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, Kintan Adelia Farahannisa, Iqlima Rahmawati, Lynda Rossyanti
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 48-56;

Covid-19 caused many countries to implement new policies to combat its transmission. Among these new policies is the mandatory use of face masks in public spaces, which increased their production, consumption, and mask waste in the environment. Insufficient knowledge and awareness about the proper disposal of used masks, especially medical masks, might lead to environmental pollution due to microplastic particles and widespread contamination of Covid-19, which will affect sanitation and clean water supplies. Thus, providing education regarding proper and responsible masks use and disposal is essential to maintain good health for all and reduce potential environmental hazards amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. To understand the effect of providing education on knowledge regarding the use and management of medical masks,“EMISSION: Reducing Mask Waste in the Midst of Covid-19 Pandemic” webinar was conducted. This study used the One Group Pretest-post-test Design research method. The sample was selected by purposive sampling technique. The variable studied was the increase in knowledge as measured by pretest and post-test questionnaires. The obtained data were tested by using Paired Samples T-Test. There was a significant effect between knowledge scores related to medical masks before (pretest) and after the (post-test) webinar with a difference in the average value of 0.59 and p-value = 0.000. Education through "EMISSION: Reducing Mask Waste in the Midst of Covid-19 Pandemic" webinar increased public knowledge regarding medical masks to help ensure good health and well-being.
, Denillia Limawan, Fabilla Faiz Arifin, Nabilah Puspa Utami, Raudhatuzzahra Kesuma, Jihan Qonitatillah, Nida` Fahima Amatullah, Subur Prajitno
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 57-65;

Coronavirus Disease-19 (Covid-19) is an infectious disease that has become a pandemic since March 11, 2020. PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) swab is a definitive diagnostic tool for Covid-19, because it has a high level of sensitivity and specificity. One of the symptoms of this infection is anosmia. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the symptoms of anosmia and the positive RT-PCR swab results in Covid-19 diagnostics. This study used a systematic review and meta-analysis method that was in accordance with PRISMA. From 16 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 12 articles through EPHPP that reported smell disorder among Covid-19 patients. Four reports studied whether smell disorder was independently associated with Covid-19 diagnosis. The frequency of anosmia ranged between 7,5-95%. Anosmia has high specificity for detecting Covid-19 but has low sensitivity. There was a strong relationship between anosmia symptoms and positive RT-PCR swab results. This showed that anosmia can be a marker for patients to carry out further investigations.
, Muhammad Arsy Reza Suyudi, Muhammad Farraas Razaan, Venansya Maulina Praba, Shofiuddin Al Mufid, Fauziah Adhima, Puguh Setyo Nugroho
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 66-74;

Covid-19 is a new disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The increasing number of cases of Covid-19 has made it difficult for hospitals to handle it, and health workers are at a higher risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and urgently need Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to protect themselves and minimize the spread of the virus. However, the usage of PPE especially face-masks often causes discomfort. Therefore, a new type of face mask has emerged, namely the medical snorkel mask. This mask is designed to cover the entire face and is made by modifying the air circulation section by adding an air filter. The filter used is PALL Ultipor 25 with a HEPA filter capable of filtering up to 0.3 microns in size and has an efficiency of 99.99%. Medical snorkel mask that is used properly are quite efficient in preventing the transmission of Covid-19, with a fitting factor of 142 from pass level 100. This mask also has passed the CO2 toxicity test. The advantages of a medical snorkel mask include protecting the entire face from infectious droplets, preventing direct hand contact with the face, being reusable, and being equipped with an effective air filter by minimizing the potential for filtrate malfunction. Some of the disadvantages of this mask include interfering with the communication process, cannot being used in conjunction with glasses, a buildup of CO2, increasing the work of breathing, and limiting vision. However, some of these weaknesses can be minimized by modifying the mask and maintaining an optimal barrier system. Given the high level of effectiveness and efficiency, medical snorkel masks can be a novel solution to overcome the discomfort of using PPE for health workers in Indonesia. Hopefully, it can reduce the morbidity and mortality of health workers due to exposure to Covid-19.
, Neissya Nastiti Firmanto, Irda Bella Ajeng Fayanshah, Sri Wijayanti Sulistyawati
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 19-25;

The Covid-19 pandemic is affecting people's lives. One of the sectors hampered by the pandemic is education. During the Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) Emergency, the teaching and learning process must be replaced by online methods. The role of mothers is very important in ensuring that children's learning targets are achieved during distance learning. This can cause stress conditions for the mother. This study aimed to determine the perceptions and various problems that occurred in mothers with children aged 7-15 years old who attended online schools during the Covid-19 pandemic. This was a descriptive study by distributing questionnaires via google form with 67 respondents. Based on the results, the majority of respondents were 35-45 years old (49.3%). Over 85.6% of respondents accompanied their children in online learning activities during the pandemic. The majority of respondents experienced an increase in emotions (70.1%) and felt stressful when accompanying online school children during the pandemic (62.7%). As many as 40% of respondents felt a moderate level of stress. There were 27 mothers (40%) who had difficulty assisting their children in online schooling and 24 mothers (36%) felt that their professional job was abandoned while their children were having online school.
, Nabilah Azzah Putri Wairooy, Rania Tasya Ifadha, Adra Achirultan Ramainaldo S., Ivan Angelo Albright, Alifah Fajriyyatul Izzah, Viky Nafi’Ah Rahma M., Pudji Lestari
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 1-11;

Cholelithiasis affects 10-15% of the adult population. There are four main factors commonly associated with cholelithiasis abbreviated as "4F’’namely female, forty, fertile and fat. However, the relationship between dietary habits as a risk factor of cholelithiasis has not been explained. The aim of the study was to determine the association between dietary habits and cholelithiasis. This study used a systematic review design with a comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and SAGE published from 2017 to 2021. Five studies (three prospective cohorts and two case-control studies) were included. The overall analysis of studies reported a significant risk factor of cholelithiasis in high intake of animal fats, meat, and fried foods and significant protection against cholelithiasis in high intake of fruits, nuts, fish, MUFA/SFA, n-3 FA/omega-3 fatty acids, and vegetables. Healthy dietary habits characterized by high intake in vegetables, fruits, fish, MUFA/SFA, n-3 FA/omega-3 fatty acids, and nuts will lower the risk of cholelithiasis.
Ummi Ziyadatul Faizah, Novira Widajanti, Jusri Ichwani
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 26-37;

Indonesia in the next few years will face problems related to the increasing population of the elderly. Frailty becomes one of the most common health problems in the elderly. The prevalence of frailty in the Indonesian elderly range from 17% to 36.5%. Frailty raises the risk of death and health care costs, as well as functional disability, hospitalization, and fall risk. This was an observational descriptive study conducted in the elderly health community in Surabaya. This study aimed to determine the proportion and describe the associated factors of 2-year mortality in the elderly with frailty, so it can help determine appropriate preventive and intervention ways to prevent mortality and increase the quality of life in the elderly. There were 113 subjects. Most of the subjects had elementary school grade, married, had an income of less than 1.5 million rupiah/month, financially dependent, regularly exercised, did not use walking aids, and had no history of falls in the last year. The mortality rate within 2 years was 8.8% with the characteristics of older than 70 years old, had sarcopenia, decreased functional status, were at risk of malnutrition, CIRS score > 5, moderate cognitive impairment, probably depression, and had components of exhaustion, slowness, and low physical activity based on the CHS Frailty
, Israna Israna, Izaratul Haque, Melyana Habibie, Sri Mentari Br Ginting, Jeni Novita Anggraini
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 12-18;

Unhealthy latrines and defecation behaviors are associated with a higher diarrhea and stunting incidence. The authors developed Healthy Latrine Building Program (GERAKAN BANGUN JAMBAN SEHAT), which is was abbreviated as Gerbang Jasa, to improve latrine problems and long-term effort to prevent stunting. This study aimed to describe the latrine problems and implementation of Gerbang Jasa in Murtajih Village, Pamekasan., Indonesia This research was a descriptive study and involved all families with unhealthy or sharing latrines in Telaga Sari and Pao Gading, Murtajih. We assessed the knowledge and family characteristics through a questionnaire and collected children’s height and age under five years. Thirty families were included in this study, 16 from Pao Gading and 14 from the Telaga Sari. Half of them used unhealthy latrine (cemplung) and the others shared latrines, 59% of farmer occupation and most of them had income under Rp.1.000.000,00. Meanwhile, 12 children under five years from their family was not stunted. During our movement, the authors got funds Rp 18.261.000,00 and successfully built 63,3% latrines with sept tank, 16,7% of latrines only and all the unhealthy latrines were closed by subject. Farmer occupation, family income under Rp 1.000.000,00 were the most cause of latrines problems. Meanwhile, Gerbang jasa could improve latrines problem in Murtajih Village, Pamekasan.
Yasmin Karimah Ikhsan, Nur Rachmawati Maulida, , Sri Wijayanti
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 3, pp 38-47;

When Covid-19 began to enter Indonesia, the entire school process was immediately switched to an online method. Various efforts have been made by parents to deal with online schools, which unwittingly affect their mental condition, which so far has never accompanied children to learn from home. Therefore, the Indonesian government continues to strive to improve the quality of education during the pandemic. This study aimed to determine parents' perceptions of offline schools during the Covid-19 pandemic. The method used was descriptive with a questionnaire given to 67 mothers. The results were that most mothers (88.1%) felt that online learning reduced children's learning capacity. Most mothers (25.7%) complained that the absorption of material was less effective and maximal, 65.7% of mothers felt that offline learning should be implemented immediately because direct interaction with teachers was considered more comprehensive and effective, and 70.1% of mothers allowed their children to study offline during the pandemic with strict health protocols. Almost all respondents (97%) stated that offline schools can develop children potentially better than online schools. Most mothers (70.1%) felt that their children can maintain health protocols while at school if they are allowed to go to school offline.
, Nur Avina Ferona, Hana Letitia Anjani Suwardi Putri, Tia Harelina, Jeffri Jeffri, Beny Prastyo, Sekar Afifah Priandhini, Atika Atika
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 53-59;

Ramadan fasting is a type of time-restricted eating and drinking. Previously, a systematic review drew inconclusive effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to evaluate Ramadan fasting effects on blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. This literature search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar. All studies assessing the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients were included. Statistical analysis was performed in Review Manager 5.4. A total of 7 studies with 260 patients were analyzed. The male proportion and mean age varied from 41% to 88% and 37.5 years to 60 years, accordingly. Four studies measured blood pressure using the ambulatory method. Ramadan fasting significantly reduces systolic blood pressure (SMD=-0.77, 95%CI [-1.18—-0.36], p=0.0002) and diastolic blood pressure (SMD=-0.79, 95%CI [-1.35—-0.24], p=0.005) in hypertensive patients. Both analyses demonstrated high heterogeneity, yet the results persisted after sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was detected. Ramadan fasting reduces blood pressure among hypertensive patients. However, further and larger studies are required to justify this result.
Achmad Ilham Rizwani, Syarif Syamsi Ahyandi, Nanning Naimatuningsih, Endy Novryan Ridwan, Rani Nurvita, Nurun Nujum, Muhammad Hammam Mahrus, Lilik Djuari
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 46-52;

A person with obesity has a high risk of getting a severe complication of COVID-19. This is related to the increasing of chronic illness cases caused by obesity. Obesity itself has been known to take part in the disruption of the human immune system. A person with obesity will be more susceptible to the infection and is suspected to be one of the risk factors that cause death in COVID-19. This study used observational analysis with a systematic review method and continued with Meta-Analysis. This study has been held at the Public Health Department of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, in July 2020. The data sources of this study come from online literature, such as published journals that match our inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria for this study were journals that study the relation of obesity and mortality in COVID-19 cases, journals with a cross-sectional design, journals that used samples age >18 y.o., and journals that used BMI as the obesity classification. Five journals matched our criteria and were analyzed in this study. Four of 5 journals show that there is a relationship between obesity and mortality of COVID-19. There are 2133 subjects with COVID-19, and 361 of them have obesity. There are 1861 subjects with COVID-19 who are not dead; 1567 of them don’t have obesity. An analytic study with a random effect model shows that obesity is the risk factor of mortality in COVID-19 cases (OR = 2.041; 95% CI 1.027-4.058). It also shows that there is a significant relationship between obesity and mortality in COVID-19 cases (p=0.042). Most journals analyzed with a systematic review and meta-analysis in this study show that obesity is the risk factor of mortality in COVID-19 cases.
Raden Roro Litiya Parahita Putri Firnadi, Nugraeni Affianti,
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 70-75;

Family medicine (FM) is a patient-centered and community-based clinical method. The FM has multiple strengths that are useful for medical students, such as provides continuing care to patients and families. Because of the COVID-19, medical students have been removed entirely from the clinical learning environment. Online teaching has played key roles in medical education by covered key clinical conditions, case studies, and examinations. According to the latest American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) is the term for the most severe form of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. We used the method to collect data for a case report taken from a web-series review on Netflix, titled “Virgin River”, Season 2, Episode 1 to 3. From the symptoms and physical examination of the patient, Ms. CR was diagnosed with HG complicated by dehydration, cardiac arrhythmia, and hypoglycemia. The treatment that has been given to her includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapy. The family medicine approach has an important role because it has a strong mutual trust based on the doctor-patient relationship. Also, the family has a significant role in the treatment of patients since it can provide effective psychological and emotional support.
Tamara Audrey Kadarusman, Sacharissa Zerlina Tsarwah Thirafi, Niki Kusuma Bangsa, Rufina Adelia Widyatama, Lutfi Dewanda Nugroho, Prima Ardiansah Surya, Pudji Lestari
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 76-79;

Early detection of syphilis, especially during pregnancy, is important to prevent comorbidities for the mother and the baby. This study aims to determine whether VDRL is more sensitive and specific than RPR as a diagnostic screening test for syphilis infection in pregnant women. Literature searches for relevant articles were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest using the keywords "VDRL AND RPR AND pregnancy AND syphilis". From the search results, we found 7 articles in Pubmed, 2.290 articles in Proquest, and no relevant articles were found in Cochrane. Title and abstracts were screened for their conformity with the case and clinical questions that had been made. Selected articles were then critically appraised. The results of the study in selected articles indicated that VDRL and RPR showed a false positives rate of 10.5% and 9.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of VDRL were 71.6% and 89.5%, and those of RPR were 73.5% and 90.5%. VDRL and RPR have a moderate agreement with the TPHA (kappa = 0.6). From these studies it can be concluded that VDRL is not more sensitive and specific than RPR, implying that RPR is a better diagnostic screening test for syphilis infection in pregnant women than VDRL.
Achmad Fajar Putra Nurdiansyah, Syarif Syamsi Ahyandi, Alvian Wahyu Mahesya, Aryunidya Asmaradianti, Avida Marisa Ilmi, Meutia Putri Aristya, Rani Nurvita, Lady Sherly Nuramalia, Kadek Rama Narottama, , et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 41-45;

Presbycusis is a progressive hearing loss which occurs at the age of 65. Communication difficulties caused by these problems are usually not understood or understood by people with normal hearing functions. Therefore, the understanding of these problems must be improved so that there is no gap between people with normal hearing and people with low hearing. The research method used is a quantitative descriptive research design carried out in a number of elderly care foundations. The data we share is in the form of pre-test and post-test questionnaires to elderly caregivers with hearing loss in order to evaluate the caregiver's understanding of the educational video. There was an increase in the understanding of the caregivers about how to communicate effectively based on the comparison of the scores from the pre-test and post-test final scores carried out before and after the education was given. Providing education to caregivers with educational video media provides effective results in increasing caregiver knowledge in this field. The formal caregiver group has better results than the informal caregiver group at 77.7% on the pre-test by formal caregiver and an assessment of 65% on the pre-test by informal caregiver. In the post-test assessment, the formal caregiver got a score of 87.7% and for the informal caregiver it was 90%. There is an increase in the post-test scores of the two caregiver groups after providing education through video media.
Felicia Klarin, Angelica Diana Vita, Cynthia Elvira Sari Siahaan, Salsabila Nabilah Rifdah, Ayu Rahmanita Putri, Indriasti Putri Kusuma, Subur Prayitno
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 60-69;

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered type of coronavirus. Comprehensive management for COVID-19 patients includes infection control, hemodynamic stability maintenance, oxygenation monitoring, ventilation, and pharmacotherapy administration. Convalescent plasma is one of the COVID-19 therapy choices, proven to provide relief for Ebola, SARS, and MERS patients. Therefore, the authors believed in searching data on whether convalescent plasma therapy also improves COVID-19 patients, specifically in terms of mortality. This study aims to compare the comparison in mortality between standard therapy and convalescent plasma therapy with standard therapy only in COVID-19 patients. This study used a systematic review and meta-analysis method according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. This study used ten studies that met the inclusion criteria to evaluate the comparison in mortality between the combination therapy with standard therapy only in COVID-19 patients. There was a significant difference in mortality between the combination of standard therapy and convalescent plasma therapy with standard therapy only in COVID-19 patients, and mortality in the combination therapy groups being lower than standard therapy only.
Dina Arini Izzah, Suksmi Yitnamurti, Nancy Margarita Rehatta
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 18-23;

Depression is a mental disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate in medical students around the world. Medical students are often faced with a variety of pressures ranging from academic to social stress so that the prevalence of depression in medical students tends to be higher than general population. Therefore, this study aimed to find out the prevalence of depression in medical students at Airlangga University. This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample used was 86 first-year medical students at Airlangga University, Indonesia in the academic year of 2017/2018. The data collection was carried out using Beck Depression Inventory II questionnaires as a measurement instrument. The data was analyzed by descriptive univariate using SPSS 16.0. From 86 samples obtained from first-year students, 37.20% of them experienced mental conditions that were considered abnormal (mean score of 10.14 ± 7.093), starting from mild mood disturbance (23.26%) to the most severe category, severe depression (1.16%). There was no extreme depression category in this study. Furthermore, mean score of male subjects is 8.57 ± 6.120 while mean score of female subjects is 10.64 ± 7.351. This study revealed that the prevalence of depression in first-year medical students at Airlangga University in the second semester of academic year 2017/2018 is quite high, which is more than one third of the total respondents while the prevalence in female subjects is higher than in male subjects.
Taufan Adityawardhana, Agung Dwi Wahyu Widodo, Nancy Margaritta Rehatta
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 24-31;

Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) in order to isolate gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) as the contamination level indicator. Microbes identified with gram staining and observed under a light microscope. The result reported into 5 categories: microbes were founded or not in the petri dishes, determine whether lactose fermentation/acid production can be observed, grade the microbes concentration founded in the petri dishes (grade 1-6), classify the level of contamination (low-high), describing colonies shape in EMB agar and identifying the microbes with gram staining. The results was at the student center’s canteen 3 of 5 samples under 5 seconds are positive and 5 of 7 samples until 300 seconds are positive. The level of contamination was inconsistent with increasing time. Whereas in the diagnostic center’s canteen 12 of 12 samples were all positives, regardless of time. In conclusion, the five-second rule is a significant oversimplification of what actually happens when bacteria transfer from a surface to food. Risk of transfer of contamination is constantly present regardless of time.
Sacharissa Zerlina Tsarwah Thirafi, Triadi Putra Paladan, Bonfilio Neltio Ariobimo, Barizatul Husniyah, Monica Tiara Arum Kinanthi, Gusti Agung Ayu Ira Kencana Dewi, Prima Ardiansah Surya, Yolanda Ayu Yashinta, Zaufy Verlieza Oktaviano Subagyo, , et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 6-10;

The role of the community is an essential part to cut down the COVID-19 chain transmission, a current world pandemic. Knowledge determines a person's healthy behavior that can prevent transmission of COVID-19. This research’s goal is to analyze the effect of health promotion via telemedicine on increasing knowledge about COVID-19 prevention in the productive-age population in Indonesia. This study used one group pretest-posttest design and accidental sampling method involving 146 respondents based on the inclusion criteria. The data collection method was carried out by using a questionnaire containing simple and general questions related to COVID-19 that tested subjects before and after telemedicine health promotion. Based on the assessment of the questionnaire through pretest and posttest, there was an increase in the average knowledge after being given health education with telemedicine with p<0.001 (CI 95%). This study shows that telemedicine could significantly increase average knowledge about COVID-19 prevention in the productive-age population in Indonesia.
Rosydiah Rahmawati, Nyilo Purnami, Makhmudyah Indri Cahyani
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 1-5;

Noise Induce Hearing Loss (NIHL) is a work disease that is often found in industrial workers. The use of ear protectors that are in accordance with the standard along with the continuity of optimal use can reduce the risk of hearing loss due to noise in the workplace. Adherence to use ear protectors greatly affect the possibility of a person experiencing a more severe hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to prove the existence of relationship of compliance with the use of ear protectors with hearing loss due to noise in the installation of sterilization and laundry. This study used cross sectional methods. Seventeen samples were taken by consecutive sampling for audiometry examination and measurement of compliance with the use of Ear Protective Equipment. Respondents received an average score of 1.86 indicating that compliance with the use of ear protectors was sufficient. Based on the results of the measurement of the auditory threshold in 17 respondents as many as 4 respondents (23%) normal hearing and as many as 13 respondents (77%) experienced NIHL. The results of statistical tests with Pearson correlation show that the Pearson correlation coefficient number of -0.643, which means that the correlation between compliance variables with noise due to noise is 0.643. Based on the criteria above, the relationship between the two variables is significant because the number of significance is P-value / Sig 0.005 <0.05. So, there is a relation between years of work with Noise Induce Hearing Loss, education and Noise Induce Hearing Loss, and compliance with the use of ear protectors with NIHL
Pandit Bagus Tri Saputra, Nabila Izzati, Primadita Esther Rosita, Desy Trilistyoati, Nur Moya Isyroqiyyah, Iffa Halimah Hasna, Niamita Eka Puspita Putri, Ervina Dyah Italoka, Muhammad Rifqi Arya Putra, Andi Lestari Rahman, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 32-40;

Hypertension nowadays still becomes one of the severe problems in Indonesia, with a prevalence of 34% in 2018. The complication of hypertension causes the most deaths and disabilities in Indonesia and cost 75% of The Social Security Organizing Agency (BPJS) budget or IDR 15 trillion in 2019. This problem was probably caused by patients' lack of knowledge and limited personnel at the primary health centre (PHC). Telemedicine is a health care provider without any direct contact, which has various methods. Today, telemedicine in Indonesia is growing rapidly along with technology and legal regulation in its implementation, increasing users by 700% in the first year of 2020. Despite the rise of those numbers, telemedicine in PHC is still limited. Recently, the Ministry of Health and various organizations have issued telemedicine regulations at primary level health facilities in collaboration with The Social Security Organizing Agency. This review aims to discuss the current implementation and the potential future of telemedicine-based hypertension management in collaboration with the Social Security Organizing Agency in PHC.
Lu'Lu'Il Maqnun, Pudji Lestari, Laksmi Wulandari
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 2, pp 11-17;

The use of e-cigarettes year by year increases among adolescents. The increase correlates with their lack of knowledge about e-cigarettes and the perception that e-cigarettes are safer than conventional cigarettes. This research aims to analyze the relationship between the level of knowledge and perception of e-cigarettes to vaping behavior in adolescents in Bangil, Pasuruan. This study was analytic observational with a cross-sectional approach conducted from September until October 2019. The subjects in this study were 76 respondents selected by the purposive sampling method. The respondents were recruited from 3 cafes in Bangil by distributing questionnaires to those who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variables are the respondent’s knowledge level and perception about e-cigarettes, while the dependent variable is vaping behavior. The data has been analyzed with Spearman’s rho. From the analysis, there was a correlation between level of knowledge and vaping behavior with p=0.019 (p<0.05) and 0.269 correlation coefficient. Also, a correlation between perception and vaping behavior with p=0.000 (p<0.05) and 0.420 correlation coefficient. There was a correlation between knowledge level and perception of e-cigarettes to vaping behavior among adolescent users.
Alif Sholehen, Fajrinka Pralampito, Antonius Galih, Akbar Ghaus, Andi Airina, Nyilo Purnami
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 98-105;

Congenital deafness is a hearing loss disorder that occurs at birth and is one of the disorders that can cause complications when it is not treated.1 Children with hearing loss will face difficulties such as poor development outcomes, including poor speech and language skills and face difficulties with cognition and social-emotional interactions. Early intervention has been proven to be one of the most important factors leading to good outcomes for children with congenital hearing loss.2 This case study is intended to highlight the importance of early case detections, early interventions and how family support plays a crucial role in the development of children with hearing loss. With the support of her family, Ms. DRP has gone through several speech and hearing therapies since her surgery and has proven to have an above-average linguistic abilities, showing that early problem detection does not hinder the development and achievement of children with congenital hearing loss.
Novi Ariana, Pestariati Pestariati, Retno Sasongkowati, Debby Kusumaningrum
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 53-59;

Pathogenic bacteria cause Urinary Infection imore or lessi about 85 - 95% are bacteria Escherichia coli. The treatment of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) requires adequate supportive therapy and antibiotics, but antibiotic resistance is an obstacle in UTI treatment. This study aims to determine the types of antibiotics that are resistant to Escherichia coli in patients with UTI. This is an observational study with a descriptive method to determine the type of antibiotic-resistant to Escherichia coli in patients with UTI in the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology RSUD Dr. Soetomo. Antibiotics that were resistant to Escherichia coli in UTI patients were cefazolin (80.49%), Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid (73.17%), Ampicillin (73.17%), Tetracycline (68.29%), while antibiotics that were resistant to Escherichia coli ESBL was Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid (100%), Ampicillin (100%), Cefazolin (99.7%), Aztreonam (99.7%), Ceftazidime (99.7%). The prevalence of Escherichia coli in UTI patients was 27.5%, while Escherichia coli ESBL was 72.5%. Based on the results of the research that has been obtained, it is better to do research on antibiotic resistance patterns periodically.
Wildan Anugrah Erlangga, Fitri Nurina Septiana, Emilia Eka Arrianti, Prafidina Qualisa, Lukman Hakim, Estya Nadya Meitavany, Ulinnuha Qurrota A'yunin, Ariikah Dyah Lamara, Niswah Silmi Fatimah, Pandu Satriya Adi, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 89-97;

Based on the results of interviews with the coordinator of the family planning program at the Puskesmas Songgon, their data collection system was still written manually in the Kohort book which must then be classified and processed further to obtain processed data that describes the situation and conditions of the family planning program application in Songgon District. The aims of this research to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the family planning program report duration between the use of Google Sheets media and the manual counting method at the Puskesmas Songgon. The implementation of the program were 23 May 2019 at Puskesmas Songgon Hall. This program was designed based on the needs of the field of family planning management at the Puskesmas Songgon. This program was created using a computer, the Google Sheets application, which is an application that resembles Microsoft Excel, but is managed by Google and accessed via a browser. It creates two types of formats, namely forms for data entry and automatic calculation reports. The results of this study, it can be seen that the program used by group 2 is 10 times more efficient in calculating the achievements of the family planning program.
Agustin J Nanda De Niro, Annisa Pawitra, Novia Nurul Faizah, Rendra Dwi Putra, Veikha Fakhriya Arfiputri, Renata Violia Sihombing, Shabrina Noor Rachmi, Djohar Nuswantoro, Ledy Martha
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 80-88;

The use of digital technology has increased rapidly. In Indonesia, gadget use by children has become very high and requires special attention. Many effects may occur due to gadget use, one of which is sleep quality disturbance. This study aims to analyze the correlation between gadget addiction and sleep quality in children grades 4-6 SDN 01 Srigading Lawang. This research is an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design in a population of 4-6th graders of SDN 01 Srigading Lawang. A total of 126 students over 130 students were included. Data were collected using two questionnaires, which are Smartphone Addiction Scale and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and tested using RxC Contingency. Gadget addiction has a significant correlation with sleep quality with a weak correlation. Children with mild levels of addiction to gadgets had a potential of 2,013 times to have good sleep quality, compared to children with moderate levels of addiction. In contrast, children with severe levels of addiction to gadgets were at risk 12.04-fold to have poor sleep quality compared to the mild level of addiction. There is a significant correlation with a weak correlation between gadget addiction and sleep quality in children grades 4-6 SDN 01 Srigading Lawang.
Rama Bagus Anandayudha, Calseries Rizki Noveriana, Ewin Wulandari, Felicia Alvita Tjahjono, I Wayan Weda Wisnawa, Zahra Fadhilazka Tiara, Laprianika Retha Haphita Sari, Nurin Kusuma Dewi, M. Ramadhan Alkausar, Binnari Augustya, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 65-72;

Gadgets can be interpreted as a tool that can easily be connected to the internet. If the use of gadgets can be done wisely, humans will get many benefits from using gadgets. But if the use of gadgets cannot be controlled, it will have a negative impact. One of the negative effects obtained is dependence or addiction to the gadget itself. Apart from the use of gadgets, bullying is also common today. Approximately three million teenagers become drug abusers in Indonesia. The data was collected using primary data in the form of a questionnaire to collect data on gadget addiction, bullying behavior, and drug abuse among junior high school adolescents at MTs Nahdlatul Wathon Licin. This was a descriptive observational study. The population was students in 8th-9th grades at MTs Nahdlatul Wathon Licin. Sampling was done by total sampling. The number of samples obtained was 93 people. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods which are presented in the form of frequency distribution tables. It was found that 8.6% of respondents had a high risk of gadget addiction, 48.4 % of respondents have a high level of bullying behavior, and 2.2% of respondents are addicted to drugs.
Dimas Cahyo Wibowo, Della Wahyu Fitriani, Ananda Febina Kimresti, Alfan Ahkami, Isna Sandria Nastiti, Syarifah Dwi Auliani, Siti Ermawati, Sabrina Rizki Andriani, Sulistiawati Sulistiawati, Priyo Raharjo
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 73-79;

In this globalization era, technology is increasing rapidly. One of the technologies is a gadget/device. Gadget users come from various backgrounds, ranging from adults, the elderly, and even children. The Daily Mail reports that 70% of elementary school-aged children can easily use a gadget. The use of gadgets can have both positive and negative effects on children. The negative effect of using a gadget is affecting the quality of sleep and learning achievement on children. The study aimed to describe gadget addiction, sleep quality, and learning achievement of children focused on grades 5th and 6th at SD Negeri 1 Sidodadi Lawang. A descriptive study method. The total population of grade 5th and 6th students at SD Negeri 1 Sidodadi Lawang are 96 students. Data were taken by using Smart Addiction Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires, and students’ report cards. The distribution of gadget addiction levels in this study was 21 people (21,9%) with a low level, 72 people (75%) with a moderate level, and 3 people (3,1%) with a high level. There were 73 people (76%) with poor sleep quality and 49 people (51%) with poor learning achievement. The level of gadget addiction in 5th and 6th-grade students at SD Negeri 1 Sidodadi Lawang was dominant in the medium level, sleep quality was dominant in the poor level.
Nyilo Purnami, Suhariningsih Suhariningsih, Myrna Adianti, Maya Septriana, Edith Frederika, Dwi Indah Puspita
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 60-64;

The high number of patients who come for ear therapy with massage skills, the P3T Center intends to carry out an observational screening of ear therapy. This screening aims to find out how the diagnostic method and application of ear therapy with massage skills and the benefits of ear therapy to overcome the problem of hearing loss (hearing impairment). This screening design uses an observational method in which the researcher makes observations and interviews with respondents. Data collection techniques were carried out by looking at the results of the examination of respondents' hearing tests and the results of interviews with respondents. Patient therapy results in 18 people (60%) no progress or the same as the original condition. this shows that therapy can be said to be ineffective in curing ear disorders. The results of the audiometry examination of the right and left ear stated that none of the patients was normal. Even though there are patients who claim to be able to hear loud sounds in the questionnaire, it is not supported by audiometry results. So it can be concluded that ear therapy with massage skills has no impact on patients suffering from hearing loss.
Kusumagani Hamam, Nyilo Purnami
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 1-13;

Hearing loss in newborns is a serious matter, if it is not quickly diagnosed and starts early intervention, a child will experience social, speech, language, cognitive, and academic impairments. There is a method of hearing screening in newborns, which is divided into two types, universal newborn hearing screening, and targeted newborn screening. Both of these methods use OAEs and ABR as objective examination tools. The hearing screening method varies in each country, this difference is based on the test equipment used, age, frequency, professionals involved in screening, referral procedures, funding, and coverage areas. Indonesia uses two stages of screening, while Italy, America, Nigeria, France, India, and Poland use two to five stages of screening. Hearing screening of newborns using OAEs and ABR has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99,3%.
Bisyamsi Nawaijaya Moediarso, Perthdyatama Syifaq Budiono, Mohammad Fata Fatihuddin, Theophilus Tan Zhu En, Berli Arfani Rantam, Ayu Liana Gunawan, Masyithoh Wahyu Diani, Anjelina Kristina Mogi, Koyuki Atifa Rahmi, Auliai Khoirunnisa, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 24-32;

Riskesdas result in 2013 showed that the prevalence of WUS population who were pregnant and at risk of CED was 24,2%. CED in pregnant women can cause abortion and premature birth, low birth weight babies and infant disability, children become malnourished and brain development is hampered, and children are at risk of developing metabolic diseases. In Bajulmati Village there were 15 pregnant women. 40% of 15 pregnant women suffer from CED. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between groups based on maternal age, maternal occupation, family income, previous pregnancy history, history of chronic illness, and maternal knowledge about nutrition in the incidence of pregnant women with CED in Bajulmati Wongsorejo Banyuwangi and differences in knowledge levels and attitudes towards behavior about nutrition after intervention. An observational analytic, cross sectional research design using questionnaires and observations. The sample selection technique uses total sampling technique. There were significant differences between groups based on family income in the incidence of CED in pregnant women and previous pregnancy history in the incidence of CED in pregnant women. Level of knowledge gained after the intervention was in the form of counseling to Prevent CED significantly.
Lukman Hakim, Wildan Anugrah Erlangga, Pandu Satriya Adi, Fitri Nurina Septiana, Emilia Eka Arianti, Prafidina Qualisa, Ariikah Dyah Lamara, Estya Nadya Meitavany, Niswah Silmi Fatimah, Ulinnuha Qurrota A, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 42-52;

Health care efforts for the elderly to keep the elderly healthy, independent, active and productive socially and economically , to realize this, the government is obliged to guarantee the availability of health service facilities and facilitate the development of the elderly group. The aims to identify factors that affect the achievement of health care coverage of the elderly. This was a qualitative descriptive study. This research was conducted in Songgon District . The target sample was the elderly residents and elderly Posyandu cadres. Data collection instruments using questionnaires. This study used primary data. Univariate analysis to determine the distribution using SPSS and Excel tools. 84% of elderly people knew about screening. The coverage of elderly screening was still low. From the results of research on community therapy that could be done was cadre training, reporting of the elderly, and Extension of Posyandu Elderly by Cadres for the Community
Achmad Januar Er Putra, R. M. Yusuf Aji Samudera Nurrobi, Danang Mukarrom Prasetyo, Muhammad Vildan Akbar, Novita Oktaviana, Aliya Fatimah, Wandya Hikmahwati, Alma Pustika Kartikananda Retina Fibularis, Fatimah Az Zahro, Zahwa Afdhilani Azwan, et al.
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 14-23;

Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that occurs in pregnant and postpartum women. To determine the magnitude of the risk of perinatal depression, this study uses the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) screening tool. This study uses primary data in the form of a questionnaire to collect data on screening for depression in pregnant women and postpartum during the last 12 months. This research is an observational descriptive study with cross sectional research design. Sampling was done by cluster random sampling in Segobang Village, Jelun Village, and Banjar Village in Licin District, Banyuwangi Regency. The number of samples obtained was 31 samples. In the EPDS screening results of the pregnant women group, the results showed a very high risk of 18,75%. Whereas in the postpartum maternal group, the results showed a high risk of 6,67%, and a very high risk of 6,67%. Based on the results of the correlation test with Spearman's rho correlation, it can be concluded that there was a significant corellation between maternal age of postpartum with the risk of perinatal depression (α = 0,03).
Faradila Budi Saputri, Azizah Amimathul Firdha, Safira Rahma, Rieza Rizqy Alda, Syahwina Inayasari, Nyilo Purnami
Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Research, Volume 1, pp 33-41;

Presbycusis is a disease that can befall the elderly, caused by a multifactorial process that should be allowed to disrupt communication and social life and cause mental disorders. According to WHO the proportion of the elderly population rises rapidly which is estimated in 2025, there are about 1,2 billion elderly people with a risk of presbycusis. Mr.S was 84 years old, married and had 2 children, complained of hearing loss since 10 years ago on the patient's left ear. The decline in hearing occurred gradually, giving the last 4 years after his wife's death. Patients was taken to Otorhinolaryngologist and expressed age-related hearing impairment and was advised to use hearing aids. Patients are not routinely using hearing aids. In addition, patients have hypertension and heart disease. Patients consumed Captopril 2x1 tablets, Fundifar 2x1, Furosemide 1x40 mg and Fargoxin 1x0.25 mg. Patients do not routinely consumed cardiac medicine and used hearing aids. From the results of heteroanamnesis, physical examination, and audiogram examination conducted in Mr.S patients, it can be concluded that Mr.S suffers from presbycusis with hypertensive and congestive heart failure. Mr.S was advised to routinely have their hearing check to Otorhinolaryngologist the as an evaluation and routine control to Cardiologist.
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