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Derya Uzal, Basak Eren
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 125-135; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.935436

Abstract:
This paper aims to discuss possible adaptations of the essential resources for the first-year architectural design studio's second term under COVID-19 lockdown regulations through experiences from MEF University First-Year Design Studio. Design Studio fundamentals, such as accessibility and materiality, needed to be adapted to studio participants' changing opportunities and places. The second term of the first-year design studio at MEF University is built upon the basic knowledge gained from the first term by improving its physical aspects such as structure, material, and site by forming direct relationships with the resources through analysis and experimentation. Its adaptation to remote studio poses significant difficulties with its intense tactile and material state. New resources and adaptations to the remote studio are grouped under three categories: Curriculum, studio as a workspace, and site. Remote studio experiences are analyzed through changing resources to uncover new possible achievements. Even though there are still irreplaceable components of the regular studio structure, the paper searches for possible adaptations to overcome these challenges of architectural design studio during remote teaching by reassessment of the resources with the accessibility theme.
, Renk Dimli Oraklibel
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.933488

Abstract:
Industrial design as profession has begun to expand its scope in business practices with the recent developments in design management, design thinking, and technology. However, curricula of industrial design studio remain traditional and mainly focuses on designing products. In fact, design management and design thinking go beyond product design and expand design’s scope to establishing business strategies, design innovation and service design by positioning humans and their needs at the center. Besides, the technological shift happened through Industry 4.0 enables to adapt IT hardware into systems, products and services, and make them smart and unified. To keep up with these paradigm changes and prepare our students to the rapidly changing business environment, we initiated a Smart Product Service System (Smart-PSS) design project with the 3rd-grade students of Bahçeşehir University in the 2019-2020 Spring semester during which online education had just become a part of our lives. In this article, we present three student projects as case studies of Smart-PSSs designed in three stages as system design, product design, and interface design. As a result, students gain a more holistic approach toward the design process, acknowledge the new expansions of industrial design, and its transformative role for businesses.
Zeynep Ceylanli, Elif Aktas Yanas
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 71-81; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.938258

Abstract:
This paper presents a critical assessment of an interior design studio that was constructed face-to-face then online as an extended studio environment through spatial and technological means. In the Interior Design Studio III, students were expected to design an experiential retail store aiming at answering the contemporary customer and brand interactive experience. The concept of ‘interactive experience’ was central not only in terms of a project outcome but also of the studio process: an experiential learning environment is designed to enhance the understanding of the design studio. Within this scope, the collaboration with the maker lab of the university provided technological interfaces and analog model making methods while also expanding the limits of studio space. The interactive experience would not only result in the project outcome but also be integrated to the studio model. This studio model and the topic was conducted face-to-face in the campus three semesters consecutively, while the following two were held online. The study is based on exploratory research using qualitative techniques to analyze the design process of the students in the face-to-face and online experiential learning environment. The main objective is to overview and assess the interior design studio by providing a new perspective to the students about space and user relationship regarding interaction and atmosphere not only in terms of the given design problem but also the ‘environment’ they are experiencing the ways of design.
Zeynep Ozge Yalcin
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.886400

Abstract:
In the twentieth century, as a result of the transition to a scientific approach in design, intuition lost its validity and design became a rational act. In well-defined problems, the design process could be structured with this scientific approach, however, in an ill-defined structure, rationality needs to be combined with intuition to analyzing the design problems, decisions making and generate solutions by supporting the creativity of design students. In this respect, intuition can assist to strengthen and develop the required abilities during the process. Accordingly, the aim is to understand the role of intuition, how students use it to work creatively through sketches, and conceptual ideas, and the problematic process of transformation into architectural knowledge in the design process. The study carried out a literature review to draw an understanding of the dimensions of intuition and its role in the architectural design studio. The results of the study demonstrate that intuition has a crucial role in the design process. Relatedly, the lack of intuition becomes problematic, due to the non-conveyable character that it cannot find a place for itself in the design education in terms of crits from tutors, and alteration of intuition into concrete representations leads to a gap between intuition and the final project. Furthermore, these problems could be eliminated through the coherent use of two features which are rational approach and intuition. In this respect, intuition, creativity, and rationality is needed to perform together in order to achieve success by deciphering the potentials of the project through the process.
Dania Abdelaziz
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 83-95; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.904192

Abstract:
Learning in design studios is a complex process that overwhelms the students and results in common mutual-misunderstandings between student-teacher. This research aims to tackle teachers' role in the design studio and explore how they can help students navigate the design learning complexities. The emphasis in learning design is primarily on students who are not aware of their learning. This puts teachers at a disadvantage, sometimes not knowing what to do or concentrating on students' learning but not knowing their teaching, or even focusing on their teaching but not aware of the importance of learning how to teach. What is the teacher-student interaction patterns that can help students get over/deal with complexities in design studios learning environments? Can building up awareness of the teachers' role help the students learn and enhance their teaching methods? The research carried out a literature review to draw a holistic understanding of the dimensions of complexities in design studios and teachers' role to solve these difficulties. It can be concluded the importance of the teacher's role in teaching design is as essential as the role of the students in learning design. Teacher-student interaction enhances the students' design learning and the teachers' design teaching. Students should be aware of their roles as learners and the role of their teachers. Agreeing with the students makes the teaching-learning journey more fruitful while students get rid of their uncertainty and be more confident.
Guliz Ozorhon, Gulbin Lekesiz
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 19-36; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.927181

Abstract:
The Covid-19 outbreak has significantly influenced all disciplines from economics to politics, especially health, and forced every discipline to develop new strategies to adapt to this situation. For this reason, education has been suspended as of mid-March 2020 in our country; after the break, education methods have changed in a mandatory and rapid way and largely switched to distance education. This compulsory transformation has required the creation of new methods and approaches, especially for applied courses. In this context, this article focuses on a remote architectural design studio experience and explores this experience's problems and potential. This research is in the framework of an adapted architectural design studio setup enriched by authors with online environment-specific tools, including components that centralize participatory production (collaborative learning approach) and enable interaction such as workshops and seminars. The studio (201 A) was experienced in the 2020-21 fall semester by remote conducting with 2nd-grade architecture students. In the article, the process is revealed in detail, and the architectural design studio has been discussed extensively with the student survey and the instructors' experiences. As a result, it has been observed that the studio's components, such as interaction, collectivism, multilayeredness, dynamism, making criticism, and juries, can survive in distance education. Although verbal communication difficulties were experienced in the remote studio, visuality/screen sharing supported the communication throughout the process. However, it is obvious that the content, methods, and tools for remote architectural design studio education should be developed with a different and new approach than face-to-face education. In order to develop more effective methods in this scope, research is required to continue, prepare a large number of experience environments supported by these studies and, most importantly, share these experiences.
Pinar Sezginalp, Selin Ust
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 97-106; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.929495

Abstract:
The case study will examine online and face-to-face learning experiences of the two different groups of students who have never been enrolled in an interior design studio, where they see their classmates and encounter an “interior architecture” project as a problem for the first time. As the “living spaces” were the main problematic of this design studio, the interaction, the time management in design development, means of representation, inputs and outputs of the studio, perception of space and scale were the main parameters that differed and varied within separate learning environments, and will be read through the feedback of the students.
Waldemar Jenek, , , , Matt Adcock, Mingze Xi, Kavita Gonsalves
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 117-123; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.935636

Abstract:
This paper examines a case study part of an ongoing PhD research at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. The case study investigates how architecture students can employ media architecture design with real-time-render software tools to empower people without permanent residence. As part of the assignment students developed a media architecture structure during the semester to support people who are facing homelessness. The target participants of this study were master architecture students at Queensland University of Technology. Students participated in an online survey and semi-structured interviews at the end of the semester to provide feedback about their learning experience during the master class. The data was analysed with thematic analysis. The study results explore the potential of technology to face the ongoing issues of homelessness. It opens the discussion how media architecture can be utilised to target issues such as displacement and marginalization. The results allow to refine future studio education and endeavour how to employ real-time software in a studio context.
Ece Buldan
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.930642

Abstract:
The pandemic causes acceleration in the development of online education. Relatedly, instructors have started to transform already applied methods in studio education and have produced new teaching methodologies in remote education. Since the communication channel in the new system is exposed to a change that creates that open an area for the search of situated learning in terms of interaction among students and between students and instructors that is strongly associated with Vygotsky’s theory of the zone of proximal development in which social interactions is emphasized in learning. In this paper, the components of situated learning will be reading through an online design studio in architectural education. The changing concept of studio culture will be inquired from the issues of the learning environment and situations executed after the shift from physical to digital encountering. Moving of design studio into the online environment brings particular changes to the two aspects of the studio culture, which are studio as a method and studio as an environment. In this respect, an online design studio will be examined as a contextual framework with the theory of situated learning.
Yasemin Burcu Baloglu, Ahmet Sezgin
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.929594

Abstract:
Higher education has experienced momentous changes in 2020-21 due to the COVID-19 restrictions disrupting face-to-face education. An immediate shift to online education that draws on diverse digital platforms and interfaces took place worldwide. This study aims to present insights into this transition process from the perspective of place attachment and sense of belonging with a focus on the design studio, and it specifically looks at the transition to online education carried out by the Faculty of Arts, Design, and Architecture (FADA) at MEF University. The study draws on semi‐structured interviews conducted with students from the faculty. Responses from the students indicate that they have felt the effects of the transition process in social relationships, time-space routines, safe space, and changes in their perceptions of personal space. Recent research has demonstrated that sense of belonging and place attachment in educational environments positively affect students' academic performance. The data obtained through this study reiterates the significance of these bonds in the design studio context. The discussion introduces a fresh insight into exploring these critical concepts by focusing on the now burgeoning field of online design education.
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 3, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.910234

Abstract:
This paper analyses the predominant trend between the students to follow, frame, and develop a concept in the architectural thesis design. The research targets to question how the students derive their inspiration from diverse sources and influencers into the architectural design concept. The research methodology was based on semi-structured questionnaires with Likert scale questions to analyse and interpret data through the Chi-Square test in SPSS software. The findings revealed that first, the students preferred to employ more symbolic and poetic elements for the design than real projects, second, to create their concepts under influences of supervisors and juries than research, third, to follow personal procedure than the structured process of the course. In conclusion, the results revealed that the students adopted a personal procedure under the influences of the supervisors to design a concept that is closely aligned with a subjective approach, rather than a structured research process.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.805377

Abstract:
Architectural studio courses are structured for students to comprehend an existing urban fabric with its physical and social components for the purpose of solving a specific design. In this context, as students develop their conceptual ideas, they are also expected to assume probable interactions that are supposed to occur between users and space. However, students often face with difficulties in embracing the space with its psychological, social and sensual dimensions and occasionally ignore these unseen parameters of space such as spatial perception, user needs, privacy, user satisfaction, and etc. In this regard, elective courses become essential in supporting the student's interdisciplinary comprehension of space. An elective course titled Spatial Perception and Cognition is structured with this intention to support the student’s interdisciplinary understanding of space both in theoretical and kinesthetic means. Thus, in the context of the course, the concept of space is not only introduced through theoretical seminars, but also through an experiential participation of the students themselves where they can actively perform daily activities by the guidance of a blind guide, in Dialog in the Dark which is a thematic dark environment where students experience various urban nodes through scent, sound, wind and texture. Upon completion of the experience, students are invited to a cognitive mapping session through which they reflected their spatial experiences grasped via their senses. In conclusion, cognitive maps show that when eyesight is eliminated, other senses also play a very important role in comprehending the sensual and psychological characteristics of space.
Adil Zamil Manshad Al-Saidi
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 143-152; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.830497

Abstract:
The integration between art and science is required for the student in the department of architecture. This paper concentrates on the importance of integration between artistic skills and scientific abilities for the student to achieve high quality level of learning in the department of architecture in Iraq. It analyses the criteria of the architectural education and the educational method used. It demonstrates the integration relationship between art, science and architecture. It follows a descriptive analyses methodology to investigate the skills and abilities required for the student to cope with the criteria of architectural education. It conducted a case study on students in the department of architecture in Iraq to explore the impact of having these skills and abilities on the student’s progression. It explains why a few students only graduate with high grades. The results obtained showed that the integration between artistic skills and scientific abilities is very important for the students. On the other hand, developing the artistic skills is harder than developing the scientific abilities in architectural education.
Mehmet Emin Bayraktar, Gülen Çağdaş
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 131-142; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.826659

Abstract:
Computer technology has affected architectural studies as well as other professions. Architectural tools are used in every stage of the design and their primary goals are transferring and sharing the ideas of the architects’ mind. Nevertheless, in the early design phase, digital design tools remain ineffective in terms of idea development. Current design software and modeling tools are insufficient for the architect to quickly share ideas and generate alternative suggestions for fast sketching and modeling. In this paper, a mobile design application is developed. It aims to support open-ended design thinking and to be fast and effective in terms of improving ideas. It is based on augmented reality and it works on mobile phones. In order to evaluate the application, a set of images consisting of tall buildings are shown to users. Then they are asked to model a similar form of their own. At the end, results are assessed with a questionnaire. Using the obtained data, the effectiveness of the digital mobile tool in the early design stage is discussed.
Pınar Çalışır Adem, Gülen Çağdaş
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.816833

Abstract:
The current technologies have created a shift from Computer Aided Design to Computational Design in architecture. Computational design allows inquiries into what can be implicit knowledge in traditional design thinking, enables the definition of the mechanisms of design process and formulations of design knowledge and representation, and defines generative and evaluative knowledge. The purpose of this study is to discuss how Cellular Automata can be utilized in design studios to develop computational design thinking, through the examination of Frazer’s and Herr's studio works. After finding matching concepts and comparisons of Cellular Automata methods used in two design studios, the concept of ‘computation’ in Cellular Automaton studies and contributions of using this generative method in design studio will be discussed. In other words, this study will examine the content of Computational Design Thinking through Cellular Automata applications and their contributions to design education. As a result, since Cellular Automata methods are exploratory processes. They enhance seeing, reaching the whole from the parts, noticing the relationships and patterns between the parts and re-inventing them during and after the generative process. For these reasons, Cellular Automata have an important role in the development of computational design thinking in design studios with different concepts and setups.
Ugur Tuztasi, Pinar Koc
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 23-39; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.779647

Abstract:
This text discusses an experimental pedagogical method coded as from ‘section-model to space’. The theory of the study is the integration of basic design exercises and the architectural project studio. Instead of the disconnected understanding of the architectural project studio with basic design exercises, outputs of the two studios are integrated and design processes come to the fore as a new learning setup. The main idea of the method is to find transformations from basic design models and to benefit from basic design principles in an architectural design of a building. Methods proceed through the various design variables by giving the architecture students a fixed design resource that includes practicing the space through a sectional model. The fixed variable in the design research is the output of basic design exercises. Sectional models, which are open to continuous improvement, are experimental tools that initiate a formal organization. This experiment was adopted with a ritual of repetitions; at the end of the process, practical and survey-based inquiries were carried out to test the theory. As a result, the method leads architecture students to analyze spatial design in terms of relationship between the third dimension and tectonic content. Also, it has been observed that the process offers opportunities for empirical research. It was found that the interaction in the studio environment increased with all these models.
Orhan Hacihasanoglu
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 3-4; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.841098

Atlihan Onat Karacali
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 183-187; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.814379

Abstract:
Design studios are the key features of design education. These studios are carried on uniquely and distinctly. Both the progress and grade phases are very special. For architecture and interior design disciplines, the design studio consists of an architectural or interior project design. Design studios are now accepted as the main courses of the semester, and other courses serve as the supportive ones. The traditional architectural presentation techniques used in the design studio were technical drawing and physical modeling. In the last three decades, computer-aided methods joined this list. These three main methods are the base of architectural expression and are taught generally in the first year of education. The following workshop proposal aims to figure out whether the order of these methods is effective in the understanding of first-year students. The workshop is going to choose students from both high and low grades of related supportive courses and divide them into equally distributed groups. A sample structural project is going to be given and each group will follow a different permutation of technical drawing, physical modeling, and computer-aided modeling. All works will be graded at both group and individual levels. Finally, there is going to be comparable data in hand to decide both the more correct permutation and the individual student effort independent from the group.
, , Serkan Kocabay, Elif Isik Akkuyu
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 5-22; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.776665

Abstract:
This study discusses how the existing primary and middle school buildings can be adapted to the new needs emerging in the Covid-19 process. The three levels of adaptation are defined as follows: Building envelope-outdoor space relationship, plan layout-function relationship, and furniture relocation. In the scope of this study, five selected school plans were evaluated in the context of flexibility in the plan layout-function relationship. In this study, the concept of “adaptation” is considered as a design approach at the early design phase and/or intervention to respond to a new need in the life cycle of the building.
Stephen Temple
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.820784

Abstract:
By immediately being asked to work abstractly, beginning design students are investigating architecture through a pedagogy taken-for-granted by its instructors. To abstract something is to draw it out of the concrete, and unless a student is looking for this displacement, they will become disconcerted, struggle, and become lost to the design process. Abstract operations of design, when presented out of step with student self-development, can mislead and distort experience. This essay defines a student’s encounter with abstraction as a threshold concept within the transformative journey of design student self-development. Writings about abstraction in artistic production by Sigfried Gidieon and Rudolph Arnheim define abstraction and provide a basis for critique of abstraction as a threshold concept in beginning design pedagogy. Challenges caused by abstraction for both pedagogy and beginning design students are investigated. Arnhem’s definition of abstraction as relations between part and whole implies a pedagogical approach for learning design that positions encounters with abstraction as a transformative threshold, suggesting that a gradual introduction of abstraction can build connections through embodied experience rather than disassociations. A series of architectural design exercises will be demonstrated that are structured, as result of this study, to gradually introduce abstract operations in design through a progressively transforming sequence over the first six weeks of beginning design studio. Delivered as analogous to architecture, each successive exercise initiates an abstract design operation as an individual design choice, enabling students to learn to see part in terms of whole, toward a working, conceptual understanding of abstraction in design.
Pinar Calisir Adem, Gulen Cagdas
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.46474/816833

Abstract:
The current technologies have created a shift from Computer Aided Design to Computational Design in architecture. Computational design allows inquiries into what can be implicit knowledge in traditional design thinking, enables the definition of the mechanisms of design process and formulations of design knowledge and representation, and defines generative and evaluative knowledge. The purpose of this study is to discuss how Cellular Automata can be utilized in design studios to develop computational design thinking, through the examination of Frazer’s and Herr's studio works. After finding matching concepts and comparisons of Cellular Automata methods used in two design studios, the concept of ‘computation’ in Cellular Automaton studies and contributions of using this generative method in design studio will be discussed. In other words, this study will examine the content of Computational Design Thinking through Cellular Automata applications and their contributions to design education. As a result, since Cellular Automata methods are exploratory processes. They enhance seeing, reaching the whole from the parts, noticing the relationships and patterns between the parts and re-inventing them during and after the generative process. For these reasons, Cellular Automata have an important role in the development of computational design thinking in design studios with different concepts and setups.
Damla Atik
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 173-181; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.883050

Abstract:
Design is a tough process in which knowledge, skill, awareness, sophistication, inspiration, time and creativity should be brought together efficiently within artistic and aesthetic approach. Design education involves observing, researching, thinking, interpretation, designing and producing processes concordantly. Due to its unusual formation; students face difficulties while transforming intangible concepts into tangible products in basic design courses. An encouraging and inspiring teaching-learning process is required in this unique course. Conventional basic design education is structured on teaching the design elements and principles that make up a visual composition. Basic design curriculums of different departments are correlated with various branches of art and present interpretation diversity within students’ applications and basic design studio experiences. It is aimed to make a contribution to the wide range of basic design course within a case study themed on cinema in this study. Regarding to experimental method and watching a movie, students designed three dimensional models representing their inferences. Interpretation diversity has been observed due to students' cognition, observation, ways of access to information and creativity. As a result, deductive thinking and visual depiction of the movie through basic design principles have resulted creative products and benefited students' teaching-learning process.
Sehnaz Cenani, Yazgi Aksoy
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.46474/813689

Abstract:
This paper explores design education in studio settings and presents insights from a design studio based on parametric design thinking. The first-year design studios are essential parts of the architectural education. In these studios, design decisions are taken on a more abstract level, there are less constraints, and the exercises are designed to explore the potentials of design, within the framework of various scales, ranging from human to building, and then to urban. The Introduction to Design course is constructed with interconnected exercises based on concepts such as modularity, the parameters of the human body and spatial perception. The first exercise is designing an architectural structure through parametric thinking. The second exercise is about exploring the design potentials of cube modules with each other, with a rule-based design approach. To better understand the importance of ergonomics in design, the third exercise focuses on the concept of movement through the human body. The aim of the fourth exercise is to study a physical environment and to investigate spatial perception in the built environment. The main aim of this design studio is to teach design with parametric design thinking while focusing on improving the cognitive skills of the students. An Introduction to Design studio experience that is formulated according to these features is described in this study.
Damla Atik
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 173-181; https://doi.org/10.46474//jds.833050

Abstract:
Design is a tough process in which knowledge, skill, awareness, sophistication, inspiration, time and creativity should be brought together efficiently within artistic and aesthetic approach. Design education involves observing, researching, thinking, interpretation, designing and producing processes concordantly. Due to its unusual formation; students face difficulties while transforming intangible concepts into tangible products in basic design courses. An encouraging and inspiring teaching-learning process is required in this unique course. Conventional basic design education is structured on teaching the design elements and principles that make up a visual composition. Basic design curriculums of different departments are correlated with various branches of art and present interpretation diversity within students’ applications and basic design studio experiences. It is aimed to make a contribution to the wide range of basic design course within a case study themed on cinema in this study. Regarding to experimental method and watching a movie, students designed three dimensional models representing their inferences. Interpretation diversity has been observed due to students' cognition, observation, ways of access to information and creativity. As a result, deductive thinking and visual depiction of the movie through basic design principles have resulted creative products and benefited students' teaching-learning process.
Ayşenur Hilal Iavarone, Emel Birer
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 111-130; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.814390

Abstract:
The paper aims to re-thinking limits in architecture through an educational approach. A study on the concept of limits in architecture provides an understanding of architecture's sensitivity, responsibility, and bindingness. To investigate the effect of limits on design, the paper has conducted a discussion of a design studio experience as a case study. As a method in the study, an architectural design studio where students are asked to produce architectural solutions by giving physical legal, and social limits has been established. In the architectural design studio scenario, Garipce Village, a fisher village located on the border of Istanbul and a first-degree protection area by the Bosphorus zoning laws, was given as a design problem to second-year architecture students. The design solutions that the students brought to the limits of the village both exemplified how architectural design sought an answer to the limits and demonstrated how to approach rural areas. The limits of conservation areas, the social implications of the conservation sites, and the physical limitations of the village compose a limitation set for the design problem of the rural area. The outputs of the design studio are discussed in the context of architectural solutions for limits. The results revealed how questioning the concept of "limit" transformed students' learning experiences in the design studio. It has been observed that the act of designing with limits improves students' awareness, strengthens the relationships established with the context, and incorporates the social dimensions of architectural design into the design.
Veli Safak Uysal, İ̇pek Kay
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 165-171; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.822690

Abstract:
This brief case study presents the general framework, process, and results of a vertical design studio unit, titled Phenomenologies, at Istanbul Bilgi University’s Interior Design Program, supported by student work samples. Centralizing the tensions between interiority and the natural environment, the studio explores the role that nature plays in interior design. The process begins with an experiential inquiry on windows; later to be expanded and complexified by other spatial elements such as doors, stairs, ramps, and bridges. In the end, the students develop proposals for a research, learning, and recreation center that aims at problematizing and restoring our relationship to nature in the context of a lake ecosystem.
Esin Komez Daglioglu, Ekin Pinar, , Pelin Yoncaci Arslan,
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 153-157; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.820352

Abstract:
This paper aims to briefly assess the potentials and limits of online learning environment for studio education by focusing on the case of 2019-20 spring semester studio of Introduction to Architectural Design course at Middle East Technical University’s Department of Architecture. As a transitory course between basic design principles and architectural design, Introduction to Architectural Design addresses the issues of site, program, structure, form, and material in reference to small scale architectural interventions. Reviewing the usual course of the semester until the COVID-19 outbreak as well as the effects of the unexpected switch to the emergency distance teaching, the paper highlights both the creative advantages and material shortcomings of the course’s adaptation process into the online studio format.
Waldemar Jenek, , , , Matt Adcock, Mingze Xi
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 159-163; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.825715

Abstract:
This case study explores how architecture students can learn to design media architecture within virtual design environments tools. The target participants of this study are advanced (i.e. 3rd year) architecture students at the University of Applied Science, Bochum, Germany. To evaluate the student-experience, students were asked to develop a media architecture structure during the semester. Once the project finished the students provided feedback via surveys and interviews. The feedback was analysed employing thematic analysis. The case study shows that students are curious about technology in the design process and that technology has a growing relevance in an architecture career. The feedback will be used to improve future teaching approach.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio pp 85-99; https://doi.org/10.46474/798072

Abstract:
This paper investigates bridges from ‘landmark of cities’ point of view under aesthetics theme. In fact, bridges gave many samples at history with high aesthetic qualities; constructed with diverse materials and vernacular traditional construction methods of the region and era they had been built. Bridges, however, known as engineering products, today it is expected from them to accommodate high aesthetic qualities as being perceptual productions of their environment. It is this ‘construction and aesthetics’ combination that makes them landmarks, which will be demonstrated in the paper by selected cases include both high structural and aesthetical qualities, transforms them to landmarks and icons of their city. On the other hand, by the development of new materials and construction styles, aesthetic consideration come forward by productions of sculptural steel construction bridges in cities. Basically paper consists of two parts, which first one is literature review that introduces aesthetic values in design, landmark features, classifications of iconic concept and 2nd part includes general mapping on bridges from past to present with different functional and constructional styles. In the article, aesthetics in design and landmark concept have been introduced strongly in order to understand the meaning of ‘icon’. Thus especially the design content of Enzio Manzini have been introduced in the article with his work ’21.th Century Values of Design’ which he explains the importance of aesthetics in design. In addition, at this part, design elements as an architectural language formed by ‘point, line, plane’ and visual elements such as; ‘shape, form, color and texture’ have been introduced. In order to continue, design principles such as rhythm, balance, emphasis, scale & proportion, hierarchy have been introduced in the study to reach landmark concept. At second part approximately fifteen unique bridge design and construction have been investigated from all around world such as; Florence, Singapore, London, Sydney, San Francisco, France, Amsterdam, China, Australia and Turkey. All of these selected bridges accommodate iconic features uniquely and differently from each other which transform them to a landmark of their city or environment. The uniqueness of the bridges depends on superiority of some features such as; the length, the height, type, function, construction, material, form, referring the construction system design such as; helix, space frame, steel tensegrity, cable stayed steel swing bridge, single arch and hangers, pods steel high tech materials, steel, pylons and abutments, suspension bridge, steel through arch bridge, wave form made up of seven undulating curved steel, stone build, a three stage pointed arched stone bridge. As indicated, all construction systems are unique and in addition they show highly aesthetic criteria. Thus, when a unique structure meets with technology and/or high aesthetic qualities such as design principles and color, the structure of a building becomes an icon for its city. Then, at 3rd part, four iconic bridge cases have been investigated through their aesthetic and landmark values. At the end, important keys will be collected for aesthetically designed future bridge constructions. To sum up, in the article, it is aimed to reveal landmark concept in the cities over bridge cases which are very aesthetical and flexible structures by their forms, construction styles, materials and functional diversities.
Şehnaz Cenani̇, Yazgı Aksoy
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 57-69; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.813689

Abstract:
This paper explores design education in studio settings and presents insights from a design studio based on parametric design thinking. The first-year design studios are essential parts of the architectural education. In these studios, design decisions are taken on a more abstract level, there are less constraints, and the exercises are designed to explore the potentials of design, within the framework of various scales, ranging from human to building, and then to urban. The Introduction to Design course is constructed with interconnected exercises based on concepts such as modularity, the parameters of the human body and spatial perception. The first exercise is designing an architectural structure through parametric thinking. The second exercise is about exploring the design potentials of cube modules with each other, with a rule-based design approach. To better understand the importance of ergonomics in design, the third exercise focuses on the concept of movement through the human body. The aim of the fourth exercise is to study a physical environment and to investigate spatial perception in the built environment. The main aim of this design studio is to teach design with parametric design thinking while focusing on improving the cognitive skills of the students. An Introduction to Design studio experience that is formulated according to these features is described in this study.
Published: 20 December 2020
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 85-99; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.798072

Abstract:
This paper investigates bridges from ‘landmark of cities’ point of view under aesthetics theme. In fact, bridges gave many samples at history with high aesthetic qualities; constructed with diverse materials and vernacular traditional construction methods of the region and era they had been built. Bridges, however, known as engineering products, today it is expected from them to accommodate high aesthetic qualities as being perceptual productions of their environment. It is this ‘construction and aesthetics’ combination that makes them landmarks, which will be demonstrated in the paper by selected cases include both high structural and aesthetical qualities, transforms them to landmarks and icons of their city. On the other hand, by the development of new materials and construction styles, aesthetic consideration come forward by productions of sculptural steel construction bridges in cities. Basically paper consists of two parts, which first one is literature review that introduces aesthetic values in design, landmark features, classifications of iconic concept and 2nd part includes general mapping on bridges from past to present with different functional and constructional styles. In the article, aesthetics in design and landmark concept have been introduced strongly in order to understand the meaning of ‘icon’. Thus especially the design content of Enzio Manzini have been introduced in the article with his work ’21.th Century Values of Design’ which he explains the importance of aesthetics in design. In addition, at this part, design elements as an architectural language formed by ‘point, line, plane’ and visual elements such as; ‘shape, form, color and texture’ have been introduced. In order to continue, design principles such as rhythm, balance, emphasis, scale & proportion, hierarchy have been introduced in the study to reach landmark concept. At second part approximately fifteen unique bridge design and construction have been investigated from all around world such as; Florence, Singapore, London, Sydney, San Francisco, France, Amsterdam, China, Australia and Turkey. All of these selected bridges accommodate iconic features uniquely and differently from each other which transform them to a landmark of their city or environment. The uniqueness of the bridges depends on superiority of some features such as; the length, the height, type, function, construction, material, form, referring the construction system design such as; helix, space frame, steel tensegrity, cable stayed steel swing bridge, single arch and hangers, pods steel high tech materials, steel, pylons and abutments, suspension bridge, steel through arch bridge, wave form made up of seven undulating curved steel, stone build, a three stage pointed arched stone bridge. As indicated, all construction systems are unique and in addition they show highly aesthetic criteria. Thus, when a unique structure meets with technology and/or high aesthetic qualities such as design principles and color, the structure of a building becomes an icon for its city. Then, at 3rd part, four iconic bridge cases have been investigated through their aesthetic and landmark values. At the end, important keys will be collected for aesthetically designed future bridge constructions. To sum up, in the article, it is aimed to reveal landmark concept in the cities over bridge cases which are very aesthetical and flexible structures by their forms, construction styles, materials and functional diversities.
Derya Yorgancioglu
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.744577

Abstract:
This study aims to make a critical reading on the constraints and potentials that emerge through the transition from face-to-face to screen-to-screen teaching and learning experiences in design education during the COVID-19 pandemic. By making a critical reading of current discussions, mostly in narrative surveys, on architectural design education, it is attempted to re-contextualize the emerging concepts of the remote teaching and learning to the broader context of design studio pedagogy literature. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the model developed by Shaffer (2003) regarding the three main elements of the design studio pedagogy as (1) “surface structures”, (2) “pedagogical forms” and (3) “epistemological principles.” The study revealed that the current situation, on the one hand, opened the ways for us to test “new” tools, methods and experiences of teaching and learning, and on the other hand, allowed us to better understand the potentials and well-functioning aspects of the “existing” pedagogical models. Rather than reducing the discussions on remote teaching and learning to a ‘technology-driven’ paradigm change in design education, future research should focus on the effects of changing pedagogical tools and practices on the manifold dimensions of ‘human learning’, which in turn will have implications for the epistemology of design pedagogy.
Beyza Sat Gungor
Journal of Design Studio, Volume 2, pp 5-23; https://doi.org/10.46474/jds.739849

Abstract:
Energy efficiency in buildings, comprises many things as mitigation effect of global warming and climate change, decreasing heat island effect in the built environment and also conservation of natural resources. Besides as a new phenomenon we should add biophilic design criteria to the green building tools to increase human productivity by considering human wellbeing. Biophilic design, which inspired by nature, is a new juvenile design concept that gains importance day by day because of its positive effects on human wellbeing mood and relatedly human productivity. Here some conflicts can be occurred between energy saving and human wellbeing; as natural ventilation and energy saving. Biophilic design comprises inherent human inclination to affiliate with nature. All sensations which help to be in contact with natural components as daylight, plants or some animal species like birds; plants occupy an important place in its definition. Biophilic design seeks to create good habitat for people as a biological organism in the modern built environment that promotes people’s health, fitness and wellbeing. Scientific studies reveal that contact with nature has significant effects on people’s physical and mental health, performance and wellbeing. This phenomenon has, an increasing importance more than ever before, especially in daily life. The need for beneficial contact with nature continues in today’s built environment. This paper aims to determine whether the biophilic design strategies are match with green building tools that mostly targeting energy saving in built environment. Also paper handling whether the 14 biophilic design patterns are match with 3 main mind-body systems that are; stress reduction, cognitive performance and emotion mood preference.
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