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Nissa Kusariana, Praba Ginandjar, Vivi Septi Ariyani, Moh Arie Wurjanto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4161

Abstract:
Program eliminasi filariasis belum menunjukkan hasil maksimal di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Perubahan perilaku vektor nyamuk terutama waktu aktif menghisap darah sangat mempengaruhi penularan penyakit filariasis. Salah satu perubahan perilaku vektor tersebut adalah aktivitas nyamuk Aedes spp. yang aktif di pagi hari menjadi aktif di malam hari. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan aktivitas nokturnal nyamuk Aedes spp. di daerah endemis filariasis di Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan desain cross-sectional yang dilakukan di dua desa endemis filariasis yaitu Desa Tegal Dowo, Kecamatan Tirto, Kabupaten Pekalongan dan Desa Ujung-Ujung, Kecamatan Pabelan, Kabupaten Semarang. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan selama 2 malam di rumah penderita filariasis atau rumah di sekitar rumah kasus (Jarak ± 200 meter) dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Penangkapan nyamuk berlangsung pada pukul 18.00 - 24.00 WIB dengan jumlah penangkap nyamuk 3 orang di dalam dan 3 orang di luar rumah. Pengumpulan nyamuk dilakukan dengan metode Human Landing Collection (HLC) dan resting collection. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan aktivitas nokturnal Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus di daerah endemis filariasis di Jawa Tengah. Total nyamuk Aedes spp. yang ditemukan yaitu sebanyak 124 nyamuk, dengan 121 Ae. aegypti ditemukan di dalam rumah dan 2 nyamuk diluar rumah. Di dua wilayah penelitian ditemukan waktu aktif Ae. aegypti berada pada pukul 18.00-19.00 WIB. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya aktivitas nokturnal dari Aedes spp. di wilayah endemis Filariasis di Provinsi Jawa Tengah
Tri Wahono, Endang Puji Astuti, , , Muhammad Umar Riandi
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 55-68; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4683

Abstract:
The government targets malaria elimination in Java and Bali by 2023. But until 2020, Pangandaran and Pandeglang Regency haven’t received malaria-free certification. This qualitative study was conducted to provide an overview of Pangandaran and Pandeglang malaria control implementation by comparing it to Activity Indicators based on the Indonesian Minister of Health Decree on malaria elimination. In-depth interviews, using thematically interview guidelines, were conducted to 48 key informants such as policyholders and people in charge of health programs and cross-sectoral at the provincial, district, sub-district, and village levels. Thematic analysis was used in the theme of policy implementation, budget, facilities and infrastructures, human resources, and cross-sector cooperation. The result shows that malaria control is implemented according to the decree, but some activities haven’t been done. The analysis on policy implementation theme shows that both districts have carried out according to the guidelines, with innovation in the form of establishing Posmaldes (village malaria post) in Ujung Kulon National Park in Pandeglang. APBD, APBN, and Global Fund are used as budget sources. Both districts stated that facilities and infrastructures are sufficiently available, but there is a lack in human resources’ quantity and varying degrees of competencies. There is also a lack of cross-sector cooperation because malaria control hasn’t become a priority in those sectors and they are only acting as supports to the health sector. Efforts to control malaria are considered less optimal due to the absence of malaria elimination regulations, varied human resource capabilities, and the limitation in the duties and functions of cross-sectors.
Yuniarti Suryatinah, , Sri Sulasmi, Windy Tri Yuana, Dian Eka Setyaningtyas
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 9-22; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4651

Abstract:
District of Hulu Sungai Utara conducted an additional 2 (two) rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) for filariasis prevention in 2014 and 2015 that resulted in the success of the re-Transmission Assessment Survey Phase 1 (re-TAS 1) in 2016. This study was conducted to identify factors affecting the technical aspects of the aforementioned two additional rounds of MDA. This is a descriptive qualitative study, with a cross-sectional study design. The research was performed from September to November 2017. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with some executive stakeholders (health workers, cadres, community leaders, local women group) involved in the implementation of MDA for the filariasis elimination program. The result from indepth interviews shows the presence of technical factors at the execution level which supports the smooth implementation of the two additional rounds of MDA. Those factors include communication, resources, operational standard, bureaucracy, and pharmaceutical innovation. The success of the additional MDA roundswas marked by the absence of the re-TAS sample that was tested positive of Brugia Rapid™. The pharmaceutical innovation which transforms the dosage form of the medication into powdered form with some additional sweetener that was done in 2014-2015 can improve coverage of the treatment as well as the medication adherence for the early childhood population group. Changing pharmaceutical dosage forms require additional support in the form of human resources, infrastructure as well as financing
Nathania Disa Ariesta Andriani, Hebert Adrianto, Arief Gunawan Darmanto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.3854

Abstract:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a vector-borne disease that still happens every year in Indonesia. This disease is caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the Aedes aegypti as its vector. One of the biological vector controls that can be implemented is using fish as a predator of mosquito larvae, such as using Electric Yellow Cichlid fish (Labidochromis caeruleus) and Tinfoil Barb fish (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). This study aimed to determine the difference in predation capacities of Electric Yellow Cichlid and Tinfoil Barb on Ae. aegypti larvae. This research is quasiexperimental with a completely randomized design (CRD) with Post Test Only research design. One aquarium with three liters of water containing one fish is given 25 Ae. aegypti larvae. Testing of each fish species is carried out in five replications. Fish predation was observed every 30 seconds until all larvae were eaten. The result showed that Electric Yellow Cichlid could prey on 25 larvae in an averagetime of 5.7 minutes, while Tinfoil Barb spent 11.6 minutes. The results of the Friedman test showed that there was a significant time difference in preying time of Electric Yellow Cichlid and Tinfoil Barb. It’s concluded that Electric Yellow Cichlid was more effective as an Ae. aegypti larvae predator.
Sunaryo Sunaryo, Bina Ikawati, Tri Wijayanti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4023

Abstract:
Malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Purworejo terutama pada daerah perbukitan yang berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Magelang, Provinsi Jawa Tengah dan Kabupaten Kulonprogo, Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Daerah perbukitan tersebut merupakan daerah reseptif malaria. Keberadaan dari habitat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria yang berdekatan dengan pemukiman serta terjadi setiap musim, menyebabkan penularan malaria terjadi sepanjang tahun. Pemetaan spasial tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria dapat membantu penelusuran dan tindak lanjut intervensi terhadap pengendalian vektor malaria. Survei dan pemetaan tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria dilakukan menggunakan Global Positioning System (GPS) dan hasilnya diolah dengan ArcGIS. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April-November 2018 di Purworejo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria pada musim kemarau adalah genangan air di sepanjang aliran sungai dan mata air di sekitar pemukiman; dalam bentuk genangan-genangan kecil yang terisi sedikit air. Tempat perkembangbiakan dalam kondisi terlindung dengan adanya tanaman atau pepohonan. Tindakan intervensi yang tepat adalah dengan mengeringkan tempat perkembangbiakan vektor, membuat perlindungan mata air, larvasidasi pada musim kemarau serta penggunaan kelambu berinsektisida pada masyarakat di sekitar tempat perkembangbiakan vektor. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa identifikasi tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria pada musim kemarau di sepanjang aliran sungai dan mata air.
Nissa Noor Annashr, Fathi Muhamad Rahmadi
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 23-36; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4621

Abstract:
Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by parasitic nematodes. The worm can damage the human lymphatic system gradually then causing enlargement of the limbs, breasts and genitalia. Kuningan is an endemic regency for filariasis in West Java Province. Cilimus District was in the 2nd position as a district with the highest filariasis cases in Kuningan in 2017. This research was conducted in Cilimus District from May to June 2018 using a cross-sectional design. The population was all households in the Cilimus District with a sample size of 106 people who were taken using a simple random sampling technique. The independent variables studied were knowledge and attitudes regarding the prevention of filariasis, the dependent variable was the filariasis prevention practices. Data collection was carried out by interview using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by univariate and bivariate (chi-square test). The results showed that some respondents had good knowledge and positive attitudes about the prevention of filariasis (50%). The description of respondent practices showed that 82.1% of respondents took filariasis drug, 62.3% of respondents had the habit of using mosquito repellent, only 4.7% of respondents used mosquito nets, 49.1% of respondents put gauze wire, 47.2% of respondents did not have a habit of hanging clothes. The results of categorizing behavioral variables were found that more than half of the respondents (52.8%) had implemented good prevention practices. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between knowledge and attitude with filariasis prevention practices (p <0.05).
Anna Yuliana, Rusdi Aris Rinaldi, Nur Rahayuningsih, Firman Gustaman
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 69-78; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4042

Abstract:
Musa x paradisiaca L. leaves are known to contain phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and other compounds that can be used as larvicides. This study aims to determine the effect of Musa x paradisiaca L leaves’ ethanol extract granules on the mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae. The Research was experimental in two stages of effectiveness testing, that are extract and granule formula effectiveness test. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test. The extraction method used was maceration using 96% ethanol. The concentration of the extract dosage used were 0.2; 0.5; 1; 2; and 4%, with control (+) temephos and control (-). Repetitions were carried out 3 times with a sample total of 675 larvae. Observations were made for 12 and 24 hours. Preparation of granules using 2 formulas, formula 1 granules without extract and formula 2 granules with the extract. To fulfill the granule formulation criteria, the preparation was evaluated. The results showed that the concentration of 4% extract was the most effective at 98.7%, as stated by the Kruskal-Wallis test result,p-value <0.05, which means that there was an effect on the effectiveness of larvicide. The percentage of mortality of larvae given formula 2 is 100% and based on the Mann-Whitney test with value p<0.05, there is a difference between granule 1 and 2 formula. Criteria of granule including moisture content (1.72 %), angle of rest 240, flow velocity (50 gr/sec), and dispersion time (2.25 minutes). The granular formula of Musa x paradisiaca L leaves can make the application easier and hopefully can be used as effectively as synthetic larvicide in the community.
Arda Dinata, Endang Puji Astuti, Suwarno Hadisusanto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 105-114; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.2270

Abstract:
The vector-borne disease remains a health problem in Pandeglang District. Entomological data isimportant in the strategy of controlling the vector-borne disease. This study aimed to determine thedistribution of mosquito larvae based on specific habitat and ecosystem typea. This research is a secondarydata analysis of Rikhus Vektora 2016 in Pandeglang, Banten Province. This type of observational researchwith cross-sectional study design. The purposive sampling technique is used based on geographical andecosystem stratification. We found 12 types of environments of the six types of ecosystems (HDP, HJP, NHDP,NHJP, PDP, and PJP) that had larvae: forest (secondary, homogeneous, and coastal); lagoon; brackish waterswamp; bamboo clumps; rice fields; plantations; and residential areas. The most ecosystem types werelarvae in HJP (160 larvae) and the least larvae in NHDP (9 larvae). Species of larvae are 16 types: rice fields(Cx. vishui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, An. barbirostris); small hole in the ground (Anopheles sp., Culex sp.);coconut shell (Ae. albopictus, Ar. malayi, Ar. kuchingensis, Malaya sp, Culex sp.); armpit taro leaves andbanana leaves (Ae. albopictus, Malaya genurostris); freshwater swamp (Cx. vishnui, Cx. gelidus) andbrackish water (Anopheles sp.); riverside (Anopheles sp., Cx. quinquefasciatus); ditch (Culex sp.); pool (Cx.quinquefasciatus); lagoon (Anopheles sp., Culex sp.); bamboo stumps (Ae. albopictus); Limnocharis flavagarden (Culex sp.); and used bottles (Ae. albopictus). The characteristics of larvae habitat: temperature (25-33oC); pH 8-9 (67.3%); light intensity (115-32,000 lux); vegetation (12.7%); algae (3.6%); water istemporary (61.6%), inundated (78.2%) and clear (50,9%).Keywords: Habitat, Ecosystem, Larvae Vector, Pandeglang
Muhammad Nirwan, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Surachmi Setyaningsih, Fadjar Satrija
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 93-104; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.2710

Abstract:
Filariasis is still a health problem in Bogor Regency. The discovery of filariasis sufferers hasgrowing during the year since 2004 until now with a total of 117 people. The mass prevention drugadministration program (POPM) has been implemented since 2015. This study aims to identify theepidemiological distribution of clinical filariasis sufferers and an overview of the achievement of filariasiselimination program in Bogor district. The research using descriptive design with a quantitative approach.The data in this study used secondary data from Bogor District Health Office and Bogor Central Bureau ofStatistics. Data were analyzed descriptively and identify differences and relationships between variablesused the chi-square test. The results of the study showed the epidemiological distribution of filariasis inBogor Regency with predominantly female patients (59.8%) and productive age (36-45 years). The resultsfrom chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference between the age groups and theincidence of filariasis from year to year with a P value (0.000) 0.05. The spread of filariasis tends to fluctuate and continues to increase (75%). The results of therelationship test showed that there was no significant relationship between the number of cases and the levelof family welfare with a P value (0.279)> 0.05. The implementation of POPM, both treatment outcomes andtreatment success rates, has exceeded the national target.Keywords: Epidemiology, Filariasis, POPM, Bogor, Indonesia
Zainul Ambiya, Martini Martini, Firda Yanuar Pradani
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 115-122; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.1440

Abstract:
Tembalang Village is one of the endemic areas of DHF in the city of Semarang (IR 479,6/100.000population). The discovery of chemical resistance cases in mosquitoes requires another alternative as an effortto control dengue that is environmentally friendly, cheap and effective, namely by using mosquito traps withattractants. This study aims to determine the differences in the types of effective attractant materials to beused in mosquito traps as an effort to control mosquitoes. This type of research is experimental with the Post-Test Only Control Group Design method. The sample of this study was 64 houses with repetitions of 6 times.Testing of attractants was carried out on 3 types of attractants, namely brown sugar yeast, sugar yeast, strawsoaking water and PAM water as a control. Environmental observations were carried out to determine thedensity of mosquitoes in Tembalang Village. The results showed that the type of attractant most favored bymosquitoes was brown sugar yeast (73,37%) and sugar yeast (26,62%). Meanwhile, the mosquito density inTembalang sub-district was low at 1.375 with the most found mosquito population being Culex (55.7%) andthe highest fishing place in the house (59%). Keywords: Tembalang Village, Vector Control, Attractant, Mosquito Density
Asti Tri Pramadani, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Fadjar Satrija
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 123-136; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.3269

Abstract:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is still a problem in some countries, resulting in 390 millioninfections a year in the world. DHF vaccine has not found so the treatment is focused on vector controls.Entomological data describing the bio ecology of vectors in the region can help vector control diseases moreeffectively. The study aims at assessing distribution, characteristic and risk factors in the habitat of Aedes larvain the DHF endemic region of West Ranomeeto subdistrict of Southeast Sulawesi province. This study is ananalytic observational study with a sectional study approach. Data collection was carried out using singlelarva method in 600 houses by purposive sampling. Data analysis uses chi square’s descriptive analysis andlogistics multinomial regression. The result shows larva density in Sindangkasih higher than Jati Bali. Ae.aegypti dominated in Sindangkasih and Ae. albopictus dominated in Jati Bali. Buckets, dispenser tray,refrigerator tray, container made of cements and plastics and container with volume
Lukman Hakim, Endang Puji Astuti, Heni Prasetyowati,
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 73-84; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.3140

Abstract:
One House One Jumantik Programme (G1R1J) has been launched by the Indonesian governmentsince 2015. This programme emphasizes the participation of family members as jumantik rumah bymonitoring and controlling larvae in their houses. Family’s coaching in the G1R1J’s programme is carried outby each jumantik coordinator. Tasikmalaya and Cimahi were Dengue endemic areas with high cases in thelast five years. This study aimed to determine the effect of family empowerment by the Jumantik Coordinatorin reducing the density of Aedes spp. larvae, reducing the number of DHF cases and increasing familyparticipation in vector surveillance. The study was located in the Tasikmalaya and Cimahi areas andconducted with an intervention. The interventions included RW-level workshops, coaching, and observationby jumantik coordinator. The sample unit is a family, consist of 400 unit in the intervention area and 200unit in the comparison area. The results showed that there were significant differences in the status ofcommunity participation in eradicating mosquito nests (PSN). The presence of dengue patients and thepresence of Aedes spp mosquito larvae were different between before and after the intervention both inTasikmalaya and Cimahi. In addition, there are significant differences in the status of communityparticipation in PSN, the presence of dengue cases, the presence of Aedes spp. larvae and theimplementation of vector surveillance by families in the intervention and comparison areas. The resultsconcluded that family coaching interventions and observations by the Jumantik Coordinator, proved to havean effect on community participation in PSN, decreasing dengue cases, increasing larvae free index (ABJ)and vector surveillance implementation by families.Keywords: Society participation, Dengue cases, Jumantik House, One House One Jumantik
Aryo Ginanjar, Laksono Trisnantor, Dwi Handono Sulistyo
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.3109

Abstract:
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still a public health problem that is difficult to deal with inTasikmalaya City, West Java Province. In 2019, the region experienced very significant cases increase leadingto an Outbreak. Various attempts have been made without optimal results. DHF control program managersexpressed the urgent need for strong policies, but no empirical studies have been carried out. It is importantto analyze evidence as justification for urgency and impetus in the policy agenda. This policy research withnaturalistic qualitative research with Analysis for Policy approach aims to explore evidence on the urgency ofDHF control regional regulations at policy stakeholders’ aspect. The results of this study revealed the evidenceof DHF Control Regional Regulation’s establishment urgency. Those are increasing community endangeringsituation of DHF cases; the urgent need of policies for program managers; and the corroborating evidence, asthe results of stakeholder analysis, in the form of majority stakeholder are the main policy stakeholder whohave the power and strong interest in supporting the policies’ urgency. The urgency level of DHF controlRegional Regulation based on this research has reached an emergency level, so there should be efforts toestablish DHF control Regional Regulation in Tasikmalaya City.Keywords: Stakeholders, Policy Urgencies, Regional Regulations, DHF
Nurminha Nurminha, Tori Rihiantoro, Mara Ipa
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i2.3095

Abstract:
Clinical symptoms of dengue virus (DENV) infection range from asymptomatic mild dengue fever(DF), more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) up to dengue shock syndrome. One of the determinantsof dengue infection severity was virus virulence. This study aimed to determine the clinical and virologicalcharacteristics of dengue virus infection patients based on the severity degree. A cross-sectional study wasconducted in RSUD Dr. H. Abdul Moeloek, Lampung Province between July-November 2016 with 56 denguepatients as samples selected using purposive sampling. The serological test was done using a rapiddiagnostic test. Blood samples for DENV serotype identification were examined using reverse-transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Classification of DENV infection severity was obtained from the patient’s medicalrecord. The results showed that the most common clinical manifestations were fever, headache, and retroorbitalpain, appearing in all patients from every degree of severity. There were Grade I DHF patients whoexperienced Myalgia (15.6%) and petechiae (22.2%). Laboratory results showed that thrombocytopeniaappeared in every grade, even though 13.3% of grade I patients did not experience it. Secondary infectionwas found in 92.9% of samples, and all DENV serotype can be detected in 39.2%samples: DENV-1 (46.7%),DENV-2 (6.7%), DENV-3 (26.7%), and DENV-4 (20%). This study concluded that the majority of clinicalcharacteristics in DHF patients are in line with the degree of severity, with the bleeding as the dominantmanifestation in patients with grade II-IV. Virological characteristics of DENV-1 are dominant in all patientswith DHF grade I-IV.Keywords: dengue virus, serotype, severity, secondary infection, Bandar Lampung
, Fadhli Gunarto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.1288

Abstract:
Mosquitoes are insects that can transmit diseases to humans through their bites. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is one of the diseases that could be transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. The use of insecticides to control the occurrence of dengue haemorrhagic fever builds resistance of the mosquito towards the chemical substance. Therefore, natural larvicide was used as an alternative to chemical insecticides. This research was conducted to study the effectiveness of larvicides from the ethyl acetate fraction of Bangun-bangun leaves (Plectranthus amboinicus) in killing the Aedes aegypti larvae and to identify the active larvicide compounds. This laboratory experiment research tested six extract concentrations (0.0; 1.0; 1.8; 3.2; 5.6; 10.0%) in three replications. Observations were administered for 48 hours to count the number of the dead Aedes aegypti instar III larvae obtained from the Entomology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary, IPB. The results showed that the larvae mortality increased as the extract concentration increased. The percentage of Aedes aegypti killed reached 96% at an extract concentration of 10%. Meanwhile, the probit analysis showed that LC50 was found at a concentration of 5.56%. The identification of active compounds using GCMS revealed that the larvicidal compounds in ethyl acetate fraction were the ones from an organic acid group which were, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. Keywords: Aedes aegypti, identification, larvacidal, mortality Abstrak. Nyamuk merupakan serangga yang dapat menularkan penyakit melalui gigitannya. Salah satu penyakit yang ditularkan adalah demam berdarah dengue yang dibawa oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Pengendalian demam berdarah dengue menggunakan insektisida berbahan kimia dapat menyebabkan resisten nyamuk terhadap insektisida meningkat, oleh karena itu larvasida alami diharapkan dapat menjadi alternatif pengganti insektisida kimia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui afektifitas larvasida dari fraksi etil asetat daun Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus) terhadap mortalitas larva Aedes aegypti dan mengidentifikasi jenis senyawa aktif yang berperan sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimen laboratorium dengan enam konsentrasi ekstrak (0,0; 1,0; 1,8; 3,2; 5,6; 10,0%) dan tiga kali ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan selama 48 jam terhadap jumlah kematian larva Aedes aegypti instar III yang diperoleh dari Laboratorium Entomologi Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kematian larva meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi ekstrak. Kematian Aedes aegypti mencapai 96% pada konsentrasi ekstrak 10% dan hasil analisa probit menunjukkan LC50 terdapat pada konsentrasi 5,56%. Identifikasi senyawa aktif menggunakan GCMS menunjukkan bahwa senyawa yang bersifat larvasida dalam fraksi etil asetat ini adalah senyawa dari golongan asam organik yaitu, asam stearate, dan asam palmitat. Kata Kunci: Aedes aegypti, identifikasi, larvasida, mortalitas
Lisa Hidayati, Seli Suprihatini
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.2171

Abstract:
Mahogany seed extract (Swietenia mahagoni) is a natural larvacidal material which contains limonoid, flavonoid, saponins and alkoloid. Mahogany seed extract can kill Culex sp larvae, which known as filariasis vectors. There are several mosquitoes control are used to pressing Culex sp larvae growth, such as using larvacidal and fogging but have bad impact on the circumtances The study observed effect of mahogany seed extract on Culex sp. larvae mortality. This study utilized an experimental method with ANOVA and probit analysis to determined LC50 and LT50. Extraction method were used in this study was maceration method. This research used some variation of mahogany seed extract concentration, consist of 8%, 10%, 20%, 50%, with negative control (-) used distilled water. Research repetition was carried out 3 times with a total sample of 325 larvae. Observations were made at 15, 60, 120, 240, 420 and 720 minutes (12 hours). This study found that there was a significant effect between the concentration of mahogany seed extract on larval mortality with Fcount > Ftable (0.05 ≥ 0.01). The concentration that effectively kills 50% of Culex sp (LC50) larvae was 10%. the time which was needed to kill 50% of Culex sp (LT50) larvae was 204,230 minutes. The higher the concentration level of mahogany seed extract were used, so that more larval mortality rates. The morphology or larvae body structure after administration of mahogany seed extract was damaging in the abdomen and thorax, allegedly inhibited growth hormone due to the mechanism of action of mahogany seed extract as an antifeedant This reaserch can be using mahogany seed extract with different methods and larvae. Mahogany seed extracts are expected to be applied in society as a vector control and this research can be developed using mahogany seed extract with different methods and larvae. Keywords: Mahogany seeds, Extract, Culex sp, larvacidal, Maceration, Abstrak. Ekstrak biji mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni) merupakan bahan larvasida alami yang mengandung limonoid, flavonoid, saponin dan alkoloid. Ekstrak biji mahoni diduga bisa membunuh larva Culex sp, yang berperan sebagai vektor filariasis. Ada beberapa cara penanggulangan nyamuk yang digunakan untuk menekan pertumbuhan larva Culex sp, seperti penggunaan larvasida dan fogging tetapi memiliki dampak yang buruk untuk lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk melihat pengaruh ekstrak biji mahoni terhadap kematian larva Culex sp. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dengan analisis ANOVA dan analisis probit untuk menentukan LC50 dan LT50 . Metode ekstraksi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah modifikasi maserasi. Konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni yang diujikan yaitu 8%, 10%, 20%, 50%, dengan kontrol (-) menggunakan aquadest. Pengulangan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali dengan total sampel 325 larva. Pengamatan dilakukan pada menit ke 15, 60, 120, 240, 420 dan 720 menit (12 jam). Penelitian ini memperoleh hasil bahwa adanya pengaruh yang signifikan antara konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni terhadap kematian larva dengan Fhitung > Ftabel (0,05 ≥ 0.01). Konsentrasi yang efektif membunuh 50% larva Culex sp (LC50) adalah 10%. waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk membunuh 50% larva Culex sp(LT50 ) adalah 204,230 menit. Semakin tinggi tingkat konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni semakin tinggi pula tingkat kematian larva. Morfologi atau struktur tubuh larva setelah pemberian ekstrak biji mahoni mengalami kerusakan di bagian abdomen dan toraks, diduga mengalami penghambatan hormonpertumbuhan karena mekanisme kerja ekstrak biji mahoni sebagai antifeedant. Ekstrak biji mahoni diharapkan dapat diaplikasikan di dalam masyarakat sebagai pengendalian vector dan Penelitian ini bisa dikembangkan dengan menggunakan ekstrak biji mahoni dengan metode dan larva yang berbeda. Kata Kunci: Biji mahoni, Ekstrak, Culex sp, Larvasida, Maserasi
Acivrida Mega Charisma, Elis Anita Farida, Farida Anwari
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.2366

Abstract:
Dengue is a disease caused by dengue virus infection. Diagnosis of the disease is often difficult to be upheld just by the symptoms. Therefore, laboratory diagnostics is required. The general objective of this study was to detect dengue IgG in serum samples with rapid tests and in urine samples of suspected dengue patients using ELISA. The procedure of this study consisted of three stages. First, collecting urine samples from healthy individuals and collecting blood and urine samples from suspected dengue patients; second, examining dengue IgG in serum samples of suspected dengue patients with rapid tests; and third, examining dengue-specific IgG in urine samples from suspected dengue patients and from healthy individuals with ELISA technique. Data analyzed using experimental analytics to determine the cut off point used to interpret laboratory diagnostic results. The results showed that patients with positive serum dengue IgG test at the same time also showed positive results on the examination of dengue-specific IgG in their urine samples while patients with negative serum at the same time showed negative results on the examination of dengue-specific IgG in urine samples. Dengue-specific IgG examination in urine samples with ELISA technique can be used as an alternative examination in establishing the diagnosis of dengue, in which urine samples are taken from patients with more than 4 days fever. Keywords: Dengue, IgG, Urine, ELISA Abstrak. Dengue merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan virus dengue. Diagnosis penyakit ini sering sulit ditegakkan jika hanya melihat dari gejala. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pemeriksaan laboratorium untuk penegakkan diagnosis. Tujuan umum penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeteksi IgG dengue dalam sampel serum dengan rapid tes dan pada sampel urine pasien terduga dengue dengan menggunakan metode ELISA. Prosedur penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap. Pertama, pengumpulan sampel urine individu sehat dan pngumpulan sampel darah dan urine pada pasien terduga dengue; kedua, pemeriksaan IgG dengue dalam sampel darah pasien terduga infeksi dengue dengan rapid tes; dan ketiga, pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urine pasien terduga dengue dengan teknik ELISA, yang sebelumnya sudah dikelompokkan sesuai dengan hasil pemeriksaan IgG dengue pada sampel serum dengan rapid tes, dan pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue sampel urine individu sehat dengan teknik ELISA. Analitik eksperimental digunakan untuk menentukan cut off dari data yang kemudian digunakan untuk menafsirkan hasil diagnostik laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada pasien dengan hasil pemeriksaan IgG dengue serum positif menunjukkan hasil positif juga pada pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urinnya, sedangkan pada hasil pemeriksaan serum yang negatif menunjukkan hasil negatif pula pada pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue di sampel urinnya. Pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urine dengan teknik ELISA dapat digunakan sebagai pemeriksaan alternatif dalam penegakan diagnosis dengue, di mana sampel urine diambil dari pasien dengan demam lebih dari 4 hari. Kata Kunci: Dengue, IgG, Urine, ELISA
Muhammad Umar Riandi, Tri Wahono, , Joni Hendri, Subangkit Subangkit
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.2765

Abstract:
Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the amplifying host. It is important to study the diversity of mosquito species around pig populations to determine the potential of Japanese encephalitis vectors in the region. This study is a cross-sectional study with a single sampling method for adult mosquitoes around pigpen in Tangerang Regency. The capture of adult mosquitoes is carried out by the outdoor resting mosquitoes collection at 18:00 - 24:00 using aspirators and light traps. Female mosquitoes were identified and subsequently tested RT-PCR for JEV. Catching results obtained 223 mosquitoes from the genus Culex, Armigeres, Aedes, Anopheles, and Mansonia with a total of 10 species. Species diversity in the pigpen area is classified as moderate (H = 1.0875 – 1.292) with Culex vishnui and Culex quinquefasciatus as the most abundant species. RT-PCR test found there’s no mosquito’s samples with positive JE RNA virus. Several species of mosquitoes found around pigpens in Tangerang District have the potential to become JEV vectors, so that control to the mosquito abundance and health of pigs is needed as a preventative measure. Keywords: Diversity, Japanese encephalitis, pig, vector Abstrak. Japanese encephalitis merupakan penyakit zoonosis yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk dan babi sebagai inang penguat. Studi keanekaragaman jenis nyamuk di sekitar populasi babi penting dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi vektor Japanese encephalitis pada wilayah tersebut. Desain penelitian ini adalah potong lintang dengan metode sampling tunggal terhadap nyamuk dewasa sekitar kandang babi di Kabupaten Tangerang. Penangkapan nyamuk dewasa dilakukan dengan metode koleksi outdoor resting pada malam hari pukul 18.00 – 24.00 menggunakan aspirator dan perangkap cahaya. Nyamuk betina diidentifikasi dan selanjutnya diuji RT-PCR virus JE. Hasil penangkapan didapatkan 700 ekor nyamuk dari genus Culex, Armigeres, Aedes, Anopheles, dan Mansonia dengan total 10 spesies. Keanekaragaman spesies pada seluruh wilayah penelitian tergolong sedang (H=1,0875 – 1,292) dengan Culex vishnui dan Culex quinquefasciatus sebagai spesies paling melimpah. Uji RT-PCR tidak menemukan adanya sampel nyamuk positif RNA virus JE. Beberapa spesies nyamuk yang ditemukan di sekitar kandang babi di Kecamatan Panongan memiliki potensi sebagai vektor JEV sehingga diperlukan pengendalian kepadatan nyamuk dan kesehatan ternak babi terhadap JEV sebagai upaya pencegahan. Kata Kunci: Keanekaragaman, Japanese encephalitis, babi, vektor
Joni Hendri, Heni Prasetyowati, Dewi Nur Hodijah, Rizal Pratama Sulaeman
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.2838

Abstract:
School is one of the potential sites for transmission of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The level of education is thought to be a major knowledge determinant about the disease and its transmission, as well as attitudes and practices for controlling dengue fever. This study aims to describe dengue knowledge in a student at various levels of education to prevent dengue transmission. Three hundred students participated in this study, as many as 98 students were male, while 202 students were female. The average elementary school student is 10.7 years old, junior high school students are 14 years old, and senior high school students are 16.5 years old. Based on the interview results it can be seen the percentage of students with favorable knowledge about DHF for elementary school level 49.5%; Junior High 38.89%; Senior High 37.50%, while knowledge of DHF vector control at the elementary level is 3.4%; Junior High 3.7% and Senior High 2.5%. The percentage of students taking vector control measures for the elementary level is 0.49%, Junior High 9.26%, and high school 5%. Age and sex do not show a relationship with knowledge and actions towards DHF. Knowledge about DHF and the eradication of DHF vectors and the eradication of DHF vectors in students at various levels of education in the Pangandaran area is still low. The socialization of 3M Plus must be carried out thoroughly and continuously in schools to increase the knowledge and participation of students in controlling DHF. Keywords: Knowledge, Dengue, School, Pangandaran Abstrak. Sekolah merupakan salah satu tempat potensial dalam penyebaran dan penularan penyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD). Level pendidikan diduga merupakan penentu utama pengetahuan tentang penyakit dan penularannya, serta sikap dan praktik untuk pengendalian demam berdarah. Tujuan dari penelitian kami adalah untuk menggambarkan pengetahuan yang dimiliki oleh siswa sekolah pada berbagai level pendidikan dalam kaitannya dengan upaya yang dilakukan untuk mencegah penularan penyakit DBD. Total sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah 300 siswa yang diambil berdasarkan teknik perhitungan sampel dari populasi siswa pada masing-masing tingkatan pendidikan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan melakukan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner yang terstruktur. Siswa yang diwawancara merupakan siswa yang ditunjuk oleh sekolah sebagai anggota Unit Kesehatan Sekolah (UKS). Dari 300 siswa yang ikut serta dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 98 siswa berjenis kelamin laki-laki, sedangkan 202 siswa berjenis kelamin perempuan. Usia rata-rata siswa SD berkisar 10,7 tahun, siswa SLTP adalah 14 tahun sedangkan usia rata-rata anak SLTA adalah 16,5 tahun. Berdasarkan hasil wawancara terlihat persentase siswa dengan pengetahuan baik tentang DBD untuk level SD 49,5%; SLTP 38,89%; SLTA 37,50% sedangkan pengetahuan tentang pengendalian vektor DBD pada level SD 3,4%; SLTP 3,7% dan SLTA 2,5%. Persentase siswa yang melakukan tindakan pengendalian vektor untuk level SD 0,49%; SLTP 9,26%; dan SLTA 5%. Usia dan jenis kelamin tidak menunjukkan hubungan dengan pengetahuan dan tindakan terhadap DBD. Pengetahuan tentang DBD dan pemberantasan vektor DBD serta tindakan pemberantasan vektor DBD pada siswa di berbagai level pendidikan di wilayah Pangandaran masih rendah. Sosialisasi PSN 3M Plus perlu dilakukan di sekolah untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan peran serta siswa dalam pengendalian DBD. Kata Kunci: Pengetahuan, Demam Berdarah Dengue, Sekolah, Pangandaran
Rahman Irpan Pahlepi, Santoso Santoso, Vivin Mahdalena, Marini Marini
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.3040

Abstract:
Kuantan Singingi District is one of the endemic areas of filariasis in Riau Province. Mass treatment activities have been done, but the results of TAS-1 in 2016 with Brugia Rapid Test still found 11 positive children, this condition indicates that there is still new transmission in Kuantan Singingi Regency. The purpose of this study was to determine the mosquito species which potentially become vector filariasis - and to determine the types of potential breeding habitats for mosquito larvae. This research was done in Pulau Panjang Cerenti Village, Cerenti District and Sukadamai Village, Singingi Hilir District in September and November 2017. Catching mosquitoes held for 12 hours starting at 18.00 -06.00 WIB, using the modification of human landing collection double net method. Mosquito catching was done twice, with an interval of one month, at three points/locations for two consecutive nights. There were 24 species of mosquito caught in the two villages. The most dominant species in Pulau Panjang Village was Culex vishnui (54.89%) with indoor and outdoor MHD were 4.5; 16.08 species/man/hour, Sukadamai Village was Culex quinquefasciatus (95.42%) with indoor and outdoor MHD were 23.58; 19.08 species/man/hour. PCR examination results on mosquitoes caught in Sukadamai Village was found microfilarian DNA B. malayi in Cx.vishnui, so potentially become filariasis vector. Breeding habitats that are found mostly was fish ponds that are no longer used, puddles, and swamps. Riverfront habitats was only found in Pulau Panjang Village. Keywords: filariasis, Culex vishnui, potential vector, habitats, Kuantan Singingi Abstrak. Kabupaten Kuantan Singingi merupakan satu diantara wilayah endemis filariasis di Provinsi Riau. Kegiatan pengobatan massal telah dilakukan, namun hasil TAS-1 tahun 2016 dengan Brugia Rapid Test masih ditemukan 11 anak positif. Kondisi ini menunjukan bahwa masih terjadi penularan baru di Kabupaten Kuantan Sengingi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui spesies nyamuk yang berpotensi menjadi vektor filariasis dan mengetahui jenis-jenis habitat perkembangbiakan potensial bagi larva nyamuk. Pengumpulan data telah dilakukan di Desa Pulau Panjang Cerenti Kecamatan Cerenti dan Desa Sukadamai Kecamatan Singingi Hilir pada bulan September dan November 2017. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan selama 12 jam dimulai dari pukul 18.00 -06.00 WIB, menggunakan metode modifikasi human landing collection double net. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan sebanyak dua kali, dengan selang waktu satu bulan, pada tiga titik/lokasi selama dua malam berturut-turut. Spesies nyamuk yang tertangkap di dua desa sebanyak 24 spesies. Spesies yang paling dominan di Desa Pulau Panjang yaitu Culex vishnui (54,89%) dengan MHD di luar dan dalam rumah yaitu 4,5 dan 16,08 ekor/orang/jam, sedangkan di Desa Sukadamai yaitu Cx. quinquefasciatus (95,42%) dengan MHD di luar dan dalam rumah yaitu 23,58 dan 19,08 ekor/orang/jam. Hasil pemeriksaan PCR pada nyamuk yang tertangkap di Desa Sukadamai ditemukan DNA mikrofilaria B. malayi pada nyamuk Cx. vishnui sehingga berpotensi menjadi vektor filariasis. Habitat perkembangbiakan yang ditemukan sebagian besar adalah kolam ikan yang sudah tidak digunakan lagi, genangan air, dan rawa. Habitat tepi sungai hanya ditemukan di Desa Pulau Panjang. Kata Kunci: filariasis, Culex vishnui, vektor potensial, habitat, Kuantan Singingi
Nurul Hidayati Kusumastuti, , Nova Pramestuti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v12i1.318

Abstract:
The unsafe and improper use of household insecticides represents a major hazard to the environment and human health. Most of people in Pangandaran Sub-District used household insecticides, even more than ten years. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that affect in safety practices of using household insecticide. The research was conducted from April to July 2014 in Pangandaran sub-district. A total of 374 household participated in this study through interviews. Data collected includes characteristics of respondents, educational status, knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding safe insecticide usage. Chi-square test (χ2) was used to measure the possible association between variables and continued with logistic regression. The majority of respondents were lack of safety practices of using household insecticide (60%). The levels of education (p=0.00) and knowledge (p=0.03) was associated with safe practices in insecticide use. However, according to logistic regression that education level had more influence towards safe insecticide use. Therefore, it is necessary to increase community knowledge through field demonstrations by health workers about the use of household insecticides safely and properly. Keywords: household insecticide, practice, safety, Pangandaran Abstrak. Penggunaan insektisida rumah tangga yang tidak aman dan tidak tepat dapat membahayakan lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia. Sebagian besar masyarakat di Kecamatan Pangandaran menggunakan insektisida rumah tangga, bahkan lebih dari sepuluh tahun. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi praktik menjaga keamanan dalam penggunaan insektisida rumah tangga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dari bulan April hingga Juli 2014 di Kecamatan Pangandaran. Sebanyak 374 rumah tangga berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini melalui wawancara. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi karakteristik responden, status pendidikan, pengetahuan, sikap dan praktik mengenai penggunaan insektisida yang aman. Uji Chi-square (χ2) digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan antar variabel dan dilanjutkan dengan regresi logistik. Mayoritas responden mempunyai praktik yang kurang aman dalam menggunakan insektisida rumah tangga (60%). Tingkat pendidikan (p = 0,00) dan pengetahuan (p = 0,03) berhubungan dengan praktik menjaga keamanan ketika menggunakan insektisida rumah tangga. Namun, hasil dari regresi logistik menunjukkan tingkat pendidikan lebih berpengaruh terhadap penggunaan insektisida yang aman. Oleh karena itu, perlu untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat melalui demonstrasi lapangan oleh petugas kesehatan tentang penggunaan insektisida rumah tangga secara aman dan tepat. Kata Kunci: insektisida rumah tangga, praktik, aman, Pangandaran
Muhammad Rasyid Ridha, Abdullah Fadilly, Budi Hairani, Wulan Rsg Sembiring, Gusti Meliyanie
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 99-106; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1164

Abstract:
Aedes albopictus can act as a primary or secondary vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever andchikungunya. Its population needs to be controlled. One of the environmentally-friendly control methods isthe use of ovitrap. Ovitrap will be more optimal if it added by attractant substances from easily obtainedingredients in the surrounding environment. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of attractants inthe form of water-soaked paddy (Oryza sativa), cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and Indian goosegrass(Eleusine indica). An experimental study with a completely randomized design (CRD) was carried out at theEntomology Laboratory of Balai Litbangkes Tanah Bumbu in January - April 2018. The population of thisstudy is the 10th filial of Ae. albopictus laboratory colonization and gravid female mosquito as samples.Material combination in the study was paddy straw soaking water (ARJP), Indian goosegrass immersionwater, cogongrass soaking water, Ae albopictus used eggs laying water (ABT), and distilled water as control(K). Repetition was done five times. Effectiveness of attractants analyzed by ANOVA and LSD tests. Datanormality tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, if it was not fulfilled, the Kruskal Wallis test was used. Theresults showed that the use of attractants of water-soaked paddy, Indian goosegrass and cogongrass provedto have a different effect on the number of Aedes albopictus mosquito eggs compared to aquades and eggslaying water, but there was no influence between the three types of attractants.
Nita Rahayu, Yuniarti Suryatinah, Paisal Paisal
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1318

Abstract:
Kotawaringin Barat is a filariasis endemic area and has been undergoing mass drugs adminstration (MDA) for 5 years. The district passed third phase of Transmission Assesment Survey (TAS-3) in 2016. In the TAS-3, we found 4 children with filariasis antibodies. In this study, we performed microscopic examination of microfilaria to confirm the results of TAS-3, as well as the measurement of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the treatment of filariasis. The study was conducted in Dawak Village and Sungai Bakau Village, with a total sample of 620 respondents. The results of microscopic examination are 5 respondents with Brugia malayi in their blood, consisting of 4 respondents in Dawak Village and 1 respondent in Sungai Bakau Village. The percentage of respondents who know the causes and symptoms of filariasis is very small. Although most respondents have a positive attitude towards treatment, the right treatment behavior is still very low. One respondent was found to be reinfected with B. malayi. In addition, it is suspected that there is transmission from animals to humans, but it still needs further investigation.
Dyah Widiastuti, Sunaryo Sunaryo, Siwi Pramatama Mars Wijayanti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1150

Abstract:
Abstrak. Pekalongan adalah satu di antara daerah dengan kejadian filariasis limfatik sejak beberapa tahunyang lalu dan Culex quinquefasciatus merupakan vektor utama penyakit ini di Pekalongan. Penelitian inibertujuan untuk mengetahui status kerentanan terhadap temephos dan menggambarkan aktivitas esterasepada populasi Cx. quinquefasciatus di Pekalongan. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April-Juli 2018. Ujikerentanan insektisida dilakukan pada larva tangkapan liar Cx. quinquefasciatus dari Pekalongan dengandosis temephos yang diskriminatif (0,02 ppm). Aktivitas Esterase larva ini diuji secara biokimia untukmempelajari mekanisme resistensi. Pada semua ulangan, angka kematian akibat temephos bervariasi dari70% sampai 75%, menunjukkan bahwa Cx. quinquefasciatus di tempat penelitian resisten terhadaptemephos. Hasil uji biokimia menunjukkan peningkatan aktivitas alfa dan beta esterase pada populasi Cx.quinquefasciatus. Hasil yang disajikan di sini memberikan laporan dan informasi dasar tentang statusresistensi terhadap temephos pada Cx. quinquefasciatus di Pekalongan. Hal ini seharusnya menjadiperhatian bagi dinas kesehatan dalam manajemen pengendalian vektor.
Wawan Ridwan, Andri Ruliansyah, Asep Jajang Kusnandar, Firda Yanuar Pradani
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 81-90; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1380

Abstract:
Most Malaria cases in West Java were concentrated in the southern coast region and one of themis Pangandaran district. There were still many potential sites for Anopheles sp. breeding place inPangandaran, so that the Regency was categorized as a receptive area. This study aimed to identify thespread of potential breeding sites for Anopheles sp. in Pangandaran Regency. The data were collected usinga spatial method in all of the areas in Pangandaran District. Data collecting was done by mapping thepositive breeding sites of Anopheles sp. which was then overlayed with a map of the tourist destination inPangandaran Regency. The larvae found were identified as An. aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris, An.identifinitus, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus and An. Vagus. All of the species found werepotentially became malaria vectors. There seven positive breeding sites were found which six of them locatedin tourism areas that were the Districts of Pangandaran, Cimerak, Parigi, Kalipucang, Sidamulih, andCijulang. It was concluded that Pangandaran still has the potential for malaria transmission both for localtransmission and for the potential entry of imported malaria.
Siwi Pramatama Mars Wijayanti, Devi Octaviana, Arnika Dwi Asti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 107-112; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1476

Abstract:
Gombong Subdistrict is one of dengue-endemic area in Kebumen Regency, Central Java. The high number of dengue cases in this area raises the question of whether there has been transovarial transmission occured from the Aedes sp. to their eggs. Transovarial transmission could be dangerous because the next generation of mosquitoes can directly become competent vectors as transmitters of the dengue virus (DENV). The purpose of this study is to detect dengue virus transovarial transmission in Aedes sp. in Gombong Subdistrict. This is a descriptive research in Gombong, Semanding, and Kali Tengah villages, Gombong Sub District. A total of 300 houses, 100 houses from each village were selected in this study. There were 600 Oviposition traps (ovitraps) were installed both inside and outside of houses for 6 days. Ovitraps were calculated by its Ovitrap Index (OI). Detection of transovarial transmission was carried by rearing field mosquitoes to Filial 1 then identified by RT-PCR assay. This study showed that OI in the three villages was higher in outdoor compared to indoor positions. All tested samples were negative DENV, indicated that there were no transovarial transmission occured at the study sites. Transmission in these study areas might still through horizontal mechanism transmission by mosquito bites. Although there is no transovarial transmission, awareness of dengue transmission must be continued by eradicating of mosquito nests such as 3M plus activities on a regular basis
Nina Sumarni, Udin Rosidin, Witdiawati Witdiawati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 113-120; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.1370

Abstract:
Cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are still a threat in Indonesia, especially entering the rainy season, the number of sufferers usually tends to increase, this occurs due to the proliferation of Aedes aegypti mosquito breeding breed. Prevention and eradication of dengue fever must be the responsibility of all communities. Efforts that can be done by the community are to be able to play an active role in monitoring mosquito larvae. This study aims to identify the knowledge and attitudes of the community in the prevention and eradication of dengue mosquito larvae. The head of the family in Jayaraga Garut, 103 kk, the amount of total populations, the study time was October 2018. Aspect Research Results Respondents' knowledge of participation in prevention and eradication of dengue vector still had 8 respondents whose knowledge was lacking. Attitude, there are still 9 responses whose attitude is not good. Participation in doing 3M most of the people of Jayaraga have prevented the breeding of the Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae even though there are still respondents who did nothing. The conclusion is that there are still some respondents whose knowledge, attitudes and actions are not good or not good.
, Medina Fadli Latus Syaadah, Edy Riwidiharso, R Tedjo Sasmono
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 91-98; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i2.460

Abstract:
Artificial blood-feeding using the parafilm-M membrane can be used as an alternative solution andsubstitute live animals as a source of blood. This method is not only be used for blood-feeding but also to infectthe dengue virus (DENV) to mosquitoes. This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness artificial bloodfeeding using parafilm-M membrane in Aedes mosquitoes originated in Indonesia and determine the positivityof mosquitoes infected by Indonesia DENV-1. DENV-1 was isolated from patient and propagated in Vero cellculture. The feeding was done in cardboard cups after mosquitos have been starved for 4-17 hours before beingfed with human blood. A conical 50ml tube was prepared, and a hole was created in the tube lid. The tubeopening was covered with parafilm. Glycerol was added into conical tube and heated in water bath for an hourat 55oC. A mixture of blood and DENV-1 was made with concentration of 10%. Detection of DENV in bloodfedmosquitos was carried out by using Simplexa Dengue Real-Time RT-PCR assay. The results showed thatthe prevalence of blood-fed mosquitoes reached 66.67% with fasting period for 17 hours. Blood feedingmosquitoes are affected by duration of fasting period, blood-feeding time, and attractants from human skinrubbed into parafilm-M membrane. The prevalence of blood-fed Ae. aegypti infected by DENV was 20.83%.This study provides information on the effectiveness of artificial parafilm membrane blood-feeding in alaboratory setting that will be useful for vector control study in Indonesia.
, Suriyani Tan, Upik Kesumawati Hadi
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.186

Abstract:
Filariasis is a mosquito borne disease which caused by filarial worm. In addition, beside causing ahigh morbidity rate and socioeconomic losses, the disease may also decrease the human productivity. Thecontrol efforts have been done by vector control program, yet still not effective. This is due to a lack ofunderstanding of the biology of mosquito vector. The aim of this research was to determine diversity ofmosquitoes, density, behavior, characteristic habitat and their role of filariasis transmission. The researchwas conducted from Januari to April 2015 in Hamarung and Hukai Villages, Juai Subdistrict, BalanganDistrict, South Kalimantan Province. Collection of mosquitoes was done by bare leg bait indoor collectionmethod and outdoor collection method from 06.00 pm–06.00 am. In additon, larvae were collected in theirpotencial habitats. There were 15 species mosquitoes comprising of 5 genera i.e. genus of Culex, Mansonia,Anopheles, Armigeres, and Aedes. There were 5 dominant species of mosquitoes i.e. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus(36.80%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (29.60%), Ma. dives (11.73%), Ma. annulata (10.04%) dan Ma. uniformis(4.62%). The peak activity of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus in both villages occurred at21.00–00.45. Based on the habitat of mosquitoes, genus of Culex, Mansonia and Anopheles were found inswamps. Mosquitoes dissection did not show any microfilaria stages (L1, L2, L3).
, Agus Aulung, Heri Wibowo, Rizal Subahar
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.215

Abstract:
Ekstrak tumbuhan dapat digunakan sebagai biolarvasida untuk membunuh larva Aedes aegypti, di antaranya adalah ekstrak daun Ocimum sanctum. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis efek ekstrak metanol daun O. sanctum pada larva Ae. aegypti dan perubahan pada midgut-nya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental. Ekstrak daun O. Sanctum dibuat dengan metode evaporasi dan dibuat pada konsentrasi 0,1%, 0,25%, 0,5%, 0,75%, dan 1%. Percobaan diulang sebanyak 4 kali pada setiap konsentrasi. Pengamatan jumlah larva mati dilakukan setelah 24 jam perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan histopatologi, terdapat kerusakan pada jaringan epitel midgut larva Ae. aegypti. Nilai LC50 ekstrak daun O. sanctum sebesar 0,66%, sedangkan nilai LC90 yang diperoleh sebesar 1,38%. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa untuk membunuh larva Ae. aegypti hingga 90% dari jumlah larva, dibutuhkan konsentrasi ekstrak lebih dari 1%.
Novyan Lusiyana, Siti Fitiah, Andrias Atmaja Putri, Muthia Tsabita Rahmi, Dian Maknalia Ilham
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.438

Abstract:
Control and prevention effort of dengue haemorhagic fever relies on the application of insecticidesto control vector mosquito. In Indonesia, application of organophosphate insecticide (temephos andmalathion), and pyrethroid is a key part of the dengue control strategy. This study aimed to determine theentomological survey, susceptibility of Aedes aegypti against organophosphate insecticide and identificationof VGSC gene in Dusun Malangrejo, Sleman Yogyakarta. This study is an observational with a cross sectionaldesign. The entomology survey procedure used a single larvae technique, biological susceptibility test of Ae.aegypti against organophosphate insecticides using WHO (temephos), CDC (malathion), biochemistry andVGSC genes detection using PCR method. Results of this study showed that bath tub was potential breedingplace for Ae. aegypti. Susceptibility status of temephos was still tolerant (95.4%), while malathion showsresistance (13.75%). Bioassay and biochemical test shows potential resistant to insecticides due to elevatedactivity of esterase non specific enzyme. Detection of the VGSC gene shows positive for both genes (V1016G;S989P) and F1534C. Furthermore, regularly assessment of insecticide resistance status will hopefully assistthe local public health authorities to assign policy for managing mosquito control such as by rotation ofdifferent routinely used insecticide to delay Ae. aegypti resistance development.
, Fridolina Mau, Anderias K Bulu
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.207

Abstract:
Kaki Gajah (elephantiasis) is a chronic non-communicable disease caused by filarial worms (microfilaria) and transmitted by many species of mosquitoes. Commonly, this disease was called filariasis. The Sumba Barat Daya Regency was declared as endemic filariasis because it’s microfilariae rates was more than 1%. The research was carried out to observe the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the microfilaria positive respondents and negative respondents with filaria incident. The study was conducted at Kodi Balaghar district of Sumba Barat Daya Regency from April to November in 2014 by cross-sectional research design. Respondents obtained by purposive sampling. The data analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis methods. The result showed that filariasis patients were found in respondents who have low education or never study at school, 30‒45 years old, and a farmer. The statistical tests showed P-value for 0.000 and explain about the knowledge level, attitude, and practice of the filaria incident. The analysis of knowledge variable shows that Relative Risk (RR) = 6.000 and explains that the probability of the patients with low knowledge was 6.000 times compared to the patients with high knowledge, attitude/perception variable had RR = 3.333, and explains that the probability of the patients with a negative attitude was 3.333 times compared to the patients with positive attitude/perception. Practices variables had RR = 1.824 and explain that the probability of the patients with false practices was 1.824 times compared to the patients with true practices. It was a conclusion that Positive respondents of filariasis had lower education and knowledge level compared to positive respondents of filariasis. Meanwhile, the filariasis patients had a negative attitude and practices for controlling transmission risk and had false practice for disease prevention compared to the respondents who did not have filariasis.
Milana Salim, Mara Ipa`, Olwin Nainggolan
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 45-58; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.209

Abstract:
Filariasis is one of the diseases that require a vector for the transmission process. Information on the determinants of filariasis transmission related to vectors is needed as a basis for control efforts. Further analysis of Vektora Research in 2015 was conducted in order to identify the diversity species of suspected filariasis vector and the environmental characteristics in Sarmi District of Papua Province. Data on mosquito catching, habitat type, and environment each ecosystem analyzed. Filariasis suspect vector species in Sarmi Regency Papua Province obtained were four genus with nine species. These vector/suspect filariasis vector were Anopheles farauti, An. koliensis, An. pediateniatus, An. punctulatus, An. tesselatus, An. subalbatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia dives, and Ma. papuensis. Four specific habitat characteristics were found in the mosquito-data collecting sites: primary forest, secondary forest, shrubs, and grass/brown/grassland habitat. Anopheles farauti is a species found abundantly in all specific habitats. Based on the ecosystem, Cx. quinquefasciatus dominates the urban ecosystems of non-forest settlements and beaches near settlements, while An. farauti is found in forests settlements, remote forest settlements, non-remote forest settlements, distant coastal settlements, and beaches near settlements.
Elita Agustina, Widya Sari, Ahmad Ofreza
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.844

Abstract:
The existence of plants in house yard is an important factor for the survival of Aedes. House yard plants could be the places where mosquitoes carry out eating and resting activities. It is important to investigate the matter to find out about mosquitoes’ bioecology in the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the species of house yard plant that were selected by Aedes for eating and resting activities. This was an explorative survey using 50 house yards. The result showed that at the Kopelma Village there were 2 species of Aedes found in house yard plant that were Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The mosquitoes were found at 6 house yard plant species that were Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixora sp., Plumeria sp., and Murraya sp.
, Triwibowo Ambar Garjito, Mega Tyas Prihatin, Muhammad Choirul Hidajat, Yusnita Mirna Anggraeni, Wening Widjajanti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 11, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v11i1.540

Abstract:
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is still a major public health problem in Indonesia. Increased dengue cases in Indonesia cannot be separated from the presence of Aedes sp. as an infectious vector. One of the factors that influence the incidence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is the number of Aedes sp. larvae. The larva population is strongly influenced by the characteristics of its habitat. Data of Riset Khusus Vektora 2016 contains the level of larvae density of Aedes sp. through a water reservoir seen from controllable sites and dispossable sites. Data was taken in 15 provinces in Indonesia, Aceh, West Sumatra, Lampung, Bangka Belitung, West Java, East Java, Banten, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and North Maluku. The results obtained in this study were examined from 11,491 container, obtained 11,301 controllable sites and 190 dispossable sites. Larvae were found more on controllable sites because it is used in everyday life. There are 18 districts/cities that have a medium density figure category and 27 districts/cities are categorized as having high larvae densities. The way that is considered effective and appropriate in preventing and eradicating DHF is by eradicating its transmitting mosquito nest (PSN-DBD) through the 3M plus movement which requires the participation of all levels of society.
, Bambang Heru Budianto, Edi Basuki
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 93-102; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.217

Abstract:
Aedes aegypti mosquito is the main vector of dengue virus causing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia. The main preventive action is to control the presence of Ae. aegypti mosquito. Banana plants are known to contain secondary metabolite compounds acting as a natural insecticide, including the hump part. This research was conducted to evaluate to toxicity of hump of Ambon banana extract (Musa acuminata L. cv. Gros Michel) to dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito. The research used experimental method, the treatment concentration was 0.001; 0.01; 0.1; 1; 10; 100 and 1000 ppm of Ambon banana methanol extract and 0 ppm concentration as a control, each with three replications. The variables observed were individual deaths at every stage of development and morphological damage. The data obtained were analyzed using the analysis of variety and Duncan test with 95% confidence level. In addition, probit analysis was used to determine the value of LC50. The results showed that the study of toxicity indicates that in the further stage of development, the toxicity of methanol extract from Ambon banana hump was less toxic. Toxicity of Ambon banana hump methanol extract was highest in egg with LC50 value of 314,852 ppm. The methanol extract of banana Ambon has the morphological destructive activity in all development stages of Ae. aegypti.
, Aryani Pujiyanti, M Choirul Hidajat, Lasmiati Lasmiati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.213

Abstract:
Human behavior in form of less awareness about the environment will cause the increase of mosquito breeding places and lead to increase the dengue vector’s population rising. This research’s purpose was to describe distribution and characteristics of the dengue vector’s breeding place and people behavior in dengue endemic areas in Salatiga. The data collection was done by monitoring larvae and pupa on water container and interviewing community about related behavior. Results showed that larvae tend to be found in water storage containers, household appliances and open unused goods which was located inside the house. Based on the analysis, there is no significant difference between the indoor and outdoor container, the container is closed or open, and sprinkled with temephos or not. Significant differences were found in different types of containers, containers with fish and drained in the last one week. People in DHF endemic area tend to conduct 3M (Menguras/drain and Menutup/close the lid of Water Reservoirs and Mengubur/bury unused container that have potential as breeding places) and do not use fish nor larvacide for dengue vector control. Based on the result of the research, it is necessary to evaluate the community behavior in closing container and also evaluate the resistance of DHF vector mosquito to temephos.
, Surati Surati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 119-126; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.193

Abstract:
Essential oils can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. Essential oil can affect morphology and histology of Aedes aegypti larvae. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of larvacide essential oil of kaffir lime against mortality and to know morphological and histological changes of Ae. aegypti larvae. The study was conducted in June 2016 at the Parasitology and Entomology Laboratory of University Jenderal Soedirman. This study was an experimental study with three concentrations and three replications. The death of the larvae is calculated after 24 hours of exposure. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that 103 ppm concentration was effective in killing larvae by 96%. Exposure of kaffir lime peel oils results in the color of the abdomen becoming black. Histological observation preparation larvae showed midgut epithelial cell damage.
, Susi Soviana, Risa Tiuria
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.191

Abstract:
Implementation of fogging using malathion impacted to insecticides deposited to household furniture in resident. The other hand, Ae. aegypti preference resting on that furniture. The objective was determine lethal concentration of malathion in an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation which have been deposited on furniture fabrics against mortality of Ae. aegypti. The study was true experimental and completed randomize design. Treatment as much as six of concentration levels (0.00; 0.27; 0.29; 0.31; 0.32; 0.34%) and ten replications. The sample were female Ae. aegypti on ovary condition of unfed and bloodfed. Material of fabrics used were cotton, chenille, and blackout. Procedure efficacy test based on WHO (2013). The result showed that between concentration levels gave a significantly different impact of mortality, but between concentration of 0.27% with 0.29% was not significantly. Mortality of Ae. aegypti reached 100% on 0.34% concentration for cotton and blackout, whereas chenille on 0.31% concentration. Lower lethal concentration to kill 50% and 95% Ae. aegypti population were 0.260% and 0.301% on chenille, whereas the higher were 0.296% and 0.337% on cotton, respectively. Conclusion was malation (EC) which were deposited to cotton, chenille, and blackout fabrics as a upholstery for furniture influence on increasing insecticide efficacy to Ae. aegypti.
, , Rika Mayasari
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 103-110; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.206

Abstract:
Ecological studies on the vector species diversity usually focused on particular habitats and not a comparative study. Therefore, a research has been carried out to see the variation from one of many aspects which affects the condition of a habitat such as altitude. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles spp. species diversity between highland and lowland captured in the research of Vektora 2015-2016 in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. This study is a further analysis of Vektora Research Data from 2015 to 2016 in East Nusa Tenggara Province. The population in this study is the whole Anopheles spp. in East Nusa Tenggara Province from 2015-2016. The sample is Anopheles species caught on Vektora. The variables used in this study are categorical variables of highland or lowland, Anopheles species and dominance index. This study results indicate that there is a significant difference in the number of Anopheles obtained per species between the lowlands and the highlands. The number of Anopheles found in the lowland is higher than in the highland. The lowland have more Anopheles species variation compare to the highland. Anopheles annularis is the most commonly Anopheles found in the lowlands whereas Anopheles vagus is the most commonly Anopheles found in the highlands.
Firda Yanuar, Willem Sugiharto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 73-82; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.187

Abstract:
Dengue vector control is still relying on fogging using insecticides with solar solvents. This causes pollution due to the odors generated and residues left in the environment. It is necessary to look for alternative insecticides that no longer use solar as a solvent but use water such as Gokilath-S50EC. In this experiment, we tested the effectiveness of Gokilath-S50EC (d,d-trans-syphenotrin 50 g/l) with the aim to see the insecticidal efficacy of Aedes aegypti known as DHF vector. The sample test mosquito used is Ae. aegypti which comes from Pangandaran Lokalitbangkes as many as 25 females. Test mosquitoes were exposed to insecticides for 3-5 seconds with a method of fogging. The experimental results showed that mosquitoes tested fainting in the first 30 seconds after exposure to insecticides. The same results were shown when the solvent was added polyethylene-glycol (PEG). This time trial also measured droplet diameters at 1.0 mm and 1.2 mm nozzle with or without PEG. The test results showed that PEG increased the percentage of droplets of ≥ 50 µm in air and made the insecticide reach even further. Gokilath-S50EC insecticides are effective in killing Ae. aegypti by using water solvents, the addition of PEG will increase the reach of insecticides but not affect the effectiveness of insecticides.
, Yusran Udin, Hasrida Mustafa, Risti Risti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 111-118; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i2.194

Abstract:
Mosquito transmitted diseases are still a health problem in Indonesia, including in Palu City. Among the types of mosquitoes as a vector of the disease, there are to be zoophilic of animal blood. The study against the diversity of mosquitoes has been conducted in the area with the largest cattle population in Palu City, that Mantikulore District. The purpose of this study was to gain an overview diversity of mosquitoes around the cattle sheds. The study was carried out with free collection of mosquitoes around cattle sheds from 18:00 to 06:00 and one light trapping (CDC-Light Trap) at each location throughout the night from 18:00 to 06:00. Distribution diversity of mosquito around cattle sheds in five locations obtained 3 genus and 14 species of mosquitoes from a total of 1,464 captured mosquitoes. Culex vishnui is the most abundant mosquito in four research sites, namely in Kawatuna (44.44%), Poboya (82.18%), Tondo (66.95%), and Tanamodindi (38.58%). While in Talise the most abundant mosquito is Cx. quinquefasciatus amount 52.39%. The abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. vishnui was directly proportional to the frequency and dominance index. Shannon-Wiener diversity index shows the level of diversity in Kawatuna village, Talise village, and Tanamodindi village belongs to the medium, and in Poboya village and Tondo village belongs to low.
Wiwik Trapsilowati, Aryani Pujiyanti, Wigati Wigati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.13

Abstract:
There has been increased of malaria cases in Purworejo District, especially in Sendangsari Village, Bener District in 2015. The one influence factors of malaria transmission was behavior, it consist of knowledge, attitude and practice domains. The aims this study was described of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the community and conduct interventions related to survey results. The research method were cross-sectional to collect data of the knowledge, attitudes and practices and one group pretest posttest design to measure the intervention. The number of samples obtained as many as 90 respondents. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between education and knowledge, as well as knowledge with attitude (p < 0.05). While variables relationship of knowledge with practice/action and attitude with practice/action showed an insignificant (p > 0,05). The result of the intervention by direct information showed that knowledge of the respondents between before and after intervention has increased significantly (p < 0,05). Based on these results, it was necessary to encourage local community leaders, both formal and non-formal, for cooperate with the community to protecting themselves and their environment so as not to be potential transmission of malaria
, Nova Pramestuti, Asnan Prastawa, Ulfah Farida Trisnawati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 15-26; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.14

Abstract:
Purbalingga is one of malaria-endemic areas in Central Java. In 2012, government developed a model of malaria control as Village Regulation for detection and Monitoring of Malaria treatment with Community-Based Treatment of Malaria Cases. Research aim is to evaluate the Regulation (Perdes) effectiveness on the incidence of malaria in Tetel. This research is an evaluation study of the policy with qualitative method. The research conducted in Tetel, Pengadegan District, Purbalingga, in March to October 2015. The datas collected by in-depth interviews on community leaders and health care workers, focus group discussion (FGD) on a group of men and women, and documents review. Datas were analyzed using content analysis. The Regulation socialized through village health forum meetings and other group meetings. Malaria case detection have done by the community that reported to JMD to immediately take blood preparations. Monitoring of malaria treatment by JMD with follow-up action. Cases of malaria in Tetel tends to decrease even to zero after implementation of the regulation. The implementation of regulation can reduce and control the incidences of malaria in Tetel. Implementation of regulation also can be used as an example for other villages that still have problems with malaria
Heni Prasetyowati, Hubullah Fuadzy, Endang Puji Astuti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.16

Abstract:
Dengue vector control needs active participation of community so it must be supported with goods dengue knowladge. The purpose of this research is to know the difference of knowladge and attitute in Bandung city community toward effort of dengue vector control in case and control group. This case-control study used ratio 1: 2. Number case of dengue is 261 and number of control is 522. Research location are ini health center area with hight dengue case ie Dago, Sekejati, Kopo, Cipamokolan. Responden ages grouped in range of 40-60 years, while the last education respondents are greduated from junior and senior high school. The result shows that there is significant different of knowladge between case and control (p-value 0.015) and no significant different in attitude variable (p-value 0,520). Vector control efford is different between two group in active eradication of mosquitoe breeding place (p-value 0.005) and the used of mosquito net (0.008). The odd ratio test result showed that knowladge variable (OR 1,410) and eradication of mosquitoe breeding place (OR1.719) are related to vector control efforts. Still needs enhance health promotion regarding vector control efforts in house hold environment as well as understanding of dengue, and optimizing program “one house one larva’s monitor
, Hamidah Hamidah
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 57-64; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.155

Abstract:
The vector-borne diseases transmitted by the mosquito of Aedes aegypti are considered causes of serious health problems. Moreover, the used of chemical insecticides for Ae. aegypti control has resulted in resistance in mosquito populations and environmental problem. The aims of this study are to evaluate the toxicity of methanol extract (CH3OH) from key lime leaves against Ae. aegypti larvae after 24 hours exposure. This was experimental laboratory study, with six treatments and five replicates. Larvae mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. Then, data were analyzed by descriptive analyze and probit. visualization of the damage that occurs in the body was observed through microscope. The result showed that mortality of larvae increased with an increase of the concentration of extract. LC50 and LC99 of the extract are 2,197 ppm and 4,266 ppm. The extract can cause morphological damages of larvae, such as head lost, neck elongation, exo-skeleton lost, abdomen transparent, digestive tract full of extract, and loss of setae on the side of the body. In conclusion, citrus aurantifolia leaves methanol extract cause mortality and morphological damages of larvae
, Sulfa Esi Warni, Nur Inzana, Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.15

Abstract:
The main strategy of World Health Organization (WHO) in the prevention and control of malaria, namely through case management that includes the detection, diagnosis, management and treatment of cases. The detection of malaria cases or patients with microscopic confirmation by the health services including hospitals both private and public is one of the main activities carried out in malaria elimination efforts. The purpose of this study was to determine the picture of malaria patients in Siti Aisyah and dr. Sobirin hospitals in 2016. Data collection with peripheral blood sampling and interviews using questionnaires with cross-sectional study design. The results of this research is the detection of 13 malaria Falciparum and Vivax patients from two hospitals ; two patients with malaria Falciparum and six with malaria Vivax in Siti Aisyah Hospital Lubuklinggau and five patients with malaria Falciparum in dr.Sobirin hospital Musi Rawas. The type of treatment of malaria which has been received by the respondents were with chloroquin, primaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and also sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, each was six percents.
, Tri Wahono, , Asep Jajang Kusnandar
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 10, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v10i1.154

Abstract:
Although at present the number of malaria cases in Pangandaran is low, a time will increase again because malaria is a re-emerging disease. To determine the potential of reemergence of malaria, have done the research by identifying the pattern of disease, the malaria parasite, knowledge, attitudes and behavior as well as the mobilization of the population, and environmental factors and entomology malaria. The collected data were analyzed to determine the potential reemergence of malaria using dynamic analysis system. Identification of the parasitological are showed that all of the blood sample results were all negative Plasmodium spp The results of interviews showed that the state of knowledge in the category malaria mostly not good (64.58%), 28.23% of respondents have a regular ART wander, 11.53% of them never came home ill with malaria. While the environmental status of settlement of respondents relation to malaria transmission mostly (67.99%) is not good. Survey entomologist discovered 1,037 mosquitoes which consists of 8 species of Anopheles spp. Most are An. vagus (67.89%) while the least is An. indefinitus. Based on the methods of arrest, most in catching a rest at home (98.46%) and least is the catch UOD (0.10%). The analysis data had been resulted that highest leverage effect on the reemergence of malaria is the mobilization of the population. So that be advised to monitoring the population migrating to and from endemic areas, especially outside Java through migration survey.
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