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Results in Journal International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology: 211

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Itika Dadhich, Kartika Panwar, Yagya Sharma, Mayank Dave
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i07.001

Abstract:
Construction and Demolition Waste C & D waste is becoming a havoc each coming day. According to government agencies like Building Material Promotion Council (BMPTC) and Centre for Fly Ash Research and Management (C-FARM) estimated 165 million tonnes from construction. Out of municipal solid waste approximately 15% to 20% of solid waste comes from construction and demolition projects. Centre of Science and Environment (CSE) says in their latest release analysis of the C&D waste management sector, titled Another Brick off the Wall, India manages to recover and recycle only about 1% of its construction and demolition (C&D) waste), as the official recycling capacity is a mere 6,500 tons per day (TPD)- just about 1%. In this paper, we will analyze the C & D waste management to maintain the sustainable approach.
C Emeemal, S Anthoniselvi, P Nithyasri, M Karthik, C Mohan Raj
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i06.004

Abstract:
Oil seeds plays vital role in furthering sustainable agriculture as they are the major source of nutrients. Groundnut is a major oil seed crop grown in the areas receiving 50-120cm of well distributed rainfall. So pulses and cereals have been a choice for the farmers for cultivation due to soil management techniques. The farming sector in India primarily of small scale farmers, the inability of small farmers to purchase and adopt improved technology of reduces the yield of production. The main objective of sowing operation is to place seed at proper position as well as reduce the cost of labors. Thus this paper, design and develop a manually operated seed drill for groundnut and maize which is suitable for marginal land holdings and plant the seed at specific distance with specific quantity and reduce the drudgery involved in manual planting method and increases the efficiency and also reduce the cost of sowing the seed by using the machine. The seed counting machine is used to count the seed and the revolution of the seed drill. The field trials reveal that the seed drill was performed well and found suitable for the small and marginal farmers.
Kamalpreet Kaur, Diksha Thakur, Dinantar Pal
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i06.003

Abstract:
Self-incompatibility (SI) prevent self-fertilization in a few species of Poaceae, many of which are economically important foods, bioenergy energy and grasses. Your incompatibility ensures pollen diversity and genetic diversity but limits the ability to modify useful genetic diversity. In many domesticated plants it is possible to develop highly efficient homozygous parent lines, which facilitates the formation of more efficient F1 hybrids, a condition known as heterosis. The inability to fully exploit heterosis in transit grasses contributes to lower levels of development in breeding systems compared to breeding plants. However, SI can be overcome by eating grass to build harmonious communities. This generates interest in understanding the basics of self-adaptation (SC), its importance in reproductive techniques and its exploitation for plant development, especially in the context of F1 hybrid breeding.
Nazeerudin Nazeerudin
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i06.002

Abstract:
Developing Asia stands witness to the impact of economic growth on poverty reduction. The incomes and quality of life for many people have improved and poverty levels are falling. But results vary with rural growth lagging behind urban growth in many countries and subregions. Two thirds of the region’s 3 billion people live in rural areas, and in India, for example, 74 percent of people classified as poor are in rural areas (ADB 2004). The difference in urban and rural growth and poverty outcomes is socially and politically untenable, as witnessed in the recent election in India. Rural poverty problems in many cases become urban poverty problems through rising pressure on cities to absorb rural migrants needing jobs, homes, and services. Pre-1980s, the rural economic problem was commonly seen as undersupply of affordable food and raw materials to support industrialization as the engine of rapid growth. The strategy greatly influenced the design and choice of public policies. Overvalued exchange rates were intended to help new industries establish domestic markets and lower costs of imported materials, but lowered the domestic currency earnings for farmers in export markets. Administered food prices lowered consumer prices but lowered returns to farmers as well. Agricultural commodities and land were heavily taxed to force the transfer of resources out of rural areas. Farm input subsidies encourage production of food crops but lead to resource wastage, and often benefit well-to-do farmers. Such policy biases lower agriculture’s terms of trade, distort market signals, and undermine agricultural growth (Krueger 1992).In the above back setting. An attempt is made to briefly outlines the potential for agriculture and rural development as a critical force for inclusive growth and sustained poverty reduction and reviews experiences in the Asian region with agriculture in economic transformation. It highlights major policy challenges for accelerating agriculture and rural development.
Kamalpreet Kaur, Diksha Thakur, V. Reeta
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i06.001

Abstract:
This paper observed the effect of low external input agricultural farming system on the efficiency of resource poor farmer. In India majority of farmers are small scale entrepreneurs whose farm actions are performed with low input agricultural technologies. Majority of the technologies contained the refined indigenous information system. Farm size, labour inputs, capital inputs, planting materials and organic manure are the most determinants of the gross income of LEISA farmers. High external input Agriculture (HEIA) are technologies that apply high external inputs such as inorganic or chemical fertilizers to extend nutrient reduction from the soil, pesticides to manage pests and diseases, herbicides to regulate weeds and irrigation facilities for water management within the farms. Farmers inclinations for low input system vary significantly provisional upon the phase of crop production which include technologies for land groundwork use of draught animals, natural/organic substitute for inorganic pesticides and fertilizers, seed growth technologies, simple irrigation and drainage method, low input processing. There is also a substantial interest among farmers for low input methods for most phases of production. There is therefore the need for farmers to adopt these cost active agricultural technologies since they are not only readily available, but also they do not require too much skills and also poses the capacity of making the process of rural development more sustainable.
Shelly Bhatia, Anshul Anshul, Pooja Katoch
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 66-84; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.007

Abstract:
This paper reviews multifunctional nature of mushrooms. Besides being an essential source of nutrition, they are being extensively exploited by man in various ways. Not only are they admired for their exceptional flavor and texture but this fungus can replace a number of resources that we are currently utilizing. Higher mushrooms contain bioactive components that show antibacterial, antitumor, immunostimulator, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic properties. Simultaneously they are useful for people and woodlands by recycling nutrients, managing plastic waste and agricultural residues as they can act as natural decomposers . Mushroom farming is the best method to meet sustainable development goals set up by UNO. Mushrooms play an important role in biofuel generation, textile, footwear, furniture, dying and tanning industries. It is hoped that this paper would add to existing information on versatile attributes of mushrooms to make it feasible for humans to utilize mushrooms to a more prominent extent other than just a food ingredient, which makes them not just edible but a multi-functional fungi.
Immanuel Zion Ramdinthara, , ,
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 71-80; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.006

Abstract:
Agriculture and global warming are correlated with each other, particularly, it may affect nutrient cycles, microbial activities, and physiological activities of the crops. Agricultural development plays a crucial role in the growth of the economy of developing countries. The agriculture sector is a major source of employment in most of the developing countries. Over the year, there were changes and productivity loss due to the abiotic stresses and imbalance of nutrients of the plants. A continuous increase in temperature may affect the yields of crops up to 17%. Each plant has different characteristics in growth and some plants are susceptible to high temperature, some are quite the opposite. A Brassica Juncea L. belongs to a mustard family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae that are susceptible to high temperature. So, in this work, an attempt has been made for Brassica Juncea L. to grow and yield under temperature stress by controlling the temperature with the use of the Internet of Things (IoT). The experiment has been conducted where Brassica Juncea neither production nor consumption. IoT sensors are used to monitor the temperature and humidity in two different scenarios. This paper analyses the factors that affect the growth of Brassica Juncea and provide a solution to increase productivity.
Navjot Gill, Shikha Tiwary, Vivek Kumar, Shivam Kumar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 50-65; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.006

Abstract:
Heat stress is a major problem raised in agriculture sector due to increasing temperature in temperature. Due to Increase in temperature plant en counter physiological and biochemical changes which directly affect plant growth and production. There are multiples method of seed treatment for improving heat stress tolerance during seed germination for better growth and production. There are different biotic and abiotic stresses throughout plant ontogeny. To overcome these stresses different approaches have been made and practiced, there are few methods that are still in research in different research institute. The negative effects of heat stress can be reduced by developing plant extracts through the development of thermo tolerance using a variety of genetic methods. For this purpose, however, a complete understanding of plant life responses to high temperatures, heat tolerance methods and possible techniques for improving plant heat tolerance is essential. Some treatment can be particularly time consuming, while other treatment are denied by countries in the world.
Sudeep Barman, Syed H. Mazhar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 41-49; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.005

Abstract:
The study conducted was to understand the perception and attitude of the farmers towards sustainable farming in Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. Seven random villages were selected in Jasra block at Bara tehsil, in total 110 respondents were selected randomly for this study, the data was collected with the help of a self-designed well-structured interview schedule by personally interviewing by the researcher. The data was then statically analysed. The results concluded that majority of the respondents 43.63% had a highly favourable perception towards sustainable farming followed by 31.82% favourable and only 24.55% had unfavourable perception about it. And the findings also revealed that most of the respondents i.e. 50% had favourable attitude regarding sustainable farming while the other 29.09% had unfavourable and 20.91% highly favourable attitude.
Abhishek Kumar, Nikhil Chhabra, Shilpa Kaushal
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 26-40; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.004

Abstract:
Microorganisms are omnipresent they are everywhere; The microorganisms are minute and invisible with naked eyes But helping mankind in many ways. Not all micro-organisms causing diseases or causing contaminations they are also helping us in many ways. The microbes helping in our fields and farms worldwide. How they are helping us in improving soil health and structure .The integrated approach towards using microbes along with organic growth enhancers can bring the revolution. Agricultural inputs from fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and other fossil fuels have increased agricultural production. However, growing awareness and concern about adverse effects on soil and the environment cannot be ignored. So the world is shifting towards organic approach in farming for sustainable soil health and human health benefits. Microbes causing nitrogen fixing, Soil bioremediation, Mineral absorption, Hormonal absorption.
Shelly Bhatia, Ayush Rohilla, Shilpa Kaushal
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 14-25; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.003

Abstract:
Homa farming is a Vedic discipline which denotes the method of annihilating harmful circumstances of environmental elements and refines the atmosphere by action of flame, outfitted with copper pyramid. Agnihotra is essential flame in Homa farming. It religiously associates living beings on this earth to control energy from space. It is practiced when all hope is gone and has proved to be beneficial in increasing yield of crop , reducing microbial pathogenicity , decontaminating soil and water, against pest and disease infestation. Homa farming is comprehensive method of healing of agriculture and can be used in conjunction with any good organic farming system as it is extremely inexpensive and can be performed by anybody but requires discipline and consistency. In course of time this knowledge has lost because the farming is becoming more modernized with invention of new technologies like GI , GPS , satellite imaging, moisture sensors. Farmers are approaching new methods and practices of farming and they completely relies on chemicals like pesticides, rodenticides, Fertilizers, herbicides to enhance his production. Then it becomes difficult for them to believe in traditional and Vedic type of agriculture as it purely organic in nature and only depends on healing effects of agnihotra. Nowadays this knowledge is being revived by many scientists to give individuals the guidance about how to address polluted conditions of planet. Many scientists have demonstrated the scientific validation of Homa farming methodologies and have conducted experiments to prove the beneficial effect of Homafarming. A famous Scientist named Abhang Pathade, has conducted many experiments to prove that this technique actually works and can be very effective in getting rid of major problems like environmental pollution , disease and pest attack on plants , less crop yield and soil infertility.
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.001

Abstract:
Healthy soils are important to grow healthy crops, raising healthy animals, and supporting a healthy human population through nutritionally balanced diets. As an indicator for soil health, SOC is important for its contributions to food production, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It supports multiple soil functions determining soil physical, chemical and biological quality parameters contributing to the productive capacity of soil. It improves soil structural stability by promoting aggregate formation which, together with porosity, ensures sufficient aeration and water infiltration to support plant growth. It is one of the factors that help in increasing water holding capacity, improves cation exchange capacity to hold huge quantities of positively charged nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium until the plant needs them.
Poornima Singh, Ritu Dubey
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 6-13; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i05.002

Abstract:
The low calorie and high nutrition content of coconut milk products have increased their demand in the food and beverage industry. Coconut milk products such as coconut milk powder and coconut cream powder are used in various recipes because of their sweet and mild taste. Coconut milk products are often associated with various health benefits. Their consumption has been indicated to help lower blood pressure, cholesterol, improve kidney health, and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Coupled with this, consumer preferences for a vegetarian diet, has been increasing the adoption of coconut milk products. Coconut milk is a milky-white, opaque liquid made from the coconuts pulp. Coconut milk is a popular food ingredient used Southeast Asian, Oceania, South Asian, and East African cuisines. Coconut milk is used to produce a variety of popular Southeast Asian beverages. Condole is a common iced drink, made with chilled coconut milk. It also is used in preparation of various hot drinks in Indonesia. In southern China, coconut milk products are used to prepare beverages diluted with water. According to FMI's analysis, coconut milk products sales have grown at a 5.4% CAGR between 2016 and 2020. This trend also is picking up pace in India. Consumers in India are showing greater willingness to pay more for a product that has health benefits. This has been encouraging some of the leading players to produce organic, vegan, and gluten-free coconut milk.
Kajal Goswami, Sandhya Choudhary, Dhavendra Singh
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 66-70; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.005

Abstract:
The study area most of the farmers are growing Wheat at the farm level due to its genetically advance which caused low cost of cultivation due to low use of chemical and realizing high yield and less losses by insect pest damage. For production of Wheat the agricultural practices required needs special package of practices to boost-up the productivity with low cost of production. Results reported that training need in adoption of improved wheat production technology. Highly training need in case of Improved variety (mean score 2.56) followed by Marketing (mean score 2.35), Plant protection (mean score 2.30), Application of herbicides uses (mean score 2.25), Insect –pest management (mean score 2.14), Storage (mean score 2.13), Use of affected equipment and machinery (mean score 2.12), Application of manure and fertilizers (mean score 2.11), Time of harvesting (mean score 1.96), Method of seed sowing (mean score 1.96) and Field preparation (mean score 1.80).Data reported overall training need in adoption of improved wheat production technology. Table show that majority of the respondents (45.00 percent) were need often training followed by 32.50 percent respondents were need always training and 22.50 percent respondents were need rarely training.
Yeshe A.S., Vaidya P. H., Shinde G.U., Gourkhede P.H.
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 36-65; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.004

Abstract:
Due to a series of global issues in recent years, such as the food crisis, the impact of fertilizer on climate change, and improper use of irrigation that’s way precision agriculture is the best solution for alleviating this problem. One of the most important and interesting information technology is the wireless Nanosensor network with the help of Nanotechnology will boost crop productivity, maintain the fertility status of the soil, save the water with precise application of irrigation in the field and minimize the loss of excess fertilizer through the precise application. In this paper, we have surveyed the importance of sensor networks in precision agriculture and the importance of Nanosensors with the help of Nanotechnology for remote monitoring in the various application of the agriculture field.
Altamash Farooq, Jayant Zechariah, Amit Kumar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.003

Abstract:
India’s biodiversity coupled with its vast resources including competitive workforce, highly intelligent scientific and rich business community make our country the best choice for growing vegetable crops like mushroom for world market. The field of mushroom crops is assuming importance because of growing demand for mushroom throughout the world. India is not a major producer of any particular variety of the mushroom, but it does cultivate mushrooms and has great potential as an important producer in the future. From a production standpoint, the white button mushroom has the highest growth rate and potential for production. However, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms has been more common since the end of the last century, when the infrastructure of oyster mushroom was much improved, therefore capital requirements went down as compared to requirements for white button mushroom cultivation.
Satyendra Nath Mandal, , ,
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 8-26; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.002

Abstract:
Hyperspectral Imaging has become an important method in monitoring vegetation and crops and producing information regarding onset of diseases. The availability of spectrometers in the market is not only costly but also requires standard-operating-procedures in using them. The use of Specim IQ, a handheld spectrometer with a wavelength-captivating-range of 400-1000 nm has been found to be optimistic in field-application with least complexity. In this paper, an early possible detection of downy mildew has been analysed through the difference in spectral distribution patterns through the reflectance-wavelength graph so that the well-advanced result may avert any significant damage over the visual eyes.
Poornima Singh, Virginia Paul, Ritu Dubey
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i04.001

Abstract:
Antioxidant is any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule. It can be found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. The role of antioxidants in foods is to retard or control oxidation. The process of autoxidation and development of rancidity in foods involves a free radical chain mechanism via initiation, propagation and termination steps. While radicals are produced in the ‘initiation’ step, they react with unsaturated fatty acids by abstracting a hydrogen atom from a site which requires the least energy that is the allylic or diallylic position in the ‘propagation’ steps. The reactions in the propagation step make up a chain reaction until a ‘termination’ reaction occurs. Due to high stability and low volatility, it helps to maintain the level of nutrients, the texture, colour, taste, freshness, functionality, aroma, and appeal to consumers such as the older person. Various antioxidants found in food viz. natural antioxidants, synthetic antioxidants, dietary antioxidant, endogenous antioxidant play an important role in preservation of food. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, α-carotene, Lycopene, Polyphenol etc. is main sources of antioxidants The benefits of antioxidants include whole foods and beverages (e.g., acai berry, gogi berry, green tea) as well as isolated substances sold primarily as dietary supplements (e.g., vitamin C, lycopene, selenium) or added to foods (e.g., vitamin E). It reduces the risk of developing certain diseases such as; cancer, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis etc.
Mitalee Shukla, Sandhya Choudhary, Sharad Chodhary
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i03.001

Abstract:
Scientific fish culture involves stocking and growing two or more compatible and complementary fish species like, Indian Major Carps (IMC) and exotic carps in a water body like pond to maximize the fish production by fullest utilization of all available niches in the pond ecosystem. Therefore this study conducted with 120 fish farmers at Blaghat district. The major finding of the study is the medium adoption might be due to the fact that fish farmers, had the tendency towards efficient working but due to several constraints affects in injudicious use of inputs and practices. Improvement of technical skill and faith might result of these improved practices and technology they adopted medium level of various component of improved fish production practices.
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 43-46; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i03.003

Abstract:
Soil fertility is one of the important factors controlling yield of the crops. Macronutrients (N, P, K and S) are important soil elements which control its fertility. Soil characterization in relation to evaluation of fertility status of the soils of an area or region is an important aspect in context of sustainable agriculture production. A high SOM (Soil Organic Matter) content provides nutrients to plants and improves water availability, both of which enhances soil fertility and ultimately improve food productivity. Since 2017 ARF with support of NABARD has been conducting trials on 300 acres of agriculture land of villages of district Sonipat, Haryana using hydroponically grown Paddy nursery. A study was carried out on randomly selected 50 acres of land to see the effect of SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and N (Nitrogen) content on the yield in hydroponically grown paddy.
Aqsa Ahmed, Waleed Al-Ansi, Samra Basharat, Ye Li, Zhonghu Bai
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 9-42; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i03.002

Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major contributor to the global cancer burden. It affects millions of people in Pakistan on a yearly basis. Furthermore, HCC is linked to viral infections Hepatitis B and C, which account for roughly 87 percent of HCC cases in Pakistan. HCC is identified using imaging techniques such as MRI, Ultrasound, and histology, which have radiation hazards and frequently need expensive healthcare systems that are less available in most of the developing countries. Novel HCC biomarkers are being developed as part of a large research project aimed at detecting the disease early. These include the creation of biomarkers based on HCC patients' transcriptome and proteomic profiles. Circulating proteins, which are easily detected in body fluids, including blood serum, may thus provide an opportunity for the development of HCC biomarkers. Blood-based serum biomarkers must be developed for easy, non-invasive, and early detection of HCC. In conjunction with imaging techniques, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been used to detect HCC, although it has little clinical usefulness. Also, the reported AFP negative results make its utility meager. Multiple circulating proteins have been studied as biomarker possibilities for HCC diagnosis in recent years. In this study, Blood serum was used to validate three novel protein biomarker candidates to detect HBV induced HCC that had previously been predicted using a bioinformatics methodology. Proteins named C6, C8A and C8B were measured in the serum of 22 HCC patients infected with HBV in Pakistani population and compared to AFP levels using quantitative ELISA. C8A possesses considerable biomarker potential, with 95.45 percent specificity and 77.27% sensitivity with 0.933 Area Under the Curve (AUC), whereas C6 and C8B showed poor biomarker potential. Hence, C8A demonstrated great promise as a circulating blood-based protein biomarker for HBV induced HCC diagnosis.
Imchanela Kichu, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i03.005

Abstract:
In the recent years, the impact of climate change for Jhum cultivators has been very apparent as jhum cultivation is purely a rain-fed agricultural system and crop production can be extremely sensitive to year-to-year weather fluctuations. The present investigation was conducted in Ongpangkong block of Mokokchung district of Nagaland. A total number of 120 respondents from 4 villages were selected using proportionate random sampling procedure. Data was collected through pre structured interview schedule and processed through primary and secondary tables and statistical analysis. The study revealed that the overall adaptation practices towards climate change were medium. Age, farming experience, extension contacts, mass media exposure and social contact were positively significant with the adaptation level towards climate change.
Sunita Choudhary, Sandhya Choudhary
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i03.004

Abstract:
India lives in villages. The majority of our country’s population depends upon agriculture. Hence, there is a great need for inclusion of rural people in the financial framework. When it is considered rural credit system to facilitate various financial needs of the rural folks or farmers, it has many dimensions. Over the years, NABARD has taken initiatives to supply adequate credit to farmers, which has made the rural finance system more efficient. Kisan credit card users were determined on the basis of the time to which they repaid their loan and categorized into three groups i.e. those who repaid their loan in schedule date termed as ‘regulars’. Those who repaid their loan after scheduled date of repayment termed as ‘irregulars’. Those who failed to repay their loan on schedule date termed as ‘defaulter’. Finding reported that repayment behaviour of KCC holders the result showed that the majority (46.67 per cent) of the respondents were found to repay their credit on timely, 29.17 per cent respondents were found who not capable to repay their credit on time schedule and 24.16 per cent respondents were found who had defaulter.
Kuldeep Kumar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i02.001

Abstract:
Experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Kisan (P.G.) College, Simbhaoli (Ghaziabad) during kharif seasons of 2020 and 2021. Fifteen treatment combinations consisting three cropping system viz. maize sole cropping, mung sole cropping and intercropping of maize and mung and five nutrient sources i.e. recommended doses of NPK (RDF). RDF + Farm Yard Marwure (FYM) 6t/h. RDF + Azospirillum" / Rhizobium. RDF + Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and RDF- Farm Yard Manure (PYM)a Sub + Azospirillum Rhizobium + PSB were used in factorial RBD in four replications. Application of organic and biofertilisers over NPK increased the yield attributing characters and yield of maize. Highest yield attributing characters of maize was recorded with NPK+FYM A+P which ultimately resulted higher yield 29.67 and 32.22 q/ha during 2020 and 2021 respectively.
Pramila Tripathi, A. K. Shukla
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 7, pp 157-168; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2020.v07i11.019

Abstract:
Rapid soil testing and site specific nutrient management are the keys to improve agricultural production sustainably to feed the growing global population, which is projected to cross 9 billion by the end of 2050. A number of soil nutrient sensors are being developed to meet the demand. This paper is focused on the various recent developments in the field of soil nutrient sensors and their sensitivity for particular nutrients. The incorporation of these sensors to develop agriculture decision support systems is also been discussed. It may be concluded that it is better to integrate a number of sensors (optical and electrochemical) to obtain real time data on nutrient level in soil for a particular cropping season to provide the farmers with a real time report and support. Technologies to convert the results into farmer friendly reports and databases to store the real-time data are also very much essential. The entire study is summarized to have an idea of the development in the field of soil nutrient sensors globally in order to gain insights for the sustainable agricultural production in developing countries, such as India, where cost and population are the governing factors.
Pramila Tripathi, A.K. Shukla
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 6, pp 62-71; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2019.v06i10.001

Abstract:
Efficacy evaluation of three fungicides was undertaken against phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata. Fungicide copper oxychloride was found to restrict the growth of fungi at 500ppm concentration, whereas at 5000ppm concentration of benomyl and mancozeb growth of fungi was not occurred. At 1000ppm concentration growth of fungi was fifty percent compare to control on PDA medium. At 5000ppm concentration of copper oxychloride and mancozeb spore germination did not occur. In case of both the fungicides at 1000ppm concentration percent germination was found between 56 and 75 percent. Germination percent of spores was always lesser than control in all the treatments. Similarly germ tube growth was not occurred in copper oxychloride and mancozeb treated spores at 5000ppm concentration. Germ tube growth was found always influenced by the treatment of fungicides. Inhibitory effect of fungicides was dose dependent and proportional to the concentration of fungicides. Reduction in growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation increased on increasing the concentration of fungicides.
Pramila Tripathi, A. K. Shukla
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 5, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2018.v05i12.001

Abstract:
Phytopathogenic fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae causes diseases such as dieback, blights, and root rot in a variety of different hosts in tropical and subtropical regions and it include guava, coconut, papaya and grapevine plants. It also cause stem end rot disease in mango fruits. A number of angiospermic taxa were evaluated for their antifungal activity. Among the selected plants essential oil of L. cubeba was found effective in controlling the growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was recorded 100ppm. The oil was found to withstand high inoculums density. Plant extract were prepared in water, acetone, ethyl alcohol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Plant extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Lawsonia inermis, Prunus persica and L. cubeba showed inhibitory effect on the B. theobromae. However, Leaf extract of L cubeba in all the solvent namely, water, acetone, ethyl alcohol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol were found to have antifungal activity. The extract as well as oil of L. cubeba was also found fungi toxic against other fruit rotting fungi. An enhancement in the shelf life of mango fruits was recorded under in vivo trial after treating with aqueous extract and essential oil of L. cubeba.
Alice Kaintura, Suneeta Singh, Anil Kumar Saxena
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 70-76; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.008

Abstract:
A field experiment was planned and conducted during 2020-21 at Horticulture Research Block, Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences, SGRR University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand to investigate the “Effect of different organic manures on the growth and yield attributes of spinach beet at lower hills of Uttarakhand”. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and nine treatments including various organic manures at different concentrations. Observations on various growth and yield attributes were recorded at regular intervals. Studies on vegetative and yield attributes were recorded using standard method of measurements. Among all the organic treatments, soil application with Farmyard manure (5kg) + Vermicompost (2.5kg) + foliar spray of Vermiwash (25%) was sown the significant improvement in plant height (cm), number of leaves per plants, length of leaves (cm), width of leaves (cm), petiole length (cm), root length (cm) and yield than other treatments.
Sentikumzuk Longkumer, D.K. Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i01.002

Abstract:
This study has been conducted to find out the technological gap in recommended cultivation practices of the cabbage growers in order to understand the extent of the difference between the traditional and non- traditional practices practiced by the local farmers in the district. The aforementioned study was conducted at Kuhuboto block in Dimapur district of Nagaland in the year 2021. A descriptive research designed was applied for this study. The primary data was collected from 120 respondents by personal interview method using pre-structure interview schedule. After the analysis of the data, it was observed that, maximum number of the respondents (55.83%) were having medium level of overall utilization of information sources and majority of the cabbage growers (62.50%) belonged to medium level of over-all technological gap category. It indicates that a sum number of the population had incorporated the new technologies while others have still yet to adopt and use the new recommended cabbage cultivation. The socio- economic variables associated with the respondents, such as education and training exposure were positively significant with the extent of adoption of improved package of practices of cabbage cultivation. The above results compel the research and extension system to work on the gaps in a pragmatic way.
Soma Karmakar, A.K. Srivastava, T. Pandiaraj, Jyotsna Tirkey
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 37-47; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i01.004

Abstract:
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on the different parameter of Arjun leaf the primary host plant of Antheraea mylitta D. Eleven different combination with three replication were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design at the field of Research Extension Centre, Kapistha. The obtained results showed that morphological, Physiological and Biochemical parameter of Arjun leaf showed significant difference. The Arjun leaf length was recorded highest in K11 (17cm) was on par with K9 (17cm). Highest leaf breadth was recorded in K10 (6.2cm) was applied with 75%RDF+Poultry manure+ AB+PSB. Leaf weight was recorded highest in K7 (2.84g), lowest in K1(1.21g). Number of leaves was recorded highest in K6 (1816) over the control. The leaf yield was recorded highest in K11 (3735). Leaves dry matter production was highest in K8 (469.56g) over the control. Relative water content was highest in K5 (87.3%). The initial Electrical Conductivity was recorded highest in K9 (0.037dSm-1) and after 10 min EC was found to highest in K9 (0.111dSm-1). The Chlorophyll ’a’ was recorded highest in K9 (3.39), Chl’b’(2.36)and total chlorophyll in K9(5.75) was recorded highest. The result were found significant due to effect of INM practices which provided the nutrients element needed by plants.
Kuldeep Kumar
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 48-58; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i01.005

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted for two consecutive years at Main Sugarcane Research Station, IIMT University, Meerut, India during 2019-20 to 2020- 21 to study effect of inter and intra row spacing on growth, yield and quality of sugarcane by using single eye bud sets. It comprised total sixteen treatments of four inter row spacing viz., planting of single eye bud sets at 100 cm row spacing (R1), planting of single eye bud sets at 115 cm row spacing (R2), planting of single eye bud sets at 130 cm row spacing (R3) and planting of single eye bud sets at 155 cm row spacing (R4 ), planting of single eye bud sets at 50 cm (S1), planting of single eye bud sets at 65 cm intra row spacing (S2), planting of single eye bud sets at 80 cm intra row spacing (S3) and planting of single eye bud sets at 90 cm intra row spacing (S4) were evaluated in SPD with three replication. On the basis of pooled analysis, the growth attributes such as number of tillers at 90, 115, 185 days after planting and number of shoots at 245 days after planting and yield attributes such as millable cane height, cane girth, number of inter nodes per cane, average cane weight and number of millable canes were improved. The planting of single eye bud sets at 60 cm gave significantly superior cane yield at harvest than rest of treatments. On the basis of pooled results, it is concluded from the study that for getting higher yield of sugarcane crop can be achieved with 125 cm x 60 cm (R2S2) inter and intra row spacing, respectively through single eye bud sets under west uttarpradesh condition.
G. I. Harry, J. I. Ulasi
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i01.003

Abstract:
Five orange fleshed sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) genotypes sourced from National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike were evaluated under rainfed condition in 2020 and 2021 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria to identify the high yielding and adaptable genotypes. The five genotypes; Umuspo-3, Umuspo-1, Naspot-12, Lourdes and Erica were used as treatments and the experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth, yield and yield related characters were collected and analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were performed. The result of the study indicated that the genotype differ significantly (P≤ 0.05) for number of marketable roots, weight of marketable roots and fresh roots yield. Umuspo-3 produced the highest storage root yield (29.22 t/ha, 28.78t/ha) in 2020 and 2021 cropping seasons, respectively. The result of the correlation analysis also revealed that vine length, number of marketable roots, weight of marketable were highly significantly and positively (P< 0.01) correlated with fresh root yield. Principal component analysis (PCA) had three main principal components explaining 82.41% of the total variation with number of marketable roots, weight of marketable tuber and storage root yield contributing the most to the first PCA. Umuspo-3 recorded high yield than the other four orange-fleshed sweetpotato. Therefore, Umuspo-3 was identified as a high yielding and adaptable orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotype and could be recommended mass cultivation in Uyo agro-ecology as a high yielding orange-fleshed sweetpotato.
Kumari Shipra
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 1, pp 117-124; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v01i1.001

Abstract:
Rural women play a vital role in farm and home system. She contributes substantially in the physical aspect of farming, livestock management, post-harvest and allied activities. Women contribute 50-60% of labour in farm production in India. There is evidence to suggest that if agriculture were focused on women, outputs could increase by as much as 10-20%, the ecological balance could be restored, and food security of communities improved.
Kumari Shipra
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 1, pp 125-129; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v01i1.002

Abstract:
Oyster mushrooms are the third largest cultivated mushroom in the world. China is the world leader in oyster production, contributes nearly 85 per cent of the total world production of about a million tons (Das and Kalita, 2006). The economic importance of the mushroom lies primarily in its use a food for human consumption. Mushroom cultivation can directly improve livelihoods through economic, nutritional and medicinal contributions. Mushroom is a popular food due to their special flavour, nutritive value and medicinal properties. It is rich in vitamin C and B complex and the protein content varies between 1.6 to 2.5 per cent. It has most of the mineral salts required by the human body. The niacin content is about ten times higher than any other vegetables. It has been reported by Rop et al. (2009) and Manikandan (2010). They provide high quality fats and low in carbohydrates and cholesterol, which is ideal for reducing body weight (Qumio et al., 1990)
Kumar Saurabh, Syed H. Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 28-40; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.004

Abstract:
Soil health and fertility is the basis for sustainable profitability of the farmers.Hence, there is a need for balanced use of fertilizers, keeping this government of India introduced Soil Health Card Scheme across India. On 5th December 2015 the ministry of agriculture introduced the soil health card (SHC) scheme.Some farmers complained that the soil test values are not representative of their fields and they also complained that the field staff are not collected soil samples in their presence.In this background an attempt was made to study the impact on socio-economic conditions of the small and marginal farmers.Total of 120 respondents was selected in Ekangarsarai block, Nalanda district, Bihar by purposive sampling method. The data was collected from them and analyzed using MS-excel.Given the short duration of the scheme, knowledge levels are good. At the same time participation of farmers in meetings, exposure visits are not high. Awareness campaigns need to be organized on content of SHCs, use of recommended practices, reduction in fertilizer use and costs and increase in profitability.
Jenifer Lolita C
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 9, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2022.v09i01.001

Abstract:
Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we were attempted to study characterization of bZIP, a transcription factor from a climate smart cereal finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). Seeds of Eleusine coracana (finger millet) was purchase from local market and were grown under field conditions drought and salt stress conditions. In this study, EcbZIP gene was isolated from finger millet, cloned into DH5α cells, screened by using colony PCR and expression analysis in response to two abiotic stresses was carried out by using qRT PCR. EcbZIP coding DNA sequence and protein sequence were retrieved from NCBI Nucleotide Database and Genpept of Accession number KP033192.1 and AJP67539.1 and validated by using SMART (simple modular architecture tool) Domain Tool. Cloning and expression studies were carried out using standardized molecular biology protocol. Results depicted that EcbZIP transcription factor showed significant upregulation under both salt and drought stress conditions, indicating that it plays an important role in tolerance towards these stresses. In conclusion, expression analysis of bZIP gene from finger millet seed cultivar ML-365 showed 5-fold upregulation to salt stress to drought stress and 8-fold upregulation to salt stress. Hence, it can serve as a candidate gene for improving abiotic stress tolerance and can be helpful in enhancing the crop productivity under stress conditions.
Jyoti Jyoti, Veena Veena
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i12.003

Abstract:
Citrus is an important part of fruit family. It belonging to the family Rutaceae, which include fruits such as orange, mandarin, lime, lemon, sour orange and grapefruit, pomelo appear as a well known promising source of multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Processing of citrus by-products (peel, pulp, and seed) potentially represents a rich source of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, by consumption of citrus fruit the large amount of peel waste produced. These citrus fruit residues, which are generally discarded as waste in the environment, they can act as potential nutraceutical resources. Such comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-products provides comprehensive knowledge and information on the development and utilization of citrus by-products, including (types, preparation, and determination) of their main functional components. One of the most popular fruits in the world, from the point of processing is citrus fruits by which produces citrus peel, a primary by-product. Current statuses of citrus peel pollute the environment and waste resources so eco-friendly solutions are sought. This review systematically summarized the knowledge of utilization of citrus peel, which generally discarded as waste by consumer after consumption of fruit.
Maneesha Singh, Deeksha Chauhan, Babita Bharti
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 11-31; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i12.002

Abstract:
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) belongs to family Linaceae, is the second most important rabi oilseed crop and stands next to rapeseed – mustard in area of cultivation and seed production in India. Flaxseed is grown as either oil crop or a fibre crop with fibre linen derived from the stem of fibre varieties and oil from the seed of linseed varieties. Several studies have been conducted on effect of fertilizers on growth and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties which revealed their enhancing role on the quality and quantity of flax cultivars. In this regards, a present study was planned and conducted during the Rabi season of 2020-2021 in the Agricultural field of School of Agricultural Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India to investigate the effect of organic and biofertilizer and integrated treatment on the growth and yield of Linseed. The findings were reported on important growth and yield attributed parameters such as plant height, total fresh weight, total yield, 1000- seed weight (g), and number of seed / capsules. The maximum growth and yield was reported in T6 treatment where biofertilizer have been applied in consortium form followed by vermicompost. Thus, the findings revealed that all the microbial strains in consortia used as bio fertilizers showed enhanced tern of vegetative growth of plants, total herbage yield and total seed yield at various stages. This may be due to sustained release of nutrients to supply the required elements in microbial strains. The biofertilizers exhibited beneficial effects on plant growth and development either through producing growth hormones like IAA, kinetin and gibberellins, synthesizing atmospheric nitrogen and its increased availability to greater protein synthesis as well as increasing Phosphorus availability to plant communities. Thus, it was concluded that the enhanced expression of yield and its related attributes will have beneficial impact in production of nutraceutical products of commercial importance.
Said Asif Sarbaz, Satish Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Kautilya Chaudhary, Jogander Kumar, Vinod Kumar Malik
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i12.001

Abstract:
The field experiment was conducted at wheat research farm of CCS Haryana Agriculture University during Rabi season of 2019-20 to study nitrogen nutrition through organic and inorganic source of fertilizer on growth phenology, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications containing 16 treatments combination i.e T1-Control; T2-100% RDN through urea; T3- 100% RDN through FYM; T4-100% RDN through vermicompost; T5-50% RDN through urea+ 50% RDN through FYM; T6-50% RDN through urea+ 50% RDN through vermicompost; T7-25% RDN through urea+ 75% RDN through FYM; T8-25% RDN through urea 75% RDN through vermicompost; T9-100% RDN through urea + Azotobacter; T10-100% RDN through FYM + Azotobacter; T11-100% RDN through vermicompost + Azotobacter; T12-50% RDN through urea+ 50% RDN through FYM + Azotobacter; T13-50% RDN through urea+ 50% RDN through vermicompost + Azotobacter; T14-25% RDN through urea+ 75% RDN through FYM + Azotobacter; T15-25% RDN through urea+ 75% RDN through vermicompost + Azotobacter; T16- Azotobacter. Treatment T9, 100% nitrogen nutrition through chemical fertilizer (urea) with seed treatment of Azotobacter has taken significantly maximum days to emergence (5.3). Days taken to 50% spike emergence (94.7) and days taken to maturity (148.0) respectively. Similarly T9 had significantly higher grain yield (5640 kg/ha), hectoliter weight (83.167 kg/ha), grain appearance score (7.933 scale/10) and protein content (12.90 %) of wheat during the research period respectively.
Amit Rastogi, Rajesh Singh, Ahmed Barhoums
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 39-74; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i12.004

Abstract:
Laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) is a multicopper blue oxidase which are involved in the oxidation of a broad range of organic substrates, including phenols, polyphenols, anilines, and even certain inorganic compounds by a one-electron transfer mechanism. Laccases are widely distributed in bacteria, fungai, insects and higher plants. There are mainly two production techniques for cultivation of laccase such as submersed fermentation and solid- state fermentation. This paper briefly discuss the effect of carbon source, effect of nitrogen source, effect of inducers, effects of surfactants, effect of agitator, influence of metal ions and use of agro-industrial waste in production medium. The paper also discussed the purification techniques such as ammonium sulphate precipitation for extraction purpose followed by dialysis and ion-exchange chromatography as well characterization techniques. Laccases are known to show application ranging from pharmaceutical industries to textile sector as well as in biosensor development.
S.G.J David Son, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.001

Abstract:
Successful communication is the main job of an extension worker. He cannot expect change among farmers unless he is able to communicate effectively to them. This entails the extension personal to have thorough understanding of communication process. This study will be helpful in identifying important variables of extension personnel affecting their communication process. Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh was selected by purposive random sampling. The study was conducted in 7 mandal's which were selected randomly. Respondents were Agricultural officers, agricultural extension officers, village agricultural assistants and village horticultural assistants. The total sample size for the study were 120 extension personnel. majority of the respondents were female, young aged, having high educational status, with low annual income, job experience and training exposure. Perceived work load was high, medium level of job satisfaction and low level of Innovativeness and medium level of achievement motivation and medium level of communication behaviour was observed. The findings of overall communication behaviour of extension personnel indicate that there is need to increase the communication behaviour from medium to high through suitable training programs on latest Communication technologies and communication skills, providing needed literature.
Durga Bhavani Baruku, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 12-19; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.002

Abstract:
Women are the builder and moulder of nation's destiny. Though delicate and soft as lily, she has a heart, far stronger and bolder than of man. She is supreme inspiration of man's onward march. Empowerment comes from Women's groups who seek to empower themselves through greater self-reliance. They have right to determine their own choices in life. They also seek to gain control and access to resources. The present study was conducted to find out the “Constraints Faced by Women in Empowerment through Income Generating Activities in Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh.” In Vishakhapatnam District Anakapalli Mandal was selected for data collection. Data was collected from 120 respondents randomly from 6 villages using pre-tested structured interview schedule and analyzed using frequency, percentage, scoring and coefficient of correlation. From this present study the major constraints faced by the respondents are Family restriction, Lack of education, Proper marketing facilities, Lack of proper guidance and financial limitations, Lack of resources, Lack of training and Lack of knowledge, skills and Mismanagement. It was suggested that Family should support to women for participating in different type of income generating activities followed by Women farmers should focus on increasing their education, Govt. should focus on increasing the Proper marketing facilities, Women empowerment organization should focus on proper guidance and different training programmes and Govt. & private organizations should provide funds for financial supports.
S Fiona Jacqueline, Syed H. Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 52-59; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.006

Abstract:
Maize (Zea Mays L.) is considered as a unique cereal crop for its diversified use and suitability under various cropping systems. In India it is the third largest cereal crop in terms of acreage. The present study was conducted in Khariar block of Nuapada district of Odisha. Descriptive research design was followed, since the present study is fact-finding and present description of the respondents as well as the area. There are 117 villages in the selected block out of that 12 villages were selected through Random sampling based on existence of Maize cultivation. From the above analysis, it was concluded that majority (85.00%) of respondents were male. Majority (45.00%) of the respondents belonged to both the age group of (20-35) years and (36-55) years. Majority (80.00%) of respondents were married. Majority (70.00%) of respondents were having annual income more than 51,000. Majority (35.00%) of respondents were having education qualification up to High School. Majority (60.00%) of respondents were having land holding of 1-2 hectare. Majority (75.00%) of respondents were occupation Maize Farming and other crops farming collectively. Majority (80.00%) of respondents were having joint family. Majority (65.00%) of respondents were having family size of more than 5 members. Majority (45.00%) of respondents were having semi-cemented house. Majority (40.00%) of respondents were having social participation in Farmers Society. Majority (65.00%) of respondents daily used mobile. Majority (70.00%) of respondents were having maize farming experience up to 1-20 years. Majority (45.00%) of respondents were having medium level knowledge regarding Maize Cultivation Practices. Majority the adoption of Improved Production Technology of Maize was found to be high that is 75.00 percent. According to the response from the respondents, non-performance of visit by agricultural personnel time to time ranked I for constraints faced by the respondents, Lack of hybrid seed ranked II, Lack of credit facility at time ranked III, Lack of proper resources and capital ranked IV and so on. According to the suggestions received from the respondents, Hybrid seed should be available in time, Credit should be available earlier and timely, Availability of fertilizers and other inputs should be in time, Technical advice and training should be given at right time and so on.
Sakshee Yadav, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 60-69; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.007

Abstract:
KVKs impart trainings and education with a view to raise the level of knowledge, attitudinal changes and testing and transferring of recommended improved farm technologies so as to bridge the gap between production and productivity and also to increase self-employment opportunities among the farming community. Rural Women in India, contributing 25% of GDP, is increasingly becoming a Female Activity. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the impact of training on its beneficiaries with reference to know the extent of success in raising the income of beneficiaries. For attaining the objectives, the present investigation was carried out in Baikunthpur block of Koriya district, Chhattisgarh. A total of 60 trainees and 60 non-trainees were selected as sample for the study. The data were collected by personal interview with the help of structured and pre-tested schedule. Percentage and other statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Age, educational status, land holding, number of training attended and progressiveness had significant relation with income and employment generation. Size of family, occupation, annual income, extension participation and risk bearing capacity had non-significant relation with income and employment generation.
Ngukato K Yepthomi, Syed H Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.003

Abstract:
The present study was conducted in the Zunheboto district of Nagaland. Zunheboto is bordered by Mokokchung district in the east, Kohima district in the south and Wokha district in the west. Out of total twelve districts in Nagaland, Zunheboto district is selected for the study. Majority of the respondents were from middle age group, educated up to literate, middle caste group from the joint family, having large family size. Most of the respondents were from small size of land holding, having medium group of annual income, majority of the respondents were from medium social participation. The findings of the study indicated that majority of respondents had adequate knowledge regarding impacts on complete forest loss, impacts on diverse land use system, bad impact of burned land on health of people and burning practice negatively impacted the biochemical processes of soils. Correlation coefficient showed that variables viz.., annual income, Land holding, social participation, extension contact were positively and significantly related with perception of respondents towards shifting cultivation practices.
Balla Ratan Sharmila, Syed H Mazhar, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i11.005

Abstract:
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) also known as Lady’s Finger is an economically important summer vegetable crop that belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is known to have originated in tropical Africa. The crop is quite popular due to its easy cultivation, dependable yield and resistant to drought & water logging adaptability to varying moisture conditions & soil types. (Maurya et al., 2013). the major findings are 74.16 percent of the respondents have knowledge on soils that are Loose, loamy soils are required for Okra cultivation, followed by 64.16 percent of the respondents are saying that they cultivate Okra crop throughout the year. Okra plant produces fiber by 20.2 to 7.2 percent. (Chauhan 1972) East-godavari district of Andra pradesh state was selected purposively based on the maximum farmers’ availability. Descriptive research design was used for the present study. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively as a sample for the present investigation. The data was collected by using pre-tested schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Karl Pearson’s Co-efficient of Correlation test was applied to find out the association between farmers socio-economic profile with independent variables. It was concluded that the socio-economic status of the respondents constitute medium level. It was observed that majority of the respondents belonged to the high level of perception and towards improved okra cultivation practices. There was a positive and significant relationship between independent variables with dependent variables.
Sentizungla Sentizungla, Jahanara Jahanara, Dipak Kumar Bose
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 148-157; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.017

Abstract:
The present study was conducted with the objective to find out the socio economic profile, agri-entrepreneural behaviour and attitude of king chilli growers in Dimapur district of Nagaland and find out the constraints faced by the respondents and to obtain their suggestions. A total of one hundred twenty farmers were selected from 4 villages using proportionate random sampling procedure. Data was collected by using interview method using pre-structure D interview schedule and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The study revealed that majority of the respondents belonged to middle aged group, had medium level of annual income with medium size of land holding. Majority of them had medium year of farming experience and medium level of extension contact. On analyzing the entrepreneural behaviour level, highest number of respondents i.e. 65.83% were having medium level of entrepreneural behaviour followed by 25 % having high and 9.16% having low levels. In respect of correlation analysis between entrepreneural behaviour level and socio- economic profile of respondents it shows that annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure and social contact are positively significant. Whereas, age, education, family type, family size, type of house, land holding, and farming experience are non-significant. In respect of the correlation analysis, the annual income, extension contact, mass media exposure and social contact were positively significant at 0.05 % level related to attitude of the people whereas age, education, family type, family size, type of house, land holding, and farming experience were found to be non-significantly related to attitude of the respondents towards king chilli production respectively.
Balla Sushma Swaraj, Dipak Kumar Bose, Jahanara Jahanara
International Journal of Advances in Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 8, pp 158-167; https://doi.org/10.47856/ijaast.2021.v08i10.018

Abstract:
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important commercial crop of India. Sugarcane and sugar beet are used for large scale production of sugar in the world. Amongst the sugar producing plants, sugarcane is responsible for about 60.00 per cent of world’s sugar production. Sugarcane is cultivated mainly in the tropics, though in India it is also grown in sub-tropical areas. Sugarcane is the main source of sugar in Asia and Europe. Sugarcane is grown primarily in the tropical and sub-tropical zones of the southern hemisphere. Sugarcane is the raw material for the production of white sugar, jiggery (Gur) and khandsari. It is also used for chewing and extraction of juice for beverage purpose. Kumar (2019). The study was based on both primary and secondary data. The study was conducted in few selected villages of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh it was concluded that majority of the respondents belongs to the medium level of knowledge. Nearly 44.16 per cent of respondents were having the knowledge towards sugarcane cultivation practices.
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