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Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 5-16; https://doi.org/10.2478/pesd-2014-0001

Abstract:
The present paper investigates on the spatial and temporal variability of maximum and minimum air-temperatures in Romania and their connection to the European climate variability. The European climate variability is expressed by large scale parameters, which are roughly represented by the geopotential height at 500 hPa (H500) and air temperature at 850 hPa (T850). The Romanian data are represented by the time series at 22 weather stations, evenly distributed over the entire country’s territory. The period that was taken into account was 1961-2010, for the summer and winter seasons. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) has been used, in order to analyze the connection between the temperature variability in Romania and the same variability at a larger scale, by taking into consideration the atmosphere circulation. The time series associated to the first two EOF patterns of local temperatures and large-scale anomalies were considered with regard to trends and shifts in their mean values. The non- Mann-Kendall and Pettitt parametric tests were used in this respect. The results showed a strong correlation between T850 parameter and minimum and maximum air temperatures in Romania. Also, the ample variance expressed by the first EOF configurations suggests a connection between local and large scale climate variability.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 163-171; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0015

Abstract:
The most ordinary form of impact on soils is erosion. A very rapid increase of the surfaces affected by erosion is conditioned, in particular, by the non-compliance of environmental requirements concerning exploitation of agricultural land and by the actual inefficient management of land resources. Lately due to the intensive exploitation of land and natural resources, the ecological situation worsened considerably, which has a negative impact over soils from the Central Development Region. Due to of the impact of agricultural activities and pressures of various factors on soil quality to grown the surface of soils eroded. Some factors led to growth the eroded surfaces which are considered high percentage of technical and hoeing crops.
, , , R. P. Pandey
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 141-150; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0013

Abstract:
Hailstorms pose a significant threat to all development sectors of the Republic of Moldova. Despite the availability of the intensive hail suppression operational programs the issues of their efficiency are very relevant for many years. In spite of expectations and previous claims the research findings show that the hail suppression activity in Moldova leads to increase of hail incidence rate (statistically tested at the 0.05 confidence level). Active influence on the hail formation processes has also environmental implications leading to the increased pollution of the environment by the active anti-hail components in the protected areas. Given the controversial effects and missing reliable estimates of the economic benefits, as well as environmental implications, additional investments for developing of the anti hail operational programs is not recommended.
Alina Chicoș, Alina Huzui-Stoiculescu,
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 151-161; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0014

Abstract:
Scientific recognition of the resilience concept is becoming compelling in extending the way contemporary spatial systems are analysed as well as in defining a new approach in establishing spatial planning principles and policies. In this view, our study emphasises the issue of spatial development in areas prone to earthquakes, floods and landslides. Therefore, resilience requires the assessment of vulnerable spatial components. Local governance interventions are more or less focused on risk management measures. Moreover, building safer communities through risk governance relies on different variables. Making a distinction between risk components and the predictors of increased resilience could shed light on the local decision-making process. In this paper, vulnerability addresses the lack of safety in terms of individual, household and community wellbeing when the issue of environmental restrictions emerge. In order to reduce the vulnerability of communities living in natural risk prone areas, spatial planning often turns to interdisciplinary analysis methods that allow an in-depth perspective on the interplay between social and natural elements. As such, spatial planning stands as the first step in reducing social vulnerability and should approach the less explored advantages of participatory mapping and local knowledge systems.
Mirela Danubianu, Cristian Teodorescu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 129-139; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0012

Abstract:
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a recent entry in the economy of modern enterprise both at global level and for Romanian companies. CSR adds a new dimension to the enterprise’s performance in the social fields, contributing to the sustainable development of economic entities. CSR components are included in an international standard – ISO 26000. The paper presents authors’ experience in implementing this standard. Possible steps of a roadmap for CSR implementation: Top management endorsement and nomination of a complex CSR team Developing formal company CSR policy documents Selecting and engaging the company’s stakeholders as early as possible. Building a Project Advisory Board – useful in every modern managerial tool application should guide the progress toward CSR. An external facilitator would help solve internal conflicts. An audit of what CSR represents for the Company, what are the CSR options, e.g., promoting a “green company” profile, what would be the best impact of philanthropy and community volunteering, etc. Generate a CSR portfolio of actions, setting deadlines, responsibilities and allocating resources, establishing communication, reporting, monitoring and corrective procedures upgrading the sustainable enterprise strategy. The authors experience led to the following conclusions: Critical relevance of top management involvement Stakeholders contacted as soon as possible in the process The Project Advisory Board legitimates the actions taken under the mainframe of CSR Aligning CSR polices to every other policy in the Company and make a system of coherent documents from ISO 9001, 14001, 18001, and 26000 that should work in a holistic manner. Focal company operates in municipal services having constant contact with all stakeholders. The paper substantiates a previous work that analysed modern managerial tools.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 117-128; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0011

Abstract:
The study is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of atmospheric precipitations in spring seasons from the WMO reference periods (1961 - 1990, 1981 – 2010) compared with last 7 years (2010 – 2016). In 14 april 2016 a meteorological event was produced in the Iași area who have produced material damage, flooded streets and obstruction of traffic. In the spring seasons of the last 7 years (2010-2016) the atmospheric precipitation amounts were with 8% higher than during 1981 – 2010 and were apropiate on mean value of the 1961 – 1990. In the period of 1961 – 2016 were a continuous increase of the mean number of days with precipitation > 30 mm per day and the half of total number of days with more than 40 mm per day were recorded in the last 16 years. We consider that an increase of torrential character of precipitation in the spring season in Iași area.
Tudorache George-Stelian, , ,
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 109-116; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0010

Abstract:
The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 91-98; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0008

Abstract:
Our knowledge of climate during the Little Climate Optimum (VIII-XIV centuries) in our country comes from some historical studies on climatic events occurring in countries around Romania: Hungarian, Italian peninsula, Ukraine, the Balkan peninsula and the region around Constantinople, from foreign chronicles, French, German, Russian, from some notes of foreign travelers in that territory. Were record mostly harsh winters, especially in the early interval, with frozen rivers and the Black Sea, or rainy summers, with floods, but also some very warm winters, with the flowering of trees in January, and summers long, hot and dry. Some of these events led to famine, pestilence, high morbidity.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 83-89; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0007

Abstract:
The summer of 2015 in the Republic of Moldova was dry, with significant negative consequences for agriculture. The analysis of drought conditions was conducted through soil moisture reserves (first 100 cm), monthly amounts of precipitation, monthly average temperatures, hydrothermal coefficient Seleaninov, etc. In conclusion, it is stated that the territory of the Republic of Moldova is not an exception to global climate change and every year the drought affects intensively the agriculture of the republic, and there were proposed solutions to adapt to the new climate conditions.
Radu Lăcătuşu, Anca-Rovena Lăcătuşu, Romeo Căpăţână, Mihaela Lungu, Rodica Lazar, Irina Ramona Moraru
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 99-108; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0009

Abstract:
Aiming to increase the use of natural resources and unexplored opportunities in industrial and agricultural practices, the marine algae biomass, that causes serious environmental problems in the Romanian Black Sea coast, was used in association with another two organic wastes, farmyard manure from cattle-breeding farms and sewage sludge resulted from the waste water treatment, to produce a compost suitable as organic fertilizer for plant cultivation in ecologic farming systems. Four variants of compost, first representing equal parts (33.33%) of those three components, and the other three proportions of 50% of each component, the difference being ensured in a ratio of 25% of each of the other two components, have been tested in a field experiment to assess their effects, both on the agro-chemical properties of the soil and on the sunflower plants development and crops. Until the phase of sunflower calathidia formation, the compost containing 50% farmyard manure influenced the best plant development in terms of height and number of leaves, then, at the end of vegetation period, the best plant development took place under the influence of compost prevalent in marine algae. The mobile forms of N and P were statistically differentiated depending on the dose of compost, the maximum dose generating the lowest content levels in the soil, as a result of higher absorption of these chemical elements in plants. The content of P and Ca in sunflower leaves recorded significant differences.
, Tchindjang Mesmin
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 65-82; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0006

Abstract:
This study is based on analysis of rainfall data from 1951-2010 collected at the climatic station of Bamenda. We also use the results of a questionnaire survey applied to 172 households in at-risk neighborhoods. The inventory of some cases of flooding that occurred in the city of Bamenda was done through focus groups. The appreciation of the socio-economic and demographic environment is based on surveys among Cameroonian Households by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS) and General Census of Population and Housing. Statistical examination revealed that annual rainfall in the city of Bamenda experienced a break in 1958. This break buckled the wettest decade of the series. After three decades of worsening, rainfall is experiencing rising since early 1990. The average profile of the annual distribution of rainfall shows a concentration of over 53% in 03 months (July, August and September). During these three months, the rivers of the city know their flood flows and populations in the valleys are affected. The analysis of the annual number of rainy days shows a downward trend and an increase of extreme rainfall event frequency (≥50mm in 24h). It is also apparent that more and more years are experiencing erratic distribution of their precipitation. Then, the perception of people is significantly reduced. Subsistence activities are also affected and development is facing new subtleties. In conclusion, the rainfall experienced strong variability in the city of Bamenda. This situation reinforces the risk of flooding by increasing flood water and increasing the vulnerability of populations.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0005

Abstract:
A survey based questionnaire research was conducted in Sainj Valley, Himachal Pradesh. The survey was conducted in June-July 2015 in an area affected due to hydro power projects (HPPs). A total of 48 individuals participated in the survey. Based on survey questionnaire, it was found that native rural people perceived that HPPs had significantly brought positive change in life of native people and were therefore in favour of HPPs. However, large section of native people had not been benefited of HPPs. The decline in agriculture production, change in cropping pattern and poor access of water to native people were some of the negative implications of these projects. The dependence of native people on forest resources has not declined much and still number of local individuals depends on forest resources to supplement their income. Though, in current scenario people has benefited from such projects, however it is not known if it will be sustained for long time due to current unsustainable agriculture practices and limited employment opportunities. Moreover, Government should provide adequate compensation to the affected individuals by either providing a suitable land for agriculture or employment under various rural sector schemes.
, Hong Xiao, Maria Nedealcov, Moldova’s Academy of Sciences, Moldova (Republic Of), Chair Professor, Sichuan University, China, Institute of EcologyGeography
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 21-33; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0002

Abstract:
Climate variability in decades requires detailed research aspect basin in order to take account of climate change attested, both in making various decisions applicative and at proper adaptation to these changes. Previous research results obtained in this section indicates that territory most vulnerable to climate change is largely located within the Danube basin within the territory of the Republic of Moldova. Therefore, the purpose of the proposed research in this paper was to record some changes in the current period and which are forecasts on thermal regime and precipitation in the scale time 2016-2035.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0003

Abstract:
The alpine region is of crucial importance for the European Union; as a result, the Carpathian Convention aims at its sustainable development. Since sustainability implies also conservation through natural protected areas, aimed at including regions representative for the national biogeographical space, this article aims at assessing the efficiency of conservation. The methodology consisted of using spatial metrics applied to Romanian and European data on the natural protected areas, land cover and use and their transitional dynamics. The findings show a very good coverage of the Alpine biogeographical region (98% included in the Convention area, and 43% of it protected within the Convention area) and of the ecological region of Carpathian montane coniferous forests (88% included in the Convention area, and 42% of it protected within the Convention area). The dominant land cover is represented by forests (63% within the Convention area, and 70% of the total protected area). The main transitional dynamics are deforestation (covering 50% of all changes area within the Convention area and 46% from the changed area within its protected area) and forestations – including afforestation, reforestation and colonization of abandoned agricultural areas by forest vegetation (covering 44% of all changes area within the Convention area and 51% from the changed area within its protected area) during 1990-2000 and deforestation (covering 97% of all changes area within the Convention area and 99% from the changed area within its protected area) during 1990-2000. The results suggest that the coverage of biogeographical and ecological zones is good, especially for the most relevant ones, but deforestations are a serious issue, regardless of occurring before or after achieving the protection status.
Petruț Ionel Bistricean, Dumitru Mihăilă, Gina Lazurca Liliana, Department of Geography, University „Stefan cel Mare” of Suceava
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 45-54; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0004

Abstract:
Bioclimatic research for the regionalization of Moldova west of the Prut River (hereinafter Moldova), focused on the use of various climate indexes, is scarce. Using 9 bioclimatic indexes (THI, Pr, Tpr, ISH, TEE, DI THOM, HUMIDEX, SSI and ISE) calculated based on statistical and cartographic methods, we identified, delineated and outlined the major characteristics of the three bioclimates of Moldova. Following our analysis, three bioclimatic regions were identified: the cold, wet and windy bioclimate, the comfortable bioclimate and the warm-dry and contrasting bioclimate. They fall broadly within the existing bioclimatic regionalization and provide new, complementary quantitative and qualitative information.
, Hong Xiao, Maria Nedealcov, Violeta Ivanov, Anatol Tarita, Moldova’s Academy of Sciences, Moldova (Republic Of), Associate Professor, Sichuan University, China, et al.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 5-20; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0001

Abstract:
Current changes of the environment represent the major threats to the sustainable development and are one of the biggest problems, with negative consequences on the national economy. The accelerated pace of these changes is shareholder and by the manifestation of extreme events, which in recent years become more intense and frequent. The drought events frequent manifestation over the Republic of Moldova territory, in the context of climate change, requires a scientific monitoring adjusted. The dry period’s manifestation is greatly conditioned by increasing daytime temperatures (above 25°C) and the lower relative humidity (below 30%). At present, on the background of climate change, there is an increase of dry days. Over the Republic of Moldova territory, their occurrence during growth and development of crops particularly damaging role in obtaining low yields. Meanwhile, prolonged dry periods, may possibly cause fires, at the same time can determine lands’ irrigation and surface water quality. In this context, there is a need to estimate the evaporation’s spatial and temporal variability, the number of dry days and their correlation to Dry Periods Index (Izu), the index developed at regional level.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 209-218; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0019

Abstract:
The present study analyzes the spatial temporal variation of maximum flow in Slănic Teleajen and Prahova river basins (upper basin). Maximum flow rates were analyzed in relation to the threshold values corresponding to the Defence Levels respectively the maximum flow which determines exceeding Warning and Flooding Levels. The series of major floods events, selected on the basis of the threshold values mentioned above, were then statistically analyzed to determine trends (Mann-Kendall test) and the variations in the level of frequency, analysis which was applied seasonally and annually. The analysis made revealed that trends in terms of maximum flow rates in the Prahova upper basin were generally negative (decreasing), statistically significant for the February, May, July, August and the annual average, while in Slanic river basin, the trend was mostly positive, statistically significant for October.
Andreea Mihalcea, National Institut of HydrologyWater Management, Faculty of Geography University of Bucharest
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0016

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to demonstrate the afforestation role in maximum surface runoff. In this way, it was made a comparison of simulated flows in the current conditions of afforestation and the simulated flows in conditions of applying both afforestation and deforestation scenarios in Valea Rece catchment. Through HEC-HMS 4.1 hydrologic modeling software, using the method of unit hydrograph SCS Curve Number, were simulated flow of the river Valea Rece closing section of the basin, where precipitation amounts of 30,50,80,120 mm fallen in intervals of 1.3 to 6 hours on a soil with varying degrees of moisture: dry soil, average soil moisture and high humidity. This was done for the current degree of afforestation basin, for the results from a possible afforestation that would increase the afforestation degree to 80%, and for a possible deforestation that would lead to a degree of afforestation 15 %.
, Nicoleta-Delia Vieru
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 195-208; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0018

Abstract:
Botosani Municipality faces since 2008 to massive trees drying, in areas such as Mihai Eminescu Boulevard, Calea Nationala Street, Marchian Street. In many cases, although the trees have been toileted, treated with substances used for pest control, there couldn’t be saved but very few specimens, but most of them have been cut down. Furthermore, on Mihai Eminescu Boulevard, there no longer leaf out for a few years the chestnut trees, sycamore trees, linden trees, cherry trees, acacia, maple trees, which probably will be cut down eventually.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 219-238; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0020

Abstract:
Forests, the backbone of biogeochemical cycles and life supporting systems, are under severe pressure due to varied anthropogenic activities. Mining activities are one among the major reasons for forest destruction questioning the survivability and sustainability of flora and fauna existing in that area. Thus, monitoring and managing the impact of mining activities on natural resources at regular intervals is necessary to check the status of their depleted conditions, and to take up restoration and conservative measurements. Geospatial technology provides means to identify the impact of different mining operations on forest ecosystems and helps in proposing initiatives for safeguarding the forest environment. In this context, the present study highlights the problems related to mining in forest ecosystems and elucidates how geospatial technology can be employed at various stages of mining activities to achieve a sustainable forest ecosystem. The study collates information from various sources and highlights the role of geospatial technology in mining industries and reclamation process.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 11, pp 183-193; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2017-0017

Abstract:
The study is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of air temperature and atmospheric precipitations in winter seasons from the WMO reference periods (1961 - 1990, 1981 – 2010) compared with last 7 years (2010 – 2016). There is a continuous increase of air temperature in winter, from −2,0°C between 1961-1990, to −1,1°C between 2010-2016, so a heating of 0,9°C. In the last 7 years (2010-2016) the average number of frosty nights (nights with minimum temperature of ≤ −10°C) was reduced by 18% compared to the period 1961-1990 and by 3% compared to the period 1981-2010. In the same period (2010 – 2016), the rainfall were higher in winter, respectively by 17% than during 1961-1990 and by 22% than during 1981-2010. There is an increase of torrential character of precipitation, more pronounced in the southern region of Moldova.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 105-118; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0029

Abstract:
We are showing some bioclimatic indices (formulas or nomograms) for medical purposes, therapeutic tourism, sports. or regionalization. They are based on one, two, three or more different meteorological parameters.
Bacal Petru, Ciocan Nadejda, Vîrlan Daniela
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 249-258; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0041

Abstract:
The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Răut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1) the dynamics of volume of wastewater discharged into the river Raut basin and its sections; 2) wastewater discharge by the degree of treatment; 3) spatial and branch profile of wastewater discharged: 4) existing problems in evaluation and monitoring of waste water. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research.
, , Sîrbu Rodica
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 5-12; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0021

Abstract:
In this study we aim to highlight the risk of excess rainfall over the Republic of Moldova territory, analyzing the magnitude and frequency of maximum diurnal, seasonal and annual rainfall. The research is based on data from three meteorological stations (Briceni, Chisinau and Cahul) for the period 1950-2015. The maximum rainfall analysis from the three stations in the republic indicates a decrease of maximum annual averages from north toward south. Regarding the frequency of rainfall excess that reach and exceed the threshold of 50 mm - stands south of the country, being influenced by Mediterranean Cyclones. In annual aspect, for all analyzed stations, the highest frequency rank the classes reaching values of 500-600 mm, each station having its peculiarities.
, Mihail Luca, Gelu Ilie, Nicoleta Iurist
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 153-160; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0033

Abstract:
The paper presents research conducted on the optimization of urban water supply networks. One direction of optimization follows the use of GIS models for digitization on components system. The use of water supply system operation depends on the proper functioning of the structural and functional components. In the analysis it was found that the main components of the system are the following: capture, headrace, puming stations, reservoirs, distribution networks. Each component is made up of a multitude of sub-components with specific structural and functional character. Using GIS program it follows to specify custom properties using layers of structural and functional domains. Autocad Civil 3D, GisNet Set, ArcGis Server and Autocad Toolbase programs allowed to obtain thematic maps on specific areas of the system. The model of the study can vary from simple to complex and can be generalized to any water supply system for a specific use (urban area, villages, tourist resorts, shopping complexes etc.).
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 161-172; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0034

Abstract:
Earth observation and space analysis of land areas, oceanic and atmospheric phenomena is a necessity nowadays. European Space Agency (ESA) is developing a new family of satellites, called Sentinel, in order to perform the operational needs of the environmental monitoring program, Copernicus. Since 2014 until now ESA have successfully launched four satellites, which have a proven track record. This paper contains information about Sentinel constellation, features of the satellite images and also the applications of Sentinel satellite images. This paper also describes how to purchase satellite data and the software that can be used to view and analysis data are named. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes of land cover and land use of study area, in two different periods, based on Sentinel satellite images.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0023

Abstract:
The India's ambitious Rs 9,393 crore Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will impact very significantly on Socio-economic life of two million people of Bundelkhand region, India. Water is an important input for survival and sustenance of life. The demand of this natural gift has been increasing exponentially. This ambitious project will help us in irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity as well as a source of livelihood for our ever increasing population. In Bundelkhand region, there is a severe problem of lack of irrigation in one region and water logging in others. Damage to crops due to drought and pitiable drainage facility could be managed. The objectives of the paper are to study socio-economical issues and environmental challenges in Ken-Betwa River link in India and to study environmental impact of this Project.
Bacal Petru
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 77-94; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0027

Abstract:
The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Prut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1) the dynamics of water use; 2) spatial and branch profile of water use and its dynamics: 3) existing problems in the evaluation and monitoring of water use; 5) efficiency of the implementation of economic instruments of water management. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research. Also, the content of the present study is focused on the methodology to elaborate the management plans of hydrographical basins and their chapters on the status of water resources and water bodies and on economic analysis of water use in the Prut river basin.
Maria Nedealcov
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 133-140; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0031

Abstract:
The accelerating pace of climate change is associated to weather-climate related risks manifestations, which in recent years are becoming more intensive and more frequent. Unfortunately, we find that far at regional level there are no a basic scientific information which could highlight their specific spatio-temporal manifestation. In this context, criteria for several weather-related risks identification were quantified, the main ones being material damages, the number of casualties and victims and not the least - and the period they occur. The identified weather and climate related risks may be subject to a complex spatiotemporal analysis, having as a research tool - Geographic Information Systems.
Liviu-Ioan Pelin, Liviu Apostol
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0025

Abstract:
This paper aims to present the evolution of the meteorological terminology, from the 17th century Grigore Ureche’s chronicle and bishop Amfilohie Hotiniul's manuscript on Physics (Moldavia, late 18th Century) to the mid 19th century writings of Teodor Stamati (Moldova) and Julius Barasch (Wallachia), also considering pop science literature, newspapers, such as “Albina Românească” and weather superstitions published in various calendars, and disputed by intelectuals like Mihail Kogălniceanu.
Gheorghe Jigău, Elena Cernolev, Adriana Acciu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 185-194; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0036

Abstract:
Factors that determinated phytosanitarian chernozems worsening was examined in the space between Prut and Nistru in the global phenomenon of agricultural soil exhaustion. It was established anthropological and natural origin (pedofunctional) phenomenon of studied exhaustion chernozems exhaustion. The main cause of cernozems exhaustion is to reduce the dominant role of the training and accumulation of humus. Through this prism of ideas, soil exhaustion and phytosanitarian worsening is inherent to agricultural system currently practiced. The impact mitigating of this process involves the bioenergy resources sustainable management involved in anthropogenic pedogenesis.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 95-104; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0028

Abstract:
In the last few years, Romania’s forests have become one of the most interesting and most talked about topics for an increasing number of researchers from the most varied fields, both nationally and internationally. The present study aims at analyzing as accurately as possible the forests of Iasi County, especially forests with primary functions of protection, following the changes occurred after 1990 and the way these affected the functional framing of the forests and their state. This research has been accomplished based on precise statistical data collected from every region (or forestry district), these in turn being matched with maps, satellite images and aerial imagery.
, T. Leah, R. P. Pandey,
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 141-152; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0032

Abstract:
Overall goal of the current research is to improve hail monitoring and risk assessment as an essential component of hail risk management and planning. The research investigates geographical and temporal variability of hail incidence based on conventional stations reports on hail days from 1891 to 2015. Using the advances in extreme value modeling the study provides the first regional assessment of hail risk based on the return level and waiting time concept within a univariate framework that provides critical information for designing resilience to cope with this climate hazard at high resolution. The proposed in the study the systems of hail risk assessment aimed at ensuring more effective use of the hail data in terms of aligning with management design information, which is essential for preparedness planning and proactive response measures.
Radu Lăcătuşu, Romeo Căpăţână, Anca-Rovena Lăcătuşu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0024

Abstract:
The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25%) of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m) and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 63-76; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0026

Abstract:
Romanian environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGO) have to deal with a lot of issues when performing their activities, related in general to their form of organization, financial capacity, unspecialized workforce, over bureaucratic administration, political parties’ unwillingness to cooperate, or mass-media’s general indifference. Moreover, most public representatives (e.g., political parties) seldom (or never) ask for the ENGOs’ opinions when designing environmental policies. Within this context, this paper aims to map the most important issues or challenges (in terms of financial capacity and with regard to the public sphere) that Romanian ENGOs have to deal with. The methodological approach is a mixed one (having a qualitative as well as a quantitative component). The study embodies a questionnaire based survey applied on 48 Romanian ENGOs. Unfortunately, the instability of financial resources still tops the Romanian ENGOs’ list of issues. Moreover, the data reaffirmed the indifference of the majority of Romania’s political parties towards protecting the environment (leaving ENGOs out of the political decision making process).
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 119-132; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0030

Abstract:
This paper intends to demonstrate that, on Terra's surface, there are cycles of air's temperature and of other meteorological elements having a duration of 19 years (the Metonic cycle). These 19-year cycles are recorded on every continent, especially in temperate climate areas where the (planetary) Rossby waves exhibit very clearly. As in the case of other cycles of meteorological elements, the atmospheric tides play a very important role in their occurrence. In the case of this cycle, the atmospheric tides are also generated mainly by Moon’s and Sun’s attraction.
Praveenkumar Upadhyay,
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 13-34; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0022

Abstract:
The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydrogenation reaction, both the homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalytic systems were discussed along with the effect of solvent systems on reaction kinetics.
Niţă Andrei, Apostol Liviu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 235-248; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0040

Abstract:
Blocking anticyclonic circulations from Europe are provoking climatic episodes responsible for discomfort, human and financial loses. During the summer, these episodes are known for prolonged droughts and maximum temperatures often exceeding 35 °C to 40 °C. In the cold season, the rainfalls are close to 0 while the daily minimum temperatures are low under the average period. For this study, we used a synoptic classification which is available especially for Central Europe but works similarly for Romanian territory too. We aim to follow what kind of climatic conditions these circulations are producing in Romania during their presence in Europe. ECA&D daily gridded climatic dataset was used in this study. The study period lasts from 1961 to 2012. We used the minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well the rainfall quantities recorded. Since the output volume of data was too high, we aggregated the results into yearly multiseasonal average. In order to classify the synoptic patterns as blocking anticyclones, we used two synoptic situations from Hess-Brezowsky defined as Anticyclone High Central (HM) and High British Isles (HB). We calculated the thermic anomalies as well the rainfall quantities recorded in Romania during the presence of these circulations in central Europe. The results shows a perspective over the synoptic conditions in Romania during the presence of the above mentioned synoptic types in Central Europe.
, Loredana Crenganiş, Flaviana Corduneanu, Claudiu Pricop, Loredana Andreea Popoiu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 219-234; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0039

Abstract:
MIKE software created by Danish Institute of Hydraulics can be used to perform mathematical modelling of rainfall-runoff process on the hillslopes, resulting in a runoff hydrograph in the closing section of a catchment. The software includes a unitary hydrograph method - UHM in the hydrological module Rainfall - Runoff. Excess rainfall is routed to the river and transited through unit hydrograph method. The model divides the flood generating precipitation in excess rainfall (net rainfall) and losses (infiltration). This paper analyzes data from the flash flood that occurred between the 11th and 13th of September 2013 in the upper catchment of the river Geru. The catchment chosen for study, is controlled by the hydrometric station located in the village Cudalbi. Simulations of this flash flood were performed with MIKE by DHI –UHM software, alternatively using as input data the precipitations recorded by AHSS (Automated Hydrological Sensor Station) Cudalbi and radar precipitations generated by ROFFG (Romanian Flash Flood Guidance) software system in ArcGIS module for determining the areas affected by flash floods. The Unitary Hydrograph Method - UHM from the hydrological module Rainfall – Runoff calculates excess rainfall and determines infiltration losses by four methods. For each set of input data, the four methods for calculating infiltration losses were subsequently used. The comparison between the results highlights that the amplitude and phase errors for the maximum discharge are smaller when the model uses for simulation radar precipitations as input data, and calculates infiltration losses with the Proportional Loss method. This method reproduces with a better accuracy the peaks of the discharge hydrograph. The model can be used in the future to forecast a discharge hydrograph based on estimated radar precipitations in the catchment
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 195-206; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0037

Abstract:
Galați county is a geographical area that is less valued in terms of tourism, but which benefits by a natural tourism potential. The aim of this study is to identify the potential and the activities of the hunting and fishing tourism. Exploitation of hunting and fishing activities in touristic aim is only partial because of the lack of touristic infrastructure and the lack of collaboration with various travel agencies from this branch of tourism. Proposals that would help the future development and improvement of tourism activity are from “wildlife watching tourism” domain: capturing images with the camera, observing the behavior of hunting species without affecting them, providing information for those interested in the hunting behavior and life fauna, creating a wildlife museum and last but not least, upgrading the transport infrastructure.
, Naela Costică, Mihai Costică
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 173-184; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0035

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to underline the role of some wooden species in different units of green areas in Iasi municipality in improving the quality of the environment. By regular visits in the field, we have identified the wooden species frequent in different areas; based on the bibliography in the field, we underlined the ecological characteristics, the resistance to unfavourable climate factors, and the role of these species in improving the quality of the environment. Most species taken into account are resistant to extremely cold weather and to drought; are considered resistant (Acer negundo, Acer pseudoplatanus, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum vulgare) or present moderate resistance (Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer platanoides, Philadelphus coronarius) to polluting elements in the atmosphere. The wooden species considered in this study have profound influence on the environment: they regulate the urban microclimate; they contribute to the concentration reduction of some atmospheric pollutants, the noise level; they improve the edaphical conditions and contribute to the soil consolidation. Some species can be used as bio-monitors of the pollution in urban areas.
, Henriette Szilagyi, Andreea Hegyi
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 207-217; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0038

Abstract:
Pollution negative influences the environmental, human health, buildings and increase the production of waste. We are currently witnessing pollution and degradation in some cases irreversible, of the environment. Environmental issues are extremely complex and cover all sectors. Worldwide, industrial pollution strategies necessary to reduce emissions to the atmosphere hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other polluants in urban areas. The highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds of more than 80 mg/m3 occur in densely populated areas. The latest data reported in the residential area of Cluj-Napoca values did not exceed 20 m /m3. However peaks reported VOC concentrations, depending on the season, exceeding the upper limit that according to Law. 104/2011 is 75 μ/m3. It was identified due to increase annual mean concentration of VOCs as, in particular, road traffic exceeding sanitary standards on the main traffic routes within the city. In this paper the results obtained after carrying out an analysis of the average VOC concentration recorded in the city Cluj-Napoca as a result of car traffic. They were pursued average concentrations of VOCs resulting from the combustion of liquid fuels, petrol and diesel type. Analyzing the results obtained are proposed solutions for reducing VOC emissions. The rule under which these solutions have been proposed to reduce the concentration of VOCs took into account the possibility implementation and maintenance costs thereof.
Maurice Olivier Zogning Moffo, Maurice Tsalefac, , Corneliu Iatu
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 217-234; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0019

Abstract:
Built on a hilly relief, the city of Yaoundé is exposed to flooding since three decades. They caused human, material and environmental damages. Efficient management of this phenomenon by public authorities should go through a proper control of variables contributing to this hazard. Through various GIS applications based on multi temporal maps and primary data, we developed a detailed mapping of the main natural and human factors responsible for this phenomenon.
Nicolae Ilie, Liviu Apostol, Livia Mădălina Olaru, Liviu Apostol
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 179-188; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0016

Abstract:
In the present work has been studied weather types that have characterized the North of Moldavia over the last 20 years and the role of synoptic conditions which stood behind them. In this study, we will show the role of airsynoptical conditions which give the look of the weather characterized during this period, a frequency of types of circulations to highlight a general trend, the induced effects on air temperature and in the weather and climate risks, that resulted (scattered thunderstorms phenomena associated with a high termic contrast, dryness, freezing phenomena, early, in the final of August and September and later, in April-May.
, Constantin Zaharia
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 61-80; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0006

Abstract:
The hydrographic basin of the Miletin River is situated in the southeast of Europe, in a transitional temperate-continental climate, with considerable variations in the regime of precipitations. The purpose of this study is the spatial and temporal analysis of the mean seasonal discharges, meant to underline the need of implementing regulation projects for the Miletin stream. Furthermore, there are only a few specialized works on this hydrographic basin. The mean seasonal runoff presents significant seasonal and multiannual variations, caused by the high frequency of torrentiality, which characterizes the climate of the Miletin River area. Data from the rainfall stations of Nicolae Balcescu, Chiscareni, and Halceni, as well as from the hydrometric stations of Nicolae Balcescu, Sipote, and Halceni- downstream, respectively, were used. Unlike the stations with a natural runoff regime (Nicolae Balcescu, within the upper basin, Sipote within the middle basin, respectively), for Halceni-downstream (on the lower stream), the artificial runoff underlines a weak correlation with the rainfall regime. The data rows regard periods of 33-59 years, enough to conduct statistical analyses. Data from Halceni- downstream were analyzed, too, though the variables that characterize the hydrologic and rainfall regime within this region concern only 18 years. In the Miletin hydrographic basin, low and high discharge oscillations occur in all the four seasons. This characteristic is very different from those of the great hydrographic arteries that cross the east of Romania: Pruth and Siret.
, Marius Andrei, Dan Adrian Chelaru, Pavel Ichim
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 201-216; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0018

Abstract:
The study analyses the spatial and temporal changes occurred in the builtup area of Iași city and its surrounding areas using cartographic materials from different time periods. The paper aims to highlight the areas where the most significant changes took place by identifying the main evolution patterns, generated by certain natural or human-driven factors. The results of the study were achieved by using specific photo-interpretation methods of the available orthophotomaps form 2006 and 2012, mainly using the professional GIS softwares TNT Mips 7.2., ArcGIS 10.2 and Global Mapper 11. The changes have lead on the one hand to the conversion of the former industrial areas and thus, the urban regeneration, but also to the periurbanization phenomenon, with major functional and structural effects.
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 5-20; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0001

Abstract:
Air pollution is an important issue around the world. Evidence of air pollution and its impact has been well established by the scientific communities. The effects of these changes on the smaller towns in Brahmaputra valley of Assam still need to be investigated. This study concludes that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) shows increasing trend in all the seasons except during the monsoon season but significant during the winter season. The study also reveals that RSPM remained above the standards throughout the decade, unlike SPM, which rose above the standards only during the years 2006, 2008 and 2009. It is also observed that during the rainy seasons Coefficient of Variation (CV) is high in maximum numbers of stations. The study concludes that exponential increase in population; vehicular activities, rainfall and wind direction as well as geographical conditions have indirectly influenced the pollutions.
Ciurlău Doruţa
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 105-116; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0009

Abstract:
Extreme weather events are natural phenomena that occur frequently, but their appearance outside their happened season (late spring or early fall) may embarrass the natural cycles of vegetation or some economic activities of society. Blizzard is one of the most complex phenomena of cold season whose production can cause many social and environmental shortcomings of feature during the event, the more its appearance in season further disrupt both the environment and human society. November is seen speaking month of autumn, when the natural cycle of plant vegetation definitely not over yet, so the occurrence of phenomena such as blizzard (a cold season phenomenon), can cause damages especially in agriculture. Based on these considerations, in this paper is climatological analyzed the earliest blizzards in southeastern Romania for a period of 51 years (1961-2012) and a case study carried out during the blizzard of 2 to 3 November 1980. Meteorological data provided by the Database of National Meteorological Administration include the time period of the blizzard progres from 12 meteorological stations located in the reference area. For the case study are used synoptic maps from www.wetter3.de; www.nooa.org.com; www.weather.uwyo.edu; www.meteoromania.ro.
M.V. Tanasiuk
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0004

Abstract:
The study of general ecological peculiarities of rural geosystems should be conducted on the basis of analysis and evaluation of geochemical showings. Among anthropogenic factors influencing the formation of ecological-geochemical peculiarities of rural geosystems considerable negative influence have unpractical nature management and the economic activity human being. That’s why the study of ecological-geochemical condition of rural geosystems all enables us to estimate them and to determine the change dynamics. On the basis of the conducted researches geosystems in the mountain areas of Northern Bukovina, the concentration coefficients are calculated, total showings of contamination, there being determined the showings of contamination intensivity of the natural component and the integral indicator of the ecological danger, there being given a general evaluation of the ecologicalgeochemical situation of the rural geosystems of the investigated area.
Ioan Bojoagă
Present Environment and Sustainable Development, Volume 10, pp 141-150; https://doi.org/10.1515/pesd-2016-0012

Abstract:
The Stemnic river (Buda) is a right side affluent of Bârlad river, with the surface of the catchment basin of 15,662.5 ha. Situated in the central part of the Central Moldavian Plateau, the catchment of the Stemnic (Buda) is characterized by an oblong form (30.5 km, respectively 8.5 km), having a lithologic homogeneity, but also by a diversity of the superficial deposits (eluvia, diluvia, colluvia and proluvia, alluvia). The fields in the catchment basin of the Stemnic (Buda) have been analyzed from the point of view of the soils’ quality, that have been classified into five quality classes. Besides the intrinsic characteristics of the soils, their classification included also the pedo-chemical properties of the lands, geomorphologic or climatic properties of the area. First, second and the third quality classes are predominant in the lower half of the catchment basin, less fragmentary, with prolonged cuesta reverses, corresponding to the distribution area of the chernosols. The lands that form part of the fourth quality class are distributed, in a great percentage, on the same types of soil, but represent greater constrains because of the abrupt cliffs. The fourth class is made up of the lands with severe limitations that reduce the range of agricultural crops or that need special measures or work in order to protect and ameliorate the soil’s resources. This class cumulates a percentage of 9%, being characteristic for the area affected by landslides, prevalent mainly in North-West part of the catchment of the Stemnic (Buda). In the fifth class there are included soils with major constrains for agricultural use. From this perspective, in the catchment, there are predominant the soils in the third quality class (37%), being followed by the second class (26%) and the first class (23%). The main limitative factors for the agricultural production of the lands in the catchment of the Stemnic (Buda) are the erosion in surface, the landslides, humidity excess and the small quantity of nutritive elements.
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