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, Aurelia Gajutos, Mila Gracia Villanueva, Dionesio Estopa, Nieta Amit, Myrna Ogoc, Joseph Masangkay
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1126

Abstract:
The leatherback sea turtle (Dermocheleys coriacea) is considered an endangered species here in the Philippines and around the world. In Northern Samar, a leatherback sea turtle reportedly found by local fisher folks along the rocky mangrove and coral reef areas was placed in a rescue confinement for treatment and observation. Upon retrieval, the left fore flipper was already missing and the lacerated, amputated area was then bleeding. Treatment to arrest hemorrhage was performed and antimicrobials were administered. Two days thereafter, the animal succumbed to death. Because the animal was recovered a day following a typhoon that hit the province, it was inferred that the injury might be attributed to calamity-induced trauma as the animal was recovered as it was trapped along the rock-strewn mangrove areas. Following death, necropsy examination presented findings of severe congestive pneumonia, hemorrhages along the intestinal serosa, severe hepatic congestion, pericarditis and pronounced disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The prominent histopathological finding of sub-acute severe hemorrhagic pneumonia with infiltrates of mononuclear cells, red blood cells, hemosiderins and proteinaceous debris were discerned along the lung parenchyma. The hepatocytes are swollen, distended and some presented congestion and necrosis. The intestinal sub-mucosae are infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Smears from blood and liver showed variable Gram-negative organisms. It was impressed that the animal may have been suffering from an underlying subclinical septicemic infection even prior to traumatic injury. These findings underscore the need to further study the microbial profile of this endangered species and provide means to mitigate occurrence of septicemia cases that could further exacerbate its dwindling populace. This index case of septicemia affecting a leatherback sea turtle has been reported for the first time in the country.
Banjie Godilano-Sarmiento, Nestor T. Baguinon, Cristino L. Tiburan Jr., Nathaniel C. Bantayan
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1109

Abstract:
Invasive species represent the second most remarkable cause of extinction worldwide after habitat destruction (IUCN, 2011). Skyflower (Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.) that is slowly invading Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR) was subjected to varying light intensities. Morpho-ecological characters were evaluated using Analysis of Variance for Randomized Complete Block Design. Bonferonni’s method at 5% level of significance was used for mean comparison. Plant height, number of leaves and nodes were higher in 0% (open condition) and 50% (partial shade) compared to those grown in 70% (complete shade). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in stem thickness, biomass, and chlorophyll content in all treatments. Leaf area was smallest in plants grown in the open condition. There was significant difference between the two locations (greenhouse and field) for the number of nodes, number of leaves, and stem thickness (P
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1113

Abstract:
Q fever is an emerging worldwide zoonotic disease caused by a bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Detection of Q fever antibodies among humans and animals was conducted using sera from human donors and sera from three different species of animals obtained from Catarman, Northern Samar, Los Baños, Laguna, and General Santos City, South Cotabato, Philippines. The Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used to detect antibodies in sera samples. The result of the study showed that Q fever antibodies in humans were found to be 37% (22/60) while the sampled animals have 43 % (77/180). Among the animals, the highest occurrence of antibodies was observed in goats with 70% (42/60), followed by 40% among cattle (24/60) and the least 18% were from carabaos (11/60). According to sampling sites, 20% (12/60) of antibody-positive humans were from Los Baños, Laguna, some 17% (10/60) came from General Santos City and none from Catarman, Northern Samar. Among the goats examined, a higher percentage of Q fever antibodies were obtained from those in Los Baños with 30% (18/60) occurrence, and from General Santos City with 25% (15/60) occurrence. Likewise, an equal occurrence rates of Q fever antibodies among cattle came from Los Baños, Laguna and General Santos City each with 20% (12/60) seropositivity, respectively. Among the carabaos, 18% (11/60) was in General Santos City and 8% (5/60) in Catarman. Based on these findings, it could be inferred that Q fever infection exists among humans, goats, cattle, and carabaos in the Philippines.
Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel,
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1116

Abstract:
Lake Lanao and its watershed are paramount resources not only to the island of Mindanao where they are located, but to the country in broader terms. The sustainability of their biodiversity and hydrological services requires a rational and appropriate management program. This paper reviews the historical various management efforts directed towards the Lake and its watershed up to the present. Since 1953 various Presidential Decrees have provided the management framework on the use of the resource under the leadership of the National Power Corporation. In 1992 following Presidential Proclamation 871 establishing the Lake Lanao Watershed Reserve, Memorandum Order No. 421 created a Lake Lanao Watershed Protection and Development Council (LLWPDC) to be headed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Various management plans had been formulated and some projects initiated such as the LLWPDC’s Integrated Development Plan, the Food and Agriculture Organization Environmental Management Plan, a USAID-EcoGov pilot project on Forest Land Use Planning, and an Asian Development Bank Integrated Natural Resources and Environment Project. However, these have either not been implemented nor completed due to budgetary constraints and/or political circumstances. In January 2011, an interim Protected Area Management Board was organized inasmuch as under the NIPAS Act of 1992, proclaimed watershed reserves are an initial component of NIPAS. However, it requires a Protected Area Suitability Assessment before it can be legislated as a Protected Area; such assessment was completed in February 2012. Most recently, Senator Loren Legarda authored a bill entitled The Lake Lanao Development Authority akin to the Laguna Lake Development Authority, still waiting for congressional action. At present, there are various management issues and concerns, a major one being hydropower generation vis-à-vis the traditional domestic use of the Maranaos, the “people of the lake,” whose unique socio-cultural traits demand attention. Moreover, a number of environmental degradation issues (e.g. lake water greening, E. coli contamination, deforestation, siltation, invasive species, flooding) have been raised. These critical issues and concerns signal the immediate implementation of a participatory management approach involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels.
, Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1110

Abstract:
The sparse body of information on the ecology and biodiversity of one of the world’sancient lakes, Lake Lanao, was reviewed to arrive at objective insights that may be useful for an ecosystem-based management of the Lake Lanao Watershed. The terrestrial portion of the watershed is relatively rich in flora and fauna that mostly inhabit the remaining intact forests which provides 60% cover, but a thorough species inventory is wanting. Nearly 90% of the alienable and disposable lands including most of the lake shoreline and the adjacent lowland forest areas have now yielded to agriculture (87%), but only 0.4% to urban and rural settlements. Major rivers and numerous intermittent tributaries that sustain lake water are unstudied. Within a span of 30 years since a rich indigenous community of fish species was first described, the lake’s fisheries ecosystem has undergone a regime shift featuring the dominance of invasive fish species and the catastrophic disappearance of 16 endemic cyprinid species. Analysis of nutrient levels when the lake was at its relatively pristine state indicated a high sensitivity to levels of dissolved nitrogen with a pelagic ecosystem that is bottom-up or resource controlled. Most recent water quality analyses indicate a eutrophic, coliform-contaminated, and invasive species-colonized state with anthropogenic input as the possible main driver. Hence, apart from biodiversity conservation in the lake watershed, the flux of nutrients and pollutants should be a top priority of an ecosystem-based management that needs to employ innovative socio-environmental approaches involving participatory, multisectoral, multidisciplinary, integrated and co-management efforts. The looming climate change, which may undoubtedly lead to further loss of biodiversity services, needs to be incorporated in the watershed modelling and management framework.
Nicola Louise T. Timbas, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1111

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the variability of soil properties along selected transects in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Laguna, Philippines. Samples were taken from seven pedons at the northeastern slope, and six pedons at the southern slope. Morphological properties of soils were investigated in situ. Samples were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Four landscape positions were identified at the northeastern slope: interfluve, seepage slope, transportational midsope, and colluvial footslope. At the southern slope, three landscape positions were established: interfluve, transportational midslope and colluvial footslope. Soils at the interfluve in both transects had deep soil profiles with low bulk densities and high organic matter. Soils at the seepage slope have argillic horizons, higher soil pH, exchangeable bases, and base saturation. Lithologic discontinuities were observed at the transportational midslope. Soils at the colluvial footslope of the southern slope have higher soil pH, OM content, exchangeable bases, CEC, and base saturation compared to soils at the northeastern slope. Soils at the northeastern slope were classified as Andisols, Inceptisols, Entisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols. On the other hand, soils at the southern slope were classified as Andisols, Alfisols, and Inceptisols.
Hector B. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1112

Abstract:
This study describes the agricultural production practices of the farmers in the Malagos Watershed, Davao City, Philippines. This was done given the new trends in Ecoagriculture and Permaculture principles. The different Agricultural practices were described and assessed in terms of sustainability. Sustainable Agriculture is the production of food and other farm products in ways that protect the environment, public health and animal welfare. Practices need to be modified if they are causing damage to these factors instead. As to crops planted, which included cereals, vegetables and fruits, sustainability was rated fair. Tools and equipment used together with the method of cultivation were rated highly sustainable. Fertilizers used and method of fertilizer application which was mostly (40%) commercial fertilizers applied through basal and broadcast method, were rated sustainable. The method of irrigation, which was mostly rainfed, was assessed as highly sustainable. The method of pests and disease control was the only practice rated poor since commercial chemical spray were commonly used and one potentially harmful to people and the environment. Harvesting method, which was mostly by handpicking, was rated highly sustainable. Their methods of storage, product disposal and waste disposal were all classified as fairly sustainable. Concerning livestock production, almost all of their practices, including, type of animal raised, method of animal housing, feeds used, method of watering, method of product disposal and method of waste disposal, all rated fairly sustainable. Only the method of feeding, which mostly used dry feeds instead of free grazing, was graded sustainable. Crop production and livestock production in the Malagos Watershed averaged quite acceptable. It is, therefore, recommended that these practices be improved, maintained and monitored so that the agricultural practices in the Malagos Watershed would remain viable in the future. This study is the first attempt at assessing the sustainability of Agricultural practices of Indigenous peoples habituating the Malagos Watershed.
Sheilane S. Mendez, , Dunedene J. Dalagan, Hearty Sol R. Mañego, Grayfield T. Bajao, Venus C. Llaguno
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1114

Abstract:
Disasters are inevitable. The island resorts in Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines are vulnerable to natural risks such as typhoons and earthquake. In increasing disaster resilience, a model should be based on risk assessment results and be integrated with the strategic planning of the government and communities. It should consider risks and risk treatments across the social, built, economic and natural environments (Councils for Australian Governments, 2009). The study aimed to propose a disaster resiliency model for Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. The output of this study is a guide for the local community in case of natural disasters. The descriptive survey method was utilized using a two survey questionnaires. The data regarding disaster preparedness in hotel resorts are gathered from the 80 respondents consists of the staff and managers of resorts in Malapascua Island, emergency rescue personnel, as well as the village officials of village Logon and municipal officials of Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. Simple percentage and rank were used in the treatment of the data. Results showed that island is vulnerable to risk and that devised plans for emergency disasters, hazard mitigation, and contingency are needed. The researchers recommended the use of the model. However, further research on its effectiveness should be conducted to confirm the preliminary findings.
Ma. Leah E. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1117

Abstract:
The study aimed at assessing the livelihood needs of the residents in the Malagos Watershed. The residents in the area are mostly Indigenous Peoples (IPs).The study used descriptive-correlation design to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, livelihood needs and assistance, monthly household income, problems encountered by the respondents and the suggested solutions to the problems identified. The study collected primary data from the residents in the watershed with the use of an interview schedule. Random sampling was used to determine the samples from the different associations along the watershed. The study found out that most of the residents in the Malagos Watershed area are aged 36-60 years old, female, married, High School level in education, Diangan in tribe, Catholic, with 4-6 household size, housewives, and with monthly household income of P5,001-P10,000.Assessment of their livelihood needs had livestock and poultry raising as their priority. Work, financial and educational assistance are most needed. There is a significant difference in monthly household income of respondents when they are grouped according to socio-demographic characteristics regarding age, civil status, tribe and religion. Most of the problems the residents identified were the lack of livelihood, finances, education, poor health, potable water, electricity, assistance in agricultural production. To these, they suggested government support especially in infrastructure, health, education and financial help from government and/or nongovernment organizations.
Beltran C. Borres, Emmalinda A. Garillos
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1118

Abstract:
This descriptive-correlational study is used to determine the relationship between the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms and the current status of the factors which are rice farming, catfish farming, government programs in rice production, and environmental conditions. There were 33 respondents considered in this study who were the catfish growers. Data gathered were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages, mean, and Pearson product correlation or Pearson r. The study found out that the level of perception of respondents was high on the current status of catfish farming and environmental conditions. For government programs on rice production, respondents had a moderately high level of perception. There is also a high level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms. The test of difference showed that there is a highly significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to rice farm area. There is no significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to demographic profile such as age, sex, educational attainment, seminars or training attended and high length of experience. The test of relationship showed that there is a significant relationship between the level of conversion of rice farming and the current status of catfish farming. Instead of fishing in the rivers, farmers may convert the lower portion of their rice fields into fish ponds. However, the test of relationship showed that there is no significant relationship between the level of conversion and the current status of rice farming, government programs on rice production, and environmental conditions.
Rose D. Arquion
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1115

Abstract:
Ethnobotany is the study of plants used by specific cultures for various purposes. This study aimed to document indigenous medicinal plants which can treat diarrhea. This qualitative study used semi –structured interview and employed purposive sampling of 50 local inhabitants aging 40 to 85 years old presently using medicinal plants in eight communities of Talacogon, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. Results revealed that 25 medicinal plants can treat diarrhea. The leaves and stem of these plants were utilized and prepared by decoction, infusion, concoction and extraction. Out of the 25 identified medicinal plants, Psidium guajava (guava), Persea americana (avocado), and Blumea balsamifera (Blumea camphor) were commonly used which easily grow and can be domesticated in home gardens. The medicinal plants had helped much the local people as a cheap source of alternative medicine. This suggests that this traditional knowledge from these people be transmitted through symposia, seminars and trainings for its management and conservation for sustainability.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1065

Abstract:
Dengue virus associated with hemorrhagic fever claimed so many Filipino lives. Climate change factors and garbage volume affect dengue incidence. This study aimed to determine the relationship of climate change factors with dengue cases in Old Balara, Quezon City, Philippines. The study evaluated the secondary data from DOST PAGASA and Quezon City Municipal Health Office. Temperature and garbage volume are negatively correlated with dengue cases. Relative humidity and rainfall are positively correlated with the incidence of dengue in the study area. Various factors play different roles with the number of dengue cases occurring in particular locations.
Rosalina Palanca-Tan
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1060

Abstract:
This paper surveys the current water supply, sanitation and sewerage facilities available to households in Cagayan de Oro, and their awareness of and attitudes towards water and wastewater issues. Survey results reveal inadequate and sub-standard domestic wastewater treatment facilities both on the household and community levels as well as some degree of household indifference. Using contingent valuation method, this study estimates the value that households in Cagayan de Oro attach to the benefits that they can derive from a domestic wastewater treatment program. Mean willingness to pay for the planned program range from PhP3.29 (parametric estimate) to PhP6.01 (non-parametric) per m3 of water consumption, which falls short of the projected program cost of PhP7.11 per m3 of water. It may, therefore, be necessary to raise people's understanding of the externalities of their water consumption to make the planned domestic wastewater program viable. It may also be necessary to incorporate the sewerage and sanitation charge within the water rate schedule so as to ensure households' payment for the proposed wastewater treatment program for the city.
Lorelei C. Tabago
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1066

Abstract:
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges ever to confront humanity. Its adverse effect is already being seen and may consequently intensify if nothing is done. As an advocate of climate change mitigation, the researcher conducted a study that determines the knowledge, attitude and perception of 210 tertiary students from Isabela State University in Northern Luzon, Philippines. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage, one-way ANOVA, t-test and Pearson r. The results revealed that the respondents have a high knowledge, attitude and perception on climate change, there is a significant relationship that exists between the students’ perception and attitude on climate change. However, the perception of male and female respondents on climate change differ significantly.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1061

Abstract:
A taxonomic study of epilithic algal flora on the basis of their morphological and cytological characteristics was conducted for documentation and identification up to species level. Microscopic observations of each algal taxa from Los Baños, Laguna shows the occurrence of nine taxa belonging to the class Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. This paper discuss the morphotaxonomic description of the nine taxa and presents for the first time in the Philippines the current combination of the names Kamptonema cortianum (Meneghini ex Gomont) Strunecký, Komárek & J.Smarda, Kamptonema laetevirens (H.M.Crouan & P.L.Crouan ex Gomont) Strunecký, Komárek & J. Smarda and Phormidium foreaui (Frémy) Umezaki & Watanabe which were based on the old names of Oscillatoria cortiana Meneghini ex Gomont, Oscillatoria laetevirens H.M.Crouan & P.L.Crouan ex Gomont and Oscillatoria foreaui Frémy, respectively. These taxonomic records show important baseline knowledge and adequate information for future studies on epilithic microalgal and cyanobacterial taxonomy on subaerial habitat.
Jr. Antonino B. Mendoza, Victor S. Soliman, Plutomeo M. Nieves, Florizel M. Lim, Antonino B. Mendoza, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1064

Abstract:
With the declining state of Philippine coral reefs, the need for conservation and rehabilitation efforts are deemed crucial to sustaining ecological, biological and economic recovery in the reef system. However, there is yet a concrete and workable policy to be implemented in restoring and rehabilitating our reef areas aside from establishment of marine protected area (MPA). Here, we explored the prospects of coral restoration by demonstrating experiences in San Fernando, Masbate (Ticao Island) combined with the practices of the National Coral Restoration Program. In this project, some 20,000 coral nubbins utilizing ‘corals of opportunities’ were reared in 40 coral nursery units (CNUs) for six months and achieved 80% survival. They were then out-planted (c. 20,000 sq m) inside an MPA to ensure their protection and increase in live cover. The fragments were attached to dead corals using epoxy or tied in concrete nails using cable ties. Four coral genera were used namely Acropora, Seriatopora, Pocillopora, and Stylophora. About 70% coral survival was achieved after two months of transplantation. Involvement of the LGU, community and the private sector is crucial to project success. Results of the transplantation indicated effectiveness and viability of the CNU system to complement coral transplantation.
Arlene B. Tolentino, Victor B. Ella
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1067

Abstract:
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, owing to its robustness and wide applicability, was tested in Mabacan watershed in Laguna, Philippines, with the objective of developing a model for predicting surface runoff or streamflow in ungauged watersheds under conditions of limited hydrologic data. Model parameterization was performed based on the physical characteristics of the watershed and guided by sensitivity analysis. SWAT-predicted monthly surface runoff values for a 7-year period were then compared with manually computed values obtained using water balance and SCS-Curve Number methods. Agreement between runoff values was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE). Correlation analysis between SWAT-simulated monthly runoff and observed monthly rainfall was also performed to further assess the plausibility of simulation results. Sensitivity analysis showed that that the curve number (CN2), soil evaporation compensation factor (ESCO), and soil depth (SOL_Z) are the most sensitive parameters with sensitivity index (I) of 2.92, 0.08, and 0.04, respectively. Comparison between SWAT-predicted surface runoff with those obtained using water balance and SCS-CN methods yielded R2 values of 0.95 and 0.94, and NSE values of 0.70 and 0.63, respectively. The SWAT-simulated runoff series also proved to be well-correlated with observed rainfall series (R2=0.82). Results of this study suggest that the SWAT model is highly applicable for predicting surface runoff or streamflow in ungauged watersheds in the Philippines even with limited hydrologic data and that familiarity with the physical characteristics of the watershed area is essential in enhancing model parameterization and performance.
Helen F. Gavino
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1063

Abstract:
Water used for domestic and drinking purposes in agricultural communities is still extracted from the groundwater using shallow tube wells. However, its quality is threatened by contamination due to chemical residues that were not fully utilized in a rice production system. These residues eventually go with the water as it is distributed in the whole area, with some amount reaching the groundwater. In this study, the rate of chemical fertilizers and pesticides applied by farmers and the possible level of groundwater contamination was determined. The information obtained maybe used in the formulation of strategies for future monitoring of the presence and level of concentration of chemical residues and regulation of the usage of agricultural chemicals in the Upper Pampanga River Integrated Irrigation Systems (UPRIIS). Results revealed that farmers in the UPRIIS service area used chemical fertilizers at the rate of 69-173 kg N per ha, 26-32 kg P per ha and about 30 kg K per ha. These application rates were high as compared to recommended rates, particularly in Districts IV and V of the UPRIIS service area. Similarly, majority of the farmers (60-80%) were using molluscicides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in preventing and controlling pests in their crops. Analysis of the quality of groundwater samples indicated that values obtained were within tolerable limits when compared to the standards for drinking water. The mean values of K concentration, which was found to be statistically different between the districts also exhibited strong relationships with PO43-, Na+ and NO3-. The other parameters of water quality showed no significant differences between and among the districts. While the observed values were within the tolerable limits, monitoring of their levels must regularly be done to safeguard the quality of groundwater.
Sandro D. Cañete, Wilfredo B. Collado, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1062

Abstract:
Land Evaluation System using the modified Food and Agriculture Organization framework was carried out to assess the suitability of various important crops to Quingua soil series. Corresponding sound management interventions were then formulated over the identified production constraints. This was done to achieve a more productive and sustainable rice-based farming. The system generates a more specific land utilization type in which spatial and climatic variabilities are recognized. The data used for land suitability evaluation was extracted from 2011-2012 cropping seasons. Analysis disclosed that Quingua series in Talavera and Sto. Domingo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, representing irrigated and irrigation-supplemented lowlands, respectively, has high flexibility to growing various types of crops due to its favorable land attributes. Hence, crop intensification is highly recommended provided that minor limitations on soil organic matter, drainage, temperature, and seasonal flooding are offset. Multiple cropping system that involves off-season vegetable production and growing of cash or high-value crops in combination or rotation with rice dominates the farms’ landscape. This practice had generated varying levels of return on investment (ROI) from negative to more than 1000% as affected primarily by climate and farm management. Designing market-driven cropping systems under good management strategies can generate stable ROIs’ ten times higher than the production cost, hence, a more productive and profitable enterprise. Furthermore, soils of the same soil series exhibit similar characteristics or properties that require the same level of management in achieving the desired production output. Thus, information obtained from land suitability evaluation can serve as an effective tool for the government’s specific crop production program and agro-technology promotion.
Nero M. Paderes
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1023

Abstract:
The phytochemical, nutritive, cytotoxic and antibacterial analysis of Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species found in Lingas Baay Abra which is commonly eaten as an exotic dish was investigated using different laboratory assays. Phytochemical and nutritive analysis show the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterol, phenolics, flavonoids, crude fats and proteins. Cytotoxic and genotoxic analysis of crude extract concentrations of 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/ml that were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. showed that root length and mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of Tabtaba extract increased. A concentration-dependent increase in chromosome aberrations was also observed. Ethanol extract concentrations of 75%, 50% and 25% that were tested against S.aureus and E.coli showed that Tabtaba ethanolic extracts have strong antibacterial activity towards S.aureus but weak against E.coli. This study proved that the Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species found in Lingas Baay Abra showed potential nutritive value but contains a significant cytotoxic and genotoxic component that is considered detrimental. Further assay also revealed that it has an anti-bacterial activity towards S. aureus and E.coli at different concentrations. Basing on the results, wider exploration and analysis of Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species coming from other river sources in Abra, Philippines should be tested and documented. Keywords-Phycochemical, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Allium cepa, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations, zone of inhibition, S. aureus, E.coli, Philippines
Jhoanna O. Santiago, Jr. Inocencio E. Buot, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1017

Abstract:
This paper assessed the conservation status of forest tree species found in Mount Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL) specifically on Mount Banahaw de Dolores in Kinabuhayan, Quezon. The study made use of secondary data pertaining to the flora of MBSCPL Western Slope-Mt. Banahaw de Dolores and these were extensively reviewed. A list of indicators, generally qualitative, was formulated and served as basis to label 44 species into different threatened categories. This study revealed that there are six (6) critically endangered, 14 endangered and 24 vulnerable forest trees species in Mount Banahaw de Dolores. Species endemicity and various anthropogenic activities are some of the potential factors that made these species threatened. Proposing that the tourists be not allowed in the area would not prevent further degradation. Strict implementation of rules, regulating and educating tourists on the importance of the flora and fauna are the ways that could be done to minimize the negative impacts on national parks. Keywords - Ecology and Conservation, Mount Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL), conservation status, biodiversity, threatened species, Philippines
Willie P. Abasolo, Divina P. Chica
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1016

Abstract:
Basic properties of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (sky flower) were investigated to determine the mechanisms on how the plant effectively kills its host and to find an alternative way to control its population. Overall green weight of a 21 m long vine was 3,045 g. The parameters influencing this overall green weight of the plant were identified. When ranked based on its contribution to stem weight it follows the trend: stem biomass > moisture content > diameter > phloem > fiber. T. grandiflora provided an added load to the host plant leading to the suppression of the growth and development of its host. Its leaves would then fully cover the host plant preventing the host from receiving sunlight. This combined action suffocated the host plant to death. Possible control measure was to utilize the plant. Fiber characteristics were measured to determine its suitability for pulp and paper production. When compared to selected fast growing trees species that are commonly used in pulp and paper production, the vine was very much similar to them. However, fiber morphological indexes e.g., felting power, elasticity coefficient, rigidity coefficient, Runkel’s ratio and Mulsteph’s ratio; revealed that the vine was less suitable for pulp and paper production due to its very thick fiber cellwall. Keywords - Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb, bioinvasive, green weight, Fiber morphological indexes, stem biomass, embolism, Philippines
Alvin D. Palanog, Abie D. Rojo, Thea Mae Coleen B. Lanutan, Zayber B. Araya, Le-Ann G. Dogeno, Abbie Rojo
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1021

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify and characterize rice genotypes possibly possessing glyphosate-resistant genes, promoting the ability to withstand non-selective, systemic herbicides. The field establishment was based on alpha lattice design replicated into two with a plot size of 2 x 10 rows. All crop management practices followed the PalayCheck System®. At 14 DAT, the glyphosate-based herbicide (Round-up) was directly applied in rice plants. Survival and severity percentage were recorded from 4days to 20 days after herbicide application when the rice plants were observed reacting to the application while agronomic parameters were gathered at maturity stage. Out of one hundred rice genotypes, only 12 exhibited moderate to strong resistance to glyphosate-based herbicide while other genotypes stunted and wilted to death. The 12 genotypes are as follows: Kinastila, Binundor, Dinorado, Kalipao, Inanod, Camoros, Minondoc, Innano, Zambales, Maliket (Red), Kilay, and Simmaba. Among these twelve genotypes, Zambales is the most tolerant to glyphosate herbicide with highest survival rate and low severity index followed by Kalipao, Innaano and Kilay which have moderate survival rate and low severity rate. Identified resistant genotypes were agro-morphological characterized. Zambales genotype has the tallest plant height and highest spikelet number while the superior genotypes for the number of productive tillers, panicle length and spikelet fertility were Minondoc, Simmaba and Kinastila, respectively. These results show that the genotypes being tested have a wide variation in agro-morphological traits. Ultimately, 12 genotypes were identified as tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide. Further evaluation and characterization are still required to verify the resistance of identified genotypes. These germplasms are promising materials for future breeding and research purposes in developing non-transgenic glyphosate-resistant rice varieties. Keywords-Genotypes, glyphosate resistance, morphological diversity, severity index, Philippines
Crestilyn N. Damasco, Merlita A. Dacayanan, Roel D. Supsup
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1022

Abstract:
Seven mulberry genotypes, namely: Alf-004, Alf-018, Alf-025, S61-011, S61-019, S54-019 and the Batac were evaluated in terms of biochemical parameters along with leaf yield. Parameters viz; moisture content (MC), total carbohydrate (TC), crude fat (CF), ash, crude protein (CP), Total N,P and K along with leaf yield were analyzed using the ANOVA in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Further, Evaluation Method Index was used to determine the superior mulberry genotypes. The data revealed that the different genotypes under study vary in their biochemical components where significant variations in all the parameters evaluated except in percent total phosphorus. For the phytochemical analysis, alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proteins were detected. Based on the evaluation index value, the identified and selected superior genotypes having higher leaf biochemical composition were Alf-004, Alf-018 and Alf-025. Keywords - Biochemistry, open-pollinated mulberry varieties, phytochemical, Randomized Complete Block Design, Philippines, Asia
Maria Lourdes T. Munárriz, Lolita Shaila Puruganan Safaee Chalkasra, Allan Christopher P. Luna, Christian Rey O. Sison
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1019

Abstract:
This study looked into the ethno-ecological coping mechanisms of households in Tumana, Marikina City, a catch basin. Households were interviewed based on their flooding experiences, how they have coped and what emergency preparedness they adopt when flooding is seen to occur due to typhoon, storm surge or high tide. The study found that the community-based approach has been quite useful as a tool for reducing disaster risks brought about by flooding. Such approach has also enabled the households to conserve their assets/property in the light of repetitive flooding. As physical infrastructures in poor communities are quite limited with respect to protecting the households from a high water level rise, community-based approaches and social capital can be useful tools for mitigating disaster risks. The study could be used for more effective land use plans. It could also serve to improve state-based policies by integrating the community-based risk management approach, a cost-effective and sustainable mechanism in strengthening the resiliency of communities. Keywords - Ethno-ecological, coping mechanisms, community-based, case study, Philippines
Lady Gem H. Maquirang, Romeo D. Caturao, Jessy H. Maquirang
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1020

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the instantaneous growth rate of freshwater Nannochloropsis spp. at five different salinity levels (T1, 0 ppt - control; T2, 5 ppt; T3, 10 ppt; T 4, 15 ppt; and T5, 20 ppt) and were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD). Nannochloropsis spp. was cultured in fifteen 500 ml plastic experimental bottles based on the assigned treatment for eleven days. Initial sampling was done during the start of the experiment, and everyday thereafter. Cell density was counted using haemacytometer and viewed under the microscope. Results showed that the highest cell density and instantaneous growth rate of freshwater Nannochloropsis spp. was obtained in Treatment 3 with 18,510,000.00 cells/ml and16.00±0.36 cells/ml, respectively, while Treatment 5 had the lowest cell density and growth rate (10,040,833.33 cells/ml; 15.38±0.46 cells/ml).One-way ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test revealed there was a significant difference (p<0.05) on the days of culture (days 3, 7 and 8) among treatments. Results for both cell density (cells/ml) and instantaneous growth rate (K) proved that freshwater Nannochloropsis spp. can tolerate a wider range of salinity from 5 ppt to 15 ppt. However, further studies should be conducted at a wider range of salinity levels and other variables such as nitrogen levels and light intensity to have a complete picture of the reproductive biology of this species. Keywords - Aquatic Ecology, instantaneous growth rate, freshwater Nannochloropsis spp., salinity levels, experimental design, Philippines, Asia
Suzette Q. Palla
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1025

Abstract:
The study evaluated the levels of pathogenic bacteria present in the rearing water and meat of cultured oysters found along selected coastal areas of the municipality of Iloilo, Philippines. Eight types of bacteria were present in oysters’ meat and rearing water namely: Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebseilla sp., and Proteus sp. The number of bacteria in rearing water of three selected coastal areas of the municipality of Iloilo ranged from 7,700 – 20,600 CFU/100ml of E. coli; ranged from 19.800-21,000 CFU/100ml of Vibrio sp.; and 3,800 – 18,600 CFU/100ml of Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. These results of pathogenic bacteria are beyond the allowable threshold. Escherichia coli in oyster meat ranged from 16,500 – 25,250 CFU/100grms; Vibrio sp. ranged from 12,700 – 26,700 CFU/100grm. ; Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. ranged from 5,200 – 28,000 CFU/100grm. These results of pathogenic bacteria in oysters’ meat are beyond the allowable threshold. Moreover, this study ascertained the efficiency of an eco-friendly and cost efficient depuration systems namely: biofilter tank, mechanical filter tank, flow through tank and tank using UV sterilizer. During 12-48 hours, results showed that tank using UV sterilizer depurated oyster to a passable standard level for consumption. In 24 hours, biofilter tank, mechanical filter tank and flow through tank depurated oyster from E. coli to a passable standard level for consumption. Further in 36 hours, biofilter tank depurated oysters from Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Furthermore in 48 hours, biofilter tank depurated oyster from E. coli, Vibrio sp. and Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. to standard level for consumption. Keywords-Depuration, Crassostrea iredalie, bacteria, bivalve, mollusks, pollution, Philippines
Veneracion G. Cabana, Noel E. Lagunday, Novo M. Sabas
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1014

Abstract:
Methyl mercury, a toxic by-product of the industry including gold processing bioaccumulates in fish and shellfish that when ingested bio-concentrates in the body eventually causing appalling neurologic disorders. This study prompted by the consecutive deaths of two Surigaonon-Manobo siblings from conditions suggestive of neurologic pathology aimed to: (1) document existence of neurologic morbidities indicative of mercury toxicity with assessment of the observable symptoms at selected indigenous communities in Mindanao, Philippines where small-scale gold mining takes place and (2) measure mercury levels in the hair of living subjects and river sediments at the research locale. Following proper entry protocol and securing of informed consent, affected adults, responsible adults in case of children and relatives of those who died from similar conditions were interviewed, government records reviewed. Identified were 31 cases in 22 families, 71% males mostly 0-5 years old. Photo and video images of subjects who displayed the alarming symptoms were taken in situ. Symptoms develop at 6-9 months after birth suggesting mother-offspring transmission through the breast milk. Starting to appear around 1986, majority (54.8%) manifested the symptoms in 2000-2010; 48.4% died in 2005-2015. Sometimes affecting all siblings, in some families no children were left alive. Hair samples from three living subjects and sediments from nearby bodies of water tested positive for mercury. It is concluded that the likely cause of the dreadful morbidities and children’s deaths is mercury toxicity of anthropogenic origin. A more intensive investigation is recommended to identify the cause and bring to an end the children’s deaths and devastating neurologic abnormalities documented herein.Keywords - Environmental Toxicology, mercury toxicity, methyl mercury toxicity, neurologic morbidities, small-scale gold mining, indigenous community, Surigaonon-Manobo, Mindanao, Philippines
, Jr. Inocencio E. Buot, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1015

Abstract:
Studies regarding pteridophyte distribution on Mt. Makiling is scarce. A continuous documentation regarding this floral group, with emphasis on distribution, will contribute to the current listings and may contribute to the development of a conservation strategy to preserve the fern flora of Mt. Makiling. The plot technique method was employed along the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Makiling resulting to 10 sampling sites. In general, this study aims to determine the species richness of ferns along the altitudinal gradient on the northeastern slope of Mt. Makiling. Furthermore, specific objectives are as follows: a) to identify the different fern species along the altitudinal gradients of Mt. Makiling b) to determine the richness and diversity along the altitudinal gradients of these fern species and c) to determine the zonation pattern of fern vegetation along the altitudinal gradient. The study was conducted during the months of April and June which pertains to the dry season. The diversity and distribution of pteridophytes along the altitudinal gradient of the Northeastern slope of a secondary forest in Mt. Makiling were determined. A total of 27 species belonging to 18 genera and 14 families were identified. There is an increasing trend in diversity along the altitudinal gradient. However at the 550 and 650 m.a.s.l. altitudes, there was a higher diversity in both seasons due to the presence of a running body of water as well as a rocky substrate providing favorable habitat for the ferns. There were three zones identified during the dry season using dendogram by average linkage clustering (i) Zone 1: 150-450masl; (ii) Zone 2: 550-750masl; (iii) Zone 3: 850-1050masl. Keywords - Altitudinal zonation, ferns, pteridophytes, Mt. Makiling, tropical rainforests, Philippines
Mary Gretchen F. Chaves
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1024

Abstract:
This study investigates the extent by which Cebu universities and colleges have incorporated the issues of sustainability and environment management in their business and management programs’ curricula. The RA 9512 (2008 Act to Promote Environmental Awareness and Education) mandates the integration of ‘environmental education in its school curricula at all levels . . .’ In the global front, the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management Education (2008) challenges management educators to ‘develop the capabilities of students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society...’ The curriculum prospectus of 41 undergraduate programs of 8 schools were gathered through the collection of brochures and web-based research. These were analyzed to evaluate whether the curricula have full programs, with sustainability or environment management as the majors, or at least offer subjects on sustainability or its equivalent. The document analyses reveal the nonexistence of sustainability-related programs as well as the absence of stand-alone environment management courses. The study concludes the urgency of underscoring education for sustainability courses in the business curricula. Recommendations include the redesign of the business curricula, integrating sustainability principles and practices. By urging policy makers and school administrators, business and management graduates become better equipped to decide and manage resources, cognizant of the earth’s limited resources. Keywords-Education for sustainable development, environment education, UN PRME, RA 9512, qualitative design, Philippines
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1018

Abstract:
Knowledge of the avirulence (Avr) genes present in plant pathogens facilitates the identification of the required resistance (R) gene to be incorporated in host plants to overcome pathogen infection. The plus/minus Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was conducted to determine the presence of the virulent and avirulent ACE1 genotypes of the rice blast fungus in Philippine rice fields. Results indicated that the avirulent genotype Guy11 was present only in 13% of the test isolates, whereas the virulent genotypes, PH14 and CM28, appeared in 83% of the total number of test isolates. With contingency analysis on the type of agroecosystem and presence of ACE1 genotype, it was known that Guy11 is significantly associated with the upland agroecosystem. Whereas, PH14 was present in both the irrigated and rainfed lowland and CM28 was ubiquitously associated with any type of agroecosystems. No significant association, however, was noted between a specific ACE1 genotype and geographic location. The isolates having virulent ACE1 genotype can overcome the resistance Pi33 which is commonly introgressed into popular semi-dwarf indica rice varieties. Keywords - Biodiversity, ACE1 genotypes, rice blast fungus, experimental design, Philippines
Neil Angelo S. Abreo, , Ginalyn C. Cuenca, Cyril Tom B. Ranara, Michael B. Andam, Lemuel C. Cardona, Glio Florgiley P. Arabejo
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.999

Abstract:
Marine biodiversity plays a vital role in ecosystem resilience and stability against climate change and alien species invasions, among others. This also plays a role in the provision of ecosystem services and functions that benefits humans. However due to anthropogenic activities and population increase, marine biodiversity have been affected most. We conducted a review using open-sourced journals on the effects of nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, heavy metals and plastic pollution in the marine environment and its implications on marine biodiversity. Lethal and sub-lethal effects were observed in different organisms that could affect marine biodiversity directly or indirectly. Direct effects include mortality of organisms while indirect effects include habitat degradation or alteration, a simplified food web, increase alien species invasion and reduced fitness of organisms. Human land use change, coastal construction activities, untreated sewage discharges, pesticides, mine tailings, uncollected, unsegregated and improperly dumped garbages and unabated garbage dumping at sea have been found to negatively influence marine biodiversity. In the Philippines, very few studies have been conducted with regards to marine pollution, especially on marine plastic debris, and even fewer studies have been made that tackles the effect of these stressors at an ecosystem level. Furthermore, this review has identified direct and indirect effects of pollution stressors on marine organisms which include: mortality and reduced fitness, vulnerability to disease or sickness,-habitat degradation, and food web simplification. Keywords - Ecology, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, plastic, biodiversity, literature review, pollution, Philippines
, Ricardo P. Babaran, Jose T. Ingles
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1007

Abstract:
This paper describes the vertical movements, behavior and habitat utilization of an electronically tagged adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) after 17 days of liberty in the Philippines based on analyses of 23,845 datapoints recorded from a recovered electronic popup tag. The exhaustive set provides a way to describe the vertical movement as well as a range of behaviors exhibited by the fish. We used the daily time records of depth and temperature from the vertical dives of the fish at different times of the day (nocturnal, dawn, diurnal, dusk) to describe fish behavior and to characterize its three deep dives. The fish stayed 23% and 24% of its time at warmer waters of 28 0C and 30 0C. It also spent 15% of its time at 26 0C and 10% of its time at colder waters of 20 0C and 22 0C. The daily differences in temperatures fluctuated from 12.10C to 30.1 0C with the daily average temperature of 24.2 0C. Swimming speeds determined show the maximum vertical ascent speed that the fish registered reached 1.53m/s swimming from a depth of 195m to 104m during a dusk. The maximum vertical descent speed reached 1.38m/s from a depth of 78m down to 161m. The deepest dive of the fish started from a U-shaped diving profile that lasted for almost 32 minutes and then followed by another U-shaped dive for 12 minutes before a deep dive and fast vertical ascent. The total duration of its dives differ with water depth: 0-50m (1.89 hours), 50-75m (4.78 hours), 75-100m (3.35 hours), 100-125m (1.69 hours), 125-150m (1.69 hours). Such swimming behavior provides valuable information on the vulnerability of tunas particularly the juvenile fishery. Keywords - Archival tag, fish aggregating device (FAD), Mindoro Island, West Philippine Sea, Yellowfin tuna, Philippines
Gelena Asis- Dimpas, Maria Victoria Uy Sy, Judy Ann Ong Ferrater-Gimena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1006

Abstract:
The greening of organizations is not only confined to the creation of formal management systems, activities or technologies. Over the years, environmentalists have learned that various stakeholders of an organization utilize discretionary approaches to understand the interaction between humans and the environment (Lehman et al., 2004). The discretionary approach is known as environmentally-directed organizational citizenship behavior (OCBE) which focuses on the voluntary green initiatives done by employees within the organizational setting (Daily, Bishop, & Govindarajulu,2009). This study aimed to identify the environmentally directed organizational citizenship deeds observed and practiced by fifteen selected municipalities in Cebu, Philippines. The results revealed that OCBE deeds relative to environmental concerns, organizational commitment, supervisory support for environmental efforts and perceived social performance of the local government units were the most common behaviors exhibited by the local officials and their staff. Another objective of the paper was to determine the extent of demonstration of the identified OCBE deeds among the department heads and staff of the fifteen (15) municipalities involved in the study. The findings showed that the identified OCBE deeds were demonstrated by the municipal government officials and staff to a very great extent. Quantitative data were taken from the survey conducted among one hundred forty respondents comprising of local government officials and their staff from fifteen municipalities in Cebu, Philippines. The purposive sampling method was employed in choosing the sample respondents. The municipalities involved in the study were the top fifteen (15) performing local government units who participated in the E – GWEN program of the province. The list of the municipalities was provided by the Office of the Vice Governor of Cebu in conjunction with a non – government organization who is a partner of the province in the concretization of the E-GWEN undertaking. This study serves to contribute to the scarce extant literature on the pertinence of OCBE in improving the efficiency and efficacy of environmental management from the perspective of the public sector. Keywords - Environmentally-directed citizenship behavior, pro-environmental behavior, organizational citizenship behavior, environmental conservation efforts, organizational commitment
Ashish Kumar Dash, Ram Madhab Bhattacharjee,
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.996

Abstract:
Workplace accidents are investigated mainly for the purpose of identifying the causes that contributed to the occurrence of the accident and thereby providing recommendations to prevent recurrence of such accidents. The human factor has always been a critical element in the accident causation model applied in various industries. However, it is equally important to identify other parameters like task environment, task conditions, organizational culture and other organizational factors that influence human behavior in most of the cases. In this paper, an effort has been made to discuss some of the investigation models used for identification of root causes leading to an incident or accident. This paper highlighted the gaps in the investigation procedure in the Indian mining industry where too much focus is being given to human error and contravention of the health and safety statute application to mining activities. The authors emphasized the importance of using suitable investigation methodology for investigating into Indian mining accidents. A case study accident has been presented to highlight the necessity of using suitable accident investigation methodology like Swiss Cheese Model for identifying root causes of such accident. Keywords - Ecology, accident investigation, mining industry, human factor, task environment, organizational factors, investigation model, India
Jehru C. Magahud, Niña Gracel B. Dimaano
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.997

Abstract:
Information about pesticide application is relevant in assessing the risks of farmers’ exposure to pesticides and in crafting measures toward reduced pesticide use. A study was then conducted to assess the extent and frequency of application, and active ingredients of pesticides in thirty irrigated rice areas of the Philippines. The study was also done to determine factors that affect pesticide application relative to farmers’ perceptions, management practices, and the farms’ agroclimatic characteristics. A questionnaire was used to survey farmers’ application of chemicals against birds, rats, golden apple snails (GAS), weeds, and fungal diseases. Most farmers did not apply pesticides to reduce perceived bird and rat damages in their rice farms because they preferred non-chemical means of control. Most farmers applied chemicals to manage GAS and weeds that damaged or competed with rice. Molluscicide application was more frequent in Bicol sites with climate and soil characteristics that favor ponding of water. Frequency of herbicide application can be attributed to the direct seeding method of crop establishment. Most farmers did not encounter fungal diseases. Most widely used active ingredients are butachlor, niclosamide, and methaldehyde, which are slightly hazardous, unlikely to cause hazards, and moderately hazardous, respectively. This study suggests that molluscicide and herbicide applications are very common among Filipino farmers, which can be harmful to their health. Keywords - Environmental Toxicology, pesticides, birds, rats, golden apple snails, weeds, irrigated rice, descriptive design, Philippines
Jehru C. Magahud, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez,
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1000

Abstract:
Industrialization, urbanization and intensive use of farm inputs can pollute agricultural areas. The study was then conducted to assess the levels of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in the country’s major rice areas. The study also determined the contributions of soil properties, land uses, irrigation water, and farm inputs to the metal levels. Strategic collections of soil, plant and water samples in the country’s major soil series planted to rice, analyses of samples using x-ray fluorescence or atomic absorption spectroscopy, and farmer interviews were done. Metal levels were very high in Zambales and Negros Occidental soils due to deposition or use of metal-enriched mine tailings and irrigation water. Soil metal concentrations in Zambales far exceeded the intervention values of 180 mg/kg for Cr and 100 mg/kg for Ni. Soil metal levels in Negros Occidental exceeded the intervention value of 190 mg/kg for Cu and Mo. Rice plants in Negros Occidental exceeded the toxic levels of 30 mg/kg for Cu and 10-50 mg/kg for Mo due to the very high soil Cu and Mo concentrations in the area. Molybdenum concentrations of rice plants in Sultan Kudarat and Camarines Sur exceeded the toxic level due to the high amounts of foliar chemicals applied at >66 sprayer loads per year. The study implies that rice areas deposited with mine wastes have high heavy metal levels, and foliar chemicals can increase metal levels in rice. Keywords - Environmental toxicology, heavy metals, heavy metal sources, rice soils, Philippines
Jayvee A. Cruz, Mea Katreena M. Cadiente
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1001

Abstract:
Carbonized rice hull (CRH) is an alternative to wood charcoal as a carrier component in making inoculants. Being a waste product in rice farming, the use of CRH is more practical and environment-friendly. This study determined the survival of an actinomycete in a CRH-based carrier. Its cell population was counted periodically up to 250 days of incubation using the spread plate method. The initial population of 2.2 x 104 cfu/g increased to 2.9 x 107 cfu/g (135, 160%) 5 days after inoculation (DAI). However, number of cells decreased to 1.5 x 107 cfu/g 170 DAI, gradually increasing to a final population of 1.8 x 107 cfu/g at 250 DAI; 8.17 x 107 percent of the initial population remained viable in the CRH-based carrier. The survival of the actinomycete demonstrates the potential of CRH as inoculant carrier. However, which carrier can sustain high populations of the actinomycete has yet to be determined. Keywords - Microbiology, actinomycete, survival, CRH-Based carrier, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Angela Marie M. Villareal, Inocencio E. Buot Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1002

Abstract:
Hoya incrassata Warb. and Hoya crassicaulis Elmer x Kloppenb, both Philippine endemics have been always thought to be one species. Leaf architecture study of the two controversial species were examined to determine if they have similar characteristics in terms of leaf architecture, the main morphological character used in fossil studies and in taxonomic works dealing with sterile plant specimens. The unifying characters of the two species are the symmetrical and unlobed blade, acuminate apex, entire margin, pinnate primary vein, straight primary vein course, weak brochidodromous secondary vein, moderate relative secondary vein thickness, sinuous secondary vein course, loop-forming branches, enclosed by 3° or 4° arches, composite intersecondary veins, random reticulate tertiary vein, regular polygonal reticulate quaternary vein, looped ultimate marginal venation, and random areole arrangement. The characters blade length to width ratio, blade class and form, base shape, variation in secondary vein angle of divergence, and areole development delineates the two species apart. The study proved that H. incrassata and H. crassicaulis are two different species. Leaf architecture can be of great use when identifying and classifying seemingly similar plant species and sterile specimens. As both species are endemics to the Philippines, conservation ought to be massive as these species can be lost anytime with forest destruction. Conservation strategies could include forest protection and domestication. Keywords - Botany, leaf architecture, taxonomy, Hoya crassicaulis, Hoya incrassata, Philippines
Ginalyn C. Cuenca, , Neil Angelo S. Abreo, Cyril Tom Ranara, Michael B. Andam, Lemuel C. Cardona, Grace G. Conserva
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.998

Abstract:
Mangrove ecosystems are very important because of its many ecological and economic functions. It provides food, shelter, and protection to a myriad of organisms and maintains connectivity with other coastal ecosystems. It holds diverse forms of both floral and faunal associations, which are used by humans for different purposes. This review discusses the physiognomy, ethnobiology, composition of mangrove ecosystems with emphasis on associated fauna and mangrove crabs, fish production, and the human threats that can alter the stability of mangrove ecosystems. Different journal articles, books, manuals, and other online sources from both local and international sources were used to discuss the review. Mangrove ecosystems were found to be occurring in tropical and subtropical areas and are distributed horizontally in estuarine and vertically in intertidal zones due to a number of environmental and biotic factors. The ecosystem is composed of diverse associations of communities of both floral and faunal groups. Many of these associated fauna are benthic macroinvertebrates and fishes, a number of which are sourced as fish products. Fisheries are the topmost economic use of mangrove ecosystems. Fish products harvested include mud crabs, shrimps, mollusks, and fishes. The continued growth of human population and the industrialization of fishing exceeded our sustainable use of waters leading to the declining fish landings. Such event gave rise to aquaculture, which has become the main cause of diminishing mangrove ecosystems. Other human threats to mangrove ecosystems include mining, overexploitation for economic services, and urban development. Along with mangrove decline is the ecosystem’s susceptibility to climate change particularly on the rising sea level. This indicates a higher risk to flooding, tsunamis, cyclones, and storm surges. Hence, protection, conservation, rehabilitation and restoration of mangrove ecosystems, and its sustainable use are essential. Eco-friendly aquaculture must also be implemented. Keywords - Mangrove, fauna, flora, mud crab, aquaculture, fisheries, literature review, Philippines
Michelle C. Quimbo, Cezar P. Mamaril
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1003

Abstract:
Two consecutive upland rice wet season croppings (2012-2013) were conducted in Lipa clay loam soil at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. This was done to determine which among NSIC Rc11 (modern variety) and Inipot-Ibon (traditional variety) applied with six fertilizer rates [kg/ha of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)] with increasing N levels: control (zero fertilizer), 0-0-30, 20-30-30, 40-30-30, 60-30-30, and 80-30-30, will improve plant growth, yield, and profit. NSIC Rc11 was more productive with comparative average grain yields of 2.42-4.70 t/ha compared to Inipot-Ibon with only 1.40-2.20 t/ha during the two cropping seasons. This was due to the higher harvest index, tiller, panicle production, and return on investment (ROI) of NSIC Rc11 compared to Inipot-Ibon. Application of 20-80 kg/ha N plus 30 kg of both P and K significantly increased the grain and straw yields of NSIC Rc11 but not Inipot-Ibon having no significant response to fertilizer application. Highest ROI, though, was observed from the application of 60-30-30 kg/ha NPK to NSIC Rc11. The economic benefit from producing upland rice was very low due to the high cost of production from land preparation and maintenance costs (i.e. herbicides and pesticides application, contract labor for manual weeding). Keywords - itrogen rate, upland rice, yield performance, return on investment, experimental design, Philippines
Brian Gil S. Sarinas, Teresita A. Paragon
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1004

Abstract:
Villa Beach is one of the tourist destinations in Iloilo City because of its rich culture such as Paraw Regatta and seafood delicacies. However, coastal resource management (CRM) seemed to be neglected among the locals of the beach as evidenced by poor waste management beneath the shore. Thus, this study was conducted. Specifically, this study delved into the awareness and participation of locals on CRM when classified according to zonation. Furthermore, a significant difference in the awareness and participation and relationship was sought. This study was conducted in January 2015. The respondents of this survey were the locals of Villa Beach from Zones 1 to 3 taken through stratified random sampling. All tests were set at .05 level of significance. The results showed that locals had “high” awareness and they abide by the laws on CRM. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the level of awareness and participation on CRM in terms of zonation. Finally, there was a significant relationship in the awareness and participation of locals on the CRM. It is recommended that the locals and the local government should cooperate one another to manage the coastal resources of the beach from environmental degradation due to anthropogenic activities. The local government unit (LGU) should create a monitoring procedure in terms of the participation of the locals of Villa beach in coastal resource management. Keywords- Coast, coastal resources, coastal resource management (CRM), Villa Beach, Iloilo City, Philippines
Jay P. Picardal, Felix A. Afable, , Edmundo A. Campoto, Eva P. Palada, Marcos B. Valdez Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v15i1.1005

Abstract:
The study characterized native chickens based on phenotypic traits, measuring 13 morphometric and describing 7 discrete characters of 228 randomly-selected native chickens from three arbitrary districts (North District [ND], Central District [CD] and South District [SD]) in the province of Eastern Samar. Results show that significant difference was observed in drumstick length and beak length (p
Ricardo T. Bagarinao
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.891

Abstract:
An ecological spatial variation analysis of cancer incidence and mortality is increasingly important, as cancer has become a major cause of death across the globe. Using the concept of spatial heterogeneity as analytical framework, a spatial distribution analysis that used GIS was conducted for the cases of cancer mortality in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Complete data retrieval was conducted for cases between 1990 and 2010 from the Registry Office of the Municipality. Data visualization and analysis were done using the graduated color legend type of the GIS software. Spatial units were delineated following the communities political boundary of Municipality. Descriptive statistics was computed to describe spatial variations of cases. Results indicate that cancer mortality is highly heterogeneous across spatial units. The highest number of cases is in Batong Malake. The number of cases reduces as it moves away from this area. It is recommended that an in-depth study be conducted to determine the causes of these spatial trends of cancer mortality to contextualize its interventions or reduction and management programs. Keywords - Biostatistics, spatial heterogeneity, cancer mortality, geographic information system, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
Elaine Loreen C. Villanueva, Jr. Inocencio E. Buot
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.901

Abstract:
There have been some studies on the plant species found in Mindoro, Philippines, but there remains little information in their status particularly at the local level. This paper presents a list of threatened plant species of Mindoro. A list of indicators of the conservation status was formulated for this particular study and was used for categorizing the threatened plant species at the local level. The list recorded 173 threatened plant species from 70 plant families, which are composed of 25 Critically Endangered (CR), 46 Endangered (EN) and 102 Vulnerable (VU) plant species. The species were found to be threatened because of their endemicity, as well as some anthropogenic activities that could lead to the destruction of their habitats and ultimately, their extinction. There are still existing gaps in the knowledge of the flora of Mindoro, and when these gaps are addressed, it is possible that more rare and threatened plants will be added to the list. It is also recommended to utilize the data in the enactment of the laws to address the threats to plant biodiversity loss. Keywords - Botany, threatened plant species, Mindoro, conservation status, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Mindoro, Philippines
Gee Marie S. Binag
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.892

Abstract:
Belief systems have a considerable effect on environmental attitudes and can, therefore, play a major role in ecological conservation practices. The study was conducted to determine the ecological beliefs and practices of the public from Trento, Samal and Davao City, Philippines. Furthermore, it aimed to determine the relationship between protection and conservation of their land environment, which includes the flora and fauna. A total of 423 respondents from selected places were the participants. This study utilized the descriptive-correlational research method in order to document the beliefs and practices of the people. It described the Ecological traditional beliefs and practices of the people that could help protect and preserve the environment, particularly the flora and fauna. It made use of the questionnaire as the prime source of information supported by interviews and Focus Group Discussion. Data were analyzed using statistical tools like the mean score and Pearson product moment correlation. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between the ecological belief and ecological practices of the public. However, no significant relationship was noted between the practices and the beliefs of the Public towards the flora because they also cut trees during a poor crop harvest, engaged in logging as an alternative source of income during rainy season. Moreover, towing cut logs from an environment where the buyer was waiting, and on the way they cared for the fauna and their land and environment. Hunting and fishing were limited and controlled by purpose. Thus, the ecological beliefs and practices should be disseminated to the young people not only verbally but also in writing for the benefit of the coming generation. Keywords - Social Science, practices, ecological beliefs, primer, public, environmental protection, descriptive design, Philippines
Jehru C. Magahud, Pearl B. Sanchez, Rodrigo B. Badayos
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.897

Abstract:
Concentrations of strontium (Sr), rubidium (Rb), titanium (Ti), and zirconium (Zr) are relevant to agricultural, environmental quality and health and disease investigations. A study was then conducted to assess them in rice areas and determine the sources of high element levels relative to soil properties, land uses, irrigation water, and plant uptake. Thirty-two (32) soil and plant samples were collected in agricultural areas of the Philippines representing the major soil series devoted to irrigated rice production. Soil Sr levels were higher than the world average of 175 mg/kg. The highest Sr levels were found in Polangui (Albay), Tacurong City (Sultan Kudarat), and Sta. Cruz (Laguna). These Sr levels can be due to the soils’ high sand or available phosphorus (P) contents as Sr occurs in sand-sized soil fractions, and its sorption in soils is enhanced by high phosphate concentrations. Soil Rb levels in Kabacan (North Cotabato) and San Miguel (Iloilo) were higher than the range for Philippine rice or paddy soils (0–29 mg/kg). The level in San Miguel can be due to the soil’s high available P and neutral pH while the level in Kabacan can be due to the soil’s clay texture in its lower horizons. Titanium levels were highest (>205 mg/kg) in rice tops collected from Muñoz City (Nueva Ecija), but the reason for such high levels needs further investigations. Zirconium levels were highest (>18 mg/kg) in rice tops collected from Casiguran (Sorsogon), and Minalabac and Milaor (Camarines Sur). Such Zr levels can be due to the soils’ high clay and organic matter (OM) contents that promoted soil saturation by water. Index of bioaccumulation for Rb is 2.56, indicating that it can be easily taken up by rice plants. This study suggests that trace element concentrations in rice areas are controlled by soil properties and that Rb can be a potential toxic element in rice plants. Keywords - Soil science, rare trace elements, trace element sources, rice soils, Philippines
Lourdes B. Tayrus, Willie P. Abasolo, Nelson M. Pampolina
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.900

Abstract:
Buri palms (Corypha utan Lam.) is the third most important non-timber forest resource of the Philippines because of its multiple uses. It is now being threatened by the coconut scale insect (Aspidiotus rigidus Reyne) epidemic due to its similarity to coconut palms. In order to protect this very important resource, this research was carried out to determine the effect of different Hoagland concentration on the growth and resistance of buri palms to coconut scale insects. Chlorophyll content was determined using Apogee CCM-200 plus Chlorophyll meter. Cell size of the mesophyll layer and leaf thickness was measured using Image J (1.43m) software. Similarly, shoot length, root length, leaf area and plant biomass was measured. Coconut scale insect count was also performed. Chlorophyll content and leaf thickness were unaffected while cell sizes of the mesophyll layer were significantly increased with varying Hoagland concentration. Interestingly, insect count was significantly affected by the treatment. Plants grown in 50% Hoagland solution gave the highest insect population at 71, twice as much as that of 100% concentration with only 36. Treating the plant with 100% Hoagland solution induced the formation of raphides crystals of calcium oxalate on the leaf surface. This provided an added protective layer on the leaf that made it less preferred by the insect. For this reason, improving the nutrition of the plant is a better and safer alternative to reducing the susceptibility of buri palms to coconut scale insect attack. Keywords - Chlorophyll count index, coconut scale insect, experimental design, Aspidiotus rigidus, Corypha utan, Hoagland’s solution, plant nutrition, calcium oxalate, Philippines
Christia Almario Guevara
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.895

Abstract:
Science literacy, awareness and attitude enhancement as outcomes of integrating sustainable development concepts and principles in coursework of general ecology was investigated. This study further explored on causal relationships of demographic and other factors to learning and relate them to the students’ capacity for conceptual integration and sustainable practices as a way of life. The utilization of formal science courses as venue for knowledge building and sharing, awareness and understanding of relevant societal issues, and the promotion of sustainable development were accomplished in this study. A module on Ecology integrated with sustainability was developed. Test of Science Literacy (TSL) and Sustainability Awareness and Attitude Inventory (SSAI) were developed to evaluate learning, awareness and attitude. Results were reported as means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Test scores were analyzed by paired samples t - test. Qualitative data were organized into themes and were used as supporting evidences of statistical results. Findings of this study indicated that there was a statistically significant improvement in the students’ science literacy upon completion of the course. Awareness and attitudes toward sustainable living were likewise developed. This study showed that academic programs can be utilized as an effective path for advocacy toward sustainable living. Keywords - General Ecology, sustainable development, science literacy sustainability awareness and attitude, descriptive design, Philippine education, Philippines
Lok Tak Ming Jafy
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v14i1.896

Abstract:
This paper is to apply the concept of the destination image to a decision on warehouse storage location. With a proper transportation network, people in Manila could reach Clark in one to one and a half hours. However, currently, the customers in Manila are reluctant to use the warehouse services in Clark. One of the main concerns is on the unexpected travelling time. The objective of this paper is to explore whether people will consider Clark as an alternative destination for warehouse storage in Manila if there is a proper transportation network. The results of the three case studies confirm the model of the formation of the destination image being the information sources, experience, psychologically nature and socio-demographic characteristics. The results also confirm the influence of the linked transportation network to Clark as a destination image. It is concluded that propositions are supported, and literal replication is expected. With a properly linked transportation network, consumers are willing to consider Clark as a warehouse storage location. With a similar argument, Clark could be considered for other business and other economic activities if there is properly linked transportation network between Clark and Manila. Keywords- Destination image, linked transportation network, case study, Manila, Clark
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