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Beyza Sat
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 3-4; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.editorialspi1

Abstract:
We would like to welcome you to “Landscape Research” special issue of the Journal of Design Studio.
Ezgi Duman, Beyza Sat
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1075873

Abstract:
In today's world, cities are developing and expanding rapidly. One of the critical factors of this growth is migration from rural areas to cities. As migration to the urban areas increases, the city needs to grow its resources to be sufficient. According to the 2019 statements made by TUIK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu), the city that received the most immigration in Turkey was Istanbul with a rate of 42.5%. Urban agriculture is enhancing the capacity of urban resilience. This study aims to examine the concept of urban agriculture in the context of sustainability and examine practical examples especially from Ataköy, Bakırköy in a comparable style. Idle industrial areas or vacant lots and urban agriculture potentials are examined based on the R-URBAN strategy through methodologies of literature review and feasibility and field studies that carried out in Ataköy. A scenario produced and an implementation model has been developed for Ataköy in the context of urban agriculture at the basis of R-URBAN strategy.
Omur Sozer Senol
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 51-69; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1076474

Abstract:
Extreme weather events, sea level rise and intensified tsunamis as causes of climate change are becoming major threats for coastal cities. Istanbul, one of the most populated built-up coastal cities in the world, is prone to urban, coastal, and riverine flooding according to studies. Spatial design measurements preparing the urban waterfronts for the consequences of hazardous flooding are adopted in several cities as part of their urban resilience strategies. This paper focuses on physical measurements to adapt Istanbul to the effects of coastal flooding that is neglected so far in urban agenda. In this regard, the paper aims to develop site specific spatial design proposals as possible measurements to increase Istanbul’s waterfronts capacity for an effective flood resilience approach in case of storm events and tsunami intensified through climate change. To achieve this, status analysis and spatial configuration of possible design measures for Istanbul waterfront in a representative study area at neighborhood scale are introduced. To answer how much the waterfronts are at risk and how spatially adaptive strategies can be implemented in the current situation following flood resilience approach, site specific spatial analysis and a strategic design framework are developed. Since a comprehensive district-based guideline for spatial adaptation is currently not embedded in the urban agenda of flood management in Istanbul, this study promotes preparation of multiple guidelines adopting contemporary design measures in flood management for the entire city’s waterfronts by proposing one for Kadiköy.
Arzu Guler, Ebru Erbes Gurler
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1074514

Abstract:
The landscapes and the memory of the landscapes are evolving with natural and human-centered activities. In some places, landscapes continue to reveal their memory ecologically, socially, and culturally. On the other hand, in some places, landscapes lose their ecologic and socio-cultural archive as a result of globalization. This issue causes to emerge fragile landscapes according to lack of water resources, global warming, a decrease in biodiversity. Preserving the memory of landscapes and using it in the practice of landscape is a deeply crucial issue. The paper tries to answer two questions: How can landscape memory be used in design education? How can a research-based design studio pedagogy be conducted on this approach? This paper focuses on the research-based design approach in landscape architecture education to decode and recode the memory of the landscapes in the design process. ITU Landscape Architecture Department 2019-2020 Fall Semester Landscape Design Studio I-II, which is the case study of the research, worked in Savur, Mardin. The study area provides unexpected landscape carpet including browns and greens together in the valleys of the region that have a rich social and ecological structure. The methodological process of the studio was based on the three approaches which are integrated into each other: The Landscape Memory Model, Action-based Design Studio, and Research-based Design Studio. The model provides a guide for reading the memory of the landscape with various memory codes hidden under the visible and invisible values of it. This core process is used by the students for understanding the cultural and ecological values of the study area and implementing them into the design process. The action-based studio approach allows the tutors to find the problematic points in the design process of each student and resolve them in a positive way. Covering these two approaches, the research-based design studio expresses the discovery of the knowledge through a strong research process. The results are as followed: Implementing a research-based process ensured a place-based and innovative perspective to shape a design concept. Using the pre-specified landscape memory model empowered the research phase and helped students to analyze and discern the place with their own perceptions. Action-based flow allowed the instructors to leave the conventional studio performing and helped to use in-situ (special to the studio) instructing techniques within the semester. This paper may be influential for especially landscape design studios and relocate conventional studio approaches with more flexible and progressive techniques to understand the place and beyond.
, Ayse Ceren Guler, Nese Ganic Saglam, , Hande Tunc, Orhan Hacihasanoglu
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 19-33; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1077052

Abstract:
Introduction: Turkey has a history of various natural disasters. In architecture education, students need to be informed about natural disasters, produce information, and use the knowledge in their designs to play an essential role in shaping the built environment. The disaster awarenesseducation center and park aim to raise awareness and educate all segments of society about natural disasters and create practical solutions when necessary. Objectives: The research aims to systematically examine urban landscape design solutions to raise awareness of the architectural students about disasters through an exemplary disaster awareness park in Istanbul. The proposed landscapes are classified concerning disaster awareness level, education and training capacity and the potential to serve as a post-disaster meeting point and temporary management center. Methods: This research presents an architectural design process. The research uses landscape planning and design principles to evaluate student projects concerning the relationship between indoor spaces and disaster awareness and education parks in open areas. Results: Architecture graduate students have been successful in building outdoor-indoor connections, multi-purpose use of outdoor spaces, designing open space services, and solving services and meeting areas through their projects. However, their designs did not address planting, ecological and sustainable green space, and emergency water use.
Gulsen Aytac, Gizem Aluclu, Lal Dalay
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 4, pp 35-50; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1074495

Abstract:
Water is the source of life for our planet, guided the ancient civilizations, and formed its current footprint on the earth. Water has always been a crucial element of our biological survival; consequently, humankind has permanently settled around it while carrying the responsibility of protecting it. To understand the water pattern in various cities throughout history and analyze how the emerging problems were overcome, Istanbul Technical University Landscape Architecture Department Graduate Level Design Studio was held under the theme of "Around Water". Despite the adverse effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on education, international researchers contribute to the studio in a beneficial and diversified manner with the effective use of online tools. As a result of the literature review and the online, multidisciplinary education, and research-based design requirements, a new studio method was developed. Water-based case studies worldwide produced enriched outputs. While creating new discussion environments, the diversified outcomes of the studio "Around Water" contributed to the creation of cumulative studio knowledge.
Ilgi Toprak
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 139-140; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.editorialv3n2

Abstract:
Welcome to the second issue of the third volume of the Journal of Design Studio. There are seven research and one design studio case article in this issue of the Journal of Design Studio.
Derya Adiguzel Ozbek
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 261-270; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1010531

Abstract:
In this study, the structure of the basic design studio that started with face-to-face education and had to end with online education due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which was set over Bakhtin's dialogic concept, is discussed. The three main components of the basic design studio; studio space, studio process and studio content and the combination of these components have changed in the transition from face-to-face education to online education. With these changes, dialogic relations are defined in the basic design studio's setup that extends from the face-to-face to the online education, and a structure that is shaped not as a sharp transition but as a flow has been developed. The basic design studio structure, which is shaped by the concept of dialogue, is presented as an approach proposal for online education, which is still ongoing and is expected to continue.
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 141-157; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.982811

Abstract:
This article focuses on the effects of the decreased ability to perceive touch in distance learning for all of the actors in architectural design studios during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. As part of face-to-face architectural pedagogy, the tactile experience of architectural materials, models, and corporeality in the studio environment assumes great importance. However, in contrast, these aspects are diminished when it comes to digital education, generating new topics for discussion. This article asks how and to what extent distance education models can affect the process of learning, understanding, discussing, and designing architecture, amidst the prospect of continuous digital education in the post-pandemic period. Hence, it examines the awareness and experiences of haptic perception of first-year students at the Istanbul Aydın University Department of Architecture through in-depth interviews recorded on Zoom. Between 2020 and 2021, the interviews investigated haptic perception, observed construction techniques, factors affecting design materials, the way and place in which materials were perceived, the methods of sharing and transferring designs with studio instructors, questions about the obstacles encountered, and expectations for the post-pandemic period. The outcomes of these in-depth interviews showed that there is a close relationship between the students’ bodily interests and their awareness with regards to perceiving materials and that the former indicated a tendency towards making models. It was observed that students had preferred digital design tools in the pre-pandemic period, and in addition to the digital tools that students often use as a design approach, they negotiated as designing through hand-drawing in order to gain the “thinking with one’s hands” experience in this study. This emphasizes the need for haptic experiences in an architectural educational environment.
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 175-190; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1012778

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the application of a theoretical framework in the architecture thesis project to discover the effectiveness of the exercise on the thesis projects. It was common to observe that the students prepared the architectural thesis project with limited, unstructured, or disconnected studies to analysis, programming, and conceptualization phases. A theoretical framework model was tested to evaluate the effects on the learning outcomes of the students. The methodology of the research was designed based on structured observation and content analysis. The findings of the research reveal that the students perceive and understand the studies and the theoretical framework differently. The students demonstrated their theoretical framework with four categorical specifications including information, application, presentation, and communication. The information referred to data and structure of the organization, the application implied the relation between the data collection, analysis and other phases of the thesis project, the presentation illustrated how they applied graphical tools to illustrate the data, and communication revealed the interaction between the students and the panel of juries and participants. In conclusion, the theoretical framework connects the studies to the concept generation and opens a new door for the discussion of the architectural studies and lessons learnt between the panel of juries, the students, and peers. For an effective expectation from the theoretical framework outputs, detailed guidelines could harmonize the students’ outputs due to the varieties of the application, interpretation, and demonstration of the architectural theoretical frameworks.
Ugur Tuztasi, Pinar Koc
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 159-173; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1005811

Abstract:
As well as a design process, experimental practices in architectural education are associated with the analytical approaches of visual thinking and visual reasoning. The main purpose of this study was to explore creative methods for devising a vertical construction through visual reasoning. In terms of experimental practices, design research is based on exploration while the primary research area in architecture is reframed by constantly renewed approaches. Accordingly, the hypothesis of this study was that creative methods would improve when the creation of a vertical construction in architectural education is nourished by visual stimuli. The study searched for a construction that plasticized the vertical spatiality of Sivas Grand Mosque’s minaret. The method was shaped by a prerequisite dialogue that rests on visual stimuli. The expected outcome of this dialogue was that the minaret as a pure form would be subjected to an abstraction and, a design proposal then developed for its current structural problems. The results indicated a two-fold appreciation of design. First, when the minaret was maintained within the idea of stabilization rather than being construed as a pure form, the search for a creative method of vertical construction was handled in the context of static preservation. Second, when Sivas Grand Mosque’s minaret as an imaginary design tool was construed as a pure form and the abstraction level increased through visual reasoning, the outcomes gradually demonstrated an approach akin to experimental practices
Merve Eflatun
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 223-235; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1020244

Abstract:
Interdisciplinary approaches and distinctive representation methods are needed to expand the range of meaning in the architecture and to consider the design process in unique frameworks. Literature disrupts the static images produced for the city in the context of the imaginative weight and the various dynamics it makes with the reader also uses the city, space, and architecture to create a different dimension of representation. This situation, which is inspected in the article regarding the relationship between literature, city, and architecture, will be examined through the "Laughable Places" workshop, that is part of the e-workshop days held at Gebze Technical University in February 2021. In this sense, firstly the relationship between literature and architecture and the revealing of their potentials are handled through the imaginative, representational and textual dimensions. Than through various workshops where the relationship between fictional narrative and architecture is applied, it is reviewed in which contexts fictional narrative can be included in the intellectual process of design. This review has been grouped according to the method in the workshop setups, using the fictional narrative based on literary works or the writing fictional narratives by participants. The workshop process was interpreted through the hybridity of the two approaches.
Bulent Unal, Hatice Merve Demirci, Emrah Demirhan
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 191-203; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1013343

Abstract:
It is essential to reflect the strategic connotations of the brand on the products while creating and developing a product design that fits the brand identity. Therefore, for a company, it is a critical issue to place the right messages that support the strategic brand identity in the design elements. From the designers' point of view, they are expected to have design skills such as analyzing a brand's uniqueness and brand knowledge and reflecting the results of these analyses on the aesthetics, function and overall meaning of the product. For this reason, as a part of the Industrial Design curriculum, brand identity focused product design has been restructured in Atılım University, Industrial Design program. In this studio course, the aim was for design students to acquire skills of brand identity and product identity analysis, in addition to basic design knowledge and skills. During 16 weeks, the data were collected by doing a participant observation and conducting semi-structured interviews with the course students. The data gathered from the semi-structured interviews and participant observation were analysed by using an inductive coding approach. Thus, product design suggestions that were suitable for the identity of the brand were analysed with the questions asked by the instructors during the design process. The results show that the questions asked by the instructors and the examples they gave, led the students to research, think, question, understand and make sense of the importance of information. As a result, the students obtained design outputs suitable for brand identity.
, Reihaneh Nadi, Independent Researcher
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 205-221; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1019310

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how the architecture students deploy a range of graphical features to visualize SWOT, standing for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Architectural design studios provide students with a range of analytical techniques, and SWOT analysis is considered to be useful and effective, particularly at urban-scale design projects. However, it is a text-based framework and needs to be converted to thematic analysis maps across architecture and design fields. The main issue is that the determining factors affecting the way in which students choose graphical features to map the outputs of SWOT analysis is unclear at architectural design studios. The research employed qualitative methods, specifically observation, focus group, and graphical analysis, to examine SWOT maps produced by the architecture students. The findings demonstrated that the selection of graphical features in the process of producing SWOT analysis maps are dependent on scale of study (macro, meso, and micro), as well as location, spatial connection, and size of elements derived from SWOT matrix. For instance, lines and planes were most frequent features at macro level while the variety of symbols remarkably increased at micro level. In conclusion, the students personalized the process of mapping, meaning that they applied point, line, plane (shape), color, texture, and typography in several different ways. Therefore, SWOT analysis not only help architecture students to better understand the problems of their design projects, organize and consolidate information, and visualize opportunities and constraints, but could lead to the representation of realistic solutions in an innovative way.
Ayorinde S. Oluyemi, E. Bankole Oladumiye, Oluwafemi S. Adelabu
Published: 31 December 2021
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 237-259; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.1025264

Abstract:
The purpose of this design is to create a Zobo tea package design prototype allied with African indigenous onomastics. African indigenous products are effective in terms of functionality; however, industrialized products gained more attention because of aesthetics, safety, hygiene, and other advanced technology put into consideration during production. This seems to boost the inferiority of indigenous products. Hence, the present study focuses on indigenous Zobo tea in terms of creating a conceptual package design prototype enhanced with product onomastics. Twenty-two names are derived for indigenous Zobo tea by making use of linguistics techniques. These names are used as label for designing a conceptual package prototype for indigenous Zobo tea. A Delphi technique is adopted for the evaluation of this creative process. The findings show that homonym as an onomastics will enhance the branding and development of indigenous Zobo tea even in the international market. This will remodel the inferiority of the aesthetics of Zobo indigenous products. Hence, research on the choice of an appropriate name for a particular product should be a contemporary research area to improve the present situation of our indigenous product branding and graphic design. It is believed that the outcome of this research could provide guidelines for effective naming in product package design for indigenous product development; as creative designers must not only understand the vocabulary of graphic design but be aware of extraneous constraints that could affect their designs.
Pinar Sezginalp, Selin Ust
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 97-106; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.929495

Abstract:
The case study will examine online and face-to-face learning experiences of the two different groups of students who have never been enrolled in an interior design studio, where they see their classmates and encounter an “interior architecture” project as a problem for the first time. As the “living spaces” were the main problematic of this design studio, the interaction, the time management in design development, means of representation, inputs and outputs of the studio, perception of space and scale were the main parameters that differed and varied within separate learning environments, and will be read through the feedback of the students.
Dania Abdelaziz
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 83-95; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.904192

Abstract:
Learning in design studios is a complex process that overwhelms the students and results in common mutual-misunderstandings between student-teacher. This research aims to tackle teachers' role in the design studio and explore how they can help students navigate the design learning complexities. The emphasis in learning design is primarily on students who are not aware of their learning. This puts teachers at a disadvantage, sometimes not knowing what to do or concentrating on students' learning but not knowing their teaching, or even focusing on their teaching but not aware of the importance of learning how to teach. What is the teacher-student interaction patterns that can help students get over/deal with complexities in design studios learning environments? Can building up awareness of the teachers' role help the students learn and enhance their teaching methods? The research carried out a literature review to draw a holistic understanding of the dimensions of complexities in design studios and teachers' role to solve these difficulties. It can be concluded the importance of the teacher's role in teaching design is as essential as the role of the students in learning design. Teacher-student interaction enhances the students' design learning and the teachers' design teaching. Students should be aware of their roles as learners and the role of their teachers. Agreeing with the students makes the teaching-learning journey more fruitful while students get rid of their uncertainty and be more confident.
Ece Buldan
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.930642

Abstract:
The pandemic causes acceleration in the development of online education. Relatedly, instructors have started to transform already applied methods in studio education and have produced new teaching methodologies in remote education. Since the communication channel in the new system is exposed to a change that creates that open an area for the search of situated learning in terms of interaction among students and between students and instructors that is strongly associated with Vygotsky’s theory of the zone of proximal development in which social interactions is emphasized in learning. In this paper, the components of situated learning will be reading through an online design studio in architectural education. The changing concept of studio culture will be inquired from the issues of the learning environment and situations executed after the shift from physical to digital encountering. Moving of design studio into the online environment brings particular changes to the two aspects of the studio culture, which are studio as a method and studio as an environment. In this respect, an online design studio will be examined as a contextual framework with the theory of situated learning.
Derya Uzal, Basak Eren
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 125-135; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.935436

Abstract:
This paper aims to discuss possible adaptations of the essential resources for the first-year architectural design studio's second term under COVID-19 lockdown regulations through experiences from MEF University First-Year Design Studio. Design Studio fundamentals, such as accessibility and materiality, needed to be adapted to studio participants' changing opportunities and places. The second term of the first-year design studio at MEF University is built upon the basic knowledge gained from the first term by improving its physical aspects such as structure, material, and site by forming direct relationships with the resources through analysis and experimentation. Its adaptation to remote studio poses significant difficulties with its intense tactile and material state. New resources and adaptations to the remote studio are grouped under three categories: Curriculum, studio as a workspace, and site. Remote studio experiences are analyzed through changing resources to uncover new possible achievements. Even though there are still irreplaceable components of the regular studio structure, the paper searches for possible adaptations to overcome these challenges of architectural design studio during remote teaching by reassessment of the resources with the accessibility theme.
Zeynep Ozge Yalcin
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.886400

Abstract:
In the twentieth century, as a result of the transition to a scientific approach in design, intuition lost its validity and design became a rational act. In well-defined problems, the design process could be structured with this scientific approach, however, in an ill-defined structure, rationality needs to be combined with intuition to analyzing the design problems, decisions making and generate solutions by supporting the creativity of design students. In this respect, intuition can assist to strengthen and develop the required abilities during the process. Accordingly, the aim is to understand the role of intuition, how students use it to work creatively through sketches, and conceptual ideas, and the problematic process of transformation into architectural knowledge in the design process. The study carried out a literature review to draw an understanding of the dimensions of intuition and its role in the architectural design studio. The results of the study demonstrate that intuition has a crucial role in the design process. Relatedly, the lack of intuition becomes problematic, due to the non-conveyable character that it cannot find a place for itself in the design education in terms of crits from tutors, and alteration of intuition into concrete representations leads to a gap between intuition and the final project. Furthermore, these problems could be eliminated through the coherent use of two features which are rational approach and intuition. In this respect, intuition, creativity, and rationality is needed to perform together in order to achieve success by deciphering the potentials of the project through the process.
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.910234

Abstract:
This paper analyses the predominant trend between the students to follow, frame, and develop a concept in the architectural thesis design. The research targets to question how the students derive their inspiration from diverse sources and influencers into the architectural design concept. The research methodology was based on semi-structured questionnaires with Likert scale questions to analyse and interpret data through the Chi-Square test in SPSS software. The findings revealed that first, the students preferred to employ more symbolic and poetic elements for the design than real projects, second, to create their concepts under influences of supervisors and juries than research, third, to follow personal procedure than the structured process of the course. In conclusion, the results revealed that the students adopted a personal procedure under the influences of the supervisors to design a concept that is closely aligned with a subjective approach, rather than a structured research process.
Zeynep Ceylanli, Elif Aktas Yanas
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 71-81; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.938258

Abstract:
This paper presents a critical assessment of an interior design studio that was constructed face-to-face then online as an extended studio environment through spatial and technological means. In the Interior Design Studio III, students were expected to design an experiential retail store aiming at answering the contemporary customer and brand interactive experience. The concept of ‘interactive experience’ was central not only in terms of a project outcome but also of the studio process: an experiential learning environment is designed to enhance the understanding of the design studio. Within this scope, the collaboration with the maker lab of the university provided technological interfaces and analog model making methods while also expanding the limits of studio space. The interactive experience would not only result in the project outcome but also be integrated to the studio model. This studio model and the topic was conducted face-to-face in the campus three semesters consecutively, while the following two were held online. The study is based on exploratory research using qualitative techniques to analyze the design process of the students in the face-to-face and online experiential learning environment. The main objective is to overview and assess the interior design studio by providing a new perspective to the students about space and user relationship regarding interaction and atmosphere not only in terms of the given design problem but also the ‘environment’ they are experiencing the ways of design.
Yasemin Burcu Baloglu, Ahmet Sezgin
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.929594

Abstract:
Higher education has experienced momentous changes in 2020-21 due to the COVID-19 restrictions disrupting face-to-face education. An immediate shift to online education that draws on diverse digital platforms and interfaces took place worldwide. This study aims to present insights into this transition process from the perspective of place attachment and sense of belonging with a focus on the design studio, and it specifically looks at the transition to online education carried out by the Faculty of Arts, Design, and Architecture (FADA) at MEF University. The study draws on semi‐structured interviews conducted with students from the faculty. Responses from the students indicate that they have felt the effects of the transition process in social relationships, time-space routines, safe space, and changes in their perceptions of personal space. Recent research has demonstrated that sense of belonging and place attachment in educational environments positively affect students' academic performance. The data obtained through this study reiterates the significance of these bonds in the design studio context. The discussion introduces a fresh insight into exploring these critical concepts by focusing on the now burgeoning field of online design education.
Waldemar Jenek, , , , Matt Adcock, Mingze Xi, Kavita Gonsalves
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 117-123; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.935636

Abstract:
This paper examines a case study part of an ongoing PhD research at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. The case study investigates how architecture students can employ media architecture design with real-time-render software tools to empower people without permanent residence. As part of the assignment students developed a media architecture structure during the semester to support people who are facing homelessness. The target participants of this study were master architecture students at Queensland University of Technology. Students participated in an online survey and semi-structured interviews at the end of the semester to provide feedback about their learning experience during the master class. The data was analysed with thematic analysis. The study results explore the potential of technology to face the ongoing issues of homelessness. It opens the discussion how media architecture can be utilised to target issues such as displacement and marginalization. The results allow to refine future studio education and endeavour how to employ real-time software in a studio context.
, Renk Dimli Oraklibel
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.933488

Abstract:
Industrial design as profession has begun to expand its scope in business practices with the recent developments in design management, design thinking, and technology. However, curricula of industrial design studio remain traditional and mainly focuses on designing products. In fact, design management and design thinking go beyond product design and expand design’s scope to establishing business strategies, design innovation and service design by positioning humans and their needs at the center. Besides, the technological shift happened through Industry 4.0 enables to adapt IT hardware into systems, products and services, and make them smart and unified. To keep up with these paradigm changes and prepare our students to the rapidly changing business environment, we initiated a Smart Product Service System (Smart-PSS) design project with the 3rd-grade students of Bahçeşehir University in the 2019-2020 Spring semester during which online education had just become a part of our lives. In this article, we present three student projects as case studies of Smart-PSSs designed in three stages as system design, product design, and interface design. As a result, students gain a more holistic approach toward the design process, acknowledge the new expansions of industrial design, and its transformative role for businesses.
Guliz Ozorhon, Gulbin Lekesiz
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 19-36; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.927181

Abstract:
The Covid-19 outbreak has significantly influenced all disciplines from economics to politics, especially health, and forced every discipline to develop new strategies to adapt to this situation. For this reason, education has been suspended as of mid-March 2020 in our country; after the break, education methods have changed in a mandatory and rapid way and largely switched to distance education. This compulsory transformation has required the creation of new methods and approaches, especially for applied courses. In this context, this article focuses on a remote architectural design studio experience and explores this experience's problems and potential. This research is in the framework of an adapted architectural design studio setup enriched by authors with online environment-specific tools, including components that centralize participatory production (collaborative learning approach) and enable interaction such as workshops and seminars. The studio (201 A) was experienced in the 2020-21 fall semester by remote conducting with 2nd-grade architecture students. In the article, the process is revealed in detail, and the architectural design studio has been discussed extensively with the student survey and the instructors' experiences. As a result, it has been observed that the studio's components, such as interaction, collectivism, multilayeredness, dynamism, making criticism, and juries, can survive in distance education. Although verbal communication difficulties were experienced in the remote studio, visuality/screen sharing supported the communication throughout the process. However, it is obvious that the content, methods, and tools for remote architectural design studio education should be developed with a different and new approach than face-to-face education. In order to develop more effective methods in this scope, research is required to continue, prepare a large number of experience environments supported by these studies and, most importantly, share these experiences.
Sehnaz Cenani, Yazgi Aksoy
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.46474/813689

Abstract:
This paper explores design education in studio settings and presents insights from a design studio based on parametric design thinking. The first-year design studios are essential parts of the architectural education. In these studios, design decisions are taken on a more abstract level, there are less constraints, and the exercises are designed to explore the potentials of design, within the framework of various scales, ranging from human to building, and then to urban. The Introduction to Design course is constructed with interconnected exercises based on concepts such as modularity, the parameters of the human body and spatial perception. The first exercise is designing an architectural structure through parametric thinking. The second exercise is about exploring the design potentials of cube modules with each other, with a rule-based design approach. To better understand the importance of ergonomics in design, the third exercise focuses on the concept of movement through the human body. The aim of the fourth exercise is to study a physical environment and to investigate spatial perception in the built environment. The main aim of this design studio is to teach design with parametric design thinking while focusing on improving the cognitive skills of the students. An Introduction to Design studio experience that is formulated according to these features is described in this study.
Damla Atik
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 173-181; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.883050

Abstract:
Design is a tough process in which knowledge, skill, awareness, sophistication, inspiration, time and creativity should be brought together efficiently within artistic and aesthetic approach. Design education involves observing, researching, thinking, interpretation, designing and producing processes concordantly. Due to its unusual formation; students face difficulties while transforming intangible concepts into tangible products in basic design courses. An encouraging and inspiring teaching-learning process is required in this unique course. Conventional basic design education is structured on teaching the design elements and principles that make up a visual composition. Basic design curriculums of different departments are correlated with various branches of art and present interpretation diversity within students’ applications and basic design studio experiences. It is aimed to make a contribution to the wide range of basic design course within a case study themed on cinema in this study. Regarding to experimental method and watching a movie, students designed three dimensional models representing their inferences. Interpretation diversity has been observed due to students' cognition, observation, ways of access to information and creativity. As a result, deductive thinking and visual depiction of the movie through basic design principles have resulted creative products and benefited students' teaching-learning process.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.46474/816833

Abstract:
The current technologies have created a shift from Computer Aided Design to Computational Design in architecture. Computational design allows inquiries into what can be implicit knowledge in traditional design thinking, enables the definition of the mechanisms of design process and formulations of design knowledge and representation, and defines generative and evaluative knowledge. The purpose of this study is to discuss how Cellular Automata can be utilized in design studios to develop computational design thinking, through the examination of Frazer’s and Herr's studio works. After finding matching concepts and comparisons of Cellular Automata methods used in two design studios, the concept of ‘computation’ in Cellular Automaton studies and contributions of using this generative method in design studio will be discussed. In other words, this study will examine the content of Computational Design Thinking through Cellular Automata applications and their contributions to design education. As a result, since Cellular Automata methods are exploratory processes. They enhance seeing, reaching the whole from the parts, noticing the relationships and patterns between the parts and re-inventing them during and after the generative process. For these reasons, Cellular Automata have an important role in the development of computational design thinking in design studios with different concepts and setups.
Damla Atik
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 173-181; https://doi.org/10.46474//jds.833050

Abstract:
Design is a tough process in which knowledge, skill, awareness, sophistication, inspiration, time and creativity should be brought together efficiently within artistic and aesthetic approach. Design education involves observing, researching, thinking, interpretation, designing and producing processes concordantly. Due to its unusual formation; students face difficulties while transforming intangible concepts into tangible products in basic design courses. An encouraging and inspiring teaching-learning process is required in this unique course. Conventional basic design education is structured on teaching the design elements and principles that make up a visual composition. Basic design curriculums of different departments are correlated with various branches of art and present interpretation diversity within students’ applications and basic design studio experiences. It is aimed to make a contribution to the wide range of basic design course within a case study themed on cinema in this study. Regarding to experimental method and watching a movie, students designed three dimensional models representing their inferences. Interpretation diversity has been observed due to students' cognition, observation, ways of access to information and creativity. As a result, deductive thinking and visual depiction of the movie through basic design principles have resulted creative products and benefited students' teaching-learning process.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 85-99; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.798072

Abstract:
This paper investigates bridges from ‘landmark of cities’ point of view under aesthetics theme. In fact, bridges gave many samples at history with high aesthetic qualities; constructed with diverse materials and vernacular traditional construction methods of the region and era they had been built. Bridges, however, known as engineering products, today it is expected from them to accommodate high aesthetic qualities as being perceptual productions of their environment. It is this ‘construction and aesthetics’ combination that makes them landmarks, which will be demonstrated in the paper by selected cases include both high structural and aesthetical qualities, transforms them to landmarks and icons of their city. On the other hand, by the development of new materials and construction styles, aesthetic consideration come forward by productions of sculptural steel construction bridges in cities. Basically paper consists of two parts, which first one is literature review that introduces aesthetic values in design, landmark features, classifications of iconic concept and 2nd part includes general mapping on bridges from past to present with different functional and constructional styles. In the article, aesthetics in design and landmark concept have been introduced strongly in order to understand the meaning of ‘icon’. Thus especially the design content of Enzio Manzini have been introduced in the article with his work ’21.th Century Values of Design’ which he explains the importance of aesthetics in design. In addition, at this part, design elements as an architectural language formed by ‘point, line, plane’ and visual elements such as; ‘shape, form, color and texture’ have been introduced. In order to continue, design principles such as rhythm, balance, emphasis, scale & proportion, hierarchy have been introduced in the study to reach landmark concept. At second part approximately fifteen unique bridge design and construction have been investigated from all around world such as; Florence, Singapore, London, Sydney, San Francisco, France, Amsterdam, China, Australia and Turkey. All of these selected bridges accommodate iconic features uniquely and differently from each other which transform them to a landmark of their city or environment. The uniqueness of the bridges depends on superiority of some features such as; the length, the height, type, function, construction, material, form, referring the construction system design such as; helix, space frame, steel tensegrity, cable stayed steel swing bridge, single arch and hangers, pods steel high tech materials, steel, pylons and abutments, suspension bridge, steel through arch bridge, wave form made up of seven undulating curved steel, stone build, a three stage pointed arched stone bridge. As indicated, all construction systems are unique and in addition they show highly aesthetic criteria. Thus, when a unique structure meets with technology and/or high aesthetic qualities such as design principles and color, the structure of a building becomes an icon for its city. Then, at 3rd part, four iconic bridge cases have been investigated through their aesthetic and landmark values. At the end, important keys will be collected for aesthetically designed future bridge constructions. To sum up, in the article, it is aimed to reveal landmark concept in the cities over bridge cases which are very aesthetical and flexible structures by their forms, construction styles, materials and functional diversities.
Şehnaz Cenani̇, Yazgı Aksoy
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.813689

Abstract:
This paper explores design education in studio settings and presents insights from a design studio based on parametric design thinking. The first-year design studios are essential parts of the architectural education. In these studios, design decisions are taken on a more abstract level, there are less constraints, and the exercises are designed to explore the potentials of design, within the framework of various scales, ranging from human to building, and then to urban. The Introduction to Design course is constructed with interconnected exercises based on concepts such as modularity, the parameters of the human body and spatial perception. The first exercise is designing an architectural structure through parametric thinking. The second exercise is about exploring the design potentials of cube modules with each other, with a rule-based design approach. To better understand the importance of ergonomics in design, the third exercise focuses on the concept of movement through the human body. The aim of the fourth exercise is to study a physical environment and to investigate spatial perception in the built environment. The main aim of this design studio is to teach design with parametric design thinking while focusing on improving the cognitive skills of the students. An Introduction to Design studio experience that is formulated according to these features is described in this study.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.816833

Abstract:
The current technologies have created a shift from Computer Aided Design to Computational Design in architecture. Computational design allows inquiries into what can be implicit knowledge in traditional design thinking, enables the definition of the mechanisms of design process and formulations of design knowledge and representation, and defines generative and evaluative knowledge. The purpose of this study is to discuss how Cellular Automata can be utilized in design studios to develop computational design thinking, through the examination of Frazer’s and Herr's studio works. After finding matching concepts and comparisons of Cellular Automata methods used in two design studios, the concept of ‘computation’ in Cellular Automaton studies and contributions of using this generative method in design studio will be discussed. In other words, this study will examine the content of Computational Design Thinking through Cellular Automata applications and their contributions to design education. As a result, since Cellular Automata methods are exploratory processes. They enhance seeing, reaching the whole from the parts, noticing the relationships and patterns between the parts and re-inventing them during and after the generative process. For these reasons, Cellular Automata have an important role in the development of computational design thinking in design studios with different concepts and setups.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 85-99; https://doi.org/10.46474/798072

Abstract:
This paper investigates bridges from ‘landmark of cities’ point of view under aesthetics theme. In fact, bridges gave many samples at history with high aesthetic qualities; constructed with diverse materials and vernacular traditional construction methods of the region and era they had been built. Bridges, however, known as engineering products, today it is expected from them to accommodate high aesthetic qualities as being perceptual productions of their environment. It is this ‘construction and aesthetics’ combination that makes them landmarks, which will be demonstrated in the paper by selected cases include both high structural and aesthetical qualities, transforms them to landmarks and icons of their city. On the other hand, by the development of new materials and construction styles, aesthetic consideration come forward by productions of sculptural steel construction bridges in cities. Basically paper consists of two parts, which first one is literature review that introduces aesthetic values in design, landmark features, classifications of iconic concept and 2nd part includes general mapping on bridges from past to present with different functional and constructional styles. In the article, aesthetics in design and landmark concept have been introduced strongly in order to understand the meaning of ‘icon’. Thus especially the design content of Enzio Manzini have been introduced in the article with his work ’21.th Century Values of Design’ which he explains the importance of aesthetics in design. In addition, at this part, design elements as an architectural language formed by ‘point, line, plane’ and visual elements such as; ‘shape, form, color and texture’ have been introduced. In order to continue, design principles such as rhythm, balance, emphasis, scale & proportion, hierarchy have been introduced in the study to reach landmark concept. At second part approximately fifteen unique bridge design and construction have been investigated from all around world such as; Florence, Singapore, London, Sydney, San Francisco, France, Amsterdam, China, Australia and Turkey. All of these selected bridges accommodate iconic features uniquely and differently from each other which transform them to a landmark of their city or environment. The uniqueness of the bridges depends on superiority of some features such as; the length, the height, type, function, construction, material, form, referring the construction system design such as; helix, space frame, steel tensegrity, cable stayed steel swing bridge, single arch and hangers, pods steel high tech materials, steel, pylons and abutments, suspension bridge, steel through arch bridge, wave form made up of seven undulating curved steel, stone build, a three stage pointed arched stone bridge. As indicated, all construction systems are unique and in addition they show highly aesthetic criteria. Thus, when a unique structure meets with technology and/or high aesthetic qualities such as design principles and color, the structure of a building becomes an icon for its city. Then, at 3rd part, four iconic bridge cases have been investigated through their aesthetic and landmark values. At the end, important keys will be collected for aesthetically designed future bridge constructions. To sum up, in the article, it is aimed to reveal landmark concept in the cities over bridge cases which are very aesthetical and flexible structures by their forms, construction styles, materials and functional diversities.
Waldemar Jenek, , , , Matt Adcock, Mingze Xi
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 159-163; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.825715

Abstract:
This case study explores how architecture students can learn to design media architecture within virtual design environments tools. The target participants of this study are advanced (i.e. 3rd year) architecture students at the University of Applied Science, Bochum, Germany. To evaluate the student-experience, students were asked to develop a media architecture structure during the semester. Once the project finished the students provided feedback via surveys and interviews. The feedback was analysed employing thematic analysis. The case study shows that students are curious about technology in the design process and that technology has a growing relevance in an architecture career. The feedback will be used to improve future teaching approach.
Esin Komez Daglioglu, Ekin Pinar, , Pelin Yoncaci Arslan,
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 153-157; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.820352

Abstract:
This paper aims to briefly assess the potentials and limits of online learning environment for studio education by focusing on the case of 2019-20 spring semester studio of Introduction to Architectural Design course at Middle East Technical University’s Department of Architecture. As a transitory course between basic design principles and architectural design, Introduction to Architectural Design addresses the issues of site, program, structure, form, and material in reference to small scale architectural interventions. Reviewing the usual course of the semester until the COVID-19 outbreak as well as the effects of the unexpected switch to the emergency distance teaching, the paper highlights both the creative advantages and material shortcomings of the course’s adaptation process into the online studio format.
Stephen Temple
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.820784

Abstract:
By immediately being asked to work abstractly, beginning design students are investigating architecture through a pedagogy taken-for-granted by its instructors. To abstract something is to draw it out of the concrete, and unless a student is looking for this displacement, they will become disconcerted, struggle, and become lost to the design process. Abstract operations of design, when presented out of step with student self-development, can mislead and distort experience. This essay defines a student’s encounter with abstraction as a threshold concept within the transformative journey of design student self-development. Writings about abstraction in artistic production by Sigfried Gidieon and Rudolph Arnheim define abstraction and provide a basis for critique of abstraction as a threshold concept in beginning design pedagogy. Challenges caused by abstraction for both pedagogy and beginning design students are investigated. Arnhem’s definition of abstraction as relations between part and whole implies a pedagogical approach for learning design that positions encounters with abstraction as a transformative threshold, suggesting that a gradual introduction of abstraction can build connections through embodied experience rather than disassociations. A series of architectural design exercises will be demonstrated that are structured, as result of this study, to gradually introduce abstract operations in design through a progressively transforming sequence over the first six weeks of beginning design studio. Delivered as analogous to architecture, each successive exercise initiates an abstract design operation as an individual design choice, enabling students to learn to see part in terms of whole, toward a working, conceptual understanding of abstraction in design.
, , Serkan Kocabay, Elif Isik Akkuyu
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 5-22; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.776665

Abstract:
This study discusses how the existing primary and middle school buildings can be adapted to the new needs emerging in the Covid-19 process. The three levels of adaptation are defined as follows: Building envelope-outdoor space relationship, plan layout-function relationship, and furniture relocation. In the scope of this study, five selected school plans were evaluated in the context of flexibility in the plan layout-function relationship. In this study, the concept of “adaptation” is considered as a design approach at the early design phase and/or intervention to respond to a new need in the life cycle of the building.
Atlihan Onat Karacali
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 183-187; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.814379

Abstract:
Design studios are the key features of design education. These studios are carried on uniquely and distinctly. Both the progress and grade phases are very special. For architecture and interior design disciplines, the design studio consists of an architectural or interior project design. Design studios are now accepted as the main courses of the semester, and other courses serve as the supportive ones. The traditional architectural presentation techniques used in the design studio were technical drawing and physical modeling. In the last three decades, computer-aided methods joined this list. These three main methods are the base of architectural expression and are taught generally in the first year of education. The following workshop proposal aims to figure out whether the order of these methods is effective in the understanding of first-year students. The workshop is going to choose students from both high and low grades of related supportive courses and divide them into equally distributed groups. A sample structural project is going to be given and each group will follow a different permutation of technical drawing, physical modeling, and computer-aided modeling. All works will be graded at both group and individual levels. Finally, there is going to be comparable data in hand to decide both the more correct permutation and the individual student effort independent from the group.
Veli Safak Uysal, İ̇pek Kay
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 165-171; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.822690

Abstract:
This brief case study presents the general framework, process, and results of a vertical design studio unit, titled Phenomenologies, at Istanbul Bilgi University’s Interior Design Program, supported by student work samples. Centralizing the tensions between interiority and the natural environment, the studio explores the role that nature plays in interior design. The process begins with an experiential inquiry on windows; later to be expanded and complexified by other spatial elements such as doors, stairs, ramps, and bridges. In the end, the students develop proposals for a research, learning, and recreation center that aims at problematizing and restoring our relationship to nature in the context of a lake ecosystem.
Mehmet Emin Bayraktar,
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 131-142; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.826659

Abstract:
Computer technology has affected architectural studies as well as other professions. Architectural tools are used in every stage of the design and their primary goals are transferring and sharing the ideas of the architects’ mind. Nevertheless, in the early design phase, digital design tools remain ineffective in terms of idea development. Current design software and modeling tools are insufficient for the architect to quickly share ideas and generate alternative suggestions for fast sketching and modeling. In this paper, a mobile design application is developed. It aims to support open-ended design thinking and to be fast and effective in terms of improving ideas. It is based on augmented reality and it works on mobile phones. In order to evaluate the application, a set of images consisting of tall buildings are shown to users. Then they are asked to model a similar form of their own. At the end, results are assessed with a questionnaire. Using the obtained data, the effectiveness of the digital mobile tool in the early design stage is discussed.
Orhan Hacihasanoglu
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 3-4; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.841098

Adil Zamil Manshad Al-Saidi
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 143-152; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.830497

Abstract:
The integration between art and science is required for the student in the department of architecture. This paper concentrates on the importance of integration between artistic skills and scientific abilities for the student to achieve high quality level of learning in the department of architecture in Iraq. It analyses the criteria of the architectural education and the educational method used. It demonstrates the integration relationship between art, science and architecture. It follows a descriptive analyses methodology to investigate the skills and abilities required for the student to cope with the criteria of architectural education. It conducted a case study on students in the department of architecture in Iraq to explore the impact of having these skills and abilities on the student’s progression. It explains why a few students only graduate with high grades. The results obtained showed that the integration between artistic skills and scientific abilities is very important for the students. On the other hand, developing the artistic skills is harder than developing the scientific abilities in architectural education.
Ayşenur Hilal Iavarone, Emel Birer
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 111-130; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.814390

Abstract:
The paper aims to re-thinking limits in architecture through an educational approach. A study on the concept of limits in architecture provides an understanding of architecture's sensitivity, responsibility, and bindingness. To investigate the effect of limits on design, the paper has conducted a discussion of a design studio experience as a case study. As a method in the study, an architectural design studio where students are asked to produce architectural solutions by giving physical legal, and social limits has been established. In the architectural design studio scenario, Garipce Village, a fisher village located on the border of Istanbul and a first-degree protection area by the Bosphorus zoning laws, was given as a design problem to second-year architecture students. The design solutions that the students brought to the limits of the village both exemplified how architectural design sought an answer to the limits and demonstrated how to approach rural areas. The limits of conservation areas, the social implications of the conservation sites, and the physical limitations of the village compose a limitation set for the design problem of the rural area. The outputs of the design studio are discussed in the context of architectural solutions for limits. The results revealed how questioning the concept of "limit" transformed students' learning experiences in the design studio. It has been observed that the act of designing with limits improves students' awareness, strengthens the relationships established with the context, and incorporates the social dimensions of architectural design into the design.
Ugur Tuztasi, Pinar Koc
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 23-39; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.779647

Abstract:
This text discusses an experimental pedagogical method coded as from ‘section-model to space’. The theory of the study is the integration of basic design exercises and the architectural project studio. Instead of the disconnected understanding of the architectural project studio with basic design exercises, outputs of the two studios are integrated and design processes come to the fore as a new learning setup. The main idea of the method is to find transformations from basic design models and to benefit from basic design principles in an architectural design of a building. Methods proceed through the various design variables by giving the architecture students a fixed design resource that includes practicing the space through a sectional model. The fixed variable in the design research is the output of basic design exercises. Sectional models, which are open to continuous improvement, are experimental tools that initiate a formal organization. This experiment was adopted with a ritual of repetitions; at the end of the process, practical and survey-based inquiries were carried out to test the theory. As a result, the method leads architecture students to analyze spatial design in terms of relationship between the third dimension and tectonic content. Also, it has been observed that the process offers opportunities for empirical research. It was found that the interaction in the studio environment increased with all these models.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.805377

Abstract:
Architectural studio courses are structured for students to comprehend an existing urban fabric with its physical and social components for the purpose of solving a specific design. In this context, as students develop their conceptual ideas, they are also expected to assume probable interactions that are supposed to occur between users and space. However, students often face with difficulties in embracing the space with its psychological, social and sensual dimensions and occasionally ignore these unseen parameters of space such as spatial perception, user needs, privacy, user satisfaction, and etc. In this regard, elective courses become essential in supporting the student's interdisciplinary comprehension of space. An elective course titled Spatial Perception and Cognition is structured with this intention to support the student’s interdisciplinary understanding of space both in theoretical and kinesthetic means. Thus, in the context of the course, the concept of space is not only introduced through theoretical seminars, but also through an experiential participation of the students themselves where they can actively perform daily activities by the guidance of a blind guide, in Dialog in the Dark which is a thematic dark environment where students experience various urban nodes through scent, sound, wind and texture. Upon completion of the experience, students are invited to a cognitive mapping session through which they reflected their spatial experiences grasped via their senses. In conclusion, cognitive maps show that when eyesight is eliminated, other senses also play a very important role in comprehending the sensual and psychological characteristics of space.
Beyza Sat Gungor
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 5-23; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.739849

Abstract:
Energy efficiency in buildings, comprises many things as mitigation effect of global warming and climate change, decreasing heat island effect in the built environment and also conservation of natural resources. Besides as a new phenomenon we should add biophilic design criteria to the green building tools to increase human productivity by considering human wellbeing. Biophilic design, which inspired by nature, is a new juvenile design concept that gains importance day by day because of its positive effects on human wellbeing mood and relatedly human productivity. Here some conflicts can be occurred between energy saving and human wellbeing; as natural ventilation and energy saving. Biophilic design comprises inherent human inclination to affiliate with nature. All sensations which help to be in contact with natural components as daylight, plants or some animal species like birds; plants occupy an important place in its definition. Biophilic design seeks to create good habitat for people as a biological organism in the modern built environment that promotes people’s health, fitness and wellbeing. Scientific studies reveal that contact with nature has significant effects on people’s physical and mental health, performance and wellbeing. This phenomenon has, an increasing importance more than ever before, especially in daily life. The need for beneficial contact with nature continues in today’s built environment. This paper aims to determine whether the biophilic design strategies are match with green building tools that mostly targeting energy saving in built environment. Also paper handling whether the 14 biophilic design patterns are match with 3 main mind-body systems that are; stress reduction, cognitive performance and emotion mood preference.
Derya Yorgancioglu
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.744577

Abstract:
This study aims to make a critical reading on the constraints and potentials that emerge through the transition from face-to-face to screen-to-screen teaching and learning experiences in design education during the COVID-19 pandemic. By making a critical reading of current discussions, mostly in narrative surveys, on architectural design education, it is attempted to re-contextualize the emerging concepts of the remote teaching and learning to the broader context of design studio pedagogy literature. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the model developed by Shaffer (2003) regarding the three main elements of the design studio pedagogy as (1) “surface structures”, (2) “pedagogical forms” and (3) “epistemological principles.” The study revealed that the current situation, on the one hand, opened the ways for us to test “new” tools, methods and experiences of teaching and learning, and on the other hand, allowed us to better understand the potentials and well-functioning aspects of the “existing” pedagogical models. Rather than reducing the discussions on remote teaching and learning to a ‘technology-driven’ paradigm change in design education, future research should focus on the effects of changing pedagogical tools and practices on the manifold dimensions of ‘human learning’, which in turn will have implications for the epistemology of design pedagogy.
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