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Results in Journal Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech): 20

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Seruni Inas Hanendya, Nur Rahmawati Syamsiyah
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 80-95; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i2.440

Abstract:
Museums are windows into a country's past. Museums can tell stories about history and life. Sangiran Museum is one of the world's heritages that tell the story of human evolution from prehistoric times to the present. The presence of historical or other information in the museum is heavily reliant on the zoning of space and the presence of circulation paths. The circulation of visitor movements between spaces and buildings significantly impacts the museum's function. Submission of historical information to visitors will be easier to understand if there is good circulation, which supports visitor movement activities. In the observations, the movement of visitors at the Sangiran museum has not been comfortable for users. This study aimed to assess the circulation path's compliance with government standards. The research method not only used the literature review, observation, and questionnaires but also applied a descriptive qualitative approach. The study discovered three types of circulation paths that were not user-friendly, namely ram, stairs, and hallways, and did not meet Indonesian government and international data architecture standards. This study proposes an easy-to-implement design to ensure the long-term function and sustainability of the circulation pathway.
Aisha Muhammad, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i2.165

Abstract:
The rapid development of automobile and aircraft industries has made applying gear technology necessary. Gears offer the benefits of efficiency, reliability, simplicity and a higher speed ratio with power transmission. However, they cannot transmit power over a long period, are more expensive when compared to belts and chain drives and requires continuous lubrication. They are used for transmitting high load in gear tools. The gear teeth fail when subjected to a high load beyond a certain limit. A deciding factor in gear design is the amount of stress developed on the contact surface of the mating gears. This paper deals with contact stress analysis of spur gear. The theoretical analysis was presented in this paper with the aim of contact analysis of the rolling bearing based on the Hertz and Lewis equations principle. A 3D Finite Element Method is established to calculate the stress between the contact surface of the structure. Contact analysis was performed using ANSYS Workbench software to figure out the deformation and optimum stress developed on the teeth of the gear. Simulation results indicate stress distribution at the contact surface of the gears with a maximum value of 144.82 MPa, while deformation stands at a maximum value of 0.01676 mm. The safety factor shows a maximum level of 15, indicating the safety of the design.
Anton Prihatno, Andi Hendrawan
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i1.149

Abstract:
The paper describes the performance of a spark-ignition engine at various fuel octane numbers. This study was realised using a 150cc automatic motorcycle with a compression ratio of 10.6:1. The experiments were conducted on three types of gasoline with different research octane numbers (RON), namely 88, 90, and 92. The torque and power of the engine were evaluated using a dyno test, while fuel consumption was simultaneously monitored during the experiments. The data were then collected and analysed using Motorcycle Communication System (MCS). The MCS measurements indicated that fuel with RON 92 allows the vehicle to reach the top speed and rotation at a gas opening angle of 25° - 79°. Applying fuel with the proper octane number in an engine with a particular compression ratio can maintain optimal engine performance. Decreasing the fuel's octane rating from the recommended conditions based on the engine specifications causes a decrease in engine performance. Torque and power tend to drop, and fuel is not economical.
Mohammed Baqer Zaki Yahya Al-Quraishi, Siti Syafiqah Binti Mohd, Shamsul Sarip, Roslina Binti Mohammad, Hazilah Mad Kaidi
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 55-68; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i2.428

Abstract:
Researchers in Malaysia are attempting to advance and develop the renewable energy sector in response to increased emissions, fossil fuel exhaustion, and the need for electricity in remote areas. Water turbines are known to have a high potential for generating electricity. This paper aims to propose a new concept of floating turbines and analyse it by using the CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamic) method. Finding the idea started with infaring the market needs in Malaysia and transforming them into design requirements by utilising tools like the requirement table and the objective tree. After that, the requirements are changed to a function box to understand the functionality of the turbine. A task specification table is implemented to assign the specifications and create four concepts. One of the four concepts is chosen using the evaluation chart to undergo CFD analysis. The selected concept is validated using the dynamic mesh technique in Ansys Fluent. A grid independence study and boundary sensitivity study are conducted to ensure the accuracy of the solution. The sliding mesh technique measures the performance of the turbine. It was found that the turbine showed higher performance than typical Savonius turbines, from 0.1 to 0.42 and 0.8 to 1.3  (Turbine Performance) and TSR (Tip Speed Ratio) respectively.
Mehmet Zile
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 69-75; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i2.442

Abstract:
Voltage regulation needs to be optimised to reduce energy losses and improve power quality in renewable solar/wind plants. The Artificial Bee/Ant Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm is developed in this study, and voltage regulation is optimised using this developed algorithm. A computer program in the C++ programming language is developed to prevent the undesired effects of electrical events occurring during the integration of renewable energy sources and to make the system work more efficiently. The interface of the program is made using the Visual Studio program. It becomes possible to produce power estimation, power quality estimation and power loss estimation by using the intuitive artificial bee/ant hybrid algorithm created on the data set obtained from solar and wind power plants. It is determined that there is a ± 4% difference between the values obtained with the developed algorithm and the computer program and the values obtained from the power plants. It is understood that the developed algorithm and the computer program created successfully optimise power quality in solar/wind power stations. This study makes it possible to estimate the amount of energy produced, the amount of energy loss, and the quality of energy in solar/wind power stations.
Nanang Ali Sutisna, Fahyudha Permana
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i2.405

Abstract:
This paper presents a study on the production capacity of stamping dies for minting coins under different heat treatment processes, particularly austenite temperatures, using a vacuum furnace. The specimen material is made from Bohler K340 steel. The first heat treatment strategy in this study includes heating the specimens to a stable austenite temperature at 1080°C, and they are held for 120 minutes and cooled rapidly with gas quenching media with a pressure of 5 bar. Then they are tempered using single tempering at 500°C. The second strategy is similar to the first one, except that the heating temperature is at 1060°C and is tempered using double tempering at 575°C. After the heat treatment process, microstructure observation and hardness testing are carried out. Finally, the production of the die capacity testing on the coining machine is conducted. The results of the specimen surface photographs of the two heat treatment strategies show a significant difference in the microstructure similarly with the hardness value obtained from single tempering was 61.98 HRC and from double tempering was 57.94 HRC. The production capacity test result shows that the average capacity of first and second dies are 101,250 coins and 171,150 coins, respectively. This means that the second dies to exceed the minimum standard production capacity of dies as determined by the Quality Control department, which is 150,000 coins.
Salah Aguib, Salah Roubah, Mohamed Hadji, Lallia Kobzili, Chikh Noureddine, Toufik Djedid
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i1.218

Abstract:
A magnetorheological is a new generation of smart materials in active mechanical vibration and shock control applications. This article is based on a comparative experimental study of the dynamic properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) and magnetorheological fluids (MRF), whose damping and stiffness are controlled simultaneously by applying magnetic field intensity. The dynamic visco-analyser and rheometer were used to test the behaviour of MRE and MRF. The response of both materials depends on the amplitude due to shear strain. The experimental results clearly show the difference between the dynamic properties of MRE and MRF. More specifically, MFRs have high damping with low stiffness; on the other hand, the MRE has average damping with outstanding rigidity. These results help designers achieve more efficient and reliable structures in various engineering fields, such as buildings and mechanical applications.
Sukanya Pujari, Manoj Wagh, Shila Dare
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i1.306

Abstract:
In waste treatment and water management issues, electrocoagulation (EC) is the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly option. In the study, EC treatment of distillery spent wash was carried out using new electrodes packed with aluminium foil scraps. These metal scraps were packed in a mesh to function as anode and cathode electrodes. Electrochemical treatment was carried out for 150 minutes, and samples were analysed regularly to determine the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The impact of operating parameters such as pH, applied current, electrolysis time, agitation speed, and electrode distance on colour and COD removal was investigated. The EC processes were carried out in monopolar parallel (MP-P) and monopolar series (MP-S). The MP-S connection measured the potential difference between the amplified pair of electrodes, whereas the output signals in the MP-P connection were formed by several input electrodes, resulting in a high removal rate. The results indicated that the MP-P relationships enhance the COD removal rate by 4.16 to 8.06 %. An optimum chemical oxygen demand degradation is 77.29 % at pH 3, and decolourisation is 76.55 % at pH 8.3. TDS is reduced to a maximum of 58.32 %, while sulfate and chloride are reduced to 64.72 and 20.44 %, respectively.
Mohammad Abderrahman
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i1.279

Abstract:
Perspex has been known for a long time as a polymeric material, and it has been used for a large number of electrical and non-electrical applications. The present work was carried out to investigates the ageing mechanism of perspex material under a high electric field. The electrical treeing phenomenon was studied using perspex samples with electrodes of a pin-to-plane configuration. The growth of an electrical tree in Perspex was measured and analysed with the aid of an advanced microscope, equipped with a high-resolution camera and connected to a personal computer. Several distinct stages were assigned to characterise the electrical tree development. The area occupied by the electrical tree channels was calculated using equal-area squares. This approach was employed to measure the growth rate of electrical trees under dry and wet conditions. The tree construction, shape and growth speed were studied and analysed to distinguish between treeing phenomenon under wet and dry conditions of fabricated perspex specimens. The absorption of water has increased the tree growth inside the samples, and ions with water have accelerated the breakdown process. The findings of this study are essential to improve the performance of perspex material, which is widely used in a variety of applications for both energy and non-energy purposes.
Nor Syamimi, Shuhaida Yahud
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 2, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v2i1.185

Abstract:
Surface thermistors are being currently used in patient monitoring, including temperature monitoring among neonates. However, these thermistors are reported as being mechanically rigid. This review article aims to provide researchers with a guide to better design a flexible neonatal temperature monitoring sensor. A literature search was conducted to obtain available literature on temperature sensors with specific attention to designing flexible temperature sensors. The achievement of a flexible type thermistor for neonates requires a basic understanding of the thermistor. Also, the conducting polymer material being used and the rationale for their placement. The updated technology in thermistors should be made flexible for the ease of neonates during monitoring. Careful considerations for the design and conduct of flexible temperature sensor research as outlined in this review would help to enhance the quality and comparability of future research studies. Considerations for efficient neonatal temperature monitoring and protection include accuracy, sensor's size, weight, material, and sensor placement. Flexible sensors could be the alternative to conventional bulky and stiff temperature sensors.
Mohd Azri Abd Mutalib, Norsinnira Zainul Azlan
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 71-82; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i2.39

Abstract:
This paper provides the review and prototype development of mecanum wheels mobile robot (MWMR). Nowadays, there is a high market demand for a wheeled machine or wheeled robot for various applications. The ability to move in any direction without altering even a single wheel makes this type of wheel useful for driving, especially in a narrowed or confined space. Various styles of implementing MWMR are discussed in this paper. The kinematic derivation and dynamic modelling are also presented. Characteristically, mecanum wheels face traditional mobile application issues like jerking and slippage, which contribute to low positioning accuracy and repeatability. Besides, environmental factors like disturbance and uncertainty also contribute to these issues. To eliminate or at least reduce the effect, the control strategies in previous researches have been reviewed and are presented in this paper. Finally, a low-cost prototype of MWMR was developed as an experimental platform for future study.
Augustus Ibhaze, Patience Orukpe, Frederick Edeko
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i2.102

Abstract:
Over the past decades, the demand for high-speed data transmission has grown exponentially, necessitating broadband technology integration to satisfy the emerging data-hungry society. This concern has engendered the proposition of a simplified optical wireless transceiver module using off-the-shelf electronic devices. According to the transistor to transistor logic levels, the transmitter module was made up of a single negative-positive-negative (NPN) transistor operated as a switch to drive an off-the-shelf 12V 5W light-emitting diode (LED). In contrast, the receiver was made up of a photodetector (solar) module for photons detection and back-conversion to electrical signals. The received signal was passed through a four-stage amplification process to remove the ambient noise and retrieve the data signal. The last transceiver module was demonstrated using personal computers. It was observed to perform at different optimum points consistent with exposure to fluorescent light, daytime, and night-time operations consequent upon the induced ambient light interference at data rates constrained by the communication device interface.
Nur Kholis, Nuryanto Nuryanto, Arif Mustofa
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 56-63; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i2.184

Abstract:
The reliability of medical devices such as extraction forceps is vital for dental and oral care. Apart from having hygienic properties, the extraction forceps must be strong and resistant to corrosion. This study evaluates the effects of tempering temperature on the hardness and microstructure of a medical device's material made from stainless-steel DIN 4021. In the experiments, a heat treatment process was carried out previously with a temperature of 1,050°C and a holding time of 20 minutes. A quenching process was conducted using a cooling channel that flowed with water at 10-20°C. After the heat treatment, the material was subjected to a tempering process with temperature variations of 200, 400, and 600°C. The research results indicated that the heat treatment process could increase the material's hardness value—the hardness value of the raw material changed from 20 to 48.67 HRC with the heat treatment. The tempering parameters resulted in the highest hardness value of 46.67 HRC at 200°C and the lowest value of 42.33 HRC at 600°C. Microstructure testing using optical microscopy showed that it produced ferrite, pearlite, and martensite structures. In contrast, the result of a microstructure testing using Scanning Electron Microscopy on the surface of the material is that the higher the tempering temperature, the larger the particles' area and dimension.
Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Mubeenah Titilola Sanni, Ifrah Shahdad
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i2.25

Abstract:
This paper presents the design and development of a new low-cost pick and place anthropomorphic robotic arm for the disabled and humanoid applications. Anthropomorphic robotic arms are weapons similar in scale, appearance, and functionality to humans, and functionality. The developed robotic arm was simple, lightweight, and has four degrees of freedom (DOF) at the hand, shoulder, and elbow joints. The measurement of the link was made close to the length of the human arm. The anthropomorphic robotic arm was actuated by four DC servo motors and controlled using an Arduino UNO microcontroller board. The voice recognition unit drove the command input for the targeted object. The forward and inverse kinematics of the proposed new robotic arm has been analysed and used to program the low cost anthropomorphic robotic arm prototype to reach the desired position in the pick and place operation. This paper’s contribution is in developing the low cost, light, and straightforward weight anthropomorphic arm that can be easily attached to other applications such as a wheelchair and the kinematic study of the specific robot. The low-cost robotic arm’s capability has been tested, and the experimental results show that it can perform basic pick place tasks for the disabled and humanoid applications.
Mohd Yuhazril Bin Yaakob, Mohamad Pazlin Bin Saion, Mohd Amirhafizan Bin Husin
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 43-55; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i2.52

Abstract:
Mechanical characteristics of the laminated composite crafted from fabric type reinforcement perhaps inspired via the weaving method and reinforcement agent's usage due to each layer's constructional parameter. As a result, research on the arrangement configuration between bio composite and synthetic fibre for the material shape was proposed to enhance the composite structure's biodiversity and physical characteristics. Substitute for natural fibre in synthetic fibre composite works has shown the excessive capacity to be explored scientifically. The evaluation focused on the concept and essential of bio composite and the synthetic composite fabric positioned over the years from the previous studies of the preliminary researches. The sorts and features of matrix and fibre filler reinforcement materials in composites were also discussed. This assessment's main findings indicated that the composite centre relied on the weave styles and inter-ply and interplay lamination roles. Therefore, the state-of-the-art intraply for synthetic fibre and bio composite fibre in a composite shape was anticipated performing higher in mechanical energy, particularly within the application of ballistic resistance, besides decreased dependency on artificial fibre. It would ultimately suggest the excellent weave sample designs in the proper combination shape of natural and synthetic fibres embedded with polymers. The statistical results were compared with the experimental parameters available inside the literature review. The review explains approximately the studies and evolution within the enhancement of characteristic fibres reinforced polymer composites in ballistic resistance use. This paper goes over the body armour's profitable and present advancement materials, structure and development procedures, and related works on upgrading ballistic energy captivation and upgrading the mechanical tenacity for high impact resistance applications.
Uzair Kashtwari, Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Ifrah Shahdad
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i1.28

Abstract:
Many people all around the world are suffering from various types of disabilities and need to depend on others to perform activities of daily living. One of the essential daily living activities is eating. The disabled people should be able to eat their food independently at any time and place, without relying on the caregivers. This paper presents the development of a new wearable upper limb motion assist robot for helping the disabled to eat by themselves. The motion assists robot consists of two degrees of freedom (DOF) movement, focusing on the two most crucial upper limb movements in eating activity, which is the elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination. A light-weight material was used for the fabrication of the wearable motion assist robot, and Arduino was utilized as the microcontroller. The originality of the study was in terms of the design, operational sequence setting, and kinematic analysis of the wearable upper limb motion assist robot that was explicitly focusing on eating activity. The resulted prototype was portable, compact, light in weight, simple and low cost. The experimental results have proven that the proposed wearable upper limb motion assist robot for eating activity was successful in helping the users to perform the main upper extremity motions in eating. The success rate of the proposed system was 80%, and it took 6 seconds for the system to complete one feeding cycle.
Agung Setyo Darmawan, Junaidi Syarif, Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro, Agus Yulianto, Abdul Hamid, Noviyanto Noviyanto
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i1.33

Abstract:
A single friction plate clutch is one part of the components in a vehicle that is used to transmit power and rotation from the driveshaft to the driven shaft without slippage. This study aims to compare the results of mathematical calculations with analysis based on finite element methods in the design of a single friction plate clutch such as shaft, spline, friction plate, and spring. The analysis was carried out on the shaft made of S30C, spline made of S30C, friction plates made of steel alloy, and springs made of carbon steel. The component was drawn by Solidworks-17 software and analysed by Abaqus 6.14-5 software based on finite element methods. The study was performed by comparing the sizes of the various elements. A comparison of simulation processes using the stress concept of von-misses was conducted. The results of mathematical calculations with the simulation process were compared, and the maximum deviation was 2.881%. The deviation was considered acceptable. Based on von-misses’ maximum stress, the material was safe to use due to below the yield strength.
Agus Jamaldi, Hassan Khamis Hassan
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i1.15

Abstract:
This study aims to evaluate the performance of the trailing-edge (TE) cooling system in a gas turbine blade. Eddy Simulation (DES), based on the turbulence model of Spallart-Almaras (SA), was used to simulate the TE cooling system. A TE configuration with a five-row staggered pin-fin arrangement was employed as a computational domain. Three parameters, i.e., the coefficient of heat transfer on the pin-fins surface (hpin), the coefficient of discharge (CD), and the effectiveness of adiabatic film cooling were used to assess the performances. The findings denoted that the heat transfer fluctuations occurred on the surface of the pin-fins in each row. The discharge coefficient increased with the rising of the blowing ratio. The trend predicted data of effectiveness were in good agreement with realistic discrepancies compared to other researches, mainly for higher blowing ratio. The average effectiveness along the cut-off region was to be sensitive to the changes of the blowing ratio, which was attributed to the structures of turbulent flow along the mixing region.
Tri Widodo Besar Riyadi, Sopyan Sahid Fatuloh
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 11-15; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i1.21

Abstract:
Superheater pipes in turbines commonly are used to produce superheated steam. Internal pressure is critical for steam superheater elements. The pipes in such applications are vulnerable to temperature environments, which can bring the component to enter the creep regime, creep deformation, or even creep fracture. In general, most of the failures in boilers are caused by creep. Creep-resistant materials used in facilities operated at high temperatures must, therefore, be able to withstand the highest possible temperature loads. This study aims to investigate the creep behaviour of a 617 alloys steel steam pipe, which operated within 100,000 hours. The temperature of steam was set at 700?C, and the pressure in the pipe was 35 MPa. Abaqus software based on the finite element method was used in the study. The effect of internal pressure and pipe thickness on the creep strains was observed. The variation of the internal pressure was 35, 37.5, 40, 42.5, and 45 MPa. Whereas, the thickness variations were 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 mm. The simulation results revealed that an increase in the internal pressure and the decrease of the pipe thickness increase the creep strain. This study can be used to predict the possibility of creep damaged for the superheater pipes operated at high temperatures, which have different thicknesses.
Hariningsih Hariningsih, Sumpena Sumpena, Heribertus Sukarjo
Applied Research and Smart Technology (ARSTech), Volume 1, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.23917/arstech.v1i1.11

Abstract:
The research aims to investigate the effect of the cooling medium on the hardness characteristic and microstructure of the 42CrMo4 steel due to hardening treatment at a temperature of 830°C and holding time of 30 minutes. Various oil such as SAE-10W40, SAE-20W50, SAE-40, and used oil was used in the cooling medium. The changes in product size, hardness, and microstructure have been carefully assessed. The results indicated that the viscosity of the coolant medium strongly influenced the cooling rate of the cooling medium, hardness, and microstructure. SAE-10W40 oil and SAE-20W50 oil only needed 2 hours to return within room temperatures before quenching, whereas SAE-40 oil and used oil took 3 hours. The sample size did not change after hardening-quenching. However, there was a residual carbon layer on the sample surfaces. Quenching caused the changes of microstructure from pearlite and ferrite to ultrafine double phase, consisting of martensite and austenite, which were unable to transform during rapid cooling. The highest hardness value was achieved by the treated product, which was quenched in SAE-10W40, which had 54.59 HRC. The high hardness was attributed to the content of 95% martensite. However, used-oil caused in similar hardness as SAE-20W50.
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