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Results in Journal The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology: 208

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Diamond Preye Nebechukwu, Uche C. Isiugo-Abanihe
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 19-47; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0220)

Abstract:
This study examined factors that adversely affect girl-child education among the Kambari. Marx Weber’s social action theory, patriarchy and sex role theories provided the theoretical framework. Empirical data were drawn from a household survey among 1,598 respondents, comprising a pair of adult males (385) and their sons (385) and adult females (414) and their daughters (414). A multi-staged sampling technic was employed to select sample units. Two structured questionnaires were employed for the household survey. Twelve case-studies of girl-children, fourteen in-depth interviews and fifteen FGDs were also conducted among different groups. The data were subjected to descriptive, logistic regression and content analyses. The burden of domestic work, unintended teenage pregnancy, poor academic performance, parental ignorance, child-betrothal and early marriage, son preference adversely affected the girl-child’s access to education. The logistic regression shows that the odds of exhibiting discriminatory practice towards girl-child education are about 6 times higher among adult males compared to the females, 4.2 times higher among participants with no formal education, 4 times higher among adherents of traditional religion and 3 times among Muslims. Further, respondents with rigid conception of gender role are more likely to exhibit discriminatory gender practices as well as those with negative childhood experience, those from homes where men dominate in decision-making and those from homes with non-valuation of women’s participation in decision-making. A holistic approach should be adopted at all levels of government, religious and traditional institutions to address the marginalization of Kambari girl-children in accessing formal education.
Musa Abubakar, Aminu Mohammed Dukku
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 116-133; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0270)

Abstract:
Contemporary discourse on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) is characterised by its robustness in proffering solutions for healthy adolescents capable of competing physically, economically and socially, globally. However, despite its promising nature, policies and programs pertaining to youth and adolescents’ health needs to be designed in accordance with the cultural practices that prevail in various social contexts. This paper examines the various SRH policies and programs with a view to identifying culturally acceptable means of formulating and delivering SRH services in Northern Nigeria. The SRH health policies and programs and their implementation for adolescents run riot with some cultural practices particularly of the northern part of the country. Issues patterning to non-acceptance of the culture of delayed marriage as a way of attaining good and healthy living make people in the North get married earlier than their counterparts in other parts of the country. The northern culture views the teaching of unmarried adolescents about sex, contraception and abortion as uncalled for because it may be, in a way, an encouragement and motivation for the youth and adolescents alike to be introduced to the sexuality. These and other challenges call for culturally robust strategy(s) for implementing SRH policies and programs for solutions to cultural disparities and divergences that stand in the way to realising enhanced SRH needs of adolescents.
Mageed Oshogwe Haruna
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 134-148; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0280)

Abstract:
Credible election is fast becoming a feature of the democratic process canvassed globally. However, misconducts still mar the exercise and smooth transition in a couple of countries, including Nigeria. This study focused on electoral misconducts reported during Nigeria’s 2019 general elections, using Gombe State as reference. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources, which involved questionnaire administration, interviews and desk review of published works relevant to the paper. The findings revealed that there were electoral misconducts in several areas during the 2019 general elections not only in Gombe Metropolis but in other parts of the State. These misconducts ranged from vote buying, to material inducements and destructions of election materials, among others. The study recommends the need for a new electoral law that will criminalise vote buying and other sundry electoral frauds in future elections in Gombe and other parts of the country.
Patrick Nnanna
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0250)

Abstract:
This paper examined the influence of sociocultural factors such as beliefs and practices on medication use among stroke patients in rural Cross River State, Nigeria as a way understand the health-seeking behaviour of these patients in the area. The Predisposing-Enabling-Need and Witchcraft Theories of disease causation provided the framework. Data collection was through three qualitative methods. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with six key opinion leaders (chiefs, elders and religious leaders), six care givers, six significant others, and 12 stroke patients. Eighteen Focus Group Discussions were conducted among men, women, community leaders and community members, while two life histories were carried out on stroke patients. Results indicated that beliefs and practices were significantly associated with medication use among stroke patients. Stroke was perceived as caused by supernatural forces working through human agencies, breach of religious taboos, and violation of social norms. As a result, the majority of the respondents and participants perceived traditional medicine essentially as the most important treatment option.
Ahmad Hassan Ahmad, Muktar M. Koya
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 103-116; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0260)

Abstract:
Corruption is a complex and multifaceted challenge of global concern. The correctional setting in Nigeria is not exempted from the more general context of this issue. Nigeria has a poorly structured service for correctional healthcare system driven by a collection of socioeconomic and legal factors especially corruption. One of the pressing challenges in Nigerian public health is to provide services to those who need them the most, particularly those behind bars and therefore hard to reach. Yet, it remains obvious that, a significant majority of those with health problems are incarcerated in the correctional centers of Nigeria. This study which is anchored on Economic Theory of Corruption examined corrupt practices associated with healthcare delivery in Kano Central and Goron Dutse Correctional Centers. The study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods in eliciting data from convicted and awaiting trial inmates and healthcare providers. Thus, a total of 350 inmates were sampled across convicts and awaiting trial inmates through the simple random sampling technique using Wiseman’s 1999 table of sample size. In addition, two respondents (healthcare officials) were purposively sampled for in-depth interview. The findings revealed some level of negation especially as it concerns referrals and the inmates’ treatment charges outside the correctional setting. The study recommends the need for complete overhaul of the correctional healthcare delivery system in line with recommended global best practices.
Grace A. Tonye-Scent, Endurance Uzobo
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 48-61; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0230)

Abstract:
Health insecurity is a major problem affecting the well-being of internally displaced persons in Nigeria. In the Niger Delta region, the situation remains virulent with attendant consequences on the displaced population. This study investigated health insecurity among the internally displaced persons. Data were sourced across three States of the Niger Delta Region, identified among areas with a high rate of internal displacement. Human Security Approach was employed as a theoretical framework. A total of 582 respondents (Bayelsa = 206, Delta = 211, and Rivers = 165) who had been displaced between the year 2012 to 2018 were randomly selected, and a questionnaire was administered. Findings indicated that 51.9% of respondents in Delta state, 50.0% in Rivers state, and 35.7% in Bayelsa state were diagnosed with diseases resulting from flood displacement. The diseases diagnosed were high blood pressure, cholera, hernia, malaria, measles, tuberculosis, and typhoid. While the diagnosis of blood pressure was high in Bayelsa (3.9%) and Delta (3.5%), the diagnosis of cholera was not recorded in Bayelsa and Delta States but Rivers state (3.4%). Those displaced by flood were 0.4 times less likely to experience abnormal health status than those displaced by other causes. The study concluded that displacement has serious implications on the health of internally displaced persons. It, therefore, recommended that medical centres should be cited in displaced camps to cater for the medical needs of the displaced population.
Mohammed Mustapha Namadi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0290)

Abstract:
Corruption is pervasive in Nigeria at all levels. Thus, despite recent gains in healthcare provision, the health sector faces numerous corruption related challenges. This study aims at examining areas of corruption in the health sector with specific focus on its types and nature. A sample size of 480 respondents aged 18 years and above was drawn from the eight Metropolitan Local Government Areas of Kano State, using the multistage sampling technique. The results revealed evidence of corrupt practices including those related to unnecessary-absenteeism, diversion of patients from the public health facilities to the private sector, diverting money meant for the purchase of equipment, fuel and diesel, bribery, stealing of medications, fraud, misappropriation of medications and unjustifiable reimbursement claims. In order to resolve the problem of corrupt practices in the healthcare sector, the study recommended the need for enforcement of appropriate code of ethics guiding the conduct of the health professionals, adoption of anti-corruption strategies, and strengthening the government monitoring system to check corruption in public health sector in order to ensure equitable access to healthcare services among the under-privileged people in the society.
Lawrence Okoronkwo Udensi, Esther Onyinyechi Udensi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0240)

Joyce Rumun Akpenpuun, Joy Nguavese Waroh, Celina Amaechi Eze, Nguemo Audu
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0201)

Abstract:
In many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria, pregnancy and childbirth complications are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidities among women of reproductive age especially in rural communities. This paper examined how women in rural Benue State prepare for births especially as it relates to utilization of maternal healthcare services to avoid potential pregnancy and childbirth related complications. It specifically investigated the factors that hinder rural women from birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR). The study which was anchored on Rational Choice Theory utilized intra method triangulation to elicit qualitative data from women of reproductive age (15-49), Woman leaders and community health personnel from 6 rural communities drawn from 3 local government areas in Benue State. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) were the main instruments used for data collection in order to capture the nuances involved. Findings indicate that utilization of maternal health services in preparation for births among rural women is poor. Cost of transportation, poor knowledge and concerns over cost of service were key barriers to BPCR. The study recommends that policy makers and all stake holders should intensify awareness on the needs and importance of BPCR, and that government should consider complete removal of user-fees on maternal healthcare services in order to improve BPCR.
Lorretta Favour C. Ntoimo, Friday E. Okonofua, Sanni Yaya, Blessing Omorodion, Wilson Imongan, Julius Ogungbangbe
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 1-18; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0210)

Abstract:
Maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria is estimated to be 512 deaths per 100,000 live births. As with other low-income countries, a higher proportion of these deaths occur among women living in rural areas and in poor communities where access to maternal health care is limited by several barriers including quality of care in health facilities. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of antenatal and postnatal care in Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in two rural Local Government Areas of Edo State in Southern Nigeria. The data were obtained from exit interviews with 177 women after completion of antenatal and postnatal care in eight randomly selected PHCs. The interview questionnaire was adapted from the 2017 results-based financing exit interviews conducted by the World Bank in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Health and the National Bureau of Statistics. It consisted of questions on the treatment received by women. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results showed the self-reporting by women of sub-optimal offerings of 20 signal antenatal treatments and 8 signal postnatal care treatments. Close to half (45.6%) of the respondents for antenatal care reported receiving sub-optimal antenatal treatments compared to about a third of postnatal care attendees. The predictors of sub-optimal offerings of standard PHC care included local government area, marital status and previous childbirths. We conclude that concerted actions by health providers and policymakers in the PHCs to develop policies and interventions will improve the quality of delivery of antenatal and postnatal services in rural PHCs in Nigeria.
Tarilaifa P. Akpandara, Uche C. Isiugo-Abanihe, Olufunke Fayehun
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 50-71; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0140)

Abstract:
This paper examined migration status and reproductive behaviour and fertility of women in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study contends that fertility behaviour of urban women is better understood when examined within the contexts of system and voluntary social action analysis. The study reveals that migrants have lower fertility than non-migrants. This is in the expected direction even though the relationship is not statistically significant. Among the reasons, migrants are generally more progressive and tend to exhibit higher levels of motivation with respect to family and lifestyle matters, being better educated and with higher levels of aspiration. The major childbearing behaviours, such as age at first marriage, ideal birth interval, ideal length of breastfeeding and knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive use, were found to be relatively higher among migrants than non-migrant women. Again, these differences are hardly significant, partly due to the small sample size analysed here.The result of this study could warrant a possible future fertility decline among migrants, but also not excluding the non-migrants, if the current level of use of contraceptives continues to improve. The effects of these factors may translate into low urban fertility desires and the adoption of small family size norms in the nearest future
Funmilayo I. Agbaje
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 114-130; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0180)

Abstract:
The need for peace education has grown exponentially as the incidence of conflicts has become more dramatic and prevalent in all its various dimensions in Nigeria.Impecunity, illiteracy, violation of human rights and religious intolerance are some of the challenges facing peace education in Nigeria. Against this background, the complexities of the cultural and contextual requirements for peace education require further review and elaboration for proper elucidation of its attendant skills, channels, and instruments. The effectiveness of the act of studying and practicing peace depends on the recognition and understanding of the specific cultural context of application. The analysis of local approaches, especially African peace practices, is a prerequisite for a successful peace education in Nigeria. This paper traces elements of continuity and change in four key institutions that have survived years of usage from the past to the present, in formal and non-formal terrains, among youth and adults, namely, the family, religion, education, and tradition.
Olabusoye Oguntola-Laguda, Onipede Wusu, Oluranti Samuel
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 32-49; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0130)

Abstract:
Women of advanced reproductive age (ARA) constitute a growing proportion globally, as more women delay entry into motherhood, in a bid to accommodate their educational and career goals. Social, economic and technological realities propel women to postpone childbearing to a later and more convenient age. What are the maternal outcomes of such delays? This paper reviewed studies that have examined the association between advanced reproductive age and maternal health outcomes. It also attempts to develop a conceptual framework regarding relationship between ARA and maternal outcomes. The Google Scholar search engine was used to search for published studies on the subject in the last ten years. A total of 40 studies were sampled, of which the majority were retrospective studies, using secondary data, in particular health institutes reports. Only 17% of the studies was conducted in Nigeria, and none by social scientists. Ninety percent (90%) of the studies reviewed, established that advanced reproductive age predisposes women to adverse reproductive events. Some of the maternal, and per-natal outcomes include; spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes, antepartum hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth restriction, obstructed labour, caesarean delivery, placenta abruption and, congenital abnormalities. Others are, – low birth weight, fetal distress, mal-presentation, perinatal lacerations, preterm births, stillbirth, early neonatal death, perinatal and maternal mortality. The study recommends the needs for sociological studies to compliment the discourse on ARA and the maternal health outcomes from the social angle.
Ezebunwa E. Nwokocha
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 1-12; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0110)

Abstract:
This paper examines the contexts of literature reviewing among scholars in Africa, particularly social scientists. It argues quite forcefully that reviews are becoming increasingly characterized by avoidable gaps and therefore represent some form of enigma, which remain largely unrecognized. The implications are not only debilitating but also alienating from the global intellectual milieu. The paper chronicles the issues and suggests the path to achieving standard reviews in contemporary academic scenery, rather than reinventing the wheel and, by implication, demeaning the essence of knowledge production and propagation.
Simiat Bidemi Abdulkareem
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 99-113; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0170)

Abstract:
In Nigeria, corruption is the obstacle preventing the country from achieving its enormous potential.Corruption in the health sector is a concern in Nigeria where public resources are already scarce. Corruption in the health sector has made various health institutions to be ineffective while scarce resources invested in the sector are wasted. It weakens the social contract between the government and its people, and drains billions of dollars annually from the country’s economy. The deplorable condition of thehealth sector in Nigeria, in spite of government spending raises serious concerns. Theseconcerns include mismanagement, embezzlement, poor funding, shortage of drugs and medicalequipment in public hospitals etc. This paper therefore examines how corruption has impeded on theservice delivery in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Shika, Zaria. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effect of corruption on service delivery and how it affects patients in the study area. Data were collected from the targeted populations through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The findings revealed that there is diversion of drugs, injections and other materials for personal use and sales, also money meant for fuel and diesel diverted to personal pocket. It is recommended that any health workers caught in one corrupt act or the other should be dealt with severely to serve as deterrent to others and also Federal Ministry of Health should procure and distribute drugs and other medical materials needed in the hospital and the public must be aware of the drugs that are free.
Fausat Motunrayo Ibrahim, Ayodele S. Jegede
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 131-147; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0190)

Abstract:
The climate of thought regarding beauty characterization among Africans and other people of colour portrays the large body as beautiful. This reflects that body size and beauty is racially and culturally expressive, making it apposite to be disparate in advancing related discourses. This is particularly important because such discourses can influence Africans’ evaluation of their self-worth. The concerns generated by the global rise in obesity further create interest in these issues. African literature offers a fine and disparate platform to understand social realities. Consequently, relevant contents of the five precedent Yorùbá novels of Daniel Fágúnwà including Igbó Olódùmarè, Ìrèké Oníbùdó,Ògbójú ọdẹ nínú Igbó Irúnmọlè, Ìrìnkèrindò nínú Igbó Elégbèje and Àdììtú Olódùmarè were extracted and analyzed to examine association of beauty with body sizes. Findings reflect more of bipolarity in the definition of beauty, such that the none-fat/none-thin structure is conveyed as beautiful. Concurrently, the fat and the thin is also portrayed as beautiful, making ‘body size’ definition of beauty to be elusive, and strongly suggesting neutrality to body size among the Yorùbá. This is strongly borne out of Fágúnwà’s and indeed, Yorùbá construction of beauty from a ‘character’ perspective. Character (ìwà) is staunchly expounded as constituting beauty. The beautiful body size is indeterminate in Fágúnwà’s narratives and indeed, in Yorùbá thought.
Fakunmoju Ayoola, David Akeju
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 87-98; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0160)

Abstract:
This study investigates age disparity in marriage and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections among spouses in Shomolu, Lagos State Nigeria.The study adopted a descriptive and cross-sectional design in which a multi-stage sampling method comprising cluster sampling, simple random sampling and the convenience sampling techniques were used to select 400 married women in Shomolu, Lagos State. A structured, close ended questionnaire was used in a researcher administered survey to elicit responses. Descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test guided data analysis. Data show a high prevalence of older male-younger female marriage (n=365; 93.5%) and older-women-younger-male marriage (n = 14; 3.7%). Some women (n=48; 13.8%) had ever been infected with STIs such as Gonorrhea (n = 31; 64.5%), syphilis (n = 14; 29.2%) and chlamydia (n = 3; 6.3%). There was a statistically significant association between age disparity (χ2 = 4.266; df = 1; p
Jimoh Amzat, Samaila Shehu
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 13-31; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0120)

Abstract:
The trio of Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) target conditions, malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea, constitute a devastating global disease burden killing over 1 million under-5 children annually. Nigeria accounts for almost 15% of global under-5 mortality. The World Health Organization is promoting iCCM in resource-constrained societies. Therefore, this study assesses the knowledge of community members on iCCM target conditions. Health belief model serves as a theoretical guide for the study, which was conducted in three purposively selected Local Government Areas in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The study found that there are still some significant misconceptions despite the high prevalence of these diseases. About one-quarter of the respondents did not believe any of the diseases could kill a child. Socio-demographic variables have a significant effect on the knowledge gaps constituting barriers to the uptake of iCCM services. Despite the high usage of insecticide-treated bed-net, 68.9% of the respondents disclosed perceived malaria within the last 30 days preceding the survey. In all, 85.4% of the respondents have some religious barriers to attending health facilities. The study concluded that the diseases’ misconceptions limit the uptake of iCCM services where available. Therefore, knowledge of community members on iCCM needs to be improved.
Mistura A. Bakare
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 147-164; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0101)

Abstract:
This study which was anchored in Health Belief Model and Functionalism investigated the perceived cause of hydrocephalus and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on such perception. Data were collected through questionnaire survey, Focus group discussions (FDGs), In-depth Interviews (IDIs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). Results indicate that perception about the cause of the condition included that it is a kind of punishment for sin (50%), spiritual attacks (27.3%), genetic (13.7%) and infection (9%). Community perception was higher especially with respondents age 42-47 (OR=1.32), female (OR=1.47), tertiary education (OR=0.69), punishment for sin (OR=0.61), spiritual attacks (OR=0.26) and infection (OR=0.48) than genetic factor. Community belief that hydrocephalus does not require medical attention negatively affected seeking medical help early. Other limiting factors were fear of surgical complications, inability of mothers to take responsibility; poor family social supports system and stigmatisation. There is need for stakeholders and agencies to enlighten community members on hydrocephalus and provide social support for children with the condition.
Dorothy N. Ononokpono, Moses I. Peters, Nsidibe Akpan Usoro
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 18, pp 72-86; doi:10.36108/njsa/0202/81(0150)

Abstract:
The rising population of the elderlyis one of the most important demographic phenomena in recent times globally. In Nigeria, the estimated population of older persons is about 6 million, and this group of people are confronted with various health challenges and a reduction in earnings, which exacerbates their poor health and healthcare utilization. Studies have shown that healthcare is a fundamental requirement for living a socially and economically productive life; however, in many developing countries including Nigeria, healthcare services utilization among older persons and particularly retirees has received less attention. The main objective of this study was to examine the determinants of healthcare services use among retired primary school teachers in Etinan Local Government in Akwa Ibom State. We utilized Andersen’s healthcare model to explain the factors associated with retirees’ healthcare utilization.Data were collected throughnon-participant observation and semi-structured interviews, conducted with 217 respondents.Data on socio-demographic characteristics of respondents were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative narratives were analyzed thematically and presented verbatim. Findings from the study revealed that the majority of respondents attributed difficulties in the utilization of health care services to inadequate health facilities, lack of trained healthcare personnel, high cost of health services, distance to health facilities, and late payment of pension, among other factors. Study findings suggest the need for the provision of quality healthcare infrastructure for the retired adults and timely payment of pensions as a panacea for poor healthcare accessibility and utilization.
Emmanuel Nwakanm, Stanley Ebitare Boroh
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 28-40; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0220)

Abstract:
The worsening violence between Farmers and Nomadic herdsmen in Nigeria has remained an issue of concern on the laundry list of the Nigerian State, policy makers, security agencies, International bodies as well as Social science scholars. While conflict is considered a normal and inevitable outcome of human relationships, the concern here is the devastating socio-economic, political and environmental implications of the conflict between these two livelihood groups as well as its impact on national development. Whereas a number of factors have been adduced for this growing violence ranging from climatic transformations, deteriorating environmental conditions, desertification, soil degradation; political and ethnic strife; breakdown in traditional conflict resolution mechanisms; proliferation of arms in the country and a dysfunctional legal regime that neglects justice; this paper, relying on the demographic theory of conflict, demonstrates how population overshoot in Nigeria explicate the new violent and widespread dimensions of the Farmers-Herders conflict. This paper, relying on the Demographic theory of conflict, argues that among the various causes of the Farmers-Herders conflict, the exponential growth of Nigeria’s population and the inability of the Nigerian State to meet the needs of the populace, contributes to the endless contest for space and property in the country, referred to in this paper as ‘population induced warfare’. In line with this thesis, this paper recommends that Nigeria as a country should begin to pay serious attention to the costs and impacts of population growth and create accordingly, rights-based population policies that adapts Nigeria’s population strength to a positive force for sustainable development.
O.A. Awofeso, A.O. Ademuson
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 41-55; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0230)

Abstract:
Cooperatives societies are seen as dependable and quick financial bailout institutions which can be used by business owners to secure quick and minimum interest on loans. This ethnographic study provides an understanding of the lending activities and criteria of obtaining a loan from co-operative societies in Ibadan, Nigeria as well as the social factors influencing how people access these loans. This empirical study gathered data using unobtrusive observation by attending weekly meetings of the cooperative (comprising of 102 members), asking questions during discussion times in the meeting as well as interacting with members of the co-operative society for 18 months. Additionally, 10 key informant interviews were done. Findings show that a strong social capital is needed and vital in obtaining loans in a co-operative society. The study concluded that cooperative societies are effective in lending business loans and supporting entrepreneurship but intending members must plan to join alongside others who can stand as guarantors for them in order to access loans easily and quickly. It is recommended that cooperative societies should find a modality of assisting those with no social resource to stand for them as guarantor in order to be able to help more people to start or grow their business enterprise. Those with no social resources should mingle well with other members in order to build one.
Ifeanyi P. Onyeonoru, Samuel A. Omolawal, Rasheed A. Okunola
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 128-141; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0290)

Abstract:
Corruption is a phenomenon that manifests in various types and forms especially among operators of Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs). Many actions of the operators which constitute corrupt practices often tend to be overlooked in spite of their grave consequences for the success SMEs in Nigeria. The fight against corruption in Nigeria is more concentrated in the formal sector. This study was, therefore, designed to investigate various forms in which corrupt practices are carried out among Small and Micro Enterprises in Ibadan, Nigeria. Business owners, their employees, apprentices and consumers constituted the study population. Primary data were collected using questionnaire administered on 200 business owners, 150 employees and 150 apprentices randomly chosen in five business districts in Ibadan; and the conduct of 10 in-depth interviews with purposively selected participants. Quantitative data were analysed at uni-variate level using simple percentages and frequencies while qualitative data were content analysed. Findings from the study revealed that corrupt practices were rampant among actors in SMEs and the common types of corrupt practices included stealing (60%), deception of customers (78.4%), tax evasion (62%), sale of fake products (76%), sale of expired products (65.2%), tampering with measurement scales (69.6%), bribery (82.4%), and poor service delivery (73%). The study concludes that the level of corruption in SMEs calls for concern and government should extend the fight against corruption to the informal sector in Nigeria.
Moses I. Peters, Aniekan E. Bassey
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 113-127; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0280)

Abstract:
In a typical traditional society in Nigeria laws, rules, norms, and taboos were used by community elders to enforce social order and curtail practices, behaviours, values and beliefs that were counter to the stability of the social structure. However, the contemporary rural communities have witnessed a shift within the social structures and institutions, in behaviours, cultural aspects which affect social relations, social interaction and the maintenance of the status quo by the traditional rulers. This qualitative study examined the roles of traditional rulers in complicating social order in Ikot Annang and Ikot Abasi communities in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria. In-depth interviews and participant observation were used to collect data on the subject under study. Ethnomethodology by Garfinkel was adopted as theoretical guide for the study. Findings of the study show that betrayal of community interest, mismanagement of community generated revenue, neglect of traditions, abuses of traditional power by some community elders, and youth groups are contributing to upheaval in some rural communities in Akwa Ibom State. Researchers concluded that the decisions by some of the rural community elders and youth groups to adopt western customs over their traditional customs have distorted the state of stability and consensus that existed in the traditional rural areas, thereby bringing about a shift that disrupts social order. Among other, the researchers recommended the need for culture check and rite of passage for youth groups in line with customs and traditions.
Chidinma Kenechi Okafor, John Lekan Oyefara, Michael Kunnuji
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 1-27; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0210)

Abstract:
A paradox in the demographic and epidemiological transitions in sub-Saharan Africa is that as population growth has increased, the rates of infertility have also increased, due to higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and earlier age at initiation of sexual intercourse. The majority of married couples desire to have their own biological children, and if they are unable to have children, it is, in most cases, the result of their inability to reproduce. The objective of this study was to examine the social context of infertility treatment seeking behaviour among women in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Three theories were used to provide explanation for treatment seeking behaviour among women with unmet fertility needs. They include the Health Behaviour model (HBM), theory of stigma and Caldwell’s wealth flow theory of fertility. Mixed methods, including a cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview was adopted. The study revealed that nature of infertility and perceived cause of infertility have a significant influence on treatment seeking behaviour among women with unmet fertility needs. A significant number of the respondents visit traditional healers thus these traditional healers should be trained to aid them address the issue of infertility without complications.
R.A Onipede Wusu, Z.A Soniyi, R.Y Kazeem, R Abogunloko A, O.M Animashaun, B.E Balogun, J.O Ajibade, O.M Otike
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 79-99; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0260)

Abstract:
Previous studies have examined conventional substance use among young people but little is known about unconventional substance use in this population. Hence, this study sought to explore unconventional substance use among young people in urban Lagos and the implications for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The study employed cluster sampling strategy in administering 1200 copies of a structured questionnaire among in-school and out-of-school young people (10-24 years old) across selected areas in urban Lagos. Results indicated that the social environment of young people influenced their involvement in unconventional substance use (p
R.E Ukpong-Umo, I.U Udobia, A.O Agwu
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 68-78; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0250)

Abstract:
The perennial land dispute of Ibime Water Trench, a trans-boundary land area between Ikot Idaha and Osuk Ediene Communities in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State has led to discord, hatred and dissonance over several years in the past. Despite repeated efforts by both parties to identify and resolve the underlying issues and contain the problem, it was found to have recurred after a period of seeming calm. This paper therefore aims at investigating and identifying the underlying factors that trigger recurrent trans-border conflicts between Ikot Idaha and Osuk Ediene Communities and the application of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), using the Mediation Technique in conflict resolution. Data were elicited through the indept interview method and analysed using the content analysis method. Result shows that through the Mediation process, both disputing parties were able to resolve their differences and have been living and sharing in the Ibime water resources together and peacefully for over thirty years. In line with the theory of Conflict Resolution, the development of Impact Sensitive Outcome Mapping as a form of monitoring and evaluation was adopted to serve as an intervention to proffer a lasting solution for a peaceful coexistence among the people of both communities.
Celestine Lekia Poroma, Dorka Godbless Deedam, Victor Owonaro Jerry-Abredi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 56-67; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0240)

Abstract:
The study examines the Nigerian State and the imperative of restructuring as conflict management strategy towards peace-building. The study adopts an expository and descriptive analytical framework. It traces the persistent conflicts and agitations to the dysfunctional structure of the Federal system and argues that historically, Nigeria is fraught with conflicts, some of them life threatening, others minor and pedestrian. It maintains that the imperative of restructuring is a sine-quo-non to sustainable conflict management and peace-building that will develop constructive relationships across ethnic and national boundaries to resolve injustice and transform structural conditions that generates deadly conflict. It revealed that the challenge facing the Nigerian nation is how to make conflicts constructive rather than destructive, marginal rather than fundamental, peripheral rather than pivotal. The study suggests that the Nigerian State needs attitudinal restructuring and systemic framework that will guarantee economic and political freedom of the minorities and the marginalized within the sovereign State and built a pluralist democratic State where the rights of all citizens are respected. It also seek to blend power with principle and reconcile authority with freedom, and put a robust peace infrastructure in place to play a preventive and mitigating role.
Samuel Ojima Adejoh, Raymond Kayode Kuteyi, Victor Ogunsola, Temilade Adeyinka Adeoye
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 100-112; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0270)

Abstract:
Despite the benefits of marriage, there has been a rise in the number of single parent families, especially never married single mothers globally. This may bring about serious social problems as the consequences of children raised by single mother have been documented. Yet, little research has been conducted to find out why there is increase in the number of never married single mothers. Therefore, this study investigated and described the experiences of women who were never married but are bearing children and raising those children as single mothers. The study adopted the qualitative research method, utilizing in-depth interviews to collect data from consenting participants. The study location was Iwaya, Lagos, Nigeria, and the participants were selected using snowball sampling technique. Forty never-married single mothers were sampled and interviewed using an in-depth interview guide. The data were transcribed and content analysed. Some of the perceived reasons for the rise in the number of never married single mother identified include family background, sexual abuse, age, careless sexual behaviour and non-use of contraceptives, personal preference and perceived economic benefits. There is the need to educate women on how to prevent sexual abuse and also on proper use of contraceptive for those who may want to engage in sexual intercourse, but may not be ready to get married.
Amzat Jimoh
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 1-16; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0110)

Abstract:
In northern Nigeria, there are cultural and religious pressures on girls to marry early. Up to 43% of girls in Nigeria are married before 18, rising as high as 87% in the northwest. The study, using a mixed method approach, examines behaviours of community members towards adolescent girls’ time of marriage with perspectives from adolescent girls, faith leaders, and community members. The study found that the practice of early marriage exists in the areas studied: 35% of survey respondents had one or more daughters married before the age of 18, although most community members believed that a girl should be married when she is “mature”. Only 9.6% of survey respondents noted that they would never marry off an underage daughter. As major stakeholders in multi-component interventions, the study identifies the crucial roles of faith leaders in efforts to reduce the practice of early marriage in northern Nigeria.
Nurat Kehinde Adeyemi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 133-152; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0190)

Abstract:
Despite concerted efforts made by United Nations and other health agencies to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) through Skilled Birth Attendants (SBAs) and use of healthcare facilities, report reveals that Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) still have a place in maternal healthcare in developing countries. This paper examines causes, treatment and consequences of Post-Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) from TBAs’ perspectives in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative method of data collection (In-depth Interview and Focus Group Discussion). Results show some similar (Tone, Trauma, Tissue and Thrombin) as obtained from medical literature and some divergent causes of PPH which includes: consumption of Potassium, intoxicants, dairy product, junks and iron tablets at advanced stage of pregnancy. This implies that substance/food consumption has implication on maternal health. TBAs’ treatment techniques for PPH include: use of powdery substances, concoctions, herbs and roots, and sometimes use of animal parts. Consequences of PPH include: organ failure, respiratory disorder, infection, fever, vomiting, anaemia and loss of fertility. WHO has revealed that misoprostol is effective in treating PPH in home delivery in developing countries. Reducing MMR due to PPH and achieving development in health sector in Nigeria therefore, requires training Nigeria TBAs on the proper administration of misoprostol.
Erima Comfort Ugbem, Ayokunle Olumuyiwa Omobowale, Olanrewaju Olutayo Akinpelu
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 87-102; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0160)

Abstract:
The paper examined racial politics and identity contests in Northern Nigeria. The paper specifically traced the trajectory of racial politics and examined the dynamics of identity construction and contests in Northern Nigeria. An essentially qualitative method of data collection comprising primary data generated through in-depth interviews and secondary data generated through archival records were used. These were then subjected to content and descriptive analyses. Findings from the study revealed that racial politics originated during colonial rule with the British supposedly claiming gene/biological affinity of the Hausa-Fulani as with the Caucasoid groups of Eurasia. The Hausa-Fulani were consequently designated as the civilized group and super-imposed over minority groups that were classified as pagans. About six decades after colonial rule, Hausa-Fulani dominance remains a social reality in spite of identity contests and recreation by the minority groups of Northern Nigeria. Starting with the creation of the Middle Belt identity in the late 1950s, the constituent groups within the Middle Belt have consequently recreated other ethnic identities within Northern Nigeria. Notwithstanding, Hausa-Fulani remains the dominant group in Northern Nigeria socio-political structure.
Tade Oludayo, Austin Ayodele
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 121-132; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0180)

Abstract:
Crude oil has been the mainstay of the Nigerian Economy for decades. However, vandalism, oil theft and bunkering are flourishing criminal activities that have impeded the growth of the oil sector and invariably the economic development of the country. The study explored the modes of operation used by vandals and the networks of individuals involved in the vandalization of the oil pipelines in Arepo area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Using largely qualitative method of data collection, 25 participants were purposively selected while opinion were sampled and gathered through in-depth (IDI) and key informant interviews (KII). A total of 15 IDIs was conducted to sample opinions of NSCDC members while 10 KIIs conducted comprised of Arepo community leaders and residents. Successful vandalisation of oil pipelines in Arepo community occurred majorly due to the connivance of the security agents and the sponsors of vandalization (usually influential Nigerians). Some members of Arepo town acted as informants to vandals while they were in return provided with the proceeds of vandalism. Findings further showed that the terrain of buried pipelines influenced successful vandalism operation and impede surveillance. Although vandalism soared higher during raining season, the vandals operated mostly at night. Vandals had uniforms, used hotels as hide outs and made use of encoded words to disguise their operations. Arising from the study’s findings, satellite tracking of geo information system will effectively enhance the policing of the networks of pipelines rather than relying on state agents.
Destiny Eze Agwanwo, Ibrahim Bello
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 35-47; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0130)

Abstract:
Governance, the world over, has become the main framework for assessing the effective utilization of human and material resources for the development of a nation or an organization. This paper explores the link between governance failure, violence and its implication for internal security in Rivers State. The level of violence in the state is high and increasing particularly since 1999 when the nation returned to civil rule. Violence such as inter and intra communal conflicts, cult violence, armed robbery, kidnapping, political violence among others, now writ large in the state. The study utilized the qualitative and content analysis. The paper reveals that the pervasive nature of violence with negative effect on the internal security is the fall out of the failure of the governance in the state. The paper recommends, among other things that, good governance is a tool for empowering the people, which in turn, will reduce unemployment, poverty, marginalization and the recourse to violent aggression in the state.
Oluyomi Awofeso, A.A Obemeata
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 48-71; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0140)

Abstract:
The survival of indigenous private enterprises is usually threatened by the demise of their founders. While previous studies on enterprise (dis)continuity have focused largely on business failure before founders’ death, little attention is paid to why indigenous private businesses do not outlive their founders in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examined the factors accounting for post-founder business discontinuity among selected indigenous private enterprises in the South-West, Nigeria. Theory of Loss and continuity in the family firm provided the framework. The research design was exploratory, using qualitative methods of data collection. Three states (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo) were purposively selected on the basis of being home to many defunct indigenous enterprises. Case studies were done on 16 purposively selected indigenous private enterprises (eight discontinued and eight surviving) whose founders had died. The qualitative data were analysed with Nvivo 8. Findings show that disharmony in the deceased founders’ family, ineffective implementation of succession plans as well as inheritance crises emerged as the most prevalent factors that accounted for postfounder enterprise discontinuity. The study recommended that indigenous enterprise founders should make efforts to foster harmonious relationships among members of their families in order to increase enterprise survival after their death.
Joyce Akpenpuun, Olufunke Fayehun, Ayodele Jegede
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 17-34; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0120)

Abstract:
Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors and one of the foremost causes of infertility among women. While there are several clinic-based studies on the biological context of fibroid, very few had examined its socio-cultural context in a community study in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, examined health seeking behaviour of women living with fibroid in Tiv communities in Benue State, Nigeria. The study participants were selected from 4 Tiv speaking local government areas (Gboko, Makurdi, Ukum and Vandeikya) in Benue State through multi stage sampling technique. Sequential explanatory mixed method of data collection was used. Fibroid occurrence is common among women in age categories 30-39 (51%). All the respondents living fibroid sought treatment, however, 60% of the respondents prefer orthodox medical treatment while the remaining 40% prefer the traditional healing process. Income, proximity to healthcare facility, influence of relatives, friends, and health professionals have stronger influence on the health seeking behaviour of women living with fibroid. The health seeking is combination of both traditional and modern medicines while surgical procedure is less utilised. The study recommends an increased sensitization and awareness about fibroid.
Ukoji V. Ukoji, Ethelbert Okoronkwo, Chukwuechefulam K. Imo, Chidi S. Mbah
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 102-120; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0170)

Abstract:
Timely and accurate demographic data, resulting from robust Civil Registration and Vital Statistics [CRVS] systems play critical roles in facilitating the realisation of key developmental goals in most countries. A well-functioning CRVS system can afford Nigeria the ambit to gather timely data for evidence-based policy-making. However, just as in many other developing countries, Nigeria’s CRVS framework is plagued by weak institutional linkages resulting to poor quality sociodemographic data. Therefore, this paper focused on the importance of a robust CRVS system as source of quality sociodemographic data in Nigeria, with the objective of situating it within the broader context of good governance. The paper is primarily theoretical and employed the activity theory to examine access to and use of population-based data from the CRVS system for good governance. This paper concludes that the inability to generate actionable and quality population-based data due to Nigeria’s weak CRVS system, as well as non-data driven socioeconomic policies hinders good governance. Therefore, more investments are needed to scale-up Nigeria’s CRVS system and the resulting sociodemographic data should be a priority in driving national policy-making for good governance.
Darlington Iwarimie-Jaja, Raimi Lasisi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 17, pp 72-86; doi:10.36108/njsa/9102/71(0150)

Abstract:
The place of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) in ensuring and sustaining social order in any country has been long established especially with the understanding that norms, rules, and laws act as social adhesives for society. However, some countries in the developing world seem to be grappling with significant challenges associated with criminal justice delivery as a consequence of the real and perceived inefficiency of the CJS in dealing with deviant issues. This to a large extent tend to undermine social order and by extension the collective conscience of the people. In Nigeria, criminal justice issues have attracted strong theoretical and practical affronts with the dominant perspective being that the poor are often denied justice in favour of the rich with adverse implications for social order. As a result, this paper examined the issue of the CJS in order to show how this affects social order in Nigeria. The paper adopts the content analysis method for data gathering and the qualitative approach to data analysis. Also, the Marxist Political Economy perspective is adopted as the theoretical framework as well as a complementary method of analysis. The paper submits that in a society like Nigeria where criminal justice is significantly defined by the politics of corruption, social order will be largely elusive and in its place, there will be an obvious consistency in criminal activities in the country. The paper recommends among others that the government should strengthen the criminal justice system and provide an enabling environment for it to function effectively if social order is to be achieved in Nigeria.
B.E. Owumi, V.I. Kolo, A.A. Obemeata, B.M. Adesokan
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0260)

Abstract:
Traditional Medicine (TM) is the indigenous system by which different societies provide health care for her members. It developed based on the cultural conception of health and illness, and therapeutic materials that abound in the physical environment of a people. TM involves preventive, diagnostic and curative approaches that do not necessarily align with the methods of modern science. With a pre-historic origin, TM has culminated in its present form through various evolutionary processes including innovation and invention. The system has continued to thrive in modern-day Nigeria, in spite of modernization and advances in western medical science and technology. This is not without modification and adjustments in the bid to adapt to the challenges of modern times. This paper presents theoretical views on observable changes and continuity in the practice of traditional medicine in Nigeria. Guided by the general systems theory (GST), this paper implicates TM’s inherent capacity to adapt to the challenges of each epoch of human development, while aligning with societal constructions about health, illness and healing. Recommendations emanating from the paper will advance strategies for leveraging on the current state of affairs of TM, towards improved access to healthcare for the benefit of the generality of Nigerians.
Okechukwu S. Chukwudeh, Funmilola E. Ojo
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0280)

Abstract:
The study examined the social context of child survival strategies among mothers in polygynous marriages in Ibadan, Nigeria. The social exchange theory was employed as the theoretical framework. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with mothers in Polygynous marriages. Referral and snowball techniques were used to reach the target population. Mothers in polygynous marriages were purposively selected from three geographical locations in Ibadan, Nigeria. Manual content analysis was used to analyze the data for the study. The result showed that most mothers in polygynous marriages in Ibadan engaged in informal economic activities in order to raise finance needed for sustenance and child survival; use traditional herbs for child care, treatment and survival; live separately from other wives in order to prevent childhood sicknesses associated with congestion and overcrowding in the house. In addition, there is inconsistency in administering immunization to children due to poverty. The study concluded that mother’s place of residence, health care practices, and engaging in informal economic activities positively influenced child survival among women in polygynous marriages in Ibadan. There is need for more awareness campaign to ensure that children in polygynous families are regularly administered with vaccines in order to ensure their survival and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal 3.
Bamidele Rasak, Olubukoye Oye, Joseph Adeniyi
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0270)

Abstract:
There are divergent perspectives on the effect of the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria. This study examined fundamentalism and socio-economic development in the North-Eastern zone of Nigeria with particular reference to the Boko Haram movement. Social Movement Theory was employed as theoretical framework for explaining the implication of Boko Haram insurgency for socioeconomic development of Northeast Nigeria. Secondary data were collected to elicit information for analysis. Boko Haram as a sect had resorted to the use of violence. This study shows that the rise in radical movements is mainly explainable by poor socio-economic infrastructures, poor governance and poverty that catalyse rapid increase in the membership of the group.
Kehinde Seun-Addie, Ezebunwa E. Nwokocha
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0240)

Abstract:
The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative was conceived to bolster appreciable reduction in the impact of malaria on pregnant women through Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT) and the use of Insecticide-treated Net (ITN). This study examines the association between knowledge and acceptability of the RBM programme on maternal health in Ibadan classified among areas with records of high prevalence of malaria-implicated maternal mortality. A survey of 407 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at various Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in six selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan was undertaken. This clinic based approach was adopted to ensure that selected respondents were among those exposed to the RBM programme as antenatal care clinic attendees. Results show that increase in the knowledge of RBM related activities led to a corresponding increase in acceptability of the initiative, which ultimately led to marked improvement in maternal health. Thus, there is need to ensure that more women become aware of the RBM project as the surest trajectory for positive disposition to the RBM intervention, with a predictable concomitant improvement in maternal health status of childbearing women in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Olufunke O. Adegoke, Adeola I. Alabi, Ayodele S. Jegede
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0250)

Abstract:
Yoruba conception of “eniyan l’aso mi” meaning “humans are my clothing” represents the deep cultural belief in the importance of having reliable people for support whenever needed. Social production of care is production and distribution of roles and responsibilities in caregiving. Individual household members care for their relatives differently. While this concept of eniyan l’aso mi influences social relationship generally in the Yoruba society it is not clear how this will translate to social production of care for the elderly. Considering the changes in social realities of the elderlies and their families, this study, examined, family care provision for the elderlies living with chronic conditions. Using Symbolic Interactionism and Role Theory for the theoretical analysis, data were generated on familial support for elderly living with diabetes mellitus/cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-four In-Depth Interviews and Twelve Key Informant Interviews were conducted among elderlies and their caregivers selected from the community and Old People’s Home. The generated data was content-analyzed in line with the thematic of the study. Change in residential pattern, rising cost of living, children’s late entrance into marital/family life and disintegration of familial bond were observed factors influencing familial care of the elderly. Furthermore, children were found to be the most reliable source of family support for these elderly; familial support was not only found to be preferred to other sources of support, it was also found to be positively associated with aged quality of life. Although familial support is a key determinant of chronically ill elderlies’ quality of life, measures guaranteeing elderly access to care must be put in place.
Yusuf Dambo
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0290)

Abstract:
Malaria is among the major public health issues in Nigeria. Although various preventive and treatment techniques have been adopted by people in different locations, the disease remains a big concern among households in areas where its transmission is endemic. This study on childhood malaria prevention and treatment options utilized quantitative and qualitative data collected among mothers of under five children, household heads and health workers. Findings revealed that despite the divergent views about malaria causation, 66.7% of respondents attributed malaria to mosquito, 53.3% claimed that children under five are the most vulnerable to the scourge and further revealed that the majority of mothers in the study area used Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) for prevention, the incidence of malaria during the survey was less than 50%. Though different treatment options were available in the area hospital was the most common option for malaria treatment among the people. The study concluded that modern preventive technique (ITN) was used for malaria prevention despite its low coverage among children; malaria treatment expenses were the major challenge identified by the respondents.
Usman Adekunle Ojedokun
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0210)

Abstract:
Illegal border-crossing is a major problem confronting many nations. In Nigeria, the security of land borders is constantly put to test by the influx of transnational organised street beggars. Against this background, this study examined border policing challenges and the consequences of transnational organised street begging in Nigeria. The study was exploratory and cross-sectional in design. The situational crime prevention perspective was adopted as theoretical guide. The key informant interview method was primarily utilised to elicit data from personnel of five relevant law enforcement agencies. Findings revealed that the challenges at controlling illegal entry of transnational organised street beggars are multi-dimensional. Crime perpetrations and involvement in insurgency are among the major ways through which transnational organised street beggars threaten Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria is urged to develop necessary mechanisms through which relevant law enforcement agencies can be made more effective at policing the borders and enforcing migration laws.
Sunday S. Adedayo, Richard A. Aborisade
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0220)

Abstract:
Indeed, appreciable research has considered the dynamics of sexual assault involving young victims. However, very little criminological research has considered the dynamics of sexual abuse of elderly people. To fill this void, this current study developed a profile of sexual abuse cases among women aged 50 and older, based on the accounts of their abusers. Specifically, the study investigated the motives and mechanisms for sexual abuse of the aged in the country as well as the factors that account for the vulnerability of aged women. A sample of 21 elderly sexual abuse offenders from six prisons in Ogun and Lagos states were purposively engaged to shed some light on the nature and dimensions of sexual abuse of elderly women in the country. Results from qualitative analyses of official demographic and offence history data, and in-depth interviews of offenders challenge a couple of commonly held beliefs, assumptions and assertions about sexual abuse of elderly in literature, news journals and public discourse. As against a general belief that young men that sexually abuse older women are ‘money ritualists,’ this study found sexual violence history, mental illness, substance abuse, and sexual deviancy as factors fuelling perpetrators’ action. The majority of perpetrators were intrafamiliar offenders who are family members, neighbours, workers and associates of the victims. Offenders expressed awareness of usual non-reporting of sexual victimisation by the abused, which is a factor that encourages intrafamiliar offending. As a growing social menace in Nigeria, sexual abuse of the elderly is factored by neglect, and exposure of adults to both environmental and situational pressures. Therefore, proper caregiving, meeting of essential needs of the elderly, response from the criminal justice system and encouraging reportage of sexual victimisation are suggested.
Tade Oludayo, Collins Udechukwu
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0230)

Abstract:
Rape of females in Nigeria has reached a disturbing proportion. While the media has played a major role in creating awareness about rape, their representations of rape are crucial in determining post-rape responses. This study, therefore investigates newspaper coverage and representations of rape in two select newspapers in Nigeria (2012-2016). It utilizes two national dailies (The Punch and The Sun) with dedicated crime pages to understand the frequency of reportage, factors underlying low or non-reportage of rape by victims, and the dominant frame used in reporting rape. Findings show that 331 cases of rape were reported within the period with southwestern part of the country recording largest occurrence. Low or non-reporting behavior of rape by victims was affected by fear of stigma, fear of the rapist due to threats, religious sentiments, family interventions, and inability to access the media. The dominant frame utilized in reporting rape was human interest frame. The paper recommends diagnostic and prognostic frames to attract informed policies and give justice to the raped.
Turnwait O. Michael, Alfred S. Ekpenyong
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0101)

Abstract:
Contraceptive use and an ideal number of children are among the factors that significantly influence the fertility of a country. Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Nigeria in particular are noted for polygynous marriages. The relationship between polygyny and fertility is well documented in literature. However, the influence of polygyny on fertility in Nigeria is yet to receive adequate academic attention. This paper sets out to re-examine the polygyny-fertility hypothesis. Data were sourced from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, which was a nationally representative survey of women of reproductive age (15-49). The survey interviewed women on fertility, family planning, marriage history, and maternal and child health. The 26,403 married women that provided responses on questions concerning marital unions and fertility behavior constitute the sample for the study. The findings show that although marriage type has no significant effect on the fertility of married women, rank among wives in polygynous unions significantly influence fertility with the first wife being more prolific than subsequent wives. Population policies aimed at reducing high fertility should factor in the role of polygyny and competition among wives for higher number of children.
Scholastica Ngozi Atata, Ayokunle Olumuyiwa Omobowale
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0110)

Abstract:
Protests are an essential element of democratisation process and a significant factor in the social struggle and commitment to a cause. Protests are staged in different forms, either, with placards or songs to portray socio-political grievance. This study explains the symbolism of Biafra protest songs in South-Eastern Nigeria. Protest songs are symbols that contextualise intent of a social struggle. The protest songs depict cultural and group ideology which fosters the Igbo identity cohesion in the Biafra struggle. These protest songs indicate shared patterns of behaviour and interaction, cognitive constructs and understanding that create unique symbolism of Biafra among the Igbo people in Nigeria. This paper argues that Biafra protest songs are a non-material culture that contextualises the meanings attached to Biafra in achieving identity capital, identity-cohesion, struggle sustenance and commitment during protests.
, Ruth Ebosetale Akhuetie
The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 16; doi:10.36108/njsa/8102/61(0140)

Abstract:
It has been estimated that out of the 33 million internally displaced persons in the world, Nigeria accounts for about 3.3 million, representing 10 percent of the total of IDPs.. This figure is currently on the increase as the spat of violence continues especially in the North East by Boko Haram insurgents, North Central by Fulani herdsmen marauders, and other parts of the country by natural disasters and boundary adjustment related issues. An overwhelming majority of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria are said to be women and children. Most reports have indicated that, women and children constitute more than 50 percent of the Internally Displaced Camps formation. Given the increase of women and children who are trapped in the circle of violence, some accompanying challenges are those of food security and adequate health provision. Whereas most studies have focused on the general situations IDPs in the country experience, few studies have explored the food security and health challenges faced by the vulnerable population. It is on this note that this conceptual paper seeks to explore the food security and health challenges faced by vulnerable populations with special focus on women and children. The theoretical framework for this study was anchored on the Human security and Feminist Approach. The study concluded that the food security and health situations especially among women and children IDPs is at a critical point, hence, there is urgent need for intervention by concerned stakeholders.
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