Results in Journal Cyborg and Bionic Systems: 24
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Published: 6 December 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9816913
Intraoperative confirmation of negative resection margins is an essential component of soft tissue sarcoma surgery. Frozen section examination of samples from the resection bed after excision of sarcomas is the gold standard for intraoperative assessment of margin status. However, it takes time to complete histologic examination of these samples, and the technique does not provide real-time diagnosis in the operating room (OR), which delays completion of the operation. This paper presents a study and development of sensing technology using Raman spectroscopy that could be used for detection and classification of the tumor after resection with negative sarcoma margins in real time. We acquired Raman spectra from samples of sarcoma and surrounding benign muscle, fat, and dermis during surgery and developed (i) a quantitative method (QM) and (ii) a machine learning method (MLM) to assess the spectral patterns and determine if they could accurately identify these tissue types when compared to findings in adjacent H&E-stained frozen sections. High classification accuracy (>85%) was achieved with both methods, indicating that these four types of tissue can be identified using the analytical methodology. A hand-held Raman probe could be employed to further develop the methodology to obtain spectra in the OR to provide real-time in vivo capability for the assessment of sarcoma resection margin status.
Published: 8 November 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9794610
The deep learning gesture recognition based on surface electromyography plays an increasingly important role in human-computer interaction. In order to ensure the high accuracy of deep learning in multistate muscle action recognition and ensure that the training model can be applied in the embedded chip with small storage space, this paper presents a feature model construction and optimization method based on multichannel sEMG amplification unit. The feature model is established by using multidimensional sequential sEMG images by combining convolutional neural network and long-term memory network to solve the problem of multistate sEMG signal recognition. The experimental results show that under the same network structure, the sEMG signal with fast Fourier transform and root mean square as feature data processing has a good recognition rate, and the recognition accuracy of complex gestures is 91.40%, with the size of 1 MB. The model can still control the artificial hand accurately when the model is small and the precision is high.
Published: 19 October 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9807520
DNA nanotechnology takes DNA molecule out of its biological context to build nanostructures that have entered the realm of robots and thus added a dimension to cyborg and bionic systems. Spurred by spring-like properties of DNA molecule, the assembled nanorobots can be tuned to enable restricted, mechanical motion by deliberate design. DNA nanorobots can be programmed with a combination of several unique features, such as tissue penetration, site-targeting, stimuli responsiveness, and cargo-loading, which makes them ideal candidates as biomedical robots for precision medicine. Even though DNA nanorobots are capable of detecting target molecule and determining cell fate via a variety of DNA-based interactions both in vitro and in vivo, major obstacles remain on the path to real-world applications of DNA nanorobots. Control over nanorobot’s stability, cargo loading and release, analyte binding, and dynamic switching both independently and simultaneously represents the most eminent challenge that biomedical DNA nanorobots currently face. Meanwhile, scaling up DNA nanorobots with low-cost under CMC and GMP standards represents other pertinent challenges regarding the clinical translation. Nevertheless, DNA nanorobots will undoubtedly be a powerful toolbox to improve human health once those remained challenges are addressed by using a scalable and cost-efficient method.
Published: 15 September 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9861513
As observed in the outbreaks of SARS and swine flu, as well as many other infectious diseases, the huge volume of human traffic across numerous enclosed public venues has posed immense challenges to preventing the spread of communicable diseases. There is an urgent need for effective disease surveillance management in public areas under pandemic outbreaks. The physicochemical properties associated with ionic liquids make them particularly suited for molecular communications in sensing networks where low throughput is quite adequate for pathogen detection. This paper presents a self-cognizant system for rapid diagnosis of infectious disease using a bionic sensor such that testing can be supported without collecting a fluid sample from a subject through any invasive methods. The system is implemented for testing the performance of the proposed bionic liquid sensing network.
Published: 6 August 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9876064
Swimming micro-nanorobots have attracted researchers’ interest in potential medical applications on target therapy, biosensor, drug carrier, and others. At present, the experimental setting of the swimming micro-nanorobots was mainly studied in pure water or H2O2 solution. This paper presents a micro-nanorobot that applied glucose in human body fluid as driving fuel. Based on the catalytic properties of the anode and cathode materials of the glucose fuel cell, platinum (Pt) and carbon nanotube (CNT) were selected as the anode and cathode materials, respectively, for the micro-nanorobot. The innovative design adopted the method of template electrochemical and chemical vapor deposition to manufacture the Pt/CNT micro-nanorobot structure. Both the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to observe the morphology of the sample, and its elements were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Through a large number of experiments in a glucose solution and according to Stoker’s law of viscous force and Newton’s second law, we calculated the driving force of the fabricated micro-nanorobot. It was concluded that the structure of the Pt/CNT micro-nanorobot satisfied the required characteristics of both biocompatibility and motion.
Published: 2 July 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9843259
In the past few years, we have gained a better understanding of the information processing mechanism in the human brain, which has led to advances in artificial intelligence and humanoid robots. However, among the various sensory systems, studying the somatosensory system presents the greatest challenge. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the human somatosensory system and its corresponding applications in artificial systems. Due to the uniqueness of the human hand in integrating receptor and actuator functions, we focused on the role of the somatosensory system in object recognition and action guidance. First, the low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human skin and somatotopic organization principles along the ascending pathway, which are fundamental to artificial skin, were summarized. Second, we discuss high-level brain areas, which interacted with each other in the haptic object recognition. Based on this close-loop route, we used prosthetic upper limbs as an example to highlight the importance of somatosensory information. Finally, we present prospective research directions for human haptic perception, which could guide the development of artificial somatosensory systems.
Published: 25 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9841342
The purpose of this study was to examine whether interactive video game (IVG) training is an effective way to improve postural control outcomes and decrease the risk of falls. A convenience sample of 12 prefrail older adults were recruited and divided into two groups: intervention group performed IVG training for 40 minutes, twice per week, for a total of 16 sessions. The control group received no intervention and continued their usual activity. Outcome measures were centre of pressure (COP), mean velocity, sway area, and sway path. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC). Assessment was conducted with preintervention (week zero) and postintervention (week eight). The intervention group showed significant improvement in mean velocity, sway area, Berg Balance Scale, and TUG () compared to the control group. However, no significant improvement was observed for sway path (), FES-I (), and ABC (). This study showed that IVG training led to significant improvements in postural control but not for risk of falls.
Published: 15 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9817487
Humanoid robotic upper limbs including the robotic hand and robotic arm are widely studied as the important parts of a humanoid robot. A robotic upper limb with light weight and high output can perform more tasks. The drive system is one of the main factors affecting the weight and output of the robotic upper limb, and therefore, the main purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the effects of the different drive methods on the overall structure. In this paper, we first introduce the advantages and disadvantages of the main drive methods such as tendon, gear, link, fluid (hydraulic and pneumatic), belt, chain, and screw drives. The design of the drive system is an essential factor to allow the humanoid robotic upper limb to exhibit the structural features and functions of the human upper limb. Therefore, the specific applications of each drive method on the humanoid robotic limbs are illustrated and briefly analyzed. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in the weight and payload (or grasping force) of the robotic hands and robotic arms with different drive methods. The results showed that the tendon drive system is easier to achieve light weight due to its simple structure, while the gear drive system can achieve a larger torque ratio, which results in a larger output torque. Further, the weight of the actuator accounts for a larger proportion of the total weight, and a reasonable external placement of the actuator is also beneficial to achieve light weight.
Published: 4 June 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9863761
The lower-limb robotic prostheses can provide assistance for amputees’ daily activities by restoring the biomechanical functions of missing limb(s). To set proper control strategies and develop the corresponding controller for robotic prosthesis, a prosthesis user’s intent must be acquired in time, which is still a major challenge and has attracted intensive attentions. This work focuses on the robotic prosthesis user’s locomotion intent recognition based on the noninvasive sensing methods from the recognition task perspective (locomotion mode recognition, gait event detection, and continuous gait phase estimation) and reviews the state-of-the-art intent recognition techniques in a lower-limb prosthesis scope. The current research status, including recognition approach, progress, challenges, and future prospects in the human’s intent recognition, has been reviewed. In particular for the recognition approach, the paper analyzes the recent studies and discusses the role of each element in locomotion intent recognition. This work summarizes the existing research results and problems and contributes a general framework for the intent recognition based on lower-limb prosthesis.
Published: 30 May 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9851834
Origami, a traditional Japanese art, is an example of superior handwork produced by human hands. Achieving such extreme dexterity is one of the goals of robotic technology. In the work described in this paper, we developed a new general-purpose robot system with sufficient capabilities for performing Origami. We decomposed the complex folding motions into simple primitives and generated the overall motion as a combination of these primitives. Also, to measure the paper deformation in real-time, we built an estimator using a physical simulator and a depth camera. As a result, our experimental system achieved consecutive valley folds and a squash fold.
Published: 13 May 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9801097
Balance improvement could contribute to ankle stability for the prevention of ankle sprains. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an effective way of augmenting muscle activity and improving balance. This study investigated the effect of FES of peroneal muscles on single-and double-leg balance. Fifteen healthy females (, , and ) performed single- and double-leg standing balance tests with eyes open and closed before and after 15-minute FES intervention during treadmill running at a comfortable, self-selected pace. FES of peroneal muscles was provided bilaterally, using an Odstock Dropped Foot Stimulator. The total excursion of the centre of pressure (COP) was calculated to assess the standing balance control ability. The total excursion of COP in single- and double-leg stance with eyes open reduced significantly after FES intervention by 14.7% () and 5.9% (), respectively. The eyes-closed condition exhibited a 12.7% () reduction in single-leg stance but did not significantly change in double-leg stance (). Limb preference did not account for balance postintervention. No significant difference in total excursion of COP was found between preferred and less preferred limbs with both visual conditions (). FES of peroneal muscles improved standing balance control with eyes open in double-leg and single-leg stance and with eyes closed in double-leg stance. The improvements in balance control with FES treatment did not vary concerning limb preference.
Published: 22 April 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9821787
In some patients who have suffered an amputation or spinal cord injury, walking ability may be degraded or deteriorated. Helping these patients walk independently on their own initiative is of great significance. This paper proposes a method to identify subjects’ motion intention under different levels of step length and synchronous walking speed by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy technology. Thirty-one healthy subjects were recruited to walk under six given sets of gait parameters (small step with low/midspeed, midstep with low/mid/high speed, and large step with midspeed). The channels were subdivided into more regions. More frequency bands (6 subbands on average in the range of 0-0.18 Hz) were decomposed by applying the wavelet packet method. Further, a genetic algorithm and a library for support vector machine algorithm were applied for selecting typical feature vectors, which were represented by important regions with partial important channels mentioned above. The walking speed recognition rate was 71.21% in different step length states, and the step length recognition rate was 71.21% in different walking speed states. This study explores the method of identifying motion intention in two-dimensional multivariate states. It lays the foundation for controlling walking-assistance equipment adaptively based on cerebral hemoglobin information.
Published: 21 April 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9843894
The soft robot manipulator is attracting attention in the surgical fields with its intrinsic softness, lightness in its weight, and safety toward the human organ. However, it cannot be used widely because of its difficulty of control. To control a soft robot manipulator accurately, shape sensing is essential. This paper presents a method of estimating the shape of a soft robot manipulator by using a skin-type stretchable sensor composed of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and silicone (p7670). The sensor can be easily fabricated and applied by simply attaching it to the surface of the soft manipulator. In its fabrication, MWCNT is sprayed on a teflon sheet, and liquid-state silicone is poured on it. After curing, we turn it over and cover it with another silicone layer. The sensor is fabricated with a sandwich structure to decrease the hysteresis of the sensor. After calibration and determining the relationship between the resistance of the sensor and the strain, three sensors are attached at 120° intervals. Using the obtained data, the curvature of the manipulator is calculated, and the entire shape is reconstructed. To validate its accuracy, the estimated shape is compared with the camera data. We experiment with three, six, and nine sensors attached, and the result of the error of shape estimation is compared. As a result, the minimum tip position error is approximately 8.9 mm, which corresponded to 4.45% of the total length of the manipulator when using nine sensors.
Published: 8 April 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9871396
In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cellular models with native tissue-like architectures and functions have potential as alternatives to human tissues in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. However, it is difficult to replicate liver constructs that mimic in vivo microenvironments using current approaches in tissue engineering because of the vessel-embedded 3D structure and complex cell distribution of the liver. This paper reports a pulsed microflow-based on-chip 3D assembly method to construct 3D liver lobule-like models that replicate the spatial structure and functions of the liver lobule. The heterogeneous cell-laden assembly units with hierarchical cell distribution are fabricated through multistep photopatterning of different cell-laden hydrogels. Through fluid force interaction by pulsed microflow, the hierarchical assembly units are driven to a stack, layer by layer, and thus spatially assemble into 3D cellular models in the closed liquid chamber of the assembly chip. The 3D models with liver lobule-like hexagonal morphology and radial cell distribution allow the dynamic perfusion culture to maintain high cell viability and functional expression during long-term culture in vitro. These results demonstrate that the fabricated 3D liver lobule-like models are promising for drug testing and the study of individual diagnoses and treatments.
Published: 8 April 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9820505
Low-labor production of tissue-engineered muscles (TEMs) is one of the key technologies to realize the practical use of muscle-actuated devices. This study developed and then demonstrated the daily maintenance-free culture system equipped with both electrical stimulation and medium replacement functions. To avoid ethical issues, immortal myoblast cells C2C12 were used. The system consisting of gel culture molds, a medium replacement unit, and an electrical stimulation unit could produce 12 TEMs at one time. The contractile forces of the TEMs were measured with a newly developed microforce measurement system. Even the TEMs cultured without electrical stimulation generated forces of almost 2 mN and were shortened by 10% in tetanic contractions. Regarding the contractile forces, electrical stimulation by a single pulse at 1 Hz was most effective, and the contractile forces in tetanus were over 2.5 mN. On the other hand, continuous pulses decreased the contractile forces of TEMs. HE-stained cross-sections showed that myoblast cells proliferated and fused into myotubes mainly in the peripheral regions, and fewer cells existed in the internal region. This must be due to insufficient supplies of oxygen and nutrients inside the TEMs. By increasing the supplies, one TEM might be able to generate a force up to around 10 mN. The tetanic forces of the TEMs produced by the system were strong enough to actuate microstructures like previously reported crawling robots. This daily maintenance-free culture system which could stably produce TEMs strong enough to be utilized for microrobots should contribute to the advancement of biohybrid devices.
Published: 13 March 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/1412542
The development of soft tissue regeneration has recently gained importance due to safety concerns about artificial breast implants. Current autologous fat graft implantations can result in up to 90% of volume loss in long-term outcomes due to their limited revascularization. Adipose tissue has a highly vascularized structure which enables its proper homeostasis as well as its endocrine function. Mature adipocytes surrounded by a dense vascular network are the specific features required for efficient regeneration of the adipose tissue to perform host anastomosis after its implantation. Recently, bioprinting has been introduced as a promising solution to recreate in vitro this architecture in large-scale tissues. However, the in vitro induction of both the angiogenesis and adipogenesis differentiations from stem cells yields limited maturation states for these two pathways. To overcome these issues, we report a novel method for obtaining a fully vascularized adipose tissue reconstruction using supporting bath bioprinting. For the first time, directly isolated mature adipocytes encapsulated in a bioink containing physiological collagen microfibers (CMF) were bioprinted in a gellan gum supporting bath. These multilayered bioprinted tissues retained high viability even after 7 days of culture. Moreover, the functionality was also confirmed by the maintenance of fatty acid uptake from mature adipocytes. Therefore, this method of constructing fully functional adipose tissue regeneration holds promise for future clinical applications.
Published: 18 February 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/1532103
There is urgent demand for biologically compatible vascular grafts for both adult and pediatric patients. The utility of conventional nonbiodegradable materials is limited because of their thrombogenicity and inability to grow, while autologous vascular grafts involve considerable disadvantages, including the invasive procedures required to obtain these healthy vessels from patients and insufficient availability in patients with systemic atherosclerosis. All of these issues could be overcome by tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). A large body of evidence has recently emerged in support of TEVG technologies, introducing diverse cell sources (e.g., somatic cells and stem cells) and novel fabrication methods (e.g., scaffold-guided and self-assembled approaches). Before TEVG can be applied in a clinical setting, however, several aspects of the technology must be improved, such as the feasibility of obtaining cells, their biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and the time needed for fabrication, while the safety of supplemented materials, the patency and nonthrombogenicity of TEVGs, their growth potential, and the long-term influence of implanted TEVGs in the body must be assessed. Although recent advances in TEVG fabrication have yielded promising results, more research is needed to achieve the most feasible methods for generating optimal TEVGs. This article reviews multiple aspects of TEVG fabrication, including mechanical requirements, extracellular matrix components, cell sources, and tissue engineering approaches. The potential of periodic hydrostatic pressurization in the production of scaffold-free TEVGs with optimal elasticity and stiffness is also discussed. In the future, the integration of multiple technologies is expected to enable improved TEVG performance.
Published: 3 February 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/5738457
Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces, which modulate cell attachment/detachment characteristics with temperature, have been used to fabricate cell sheets. Extensive study on fabrication of cell sheet with the temperature-responsive cell culture surface, manipulation, and transplantation of the cell sheet has established the interdisciplinary field of cell sheet engineering, in which engineering, biological, and medical fields closely collaborate. Such collaboration has pioneered cell sheet engineering, making it a promising and attractive technology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This review introduces concepts of cell sheet engineering, followed by designs for the fabrication of various types of temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces and technologies for cell sheet manipulation. The development of various methods for the fabrication of temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces was also summarized. The availability of cell sheet engineering for the treatment and regeneration of damaged human tissue has also been described, providing examples of the clinical application of cell sheet transplantation in humans.
Published: 23 January 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/8907148
This paper describes a method to estimate the direction from which the signal molecule reaches the sensor by using living cells. In this context, biohybrid sensors that utilize a sophisticated sensing system of cells can potentially offer high levels of chemical-detection sensitivity and selectivity. However, biohybrid-sensor-based chemical-source-direction estimation has not received research attention because the cellular response to chemicals has not been examined in the context of directional information. In our approach, we fabricated a device that can limit the interface between the cell-laden hydrogel and the chemical solution of interest to enhance the time difference over which the chemical solution reaches the cells. Chemical detection by cells that express specific receptors is reflected as the fluorescence of the calcium indicator within the cells. Our device has eight chambers that each house 3D cell-laden collagen hydrogels facing circularly outward. The device also works as a cover to prevent chemicals from permeating the hydrogel from above. In our study, by observing the time course of the fluorescence emission of each chamber, we were able to successfully estimate the chemical-source direction within an error range of 7–13°. Our results suggest that a combination of microstructure devices embedded with living cells can be used to exploit cell functionalities to yield chemical-source directional information.
Published: 9 January 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/5158282
The importance of actuators that can be integrated with flexible robot structures and mechanisms has increased in recent years with the advance of soft robotics. In particular, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuators, which have expandable integrability to adapt to the flexible motion of soft robots, have received much attention in the field of soft robotics. Studies have deepened the understanding of steady states of EHD phenomena but nonsteady states are not well understood. We herein observe the development process of fluid in a microchannel adopting a Schlieren technique with the aid of a high-speed camera. In addition, we analyze the behavior of fluid flow in a microchannel that is designed to have pairs of parallel plate electrodes adopting a computational fluid dynamics technique. Results indicate the importance of considering flow generated by electrostatic energy, which tends to be ignored in constructing and evaluating EHD devices, and by the body force generated by the ion-drag force. By considering these effects, we estimate the development process of EHD flow and confirm the importance of considering the generation of vortices and their interactions inside the microchannel during the development of EHD devices.
Published: 8 January 2021
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2021, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.34133/2021/9160478
Multidisciplinary computational anatomy (MCA) is a new frontier of science that provides a mathematical analysis basis for the comprehensive and useful understanding of “dynamic living human anatomy.” It defines a new mathematical modeling method for the early detection and highly intelligent diagnosis and treatment of incurable or intractable diseases. The MCA is a method of scientific research on innovative areas based on the medical images that are integrated with the information related to: (1) the spatial axis, extending from a cell size to an organ size; (2) the time series axis, extending from an embryo to post mortem body; (3) the functional axis on physiology or metabolism which is reflected in a variety of medical image modalities; and (4) the pathological axis, extending from a healthy physical condition to a diseased condition. It aims to integrate multiple prediction models such as multiscale prediction model, temporal prediction model, anatomy function prediction model, and anatomy-pathology prediction model. Artificial intelligence has been introduced to accelerate the calculation of statistic mathematical analysis. The future perspective is expected to promote the development of human resources as well as a new MCA-based scientific interdisciplinary field composed of mathematical statistics, information sciences, computing data science, robotics, and biomedical engineering and clinical applications. The MCA-based medicine might be one of the solutions to overcome the difficulties in the current medicine.
Published: 5 December 2020
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2020, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.34133/2020/8378025
Early-stage gastrointestinal cancer is often treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using a flexible endoscope. Compared with conventional percutaneous surgery, ESD is much less invasive and provides a high quality of life for the patient because it does not require a skin incision, and the organ is preserved. However, the operator must be highly skilled because ESD requires using a flexible endoscope with energy devices, which have limited degrees of freedom. To facilitate easier manipulation of these flexible devices, we developed a surgical robot comprising a flexible endoscope and two articulating instruments. The robotic system is based on a conventional flexible endoscope, and an extrapolated motor unit moves the endoscope in all its degrees of freedom. The instruments are thin enough to allow insertion of two instruments into the endoscope channel, and each instrument has a bending section that allows for up–down, right–left, and forward–backward motion. In this study, we performed an ex vivo feasibility evaluation using the proposed robotic system for ESD in a porcine stomach. The procedure was successfully performed by five novice operators without complications. Our findings demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed robotic system and, furthermore, suggest that even operators with limited experience can use this system to perform ESD.
Published: 4 December 2020
Cyborg and Bionic Systems, Volume 2020, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.34133/2020/9724807
Robotic surgery is expanding in the minimally invasive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. In the field of gastrointestinal cancer, robotic surgery is performed using a robot-assisted surgery system. In this system, the robot does not operate automatically but is controlled by the surgeon. The surgery assistant robot currently used in clinical practice worldwide is the leader-follower type, including the da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical). This review describes the current state of robotic surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and discusses the future development of robotic systems in gastrointestinal surgery.