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Ngukato K Yepthomi, Syed H Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.003

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in the Zunheboto district of Nagaland. Zunheboto is bordered by Mokokchung district in the east, Kohima district in the south and Wokha district in the west. Out of total twelve districts in Nagaland, Zunheboto district is selected for the study. Majority of the respondents were from middle age group, educated up to literate, middle caste group from the joint family, having large family size. Most of the respondents were from small size of land holding, having medium group of annual income, majority of the respondents were from medium social participation. The findings of the study indicated that majority of respondents had adequate knowledge regarding impacts on complete forest loss, impacts on diverse land use system, bad impact of burned land on health of people and burning practice negatively impacted the biochemical processes of soils. Correlation coefficient showed that variables viz.., annual income, Land holding, social participation, extension contact were positively and significantly related with perception of respondents towards shifting cultivation practices.
Balla Ratan Sharmila, Syed H Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.005

Abstract:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) also known as Lady’s Finger is an economically important summer vegetable crop that belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is known to have originated in tropical Africa. The crop is quite popular due to its easy cultivation, dependable yield and resistant to drought & water logging adaptability to varying moisture conditions & soil types. (Maurya et al., 2013). the major findings are 74.16 percent of the respondents have knowledge on soils that are Loose, loamy soils are required for Okra cultivation, followed by 64.16 percent of the respondents are saying that they cultivate Okra crop throughout the year. Okra plant produces fiber by 20.2 to 7.2 percent. (Chauhan 1972) East-godavari district of Andra pradesh state was selected purposively based on the maximum farmers’ availability. Descriptive research design was used for the present study. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively as a sample for the present investigation. The data was collected by using pre-tested schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Karl Pearson’s Co-efficient of Correlation test was applied to find out the association between farmers socio-economic profile with independent variables. It was concluded that the socio-economic status of the respondents constitute medium level. It was observed that majority of the respondents belonged to the high level of perception and towards improved okra cultivation practices. There was a positive and significant relationship between independent variables with dependent variables.
Sentizungla Sentizungla, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 148-157; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.017

Abstract:
The present study was conducted with the objective to find out the socio economic profile, agri-entrepreneural behaviour and attitude of king chilli growers in Dimapur district of Nagaland and find out the constraints faced by the respondents and to obtain their suggestions. A total of one hundred twenty farmers were selected from 4 villages using proportionate random sampling procedure. Data was collected by using interview method using pre-structure D interview schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the respondents belonged to middle aged group, had medium level of annual income with medium size of land holding. Majority of them had medium year of farming experience and medium level of extension contact. On analyzing the entrepreneural behaviour level, highest number of respondents i.e. 65.83% were having medium level of entrepreneural behaviour followed by 25 % having high and 9.16% having low levels. In respect of correlation analysis between entrepreneural behaviour level and socio- economic profile of respondents it shows that annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure and social contact are positively significant. Whereas, age, education, family type, family size, type of house, land holding, and farming experience are non-significant. In respect of the correlation analysis, the annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure and social contact were positively significant at 0.05 % level related to attitude of the people whereas age, education, family type, family size, type of house, land holding, and farming experience were found to be non-significantly related to attitude of the respondents towards king chilli production respectively.
Balla Sushma Swaraj, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 158-167; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.018

Abstract:
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important commercial crop of India. Sugarcane and sugar beet are used for large scale production of sugar in the world. Amongst the sugar producing plants, sugarcane is responsible for about 60.00 per cent of world’s sugar production. Sugarcane is cultivated mainly in the tropics, though in India it is also grown in sub-tropical areas. Sugarcane is the main source of sugar in Asia and Europe. Sugarcane is grown primarily in the tropical and sub-tropical zones of the southern hemisphere. Sugarcane is the raw material for the production of white sugar, jiggery (Gur) and khandsari. It is also used for chewing and extraction of juice for beverage purpose. Kumar (2019). The study was based on both primary and secondary data. The study was conducted in few selected villages of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh it was concluded that majority of the respondents belongs to the medium level of knowledge. Nearly 44.16 per cent of respondents were having the knowledge towards sugarcane cultivation practices.
Aditya Shukla, Ramchandra Ramchandra
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 128-141; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.015

Vijay Yadav, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 142-147; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.016

Abstract:
The scheme Kisan credit card was started in August 1998 in order to provide timely and hassle free credit for the production requirements of the farmers. The main purpose of the scheme was to meet the production as well as consumption needs of the farmers. The present study was conducted in Soraon block of Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. Ex-post facto research design was followed for the analysis. There are 20 blocks in the selected district out of that Soraon block was selected purposively because the existence of Kisan Credit Card scheme is comparatively more as compared to other blocks. There are 71 villages in the selected block out of that number of 6 villages was selected based on maximum number of farmers involved in KCC scheme. Total number of 120 respondents were selected randomly from 6 villages for the present study The major constraints faced by the respondents are High rate of interest on loan followed by Purpose of availing loan not accepting, Timeliness of credit, Delay by bank side and Duration of loan was very short. It was suggested that Credit limit to be increased considering family expenses, Extent of validity of card up to 5 years, Lower the interest rate, Repayment only after harvest, Flexibility to draw cash and Limit to be fixed on the basis of operational land holding, which will be lead all round development in the research area.
Renigunta Chainatnya, M. Sekhar, Meenakshi Joshi, Bavandally Rahul, Siddhant Gupta
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.007

Abstract:
Cluster bean (Cyamopsistetragonoloba L.) popularly known as guar is a drought tolerant, deep-rooted, annual legume is grown for Vegetable, Food, Fodder, Green manure, Gum and as a seed. The fortification of seeds for better Growth and Yield has become important and emphasized. The study was conducted to determine the ― Effect of Vermiwash, Panchagavya and Weed Extract on Growth, Yield and Seed Quality Parameters of Cluster bean (Cyamopsistetragonoloba (L).).The experiment was carried out at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences. Prayagraj (UP) during Kharif-2019. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Blocked Design and comprised of 13 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were T0 (Control),T1 – vermiwash 5% @ 12hrs, T2 - vermin wash 10% @ 12hrs, T3 - vermiwash 15% @ 12hrs, T4 - vermiwash 20% @ 12hrs, T5 – panchagavya 5% @ 12hrs, T6 - panchagavya 10% @ 12hrs, T7 - panchagavya 15% @ 12hrs, T8 - panchagavya 20% @ 12hrs, T9 – weed seed extract 5% @ 12 hrs, T10 - weed seed extract 10% @ 12 hrs, T11 – weed seed extract 15% @ 12 hrs, T12 - weed seed extract 20% @ 12 hrs.
Kunche Gowthami, Jahanara Jahanara, Syed H. Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.008

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in Korukonda and Ramchandrapuram division having prominent area under brinjal in East Godavari district by selecting 4 villages from each mandal for study. Total 72 brinjal growers were selected. The study revealed that personal and socio economic characteristics of the respondents education, , land holding , extension participation , area under brinjal , extension contact and mass media exposure were positively and significantly correlated with their level of adoption of IPM practices. The variable age, family type, annual income and occupation had negative and significant correlation with the adoption level. Availability of biopesticides, pheromone traps and light traps at reasonable price and at local places were the important suggestions made by brinjal growers. The other suggestions were insect organization of demonstration campaign for proper guidance on IPM practices and for identifying insect pest from state department of agriculture and state agricultural universities.
Prakash Kumar, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 48-59; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.006

Abstract:
The Government of India created a historic act, by enacting the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), the largest employment generating programme in the world, ensuring the right to work in a country with a population of over one billion. This Act gives legal guarantee of at least one hundred days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household, whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled and manual work. The present study was conducted in Dinara block of Rohtas district of Bihar. Ex post facto research design was followed for the analysis because the research is conducted after the occurrence of a particular incident. There are 61 villages in Dinara block, including the village of Dinara itself. Total number of 6 villages were selected through random sampling based on existence of MGNREGA Program. A total number of 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries of MGNREGA scheme were selected through random sampling for the present study. From the above analysis, it was concluded that 51.67 percent of the beneficiaries’ respondents is having high level of Attitude, whereas in non-beneficiaries 56.67 percent of the respondents is having medium level of Attitude.
Kamishetty Uday Kumar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.004

Abstract:
India is the pioneer country for the commercial cultivation of cotton. Cotton is one of the principal commercial crops and has been one of the main sources of India's economic growth and foreign exchange earner. It is popularly known as ‘White Gold’. In india it is important cash and commercial crop valued for its fiber and vegetable oil. The study was conducted in Ramannapet block of Yadadri Bhuvanagiri District was selected purposively based on the maximum cotton grower and 120 respondents were selected randomly from six villages of the ramannapet block. The data was collected with the help of structured schedule analyzed statistically. The study revealed that majority of respondents had medium level of socio-economic status and knowledge on recommended improved production practices of cotton. To access the knowledge of the respondents about improved cotton production practices.
Varun Shekhar, Devi Singh, Deepanshu Deepanshu
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.003

Abstract:
The experiment entitled “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield and Quality of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cv. New Kuroda” was conducted during Rabi season of the year 2020-2021 on Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology, Prayagraj. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design comprising of 13 treatments each replicated three times. Treatments were randomly arranged in each replication, divided into thirty nine plots. The experiment was carried out with the thirteen integrated nutrient management treatments. Among the treatments, T11 FYM 10 t ha-1+Vermicompost 2.5t ha-1 + Biofertilizer (2 kg ha-1) 75% NPK registered significantly higher plant height (82.95), number of leaves per plant (14.66), root length (10.82), root diameter (3.42), fresh weight of root (67.01), dry weight of root (4.13), root yield plot-1(17.80kg), root yield (455.00q ha-1) and Total soluble solid (9.45 0Brix). Whereas the maximum benefit cost ratio (1: 5.24 & 5.29) was found in T10 and T12.
Manjula A. C, Jenifer Lolita. C, Shubha Shubha, Prathibha K.Y, Keshamma E
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.002

Abstract:
We planned to conduct this study with the main aim to develop bivoltine breeds for our tropical climatic conditions by using silkworm breeds with known genetic backgrounds (KA, NB18 and PM) in various hybrid combinations and incorporating them over generations, followed by backcrossing and adequate selection of different generations with the objective of profitability and productivity. The isolated Bivoltin lines (R1 and R2) were reared with their parental races at different times of the year to evaluate their stability in the expression of commercial traits. For the present breeding program, the purebred Bivoltine Kalimpong-A (KA), which spin white oval cocoons, New Bivoltine18 (NB18) white cocoons with rotating dumbbells and Multivoltine Pure Mysore (PM), the yellow pointed cocoons of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L., Selected. One-way and three-way crosses were made using the above three breeds. The first single cross comprised KA females and PM males. The second unique cross comprised NB18 females and PM males. Selection was performed at the egg, larva, pupal, and cocoon stages over the course to determine the desired traits. The offspring of F from the respective crosses were backcrossed with their respective bivoltine males to improve commercial traits. Heterosis in the F1 generations of crosses, including NB18 and PM, was determined by the mean score of the parents (MPV) and the best score of the parents (BPV). A significant test for heterosis was performed using a standard ANOVA table. Based on the results of our study, it was found that the performance of the characters, viz. The weight of mature larvae and the duration of the larvae over generations do not simply increase or decrease regularly, but fluctuate irregularly. The reason for this variation may be due to random genetic drift, sampling errors in estimating generational means, selection pressures, and environmental factors. Therefore, inbreeding variations due to random drift and sampling errors could be reduced by increasing the number sampled and selected.
Subrat Kumar Maharana, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.001

Abstract:
A SHG is a small economically homogeneous affinity group of the rural poor voluntarily coming together to save small amount regularly, which are deposited in a common fund to meet members emergency needs and to provide collateral free loans decided by the group. The present study was conducted in Koksara block of Kalahandi district of Odisha. Ex-post facto research design was followed for the present study. The data was collected from 150 respondents. It was collected randomly from 10 villages using pre-tested structured interview schedule and analyzed using frequency, percentage & Ranking. From the data collection it was found that majority of respondents were facing major constraints such as loans were not sufficient followed by lack of knowledge and skills and so on. Suggestions offered by them were such as Women must be literate; there should be Family support for business & easy bank loan procedure and so on.
Rayavarapu Jessy Samyuktha, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 116-121; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.013

Abstract:
Soil serves as a combination of minerals, organic matter, air, water and the countless micro-organisms that together support life on earth. Continued degradation of soils has adversely affected crop productivity in the country. The soil health has been impaired due to emergence of multi nutrient deficiencies and falling carbon levels. Government of India planned to issue Soil Health Cards to all the farmers under the scheme Soil Health card Scheme and launched this scheme in 2015. Soil Health Card Scheme has helped India achieve surplus capacity in food grain production. The study was based on both primary and secondary data. The study was conducted in few selected villages of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh in which it was found that Soil Health Card scheme is being implemented and the farmers were aware of SHCS and are being motivated to utilize the information given in soil health cards. Andhra Pradesh has issued most number of soil health cards to its farmers. It is concluded that majority of respondents have medium level of knowledge and utilization of SHC. Nearly 50% of respondents were utilizing the information given by SHC and stated that there is increase in production.
Ashish Kumar Pradhan, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 122-127; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.014

Abstract:
Research study entitled "A Study on attitude of farmers towards Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana in Deogarh District of Odisha" was under taken to elucidate the constraints faced by the farmers regarding Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana and seek their suggestions. The constraints faced by the beneficiaries in PMFBY were Lack of knowledge regarding to PMFBY, lack of awareness of benefits of PMFBY, less compensatation offered in crop insurance scheme, delay in payment of compensatation. Rate of premium is not universal for all crops, on-line registration and assessment of risk complexity in PMFBY, unavailability of experts for assessment of loss at visit time, lack of coordination between banks and farmers and high rate of premium. Suggestion made by the beneficiaries to overcome the constraints in PMFBY were procedure of the scheme should be simplified, organization of awareness programmes for farmers regarding PMFBY, organization of training programmes on e-filling of insurance and benefit of the farmers, payment of premium by the government for farmers below the poverty regarding PMFBY, premium rate may be decreased, avoid delay in payment of compensatation, increase the number of extension agents, improve linkage between banks and farmers, unit area may be of individual or a village level improve socio-economic conditions of the farmers and increase the insurance agents in rural areas.
Lothungbeni Jami, Dipak Kumar Bose, Syed H. Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 84-93; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.010

Abstract:
Cucumber is one of the oldest vegetable crop grown widely throughout India as well as tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Nagaland, one of the eight states of the north east region is blessed with suitable agro climatic conditions and its soil is suitable for agriculture, where cucumber is grown in all the districts. Cucumber farmers in Nagaland have a lot of potential to venture out economically and establish successful adoption practices. The study was conducted with the objectives to study the characteristics of cucumber growers, the extent of knowledge and determine the level of adoption by off season cucumber growers and to delineate the constraints faced by the respondents and to obtain their suggestions. An interview schedule based on the study was prepared and data were collected with the help of interview schedule and processed through primary and secondary tables and statistical analysis. The present study was conducted in Baghty block of Wokha district of Nagaland. A total number of 120 respondents from 4 villages were selected using proportionate random sampling procedure. The respondents were contacted personally and interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the cucumber belonged to middle aged group, educated between primary and high school level, had medium level of annual income with medium size of land holding. Majority of them had medium year of farming experience, use of sources of information and medium level of extension contact. It was observed that the majority of the respondents had medium level of adoption of recommended off season cucumber cultivation practices.
Kevide Lcho, Dipak Kumar Bose, Syed H Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 94-104; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.011

Abstract:
The present study entitled “ADOPTION OF IMPROVED PADDY CULTIVATION BY FARMERS IN KOHIMA DISTRICT OF NAGALAND” was conducted in Kohima district of Nagaland to find out the extent of adoption of improved paddy cultivation practices One hundred twenty farmers were selected from 6 villages, twenty respondents from each village. Data was collected by using pre-tested schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. It was found that majority of respondents were having medium level of socio-economic profile. On analyzing the knowledge level, highest number of respondents i.e. 51.6 per cent were having medium level of knowledge followed by 45 per cent having high and 3.33 per cent having low levels. In case of adoption level it was found that most of the respondents 60.83 per cent have medium adoption level followed by 5 per cent having low, 34.16 per cent having high level. The major constraints faced were lack of technical knowledge among rice growers, lack of credit facility at the time, Lack of Hybrid seed, Lack of proper market facilities, Lack of training programme related with improved practices, Lack of proper information at, Unavailability of electricity, Lack of proper resource and capital, Non-performance of visit by agricultural personnel and Costly critical inputs (seed and fertilizer).
Vibhav Gupta, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 105-115; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.012

Abstract:
India is a country of great tradition, where social customs and norms exert a firm grip over the behavioral patterns of individuals. Women constitute one of the most important and dynamic but deprived and long neglected sections of the Indian society. For the present study Prayagraj district is selected by purposive sampling because the participation of women in agriculture is comparatively more than the other districts of Uttar Pradesh. There are 20 blocks in the selected district out of that, Kaudihaar block is selected by purposive sampling because maximum numbers of women are engaged in agriculture. One hundred twenty farmers were selected from 8 villages. Data were collected by using pre-tested schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Lacks of family support, lack of knowledge, dominance of male members in the family are the constraints faced by farm women. Farm women faced major constraints in decision making process about various agriculture related activities were: social/cultural norms and lack of self confidence in decision. Empowerment of women in developing countries like India will lead the nation to a breaking issue of humanist thinking for globalization. The major suggestions offered by farm women to overcome the constraints were more technical guidance regarding scientific farming should be given to farm women and training should be imparted at village level.
Naveena Kudikala, Syed H Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 74-83; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.009

Abstract:
The present investigation was conducted in chaka, jasra, and kaundhiara blocks of Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh. One hundred twenty respondents were selected randomly from 10 villages which were selected from the data given by KVK staff of naini, prayagraj. Respondents were taken as trainees and non-trainees to compare the economic condition between them. Where non trainees were selected from 5 of the 10 villages for appropriate results. The primary data were gathered by the researcher itself through pre-structured interview schedule. Appropriate statistical tools were used to interpret the collected data to draw logical conclusion. The finding inferred that majority of trainees have shown medium and high level of economical status, whereas non trainees have shown low level of economical status when annual income, physical assets, land holding were taken as a parameters to compare.
Pawan Kumar Yadav, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 39-47; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.005

Abstract:
The present study is an attempt to assess the socio-economic characteristics and utilization level of source of Information in improved cultivation practices of sugarcane by the farmers of Gonda District in Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane cultivation is not prominent in this area however a large number of farmers cultivate cash crop, due to availability of information or communication channel about package of practices. Primary data from 120 respondents were collected through face to face interview. Descriptive research design had been followed for the present study. Random and Purposive sampling had been used for the present study. Farmers had a highest utilization of information by friend, neighbor and relatives (83.34%), followed by radio i.e.75%.Majority of (48.33%) farmers had medium level of utilization, followed by 29.16% of farmers had high level utilization about improved cultivation practices of sugarcane.
Shiva Shiva, Syed H. Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 183-190; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.020

Abstract:
Socio-economic profile of farmers based on content and frequency of messages being disseminated through ICT tools was studied. ICT plays an important role among the farmers in the village of Pusa block as a source of keeping them updated and connected. The data has been collected from 120 farmers using ICT tools through face to face interview. Descriptive research design was followed for the study. The selection of block and villages was done purposively and randomly as per the ICT users. The study concludes that role of ICTs in agriculture development was influenced by content of information and the respondents age, caste, education, size of family, family type, social participation, family annual income, sources of information and size of land holding, high and medium level of knowledge about agricultural activities among farmers through ICT tools.
Yalla Meera, Dipak Kumar Bose, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 155-162; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.017

Abstract:
Women and Children constitute 67.7 per cent of the country’s total population as per the census 2001. Women exclusively accounted for million constituting 48.3 percent of the country’s population. By virtue of these figures, they shall be considered as an important target group. Hence, it becomes an essentiality to empower women economically and socially for promoting national development. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) was launched as sub scheme of IRDP. It was initially started as pilot project in 50 selected districts in all states during 1982- 1983. During, the IX plan almost all state governments started implementing DWCRA activities in rural areas. The objectives of this programme are to organize women into socio-economic activity groups with the dual purpose of providing self- employment opportunities and social strength to them. Besides, providing financial support for income generating activities, DWCRA also increases women’s access to basic services of health, education, children’s nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation and environment. Though there are many achievements to its credit, still there is wider space to accommodate many innovative ideas elicited through the participation of women over the years for improving the programme periphery.
Aditya Shukla, Ramchandra Ramchandra
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 142-154; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.016

Abstract:
The study was conducted, in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. Random sampling technique was used for the selection of blocks, villages and proportionate random sampling for selection of growers. From the list, 200 growers were selected, using proportionate sampling method i.e. 90 small, 70 medium and 40 large farmers respectively. The primary data were collected from the respondents by using interview schedule, while secondary data were collected from the official records, published data, magazines etc. The marketable surplus for Aonla in the area was found to be 140, 160 and 180 quintals per farm which constituting (99.10%), (99.48%) and (99.48%) to their total Aonla production. Channel-I, Marketing cost when producers sold their produce to consumer in the market was Rs.90/quintal. Net price received by the producer is 410/quintal. Producer share in consumer price was 82 per cent. Price spread is Rs 90. Marketing efficiency was 5.55 per cent. Channel-II, Marketing cost when producers sold their produce to retailers was Rs.105/quintal. Among these cost transportation charges was most important which accounted for Rs.15/quintal, followed by loading and unloading cost Rs.10/quintal, market cost Rs.10/quintal, labour cost was Rs.10/quintal and miscellaneous cost Rs.50/quintal respectively. Sale price of the producer to retailer was Rs.500/quintals inn different farms size group. Channel-III, this is identified as the longest channel. The producer sells his produce to the commission agents, who in turn sell it to retailer in the market. Finally, the produce reaches to the consumer after collecting margin. Average marketing cost when producer sold their produce to commission agents, in the market was Rs.165. Among these grading, cleaning etc. was Rs. 10 and 10 per Qts. loading and unloading cost Rs. 10 per Qtl. Transportation cost Rs. 20per Qts, Miscellaneous charges Rs. 25/qts, respectively.
Ashok Meena, Sandhya Choudhary, Dhavendra Singh
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 175-182; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.019

Abstract:
In india Panchayati Raj now functions as a system of governance in which Gram Panchayats are the basic units of local administration. The system has three levels: Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad (district level). Panchayat Raj has come to be related with two broad images. First, it is a government by itself and second it is an agency of the state government. In the integrated exercise of planning for social and economic development, co-ordinate roles, the present set up is a three-tier representative structure of government where the administrators, elected leaders and local population participate in the developmental effort. In this regard the members of Panchyat faced many problems there this study confront the constrains faced by members and suggestions to overcome them with 120 sample unit of Ujjain district. The major finding was obtained in this study that the most serious constraint perceived by the Gram Panchayat Members during agriculture development programmes was Insufficient use of communication media (85.83%) as it was perceived to the highest extent by gram Panchayat Members with major suggestion of them Properly and timely use of communication media.
M. Sekhar, Abhishek Sagar, Wasim Khan, Jayant Patel
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 163-182; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.018

Abstract:
Among the growing population (136.64 crs as per2019) many people experience scarcity of food and all. In the 2020 Global Hunger Index, India ranks 94th out of the 107 countries with sufficient data to calculate 2020 GHI scores. With a score of 27.2, India has a level of hunger that is serious (www.un.org/). The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that the on-going COVID-19 pandemic will increase this number as developing countries are double-hit by disease and hunger (www.fao.org/2019-ncov/q-and-a/) Disruptions in global supply chains, economic consequences (i.e., loss of jobs and incomes), the ban on the export of agricultural commodities, and price increases are the major reasons for this crisis. Although much attention is being given to the development of vaccines, therapeutic molecules, and preventive measures to combat COVID-19, the invisible threat to the lives and livelihoods of marginal populations through hunger and malnutrition remains largely unaddressed. The focus of the 2019 Global hunger index on ‘The Challenge of Hunger and Climate Change’ underlines the impacts of changing climates on agriculture that include crop failures owing to problems such as seasonal fluctuations, increased insect and pest attacks, and broad-spectrum infection by potential pathogens (www.globalhungerindex.org/).Supplying food grains is an immediate measure to aid the affected population, whereas devising long-term plans to prevent such challenges is the need of the hour. That said, the possibility of a second and third wave of COVID-19 in the near future should not be ignored. In such a case, the UN World Food Programme predicts (UN-WFP; https://insight.wfp.org/) that death due to lack of food would outnumber deaths caused by disease infection. The importance of crop diversity and of mainstreaming underutilized crops that could serve as functional foods has been pointed out before; however, identifying the best candidates of underutilized crops and deploying crop improvement strategies to release better varieties is still in a nascent stage. Mayes et al. Other plant species, including tubers, legumes, and leafy vegetables, also fall within the criteria of underutilized species; however, emphasis is given to small millets because they are capable of reducing the overdependence on major cereals. Three major cereals, namely rice, wheat, and maize, cater for up to 60% of the global food requirements, and this is one of the plausible causes of food and nutritional inadequacies in the hunger hotspots where these crops are largely imported for consumption. Millets, although cultivated marginally in those regions, have the potential to address these inadequacies if their area of cultivation is increased and crop improvement strategies are devised and deployed.
Javed Akhtar Ansari, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 70-82; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.009

Abstract:
India being a sub-tropical country, ideal for fruit and vegetable production and stands as second largest producer of vegetable. Tomato is the most cultivating vegetable crop in Uttar Pradesh but to ensure food security and to impart the new technology to farmers, the knowledge, attitude and adoption level of farmers should be studied. Thus, the present study was formulated in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. Four villages were selected from Ghorwal taluk, 30 respondents from 4 villages constitutes the respondents. Primary data collected from the respondents were analysed with appropriate statistical tools. It can be inferred that majority of the respondents were middle aged, illiterate, had agriculture as their main occupation, possess below 1 hectare of land holding, had 3-10 years of experience in tomato cultivation and farming with medium level of mass media exposure, risk taking ability and progressiveness; earns medium level of annual income. Meanwhile, most of them had medium level of knowledge, attitude and adoption. Whereas, socio-economic characteristics like age, education, mass media exposure, annual income, farming experience and progressiveness had positive and significant association with the knowledge and attitude level of respondents.
Smit Smarak Mishra, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 83-91; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.010

Abstract:
Villages and its farmers are the base of Odisha. But, when farmers suffer from ailments, they have to pay heavy economic, social and emotional price. Financial hazard and health related expenses led the farmer to suffer in poverty. Whereas, Biju Krushak Kalyan Yojana (BKKY) brought as a solution to farmers for their health security. The study was conducted in Angul district of Odisha under ex-post facto research design. 120 respondents from 10 villages of Angul block in Angul district of Odisha was selected for the study. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the help of pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule through personal interview. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis and the identified that majority of the respondents were middle aged, illiterate, earns medium level of annual income, with medium level of mass media exposure and extension contact. Further added that, respondents reported positive impact on BKKY and socio-economic characteristics like education, income, mass media exposure and extension contact has positive and significant association with the impact of BKKY among the farmers. It was suggested to create awareness among farmers on benefits of BKKY, providing quality health consultations, proper knowledge at timely manner.
Milufarzana Milufarzana, Hasna Hena Prianka, Selina Banu, Maisha Fahmida, Farha Anjum Tapu
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.006

Abstract:
Nowadays in Bangladesh, farm mechanization is one of the major cause of change in agricultural sector. Due to labor shortage and high wage rate of labor, farmers are compelled to accept farm mechanization. The purpose of the study was to assess the modern agricultural technologies used in Panchagarh district and develop statistical information. The study period was from August 2019 to October 2019. For this study, three places such as Panchagarh Sadar, Boda and Debiganj were selected. Present status was analyzed based on irrigation management system, tillage practices, insect control practices, harvesting and post-harvesting operation, drying and storage facilities for rice production. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the information’s of machinery used in selected places. The study revealed that irrigation, land preparation and crop protection was almost mechanized, but mechanization is still lacking in harvesting operation. There were no transplanter, seed drill and fertilizer applicator found in the study areas used by farmers. Crops were still dried through sun drying storage was done by the traditional storage technologies. It is a fact that mechanization is in progress in these areas but need more extension work with modern machineries. The government should develop proper planning by investigating present status of mechanization and improve the present condition by increasing machinery utilization.
D. Srikanth, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 126-135; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.014

Abstract:
The agricultural growth considerably depends on the communication of information and knowledge which is transferred among farmers the mass media plays an important role in dissemination of agricultural information, the mass media contributes in spreading of information and enables remote areas farmers to make decision about farming activities (Chhachhar, 2012). Mahabubnagar district of Telangana state was selected purposively based on the maximum farmers’ availability. Descriptive research design was used for the present study. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively as a sample for the present investigation. The data was collected by using pre-tested schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools chi-square test was applied to find out the relationship between the utilization of mass media by farmers with independent variables. It was concluded that the socio-economic status of the respondents constitute medium level. It was observed that majority of the respondents belonged to the high level of Utilization of mass media. There was a positive relationship between utilization of mass media with independent variables like Age, family size, annual income, education, land holding, mass media exposure and extension contacts.
Temsukala Lemtor, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 136-141; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.015

Abstract:
This study has been conducted to find out the working conditions of Ao Naga tribal women in different farming activities in the district of Mokokchung. The aforementioned study was conducted in Tuli Block at Mokokchung district in the year 2021. A descriptive research designed was applied for this study. The primary data was collected from 120 respondents by personal interview method using pre-structured interview schedule. After the analysis of the data it was observed that, maximum number of the respondents were having medium level of extension contact and a medium level percentage was found in regards to the attitude of the respondents.
, V. Radhakrishnan
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 106-113; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.012

Abstract:
Comparative biology of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri on Maconellicoccus hirsutus and Pseudococcus citri revealed that it had completed its life cycle successfully on both species. The mean total developmental period (egg to pupa) was 18.1 days, when reared on P. citri and it was 20.9 days in M. hirsutus. The adults developed on P. citri had high fecundity 284.2 eggs / female and longevity 47.0 days than those developed on M. hirsutus. Analysis on the growth indices of C. montrouzieri showed more preference on P. citri with high suitability index of 2.51 than M. hirsutus (1.78). Among two life stages, adults of C. montrouzieri was more voracious and each adult consumed an average 258.7, 352.1 and 217.3 numbers on M. hirsutus while, it was 323.8, 715.6 and 328.6 number of eggs, nymphs and adults for P. citri, respectively. The grubs required 221.1, 55.1 and 36.6 numbers of M. hirsutus and 1079.0, 341.3 and 41.0 number of eggs, nymphs and adults of P. citri, respectively to complete life stages. Out of different instars of C. montrouzieri, third and fourth instars required around 92.1, 78.5 and 85.9 per cent and 88.9, 93.5 and 79.0 per cent of total eggs, nymphs and adults of P. citri and M. hirsutus consumed, respectively.
Palukuri Sindhuja, Jahanara Jahanara, Syed H Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 114-125; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.013

Abstract:
The present study was undertaken with the main objective of assessing the effectiveness of agricultural programmes of different channels as perceived by the televiewing farmers. Before and After research design was followed in the present investigation. The study was conducted in Tirupathi mandal, Chittoor district which were selected purposively. The data were collected randomly by talking personally interview of 120 televiewers. The data was collected by personal interview method through structured interview schedule. Majority of the respondents were middle aged, had medium level of education, medium farming experience, medium land holding, medium level of extension contact, mass media exposure, economic orientation, achievement motivation and innovativeness. Majority of the respondents had perception of televiewing farmers of different channels with respect to components of effectiveness, namely understandability, usefulness, demonstration mode of presentation, entertainment and relevancy of pictures. “Time duration is not sufficient”, “Telecast time is not convenient”, “Telecast programmes are useful to the farming community” and “Telecast programme are drawing attention of the farmers to bring awareness on new technology” were the major reactions of the respondents. Telecast time need to be changed from 6:00am-7.00am and 7.00pm-9.00pm, all programmes should be telecasted should be telecasted daily, information on the schedule of the topics to be telecasted in the telecasted in the consecutive week should be advertised at the starting of the week, separate television channel is required to telecast agriculture related activities.
Gaurav Mishra, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 61-69; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.008

Abstract:
India is an agrarian based country with two third of population as farming community. Wheat, ‘King of cereals’ also the second most cultivated food crop has technological gap in adoption of improved variety, hence the present study aims to understand the socio-economic profile, knowledge, attitude and adoption level of respondents to identify the technological gap and increase the adoption rate. The present study is carried out with 120 respondents from ten villages of Holgarh block of Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. Primary data collected with the help of semi-structured interview schedule and subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that majority of the wheat growers had medium level of knowledge, attitude and adoption towards SHUATS W-6 variety. Further, it was recommended for timely availability of seeds, fertilizer, proper marketing facility and reducing the cost of critical inputs.
Ritesh Kumar Yadav, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 92-105; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.011

Abstract:
More than half of Indian population were engaged in agricultural sector but the available technology doesn’t ensure food security of the country. Hence, to diffuse new agricultural invention and innovation in the farming community, there arises a need for effective medium for transfer of technology. Thus, KVK bridges the gap between the technology generation and dissemination. The present study was proposed to understand the impact of KVK in doubling farmers income to formulate suitable programmes. For the study, descriptive research design was adopted. 120 respondents from Biswan taluk of Sitapur district of Uttar Pradesh were selected as respondents. Primary data collected from respondents and secondary data from available literatures. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents were middle aged, illiterate, upto 5 members in their family, medium level of annual income, possesses their own land, agriculture as their main occupation, medium level of mass media exposure, office bearer in one organization, high level of extension contact. Meanwhile, more than half of the respondents had reported medium level of impact towards the activities carried out by KVK, beneficiary selection is not unbiased is a major constraint suggested that maximum emphasis should be given on learning by doing.
Deepthi H S, Anitha S Sastry
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.004

Abstract:
Rearing of silkworm is highly dependent on environmental variations. To have a healthy cocoon production, it is necessary to have a proper temperature and humidity controlled house for silkworm rearing. Temperature, humidity and fresh air should be managed to get a wonderful silk product. An ideal temperature of 23°C to 28°C and humidity in between 65% to 85% is to be maintained. IoT based silkworm rearing house consists of sensors and actuators, which are interfaced with a low power controllers. The Sericulture unit can be equipped with a wireless sensor node to sense the real time Temperature and Humidity [1], also necessary actuators to control these environmental parameters. The color change in the body of the worms indicates the different stages and the light yellowish indicates that they have reached to the cocoon stage and the morphological changes in silkworm structure can be used to detect abnormal worms[2].The proposed framework introduces an Internet of Things (IoT) empowered Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) system. The received image is first segregated into two classes as diseased or healthy by analyzing the histogram of the background removed image based on thresholding. Again the diseased class will be sub classified into 2 diseases as either Flacherie or Pebrine by applying suitable mask for extracting worm and obtaining the histogram of the worm and analyzing it. The result will be sent to the farmer via E-mail. The proposed system could be a probable solution for productivity in silkworms.
, Anil Kanaujia
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.003

Abstract:
As the anthropogenic activities are increasing day by day, the environmental pollution has also been rising. The continuous disposal and improper treatment of domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes is highly toxic and has emerged as a serious pollution threat which is jeopardizing the environment & human health. Soil contamination is referred to as the accumulation in the soil of persistent harmful substances, chemical compounds, radioactive wastes, salts, or pathogens that have a negative impact on biological systems. Bioremediation is a waste management technique that includes the use of living organisms to eradicate or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. Other processes use plants, earthworms and biochar to attenuate the toxicity of contaminants.
Satyajeet Kumar, Jahanara Jahanara, D.K. Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.005

Abstract:
The present study is an attempt to assess the socio-economic characteristics and utilization level of communication media in improved cultivation practices of pulses by the farmers of Purnia district in Bihar. Pulse cultivation is not prominent in this area however a large no. of farmers cultivate leguminous crop, due to availability of information or communication channel farmers were receiving proper information about practices. Primary data from 120 farmers were collected through face to face interviews. Descriptive research design had been used for the present study. Random and Purposive sampling had been used for the present study Farmers had a highest utilization in Friend, neighbor and relatives (83.34%), Followed by radio whose utilization percentage by farmers were 75%. 48.33% of farmers had Medium level of utilization Followed by 29.16% of farmers had high level utilization about improved cultivation practices of pulses.
Aibanroy Lyngkhoi, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.007

Abstract:
The study was conducted in East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya to measure the knowledge level of potato growers about improved production technology. A total number of 120 respondents were selected randomly from ten villages under Mylliem block because productivity, production and area under potato cultivation were found to be maximum. The data were collected by personnel interview method by using pre- tested interview schedule and later appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the meaningful results. The findings of the study revealed that majority (61.67%) of the respondents belonged to the middle- aged group, 67.50 per cent of the respondents mainly depended on agriculture as their main occupation and 47.50 per cent of the respondents had an educational attainment up to primary level. The findings also revealed that majority (50.83%) of the respondents had medium level of knowledge towards improved potato production technology followed by 30% and 19.17% of the respondents with low and high levels of knowledge respectively.
Prerna Kujur, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.002

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh to find out the socio-economic condition of women tea growers, to find out the constraints faced by them and seek suggestions to improve better working conditions. A total of 120 respondents were selected randomly for the present study. The data was collected through a pre-structured interview schedule and later appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out meaningful result. The result showed that the women tea growers found that there was improper sanitation facility inside the tea garden. They suggested that improved sanitation facility and social mobility could help them to improve better working environment.
Ashutosh Suryavanshi, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i9.001

Abstract:
Microfinance is a widely accepted tool for poverty alleviation and socio-economic development of its beneficiaries and currently promoted as a key strategy for women empowerment and for reaching the unreached poor. There was lack of knowledge on the impact of microfinance on women empowerment; hence there arises the need for the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study in Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. Six villages in Holagarh block of Prayagaraj district is selected for the study. From each village, 20 respondents were selected constitutes 120 respondents. The primary data were collected with the help of interview schedule and with appropriate statistical tools the data is processed. The findings of the study are majority of the respondents were middle aged, literate, earns medium level of annual income, low level of mass media exposure, had above 3 acres of land holding, medium level of leadership capacity and medium level of social participation. Further, nearly half of the respondents had medium level of impact on operational aspects and individual aspects of micro-finance on women empowerment and more than two-third of the respondents had medium level of impact of micro-finance on family aspects.
Arjun Shukla, V. M Prasad, Vijay Bahadur, Samir E. Topno
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 201-209; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.022

Abstract:
Research was carried out at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.) during winter season of 2020 - 2021, to evaluate different varieties of poly house condition traits of 7 Hybrids, with three replications in Randomized Block Design (RBD). Analysis of variance in the present investigation indicated that the genotypes evaluated differed significantly among all the treatment for all Thirteen traits. The hybrids Arka rakshak (887.01 kg) yield/hac and Total cost of cultivation (INR ha-1) 72,250.00. Cost Benefit Ratio of different varieties of tomato, Variable cost and total cost of cultivation of different varieties, Economics of cherry tomato and tomatos, Yield per hectare & plant height (cm).
Shubham Manda, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 189-200; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.021

Abstract:
Increasing living standard of people arises the need for increased production of oilseed in country. But per capita availability of oil is very low, thus to increase the production of oil seed the farmers should adopt the new technology. Meanwhile, the research gap should be identified and rectified to increase the production. Thus, the knowledge and adoption level of respondents was studied to understand the complexity of technology adoption. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. 120 respondents from six villages namely, Alanoor, Bhadra, Chamal, Dadu, Ffagu and Jamal of Sirsa block of Sirsa district in Haryana. The findings reported that majority of the respondents were middle aged, literate with middle school, had a land holding of 2.5-5 acres, nuclear family, agriculture as their major occupation along with service as their subsidiary occupation, medium level of annual income, had membership in more than one organization, medium level of risk orientation, medium level of knowledge, medium level of adoption.
Salina Subba, Jahanara Jahanara, Neeru Bala
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 178-182; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.019

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in South district of Sikkim to study the sustainability and profitability of organic ginger growers. A total number of 120 organic ginger growers were selected proportionately from five villages under Namchi Block because production, productivity and area under organic ginger cultivation were found to be maximum. The data were collected by personal interview method by using pre-tested interview schedule and later appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the meaningful result. Sustainability indicators with various organic practices have been used to check the sustainability of organic farming practices of organic ginger growers. Whereas, the profitability of the respondents was found to be Rs.11578.57 on an average. Thus, it can be seen that investment of a rupee in organic farming yields 2.57 rupees.
Ashish Anand, Syed H. Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 170-177; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.018

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in Patna District of Bihar to find out the association between socio-economic condition and knowledge level of rural farm families regarding indigenous technical knowledge. A total of 120 respondents were selected randomly for the present study. The data were collected through a pre-structured interview schedule and appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the association. It was found that age, mass media exposure and extension contacts were found to be highly significant with relation to knowledge of the rural farm families regarding indigenous technical knowledge whereas land holding was found to be mildly related.
Bankitbok Kharphuli, Syed H. Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 183-188; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.020

Abstract:
The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of the ginger growers toward improved cultivation technology in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya. A total number of 120 ginger growing farmers were selected proportionately from eight villages under Umsning Block because production, productivity and area under ginger cultivation were found to be maximum. The data were collected by personal interview method by using pre-tested interview schedule and later appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the meaningful result. The findings of this study revealed that majority (65.83 %) of the respondents had medium level of overall knowledge towards improved cultivation technology of ginger followed by 21.67 percent and 12.50 per cent of the respondents with low and high levels of knowledge respectively.
Amit Kumar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara, Saloni Sarraf
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.001

Abstract:
Agriculture being the backbone of Indian economy also acts as the core of Bihar’s economy, employing 77 per cent of the work force and generating 35 per cent of the state domestic product. Meanwhile, the modernization and improvement of agriculture needs considerable investment. Whereas, Indian agriculture remained as poor man’s occupation institutional credit plays an important role in agricultural development. Thus, Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) provide cheaper credit to agriculture. Descriptive research design is adopted. 120 respondents from Baruna, Chipra and Faziabad in Sampatchak block of Patna district in Bihar was purposively selected for the study since it had more number of co-operative society are present as compared to others. The primary data were collected with the help of interview schedule and the responses were recorded, classified and tabulated and appropriate statistical tools were employed. The results indicated that 48.33 per cent of the respondents were aware of the functions of the co-operative society and 45 per cent of the respondents opined that the co-operative society performance was average in marketing of agricultural products. It also implied that rules, regulations and laws should be enacted and standardized for better regulation of co-operative societies.
Siddharth Kushwaha, Syed H. Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 42-51; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.004

Abstract:
Social media is becoming very important implement in agriculture to edge people to people due to its capacity to connect with farmers and agribusiness people around the globe over hug geographical distances. At present time there are 2.078 billion social media user in the world. The study was conducting in purposely selected Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh of also purposely two selecting blocks two villages from each block. Selected for the study Thus, in all, four villages thirty farmers were selected randomly. Thus, total 120 respondents were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of well semi structured schedule. The statistical tools/technique was used to computing the data and information. Descriptive research design was followed for the analysis. Maximum number respondents communicate through social media and WhatsApp is highly exposed and adopted by the respondents in the study area. Smart phones, computer usage and internet should be promoted among stakeholders (esp. farmers).majority of the respondents information getting through Kisan SMS Portal. The highest utilization level of the respondents about social media programme was WhatsApp with a weighted mean score of 1.58 and it was ranked first, followed by the Kisan SMS Portal a weighted mean score was 1.43 with ranked was second, while YouTube was ranked third and so on.
Sourabh Kumar Singh, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 123-128; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i7.014

Abstract:
The present investigation was conducted in Indore block of Indore district, Madhya Pradesh. One hundred twenty respondents were selected randomly from 12 villages which were selected purposively. The primary data were gathered by the researcher itself through pre-structured interview schedule. Appropriate statistical tools were used to interpret the collected data to draw logical conclusion. The finding inferred that majority of farmers were having medium level of attitude towards improved soybean production technology. Age, Education, land holding, Mass media exposure, Extension contacts, Economic motivation were observed positive and significant correlation with their attitude level.
Ravi Prakash Verma, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 16-32; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.002

Abstract:
This study was conducted in Siddhaur block of Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh in 2020-2021. With the help of random sampling method, 120 Mentha growers were selected and data were collected by personal interview method by using pre-tested interview schedule and later appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the meaningful result. The finding of the study revealed that the overall level of knowledge of mentha growers regarding the recommended practices indicated they have medium knowledge level. The Adoption level of mentha growers on recommended cultivation practices of mentha also indicated as medium level of adoption (66.70%), followed by low level of adoption (21.70%) and high level of adoption (11.60%).
Athira Pradeep, Syed H Mazhar, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 52-59; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i8.005

Abstract:
Betel vine (Piper betel L. ) in India is grown as an important cash crop across the states, of, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tripura ,Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. A study was undertaken in Malappuram district of Kerala for analysis of constraints faced by the farmers in betel vine cultivation covering Tanur block taking six villages selected purposively where the crop is grown as a major crop. A total 120 betel vine growers were selected randomly from six villages. It is observed that nearly half of the respondents felt the constraints were severe (45%) in betel vine cultivation, followed by not severe (31.66%) and very severe (23.33%). Most of the respondents experienced labour shortage or high labour cost as the most problematic constraint, the study further indicated that the second most important constraint found was price fluctuation followed by water scarcity, transportation and insects and diseases.
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