acquisition of language content and allow the learners to experience a theoretically based, well-planned educational program that provides a strong foundation for literacy using the cognitive skills and comprehension of academic content from day one. However, the dynamic process of teaching and learning brought many factors contributing to the implementation of the program as the key language policy of the Philippines. With this, the researcher examined the extent of program implementation through the use of qualitative and quantitative data. The study employed validated and standardized survey instruments and used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the gathered data, and it applied descriptive analysis to determine the level or degree of implementation. Also, the perspectives of language teachers were taken into account to ensure a better view of the panorama as they are the end-users. Findings suggested that (1) the policy has been implemented to a great extent by the teachers; teachers have a good grasp of the program. Also, (2) teachers are providing relevant and responsive delivery of instruction in order to capitalize the learner's capability.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.4

Abstract:
In every individual’s life, communicating and interacting with others is vital for carrying out a healthy social and professional relationship. Strictly speaking, we, you and I communicate with one another in our day-to-day life and simply understand each other. Paul Grice’s has presented his cooperative principle theory to explain our day-to-day life conversation. This article aims to review the basic Grecian theory of conversational implicature, identifying important consequences, known problems, and useful extensions or modifications. This paper is about how people should consider meeting the cooperative principle in order to perform successfully in communication which is based mainly on Paul Grice’s theory of implicature which is considered one of the most important contributions to pragmatics.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 41-44; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.5

Abstract:
This present review paper will be investigating the topic of first language (L1) attrition, primarily concentrating on how this process is realized in first-generation immigrant children, meaning children who either were born in a country different than the one their parents were born in or foreign-born children whose parents immigrated when that person was very young. This angle is particularly interesting as this L1 attrition is simultaneously co-occurring with second language (L2) acquisition and is connected to a multitude of sociolinguistic factors, the most important of which is the concept of sociolinguistic prestige as well as the concept of age-based speech communities and how the members of these communities influence one another's speech. The main goal is to gain more insight into how first language attrition research has taken into account such complex social matters as well as understanding the effects social/cognitive factors like these have on children who are being exposed to more than one language in their everyday life. To further the understanding of the social component of L1 attrition, this paper presents a comparison between two examples of language policy, in Romania and in the Netherlands, concerning multilingualism in society as well as in education.
, Rosa Adriana May-Meléndez, Magdalena Apasra Bandala-Garcés
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.1

Abstract:
Even though English has remained an important element at different levels of education, studies in different parts of the world indicate that proficiency and performance in English can be a challenge. A specific example is the case of Mexico. Learning English has been stated as important in the Mexican education system for decades, yet, Mexico has held low proficiency in English for a long time. This study forms part of a larger mixed-methodology study of an institution of higher education in southeast Mexico. This paper aims to explore the descriptive results of 882 first-year university students on an English institutional test to study their language performance and the salient contextual factors. The test results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations using SPSS, version 21. The results show that students’ English test performance is mostly low. Independent sample t-tests indicate that while gender is not an influencing factor on test performance, higher exam scores are associated with the type of high school education.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 09-15; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.2

Abstract:
In the late 1970s, linguists such as George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, and Michael Reddy began to realize that metaphor was extremely common and related to thought and action. Indeed, they claimed that “our conceptual system…is fundamentally metaphoric in nature” (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980). Owing to this, metaphor is used in all-out endeavours: socially, economically, politically, etc. From this perspective, this paper analyzes the use of metaphor in a corpus of speeches delivered by a prominent figure in Ghanaian politics. This is none other than one of the pioneers of African emancipation, the former and first president of the Republic of Ghana Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, in his fight for Independence for Ghana and African unity. It portrays the use of metaphor as a powerful tool to convey information, thereby making it more convincing to serve its intended purpose. It also reveals how Dr. Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana’s first president) used rhetoric to achieve his political aims. It unravels the metaphors used in his speech delivered on 10th July 1953, which is collected from samples of his speeches published online. Secondly, this paper adopts the use of MIPVU (which is a systematic and transparent procedure for identifying linguistic metaphors). It achieves inter-coder reliability and does not identify conceptual metaphors. By adopting MIPVU, lexical units of the sentences will be examined and then the contextual meaning of the unit will be established to determine more basic meaning. If the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it, then the unit will be marked as a metaphor. When the metaphor was identified, I used critical discourse analysis (CDA) methodology for data analysis. This paper's findings clearly demonstrate that the metaphor is predominant in political discourse and can actually trigger social action.
, Wafa Al Dhahli
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 16-31; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.3

Abstract:
The global pandemic has tremendously affected all walks of life. Education is no exception, with online learning being the only available mode of learning. This sudden shift to online learning, which was given marginal attention before the pandemic, has entailed many challenges for decision-makers, teachers and students alike. This paper highlights the general attitudes of Omani undergraduate students towards online language courses amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants are 155 undergraduate students who took online English requirements in the Centre for Preparatory Studies (CPS) at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Spring 2021. A quantitative approach to data collection has been embraced to collect students’ perspectives on different aspects related to their online learning experience. A survey addressing different aspects of online learning related to connectivity, communication, learning experience and learning environment, assessment and learner’s online identity was conducted. The findings show that students are thriving and have a general positive attitude towards the online learning experience. However, students reported some factors which made the online instruction stressful such as technical issues, marathon assignments, disconnectedness and online identity. The findings of the study can be good indicators that should be taken into consideration when designing, running and evaluating online language courses for undergraduate students to help them thrive during this mode of learning.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 4, pp 01-13; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.4.7.1

Abstract:
This research study starts from the premise that the integration of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in education is the key to the ultimate improvement of EFL teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether the complete integration of ICTs in EFL education in Ecuadorian high schools can materialize or not by examining the diverse realities and perceptions of English teachers and students from public and private high schools. Using the quantitative methodology, this study analyzed the data obtained by administering surveys regarding the use of ICTs to 24 English teachers whose ages ranged between 26 to 50 years old and had teaching experiences that went from 2 to 25 years along with 2520 students whose ages ranged between 11 to 17 years old, equally spread among six public and six private Ecuadorian high schools in three different cities: Quito, Guayaquil, and Machala. The findings show that private high schools are better equipped technologically speaking with full access to ICTs, their staff is mostly ready to work with them and their student population has also complete access to ICTs at home at school and show a positive attitude towards such integration, whereas public high schools are poorly-equipped regarding technology, their teaching staff is under-qualified to work with said technologies in the class and their student population has little or no access to them at home, which makes them have a negative attitude towards the said process. This leads to the conclusion that the successful integration of ICTs in EFL teaching is only feasible in private Ecuadorian high schools due to their advantageous position when compared to their public peers.
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