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Dinara R. Mukhametshina,
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-90-103

Abstract:
In the work, the attempt to identify the features of the interaction of signs of different semiotic systems in the context of multimodal texts, which are considered as a special information construct and are perceived through the visual communication channel, which combines verbal, graphic, iconic, color codes. The aim of the work was an attempt to make a comprehensive analysis of multimodal political texts, an important element of which is the image of the historical personality of Stalin. This analysis allows us to trace the transformation of the perception and assessment of the life activity of an ambiguous politician in the minds of Soviet and Russian people and, as a consequence, the linguistic society as a whole. The material for the study was Soviet political posters of the mid-20th century and modern multimodal texts, the total number of which was 53 and 67 examples, respectively. The set of methods systematization and generalization, continuous sampling, contextual, intertextual and comparative analysis, is due to the expediency, logic and historical retrospective of the study. This made it possible to reconstruct the cognitive past recorded in the historical consciousness of the people: the article reveals the image of Stalin, in Soviet posters and in modern political multimodal texts, the specificity of perception, categorization and attitude of Soviet / Russian society to its past and present is revealed. For example, the image of Stalin on the posters of the 1930-1953s is as idealized and metaphorical as possible, which is due to the manipulative function – the need to promote the cult of the personality: the themes of patriotism, duty and beneficence become the leading ones and are called upon to form in the mass consciousness a stable, deliberately positive idea of the bright communist future the whole country and its every single Soviet citizen. In modern multimodal texts, it can be noted that they reflect two diametrically opposed views on the personality and life of Stalin: on the one hand, a positive, idealized image of a politician, a nostalgic perception; on the other hand, there is a negative (ironic) view of the “situation of the past,” which is due to the historical context, the cult of the individual and his debunking of this cult after the death of the leader. The specificity of these types of texts is largely due to the author’s linguistic pragmatic attitude and extralinguistic factors.
Alena V. Boiko
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-114-122

Abstract:
The article presents the analysis of the zoomorphic metaphor with the target domain “The Future of Russia” in the context of the US sanctions policy against Russia in the Chinese non-institutional political Internet discourse. The chronological scope of the study covers the period from 2014 till the present. The Chinese website 悟空回答 (Wukong Q & A) was chosen as the source of the material. The analysis of metaphors is carried out within the framework of the methodology of linguistic political prognostics, using the methods of metaphorical modeling, linguistic, cultural, cognitive and discourse analysis. As a result of the analyzed 313 metaphorical contexts, it was found that one of the most frequent metaphorical models with the target domain “The Future of Russia” is a zoomorphic metaphor. The most frequent frame in this metaphorical model is the “Animal kingdom” frame, which contains three slots: “mammals”, “birds” and “fish”. The study showed that while representing the future of Russia in the Chinese non-institutional political Internet discourse in the context of anti-Russian sanctions, negatively colored metaphors which appear in the slots “mammals”, “birds” and “fish” prevail, depicting a “dark” future of Russian-American relations. Positively colored metaphors in the slot “mammals” are especially active in modeling the future of Russian-Chinese relations. The analysis of the metaphorical model showed that the activation of metaphors depends on the axiological attitudes of Chinese speakers and on changing political events.
, Boris G. Vulfovich
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-83-89

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the representation of the method of a three-component analysis of Internet commentary. Commentary is a special component of Internet discourse which is the reaction of representatives of society to any external or internal stimulus expressed linguistically, i.e. through the use of linguistic means. Due to insufficient coverage (for example, unlike Internet posts), commentary as a component of political Internet discourse represents a wide field for the study of linguists since, being a speech work, it can be analyzed from at least three positions, namely: the strategy and tactics used by the author, the means of stylistic expressiveness used and the type of speech act through which this commentary is put into use. A comprehensive analysis of these parameters makes it possible to establish the attitude of the audience (in this case, the electorate) to the personality of Boris Johnson, the Prime Minister of Great Britain. Practical material for the study was the comments on the posts of Boris Johnson regarding Brexit (one of the key events in the political and public spheres of Great Britain’s life). The relevance of this work is due to the current anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics and the increased interest of linguists not only in humans as a participant of speech actions, but also in the interdisciplinary synthesis of scientific research methods to achieve the most voluminous, full-fledged, and complete results. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate an example of the implementation of the three-component analysis methodology for Internet commentary on the example of some of the most striking and connotatively colored linguistic materials selected by the method of continuous sampling in the social network “Twitter”.
Anastasia S. Podolko
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-197-206

Abstract:
The article presents a comparative analysis of intertexts in the headlines of British and Russian articles, the subject of which is the sanctions imposed by Western countries on Russia. The source of the material was the authoritative publications of Russia and Great Britain (Kommersant and The Economist). The chronological scope of the study lies within 2014 – current days. As a result of the analysis of the headlines (60 in Russian, 60 in English) containing intertexts, the author identified 5 source domains, common for British and Russian discourses, and one source domain, specific for one discourse (Russian or British): “Set expressions”, “Proverbs and sayings”, “Mass culture”, “Literature”, “Proper names”, “Situations” (for British articles), “Names of organizations / projects” (for Russian articles). The study showed that the source domain “Set expressions” turned out to be the most widely represented, and the share of intertexts from the source domain in the Russian-language headlines is more than twice bigger than their share in the British headlines. The group of intertexts from the source domain “Proverbs and sayings” turned out to be the second most represented. The most common way to include an intertextual element in a headline is lexical transformation, when a word or several words are replaced with others corresponding to the content of the article. As for the effect of including an intertextual element in the headline it can be different: comic, if the author chooses a lexical transformation that contradicts the meaning of the original text; creating a negative / positive (usually negative) image of a person or situation; forming the reader’s opinion, similar to the opinion of the author / edition.
Ludmila А. Yushkova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-238-248

Abstract:
The article considers the structural and semantic peculiarities of German colloquial verbs, which belong to the word formation family with the base “Corona”. The article analyzes the lexemes formed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic from October 2019 to May 2021. In the course of the study new verbs not listed in the lexicographical sources have been found. The majority of these verbal lexemes are occasional: they are identified by small frequencies and only function within the framework of certain types of text in the Internet discourse (blogs, Twitter, social networks). The author specifies the meaning of some verbs entered in the lexicographical base of the Leibniz-Institute for German Language (OWID.de). The author describes both the formal and the lexical-semantic structures of verbal lexemes, considers their word-forming and lexical-semantic relations that combine the motivating noun “corona” and derived words. The study characterizes the models of building the colloquial verbal lexemes, which are currently productive and highly active in the context of the German “coronavirus discourse”. The study proves that the German vocabulary expanded at the time of Covid-19 pandemic through the suffixal word-forming models and the formation of verbs with prepositional and adverbial particles. The study shows that the models of the formation of verbal units with prepositional and adverbial components are particularly active, while the prefixal models are not active in the formation of verbs with the component “Corona”. The author analyzes examples of the use of the lexemes in context, which are presented in the text corpus of the Google search system, determines the frequency of the verbal units. The article clearly shows the differences in the meaning and functioning of verbal lexemes. The article notes some peculiarities of their lexical compatibility.
Darya V. Paramonova,
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-147-162

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of the media broadcast of the image of Russia in the dichotomy “authorities – opposition” in the American, British and Spanish media. The work identifies the most frequent thematic dominants in the creation of the image of Russia in the dichotomy “authorities – opposition” in American, British, and Spanish articles. The research is carried out on the material of articles taken from modern American (“The New York Times”, “The Wall Street Journal”, “The Washington Post”), British (“The Guardian”, “The Independent”, “The Times” Financial Times) and Spanish media (El País, La Vanguardia, El Mundo, ABC). The purpose of the work is achieved by applying a comparative method and a complex method of lexical-semantic and stylistic analysis. The relevance of the research under study is determined not only by the huge influence of the American, British, and Spanish media on the mass consciousness, not only by the interest of Western media in positioning Russia in the modern world in political communication, but also by the lack of study of the problem of broadcasting the image of Russia created by journalists in the dichotomy “power – opposition” in modern American, British and Spanish media. We identified the main thematic dominants from 07.2020 to 09.2021: 1) the image of the leader of the Anti-Corruption Foundation (FBK) Alexei Navalny; 2) the image of political prisoners; 3) unauthorized rallies. An analysis of the selected 75 articles from the American, British and Spanish media confirmed the hypothesis that since August 2020, since the poisoning of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, there have been more cases of mentioning the media event aspect of “power and opposition in Russia. Evaluative and emotional connotations prevail, which create an image of authorities and opposition.
Maria An. Kurochkina, Svetlana L. Kushneruk
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-174-185

Abstract:
The authors of the article investigate the texts of the opposition Telegram channel “Belarus of the Brain” in order to identify the precedent phenomena (hereinafter PF) functioning in them. Political discourse is at the core of contemporary discourse research with the problem of strategies and tactics for manipulating public opinion occupying an important place among other aspects of its studies. PFs provide the basis for these strategies, which determines the relevance of the research being conducted. The article presents an analysis of the functional characteristics of PFs of two groups: 1) PFs representing the Belarusian national culture and society; 2) PFs exhibiting foreign cultural space. Based on the theory of precedence developed by V.P. Moskvin, V.I. Karasik and G.G. Slyshkin, the authors resort to the contextological and structural methods, elements of discourse analysis, in order to outline obvious accents in the functional differentiation of these PF groups. While national PFs have a positive connotation and participate in the creation of the national identity of Belarus and the Belarusians, PFs of foreign cultural spaces are marked by negative connotations and are used to discredit the existing political regime. The authors highlight common functions of the PFs of both groups such as creating vivid images and communicating credibility and authority to the information provided. PFs actualizing foreign cultural space show a tendency to participate in the didactic function of teaching the average reader the peaceful mechanisms of a democratic society. The study of structural features allows us to come to the conclusion about the word combination as the major form of PFs’ realization. The structural complexity and predominance of proper names in the morphology of PF signal their multidimensional semantic nature as well as their social essence. The authors also point out the formation of the PF corpus within political discourse with such dominant source spheres as history and culture. The research proves that PFs of our days are used as actively as PFs referring to the past. By and large PFs act as a means of analyzing, interpreting and categorizing the phenomena of public life in the political discourse.
Yuliya V. Chemeteva
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-28-37

Abstract:
The paper considers legal media discourse as a discursive format that arose as a result of the interaction of legal discourse and media discourse. The research is aimed at defining the boundaries, structure and categories of legal media discourse. The material of the research are texts of legal media discourse including analytical articles on legal issues, regulatory legal acts, news materials and other genres implemented within the boundaries of the discursive format under study. The research applies methods of scientific description (systematization and interpretation), discursive analysis, as well as the simulation method. The paper provides an overview of research in the field of legal discourse and media discourse, which helps to get closer to defining the boundaries of the format under study, which represents a promising direction for further research. As a result of the systematization of the theoretical and practical material, the boundaries and structure of legal media discourse are determined. It is established that the boundaries of legal media discourse, which is a hybrid discursive formation, lie within the intersection of legal discourse with media discourse. The resulting discursive space has a field structure (core, periphery) and represents a discourse format that concretizes two types of discourse (legal discourse and media discourse) and is represented in turn by different genres. The article gives the description of the categories of legal media discourse, which is based on the model proposed by V. I. Karasik. The paper reveals typical participants of communication, their possible presuppositions, sphere of functioning, chronotope, goals and strategies, genre organization. The author also discusses the issue of implementing the expressive function in legal media discourse through the use of colloquial and obscene lexemes.
Elena М. Khodasevich
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-227-237

Abstract:
The proposed article demonstrates that the formation and development of a new political concept is accompanied by an increase in the number of units representing it, which also occurs due to active word-formation processes that lead to the emergence of a significant number of non-derivatives formed from the main representative of the concept. The hypothesis is verified by the example of the description of the verbal-derivational field of the “maidan” media concept.In the course of the research, the method of constructing a word-formation nest was used; to assess the frequency of use of new derivatives, the method of content analysis was used. The material for the study was texts related to media discourse for the period from 2004 to 2019. The article highlights two periods in the development of the concept of “Maidan” in the media discourse, associated with two major protests in Ukraine and their consequences, for each period new derivatives formed from the root of the Maidan are identified and described, the ways of forming new words are determined, their frequency is analyzed. which ultimately allows us to trace the evolution of the concept’s verbal-derivational field. It has been established that each of the periods under consideration is characterized by a significant increase in the number of derivatives of the “maidan” media concept, in particular, at the first stage, 17 new derivative words appeared, at the second stage, their number increases to 41 units, which is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of all non-derivatives. The bulk of the new words allows us to characterize 1) the typology of protests (avtomaydan, eromaydan, mikhomaidan, anti-maidan), 2) its participants (maidan, maidan, maidan, maidan, etc.) and 3) the process of protest and its phases (zamaydan, maidan, re-maidan , domaydanit, etc.). Thus, the results obtained confirm the thesis about the important role of derivational processes in the formation and development of concepts and indicate the increasing importance of the “Maidan” media concept for the national political concept sphere.
Natalya V. Panina
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-217-226

Abstract:
The article considers the role of interjections in the English-language political communication, which is especially relevant nowadays when the modern civilizational space is subjected to global emotionalization. The releases of one of the longest running American news programmes in television history – “Face the Nation”, which were aired in 2021, serve as the empirical material of the study carried out. The block of research materials included both interjections that perform traditional functions and interjections that serve as a complementary means of implementing the impact strategy. Interjections, expressing hesitation, have only possessed the status of elements of speech formation, while in political communication they acquire the status of a means of intercepting initiative in speech, thereby demonstrating dominance over the interlocutor and giving the communicative situation an emotive character. It is inextricably linked with the non-ecological nature of speech, mainly manifested through the manipulative nature of political communication, in which, each interlocutor tends to influence the communicant. Interjections act as a complementary means in this process, on the one hand, reinforcing the authoritarian nature of the interruption, and on the other, mitigating the process of transition from one communicant to another. The linguistic description methods are used in the article. The study reveals the potential of interjections, which consists in fulfilling the role of emotionally charged communication markers. Thus, in the course of socio-historical development in general and in the process of emotionalization of the global communication space in particular, the observed tendency to expand functional boundaries, depending on the type of communication, makes it possible to conclude that English interjections have rich potential.
Artyom A. Khabarov
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-72-82

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the scientific understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors of shaping external ideology of governance in Ukraine during the preparation and conduct of a series of low-intensity conflicts (“color revolutions”) in 2004-2014. Using linguistic methods of semantic, structural, contextual, discourse and communicative analysis, the author studies verbal forms of linguistic cognitive manipulation with the public opinion of the Ukrainian society focusing on the techniques of polyphonic attack, conceptual modeling and reframing. Communicative strategies and methods of indoctrination of the population are viewed in the environment of the information and psychological war launched by the US-led collective West in the digital space of mass media and the worldwide web with the aim of alienating Ukraine from the geopolitical space of Russia and turning it into an antipode state of the Russian Federation. The author focuses on verbal forms and means of indoctrination identified in communicative strategies of disinformation, data blocking, falsifying truth, fake messages, tabooing of signs, distortion of the true semantic meaning and substitution of concepts that are used by subjects of information and psychological influence in the synergetic coupling of media resources of the media of Ukraine and the collective West. The author concludes that some processes are underway in the interdiscursive environment of the “post-Maidan” Ukraine that structure a new dominant information need of the society around the image of Russia as an enemy and aggressor. Russian linguistic and cultural pattern holders demonstrate speech behavior in Ukraine that has been formed under the external ideology of governance and illustrates the destructive changes in the values of Russian self-identity, which is a consequence of linguistic cognitive manipulation of the public opinion under the imposed information model of total Russophobia.
Eleonora V. Egorova, Ekaterina I. Krasheninnikova, Natalia A. Krasheninnikova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-207-216

Abstract:
This article is an attempt to analyze English neologisms that appeared in the language during the COVID-19 era. The authors examined a series of English-language publications, presented on open-access public domains such as BBC News, The Conversation, Business Mirror, The Economic Times, as well as Glossary on the COVID-19 pandemic, published on the website of the Government of Canada. The chronological scope of the study lies within April 2020 – February 2021. The analyzed glossary included 143 lexical units. The authors conducted content analysis, which helped to reveal five main groups of neologisms: neologisms that came into our speech from the limited use vocabulary; neologisms describing our new reality; neologisms formed by joining two lexical units with or without contamination; neologisms, which are phrases that either existed earlier, but experienced a semantic shift, or phrases that have appeared in the COVID era and are used to denote previously non-existent realities; neologisms formed by phonetic distortion of already existing words. The study showed that the most extensive groups of neologisms were those that have come from the limited use vocabulary, in particular from medical terminology, and neologisms describing a new reality, which include the very name of the virus (COVID or corona). It should be noted that neologisms that have come into general use from medicine require a special interpretation, since they are not always clearly understood by the recipients. Moreover, many neologisms, having arisen in English, have not got an adequate translation or analogue in the Russian language yet, therefore, these words require a further more careful study.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-51-61

Abstract:
The aim of the article is to analyze the dominant speech behavior of groups of parliamentarians, depending on the national and cultural specifics of the sender of the text, using the methodology adopted in Implicit Pragmalinguistics. The text of each speech is divided into small syntactic groups, which in Implicit Pragmalinguistics are considered the standard units of the analysis. In total, more than three thousand such units were analyzed during the study period. The material for the study of the politicians’ speech behavior was the texts of the speeches of 20 politicians speaking in English and Russian, presented in the period from 2019 to 2020 in their national parliaments, the British Parliament and the State Duma. The analysis shows that the majority of politicians are distinguished by a dominant type of behavior, which is expressed in the manifestation of a bright individuality. A successful politician is always a talented leader and organizer who has the prevalence of character traits that are associated with independence, decisiveness, authoritarianism and focus not only on himself/herself, but also on the audience. All selected groups of the politicians showed great confidence in what they are talking about, which indicates the signs of a successful and professional leader. In the course of a comparative analysis, we came to the conclusion that dominance in the speech of the politicians is manifested differently and depends on the nationality of the parliamentarians. Thus, the Russian-speaking politicians of both sexes confirm their collectivist cultural orientation in speech behavior, and the British generally follow the principles of individualism; the Russian-speaking female politicians are a little more categorical and confident in their speeches than the English-speaking ones.
, Julia A. Volkova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-186-196

Abstract:
The article explores intertexts and precedent phenomena used in current political discourse as exemplified by the speeches of President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin and Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov. As globalization marches on, an increasing number of international conferences, summits, forums is held. Political speeches garner attention of both linguists and a wider audience, as it becomes apparent that political communication can affect people and the international political agenda. Particular attention should be paid to interpreting intertexts. A combination of these factors makes this research highly relevant. The paper focuses on intertexts in political discourse, their types, and how they are interpreted simultaneously from Russian into English. The case study includes videos and scripts of public speeches delivered by President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin and Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov that can be found on the official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, on the official website of the President of Russia, and on a video sharing service YouTube. The case study is underpinned by analytical and comparative methods. Practical implications of the present research include ways of interpreting intertexts in the booth in order to ensure successful communication.
Olga A. Dmitrieva, Natalia A. Vanyushina
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-123-133

Abstract:
Modern civilization space is characterized by a high level of technical and scientific discovery, however, mythological consciousness and belief in conspiracy theories still exist. The article deals with one of the popular mythologies of modern civilization – the conspiracy theory. The relevance of the presented research is due to the importance of considering from the position of linguistic and cultural understanding the mechanisms of the generation and spread of myths in the modern communicative mass consciousness, which actively appeals to mythologems, despite the highly developed science. The analysis of a wide range of theoretical sources of both Russian and foreign authors is carried out in order to comprehensively study the stated issue. The description of universal and ethnospecific mythologies of the modern civilizational space is given, which indicates both the globalization processes and the uniqueness of the value system of each country, respectively. The determination of the values that make up the conspiracy discourse, the dominant “evil”, remains constant. The analysis of the empirical research material is carried out in line with the linguistic and cultural approach with the involvement of elements of frame analysis and discourse analysis. Special attention is paid to the issues of the structure of the conspiracy theory, as well as to the conspiratorial discourse, within which the frame «conspiracy theory» gets its implementation. When describing the «Conspiracy Mystery» frame, its hierarchically ordered structure is noted, which consists of interconnected subframes and slots. The analysis made it possible to determine the common characteristics of the «conspiracy theory» frame, as well as to identify areas of ethno-cultural reflection. The structure of the conspiracy discourse is described: participants, chronotope, value priorities, and strategies. It is noted that most of the theories under consideration are universal, but local ones that are widespread within a certain state remain.
Olga N. Kondratyeva, Sofya M. Kukartsevа
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-62-71

Abstract:
Offered article is devoted to a problem of studying of communicative repertoir of political scientists. The given problem is actual in connection with distinction of objectives which are pursued by politicians and political scientists, and as consequence, distinction of their communicative strategy and tactics used in professional work. A leading position a discourse of political scientists strategy and borrow tactics which have been directed on confirming of legality and illegality of political processes. The article describes the features of the implementation of delegitimizing strategies and tactics in the publications of one of the most authoritative Russian political scientists – Kirill Rogov. Delegitimization as macrostrategy is carried out through a number of private communicative strategy and tactics realizing them, in particular, T. van Leuven has allocated four basic ways of giving of illegality to actions of authority: it is 1) the link on authority; 2) an ethical assessment; 3) rationalization; 4) mythopoetics. All the listed strategy (though and with a different degree of rate) are used in Cyril Rogov’s publications. Results of research specify, that key, possessing the person attractiveness, as communicative tactics of delegitimization tactics of a moral assessment and tactics of analogy act tactics of the appeal to “impersonal” authority. As one of the main features of the argument of own positions Cyril Rogov actively uses the reference to realities of the Soviet epoch, spending thus analogy between events of the present and Stalin reprisals, and in such a way specifies on illegitimacy many political decisions and political events. In addition, all the delegitimizing strategies and tactics used by Kirill Rogov are distinguished by the variety of lexical and syntactic means used, as well as by their pronounced evaluativeness and metaphoricity.
Anna L. Kalashnikova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-163-173

Abstract:
The article considers the semantic function of precedent phenomena in the interpretation of a political communicative event in the texts of modern network anecdotes. The material of the study was anecdotes, which actualize the verbal formula “Whoever calls names is called that himself” used by V.V. Putin in response to a statement by Joe Biden during an interview on ABC on March 17, 2021. In the process of analyzing the material, contextual and discursive analysis techniques were used, as well as elements of Intent-analysis and general scientific methods of generalization and comparison. Since ordinary humorous communication reflects the real ideas of Russian citizens about political events in the country, an analysis of the texts of jokes will reveal stable ideas about the government and the international political situation that have developed in the public consciousness. The study reveals that in the texts of anecdotes that appeared as a reaction to the political dialogue of J. Biden and V. Putin, the most frequent are precedent phenomena dating back to children’s folklore. The analyzed cycle of anecdotes is dominated by the topic of children’s yard quarrel, with which relations between the presidents of Russia and America are associatively correlated. Fiction, history and jurisprudence became other areas-sources of precedent phenomena in anecdotes about J. Biden and V. Putin. Due to the use of precedent phenomena dating back to various sources and causing numerous associations, there is a semantic variability in the interpretation of the same political event in ordinary humorous communication.
Natalya A. Razlivinskaya,
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-104-113

Abstract:
The paper focuses on the potential of urban communicative space to transmit basic ideology paradigm and values of the current political regime in the course of interaction with city residents. Commemoration is regarded as one the key entities involved in transmitting ideologically charged information. The phenomenon of commemoration is understood as a collection of public practices aimed at creating government-approved values and behavioral models via regular reproduction schemes implemented on the basis of perception of past recognized in the society. The goal of the research was to examine verbalization of commemoration in urban space with regard to the historical-political context. The empirical basis of the study includes a corpus of commemorative texts collected by the authors. Commemorative texts were extracted from the open data portal developed and supported by the Government of Moscow. The total number of records registered in the corpus amounted to over 1700. The language data were processed via the AntConc software that allows obtaining information about word frequency and the contexts in which the relevant word occurs. In the next step conclusions about topical and conceptual dominants of commemorative texts were made. Further investigation allowed describing the structural scheme of commemorative texts, determining its zero variability in different temporal periods, identifying an obligatory structural element that displayed sensitiveness to political climate and specifying key discourse strategies correlated with the ideological paradigm of the current political regime.
, Nina A. Tribunskaya
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-38-50

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of the discursive structures of political texts published on Twitter of the President of the United States. The material of the study was the statements of Donald Trump and Joe Biden during the period from November 1, 2019 to August 31, 2021. Its multimillion audience of subscribers makes Twitter a powerful political tool with the ability to influence public opinion. The purpose of this article is to identify the discursive structures arising in political communication as a result of the actualization of the category of discursive heterogeneity, which includes elements of interdiscursiveness and polydiscursiveness. The authors use various methods: descriptive, contextual analysis, comparative, methods of observation, content analysis and discourse analysis. Using the linguistic concept of the American scientist D. Himes S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G, the analysis of the situation components Setting and scene, Participants, Ends, Act Sequence, Key, Instrumentalities, Norms, Genre is carried out. Being a part of the media discourse and demonstrating the features of the Internet genre, the written messages of politicians are laconic, expressive, and tend to economize on linguistic means. The same communicants, depending on the context of utterances, become participants in different types of discourses. The study analyzes the foreign and domestic political discourses, the security discourse, as well as a number of accompanying special discourses that constitute political communication. The choice of the subject matter of the messages is due to the high degree of importance of issues of foreign and domestic policy, as well as stability and security.
, Mohamad Ghashim, Svetlana N. Lvova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-134-146

Abstract:
Leadership as an indispensable element of social relations is an object of research within different schools of thought; however, its common understanding has not been developed yet. Different authors share the opinion that leadership includes authority, ability to lead, take decisions, influence people, organize and structure group interaction, unite people to achieve a goal. In linguistics it is studied in sociolinguistics, political and anthropological linguistics. In the research the authors aim at detecting special language markers of leadership in the speech of a political leader which are verbalized by language means of different language layers, while their choice depends on sociocultural codes shared by the leader, typical of certain linguoculture, age, social, professional group, and stipulated by individual features of the leader’s personality. Considering the existing approaches to linguistic markers analysis, the authors point out at the relevance of sociolinguistic and athropolinguistic approaches, as these markers lie in the area of intersection of social dialect and leader’s idiolect. On the material of the interview of V.V. Putin to NBC journalist the authors attempt to detect, describe and classify markers of leadership in the political leader’ discourse. To define the lexical means of verbalization of leadership the authors employ the theoretical insights of conceptual fields theory. Pragmarhetoric markers are studied through speech acts theory. The research proved the authors’ hypothesis that a leader’s speech contains a multi-level complex of language markers of leadership, i.e. lexical and pragmarhetoric units which express the phenomenon of leadership in the discourse of a political leader.
Anton A. Lavitski
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-4-16-27

Abstract:
Language policy issues are inextricably linked with the socio-political vectors of development of a state. The significance of this problem field is actualised with a number of examples from modern history, when the "language issue" became a source of social tension, led to various kinds of conflicts, including interstate ones. The article is devoted to the analytical study of the modern specifics of language policy in the CIS countries. Research attention is focused on nine states that are active members of the integration association (Ukraine, which de facto does not participate in the activities of the Commonwealth, and Russia are not considered due to the presence of administrative national autonomies and the number of different ethno-cultural communities, as well as the need to reflect in the work the peculiarities of the functioning of the Russian language, which has a special status in the region). The practice of implementing the language policy pursued in the CIS countries allows to generalize and compare the experience of states that have relatively recently received sovereignty and the ability to form an appropriate agenda independently. The analysis made it possible to identify the general directions of language policy, typical for individual countries: 1) protection of the languages of the titular nation with the consolidation of their status as the only state and official for all spheres of communicative interaction (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Uzbekistan); 2) carrying out an alphabetical reform in order to switch to the Latin alphabet (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Uzbekistan); 3) implementation of the policy of state bi- or polylingualism (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan); 4) attempts to solve precedent linguistic problems (nomination of the state language for Moldova, the status of the Russian language for Armenia and Georgia).
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-26-40

Abstract:
In the process of intercultural communication, it is important not only to identify the features of the communicative behavior of representatives of a certain ethnic group, but also to comprehend their nature. Research in cognitive linguistics can help meet this challenge by expanding the understanding of the relationship between language, culture and thinking. One of the tools for rethinking this relationship is metaphor as a cognitive phenomenon, reflecting the culturally conditioned experience of human interaction with the outside world in linguistic form. The purpose of the article is to study metaphoricity as a culturally specific characteristic of discourse. The key method used in the research was the complex analysis of metaphoricity of discourse aimed at the comprehensive study of the functioning of metaphorical models in the text. The method is based on the calculation of a set of indices: the strength of the metaphor (according to K. de Landtsheer), the functional typology of metaphors, the external and internal metaphoric power of the text. The material of the research included texts representing political, official and mass media discourses in Russian, Chinese and English, with a total of 255,119 words. The metaphoricity of the texts was determined by calculating the indices, which made it possible to quantitatively measure the intensity, density and dominant functions of the metaphor. As a result of calculating the indices, it turned out that the metaphoricity of texts attributed to the same type of discourse in different languages, while united by common pragmatic and extralinguistic characteristics, differs: texts in Chinese have a higher density of metaphors. It was revealed that this dependence is culturally determined. It is concluded that the higher density of metaphors in the Chinese language is explained by the specifics of the Chinese linguaculture represented in different aspects of the language, as well as the construction of Chinese discourse. Its specific features are first of all determined by the syllabic type of the Chinese language and the verbal-syllabic type of hieroglyphic writing, and, secondly, by the peculiarities of Chinese cultural thinking. The increased metaphoricity of discourses in Chinese also correlates with the collectivist type of Chinese culture and its long-term orientation.
Dzhanetta M. Dreeva
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-254-265

Abstract:
The article is aimed at studying some features of translation strategies used to convey the expressive potential of a poetic text with elements of mounting techniques, viewed through the prism of the rhythmic-syntactic level of organisation of the poetic text. The subject of analysis is enjambement, or verse (poetic) transference, which is a “dissonance” between the rhythmic division of poetic speech into poetic lines and the syntactic division of verbal material into syntagmas in verse, thereby affecting the rhythmic structure of the text. The poem by H.M. Enzensberger (born in 1929), “verteidigung der wölfe gegen die lämmer”, as well as the translation of the specified poem into Russian (“Protection of wolves from sheep”) made by Lev Ginzburg (1921-1980), are used as the factual material. The original poem is written in free rhythms and includes elements of mounting techniques. To achieve this goal, a complex methodology has been applied, which, in addition to structural-descriptive and comparative analyses, also involves elements of linguopoetic and linguo-stylistic approaches. The relevance of the presented work is primarily due to the translation perspective of the study, which required the involvement of the main provisions of the theory of dynamic equivalence by E. Nida, secondly, – to the fact that translation strategies are considered in terms of intercultural interaction, i.e. taking into account the culturally specific characteristics of the bearers of the source and target languages. Based on the results of the analysis, a conclusion has been made about the special role of verse transferences in the mounted lyrical poetry of H.M. Enzensberger, which are engaged in the creation of the “defamiliarisation” effect at the appropriate micro-level of the lyrical work. A comparative analysis of the texts in the source language and the target language indicates that the application of the main provisions of the theory of dynamic equivalence, as well as the relevant linguistic aspects of intercultural communication when translating poetic works, contributes to a most accurate preservation of the aesthetic effect and of the expressive potential inherent in the original poetic text with elements of mounting techniques.
D.I. Lyashenko,
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-63-74

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the definition of the linguistic status of the “fake” phenomenon, the study of the sources of its destructiveness as one of the types of linguistic manipulation. The work examines speech models of argumentation, persuasion, communicative pressure and fake in order to establish a number of their differential and integral features, to distinguish fake from related linguistic phenomena. The material for the study is represented by the web pages of print and online media of various levels and formats, blogs operating within the framework of public discourse. The basis for the analysis is an approach taken to distinguish between linguistic and rhetorical norms, according to which the argumentation should be considered as a correct non-rhetorical type of persuasion. In turn, as rhetorical types of persuasion, one should consider conviction, which is realized as a correct rhetorical influence, communicative pressure and fake, which are incorrect (destructive) rhetorical types of linguistic manipulation. Analysis of the components of the speech model of these linguistic phenomena and the establishment of the sources of their destructiveness makes it possible to more clearly determine fake as a separate type of linguistic manipulation. It is concluded that fake differs from argumentation by the presence of pathos in the structure of the speech model of persuasion; from argumentation and persuasion - by the implicit nature of the intention and destructive communicative orientation. Fake should also be distinguished from communicative pressure, based on the following principles: fake is unreliable false information, as well as an implicit form of intention; communicative pressure is an excess of the permissible norms of morality and ethics of a measure of influence, as well as an explicit form of intention.
Olga V. Petrova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-266-279

Abstract:
The article discusses the problem of choosing ways and means of pragmatic adaptation in translating a text. The relevance of the topic is due to the necessity to facilitate cross-cultural communication in view of the increased intensity and diversity of forms of international contacts. The definition of pragmatic adaptation as the actions of a translator aimed at adapting the source language text to its perception by a recipient belonging to a different culture, does not answer the questions of when and how a translator can and should change the text in order to preserve the pragmatic potential of the original. The aim of the article is to analyze the problems arising in translating texts requiring pragmatic adaptation and evaluate the impact of different types of pragmatic adaptation on reproducing the pragmatic potential of the original and achieving the possible purposes of translation. In order to do it an experiment was carried out: a text was translated in four different ways with different means used for its pragmatic adaptation, and the translations were compared. The results of the experiment show that the choice of pragmatic adaptation methods and techniques is determined not by the type of text or the type of adaptation, as is usually believed, but by the specific purpose for which the text is translated. Thus, when translating a literary text, which always contains factual, conceptual, emotional, aesthetic, and cultural information, the choice between the naturalness of the text, the preservation of the author’s style, the completeness of the content and the communication of culturally relevant information means, in fact, setting different accents. The means of pragmatic adaptation used by the translator depend entirely on the prioritization of these types of information, in other words, on the purpose of translation.
Svetlana A. Zykova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-41-51

Abstract:
The article considers the category of negation in Spanish as one of the most important components of its culture. Being a language universal and a fundamental category of any culture, negation realizes a great variety of communicative functions. Their study leads to a better understanding of the communicative behavior of the foreign culture representatives. The article presents different points of view on the nature of negation, by analyzing and summarizing different approaches made by different scientists all over the world to the study of this linguistic phenomenon, thus highlighting two main aspects of investigation of negation: formal (syntactical) and conceptual (communicative). When functional capacity of the category in forming negative meanings within real communicative process is studied, the importance should be given to the cognitive and pragmatic features, irrespective of the set grammar rules of negation. In this connection, the article analyzes those forms of negation which are not expressed grammatically. The author has selected and analyzed a number of speech patterns, conveying negative meanings in the process of communication and the following groups were singled out among them: affirmative exclamation, rhetorical question, ironic response. The author stresses that in spite of being manifested at all levels of the language, the implicit negation does not have any fixed marker of expression and it’s always difficult to differentiate it in the context. However, its profound study will help to understand better the communicative behavior of the foreign-language speaking participants in the dialogical interaction. The article examines the comparative aspects of the negation study at the confluence of Russian and Spanish speaking cultures, spotting the differences in the linguistic world pictures.
Svetlana V. Ivanova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-87-98

Abstract:
The research is focused on the features of online educational discourse in the context of intercultural communication. The relevance of this study is preconditioned by a number of factors that are significant for modern linguistics. First of all, educational discourse itself is of interest due to its social significance, as well as its ability to construct reality and identity. The topicality of this publication is also connected with the discursive paradigm, which implies the study of the discursive practices involved in it. Finally, the importance of the intercultural perspective of educational discourse cannot be overestimated, which entails an appeal to the linguocultural specificity of the discourse under study. The empiric material was drawn from the 6-minute English section of the popular BBC Learning English online resource. The objective of the study is to identify the discursive dominants of this representative of educational discourse. On the basis of a complex methodology, which involves the use of the method of linguocultural decoding and interpretation of cultural information, externalized by linguistic means, narrative analysis, analysis of types of text information according to I.R. Galperin, definitional analysis, it seems possible to determine the specifics of educational discourse, which combines multiple discursive practices, namely those of mediatization, polyphony, narrativization, explicit evaluation, lifestyle recommendation. Altogether they contribute to interdiscursivity which characterizes modern online educational discourse. As a result, it can be postulated that within intercultural communication, educational discourse represents an axiological picture of the world oriented towards universal values, which is based on the media picture of the world, it exists as a renewable narrative and addresses a cross-cultural or transnational identity of modern world.
Valeriya A. Rayskina
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-172-182

Abstract:
The paper presents the procedure and results of conceptual and axiological analysis based on sources related to life and work of the XVIth century writer, humanist, and philosopher Michel Montaigne. The aim of the conceptual and axiological analysis is to identify notional, ontological, and value-based categories in the prepared historiographical corpus. The analysis was based on Russian, English, French, Italian, German, and Ukrainian texts related to scientific and historical discourse of various themes but united in personality of M. Montaigne. The study appeals to the term personal historiography introduced and used as textual repertory, which forms a well-balances corpus representing the information about a person in the example of M. Montaigne. Several conceptual and axiological components are revealed on the paratextual layer. The linguistic-axiological analysis of titles of texts about M. Montaigne aims to reveal recurrent means used to express verbal subjective evaluations and axiological dominants in modern researchers` discourse dedicated to life, work, and art of the Renaissance philosopher. The overall purpose of the multidisciplinary study of titles, which includes lexical, semantical, conceptual, axiological and content-analysis is to classify concepts, representing central concerns of Montaigne`s researchers, but also to identify axiological dominants of these researches. The analysis resulted in the determination of several basic concept fields perceived as set of concepts` representations with common features. All the recurrent concepts belong to highly various fields: philosophical beliefs; writing; values and anti-values; others; self-identity; intertextuality; politics; physicality; teaching and education. The formed historiographical corpus contains researches focused on all-round reconstruction of personality, creation, ways of thinking, and acts of M. Montaigne. The relevance of the study is ensured by the discovered conceptual multivalence, which indicates the lack of consensus between scientists in the field of M. Montaigne`s personality.
Irina V. Privalova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-143-157

Abstract:
The article examines the axiological component of verbal units that comprise the paremiological funds in languages with different structure. The content of proverbs and sayings reflects cultural specificity along with the values adopted in a particular ethnic community. The analysis of 865 examples presented in the Russian, English, French and Latin languages has confirmed the hypothesis that the values of people are vividly reflected in paroemias. The author’s conception of “axiological component” has been clarified. Axiological component is understood as the value associated with the assessment included into the semantics of a paremiological unit. The semantic component of paroemias manifests itself in determining the value of an object or phenomenon in relation to other objects or phenomena. Also, it may reflect the work of categorization and classification mechanisms. The idea of axiological component correlation with the hierarchy of the value system (described by one of the founders of axiology H. Rickert) predetermines the novelty of this research. It is concluded that paroemias can be classified based on the content of the axiological component. The following groups have been singled out: behavioral instruction, basic life values, object assessment, subject assessment and assessment of the subject’s behavior. The didactics of paroemias can be expressed in explicit and implicit forms, but one way or another, it is present in every verbal unit. The value component is a serious obstacle in successful interaction; therefore, a projective analysis of the functioning of paroemias under the conditions of intercultural communication has been carried out.
Marina A. Kulinich
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-99-110

Abstract:
The article deals with verbal and non-verbal means of reflecting the present situation of pandemic in humour from linguo-cultural and intercultural point of view. The pandemic brought about numerous outbursts both in traditional mass media and social networks. One of its manifestations is a great number of jokes, anecdotes and memes about COVID-19. Various online platforms present innumerable humorous short texts. Mass media and social networks generate jokes, memes, anecdotes and caricatures. The corpus is drawn from popular social media platforms (Russian and English) and examined through derivational, stylistic, pragmatic and interpretative analyses. The paper explores the ways of creating a humorous effect on the word level (puns based on blends), on the level of short monologues and short dialogues (jokes). Special attention is paid to internet memes – multimodal (polycode) user-generated digital elements consisting of pictures or photos plus captions. The humorous effect in jokes is revealed by means of defeated expectancy when both primary and secondary meanings are manifested. The humorous effect in memes is achieved with the help of text reminiscences displayed by proper names and set phrases typical of various types of texts. The main topics distinguished in these humorous texts are quarantine, social distancing, mask wearing, hand washing and distance learning both in Russia and in English-speaking internet communities. It is shown that humour — even coronavirus and quarantine jokes — bring people together and help them feel connected in the face of adversity and uncertainty. The research will be continued by means of involving German and French humorous texts.
Elena Yu. Ilyinova, Tamara N. Tsinkerman
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-52-62

Abstract:
Communicative tonality is introduced in terms of the utterance style that expresses the speaker’s opinion on the topic, assessment of interpersonal relations with the partner, in a pair with self-presentation in converse acts. It specifies the utterance proposition with the language means that are to transfer thoughtful, contemptuous, adverse, facetious, ironical, other emotional shades of speech. The research explores the notion of communicative tonality and methodology of its study in the theory of discourse and Cross-Cultural communication; examines the communicative tonality of prohibition as an aspect of pragmatic stylistics of communication; specifies its linguistic means in English-related tradition of educative converse. We propose that communicative tonality in the situation of prohibition is stylistically flexible and assembles symbolic obstacles or restrictions in a child’s conduct. Aimed at educative socializing goals, in traditional English converse communicative tonality of prohibition is characterized by dynamic unity of prohibiting genre conventions with paternalism and/or liberal-and-democratic mitigation tactics or authoritative intensification, variability of direct and indirect volition pressure acts. Mitigation in prohibition is achieved with modal verbal predicates and conditional syntactic constructions of utterances that are used by adults to explain reasons of banning or refusal. Signifying the status, the adult gives reasonable arguments, describes psychological states of sadness or disappointment. The alternations of thoughtful and friendly tonality make provision for variability of vertical and horizontal vectors of social distance while communicating with a child. Intensification of authoritativeness is marked by speech acts of strict banning, refusal, objections, which point to vertical vector of excessive control.
Soňa Šnircová
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-243-253

Abstract:
The paper draws attention to the fact that the introduction of gender perspectives into the studies of the Bildungsroman, or novel of development, has opened up the possibility of delineating specific female versions of the genre, ranging from the classic female Bildungsroman, through the feminist Bildungsroman to the postfeminist coming-of-age novel. The following discussion of heroines in British novels of development focuses on the changing socio-cultural factors that have influenced the representations of women’s emancipatory struggles in works by female authors over recent centuries. The selected examples reveal that the transformations of the classic female Bildungsroman which emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have brought about a series of significant innovations that include not only new types of heroines whose self-realization can be achieved in ways unthinkable for their eighteenth- and nineteenth-century predecessors but also more significant thematic and formal variations on the genre.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-75-86

Abstract:
The paper discusses the use of irony in modern public diplomatic discourse. The aim of the study is to describe the functions of irony in diplomatic communication and to show how ironic comments affect communication at the international level. The research is based on the speeches by Russian diplomats and official representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, as well as their publications and comments in social networks. Diplomatic discourse is carried out on the basis of diplomatic protocol and, ideally, should follow the requirements of explicitness, argumentativeness, and minimal emotionality. At the same time, an important property of this sphere of communication is competitiveness (agonality), which is associated with defending the interests of the state on the international level and manifests itself in the explicit competition of various points of view. The study suggests that in modern diplomatic discourse, there are frequent cases of deviations from the diplomatic protocol, when speakers use irony as a way of expressing an implicit critical assessment. Irony accompanies explicit critical assessments of events or actions of diplomats of other states and, as a rule, appears where there is an aggravation of international relations. Tactics used by the speakers to create irony make it easy for the addressee to recognize it. Since the purpose of ironic comments is to show the inconsistency of the opponents’ position, irony allows the speaker not only to express critical assessment of their statements or actions, but also to demonstrate the superiority of the stated point of view on events. Alternatively, it can be a sign of disappointment due to a diplomatic loss. In the context of intercultural communication at the state level, irony violates not only the requirements of diplomatic protocol, but also the principle of politeness, so it can be viewed as an instrument of confrontational agonality, which does not imply a constructive dialogue.
Anna V. Aksenova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-183-194

Abstract:
This study focuses on the semantic borrowings, their structure and classification. Borrowings constitute a special layer of vocabulary in terms of both nomination and motivation. It is known that interference is a change in the language system under the influence of another language. The author notes that the phenomenon of interference includes not only the processes of word borrowing (known as lexical borrowing), but also linguistic calque. Borrowings occur because of a more or less direct contact between languages. Special attention is paid to lexical and semantic borrowings, their structure and classification. It is noted that the borrowed words themselves most often fill the lexical gaps that exist in the Romanian language and are associated with the emergence of new realities. The author analyzes various ways of assimilation of borrowed units. For centuries, the Romanian language has demonstrated a certain “flexibility” in the morphophonological assimilation of borrowings. On the basis of factual material, it was established that in the case of the Romanian language in the Italian-speaking environment, there is a complete or partial encapsulation of the morphological structure of the word, while its phonetics undergoes a process of adaptation. The borrowed words that do not assimilate are motivated by the novelty of the referent.
Anna V. Kuznetsova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-233-242

Abstract:
The article discusses the pragmatic specificity of the cultural codes’ representatives in the literary text containing foreign language inclusions. Pragmatic approach in history and criticism of literature allows to identify the features of the decoding copyright process, their impact on the reader, as well as describe various language products and methods for coding literary communication as a whole. Ethnic identification, equated, including in person axiology, dictates the search for deep patterns in texts containing foreign language inclusions. The complex nature of such literary text is determined primarily by the fact that such text manifests assimilation aspects of the literary personality of cultural codes of other national affiliation. The consequence of the use of such lexical components is the actualization of markers of lingvoculture and deepening the pragmatic potential of the literary text. The relevance of the article is determined by the need to establish the status of cultural codes in the organization of the semantic space of literary text, in the transmission of cultural meanings, meaningful both in the individually-copyright picture of the world and in the functioning of the collective consciousness of the nation. The purpose of the article is to determine the pragmatic specificity of cultural codes in the literary text, influencing the receptive-interpretative activity of the reader, on the example of the implementation of foreign language inclusions as markers of cultural codes in the essay “Caucasian” (1841) and the fairy tale “Ashik-Kerib” (1837) by M.Yu. Lermontov. As a carrier of the world national painting, the author of the literary text, in the event of a certain literary plan, is able to use the means of two languages, and the individual-author’s picture of the world of such a literary personality is characterized by the dynamism determined by the representation of linguistic components, which also include foreign language inclusions (orequivalent vocabulary (realities, exotic, ethnographs)). The literary text, which presents other-speaking inclusions, specially reflects the historical, socio-political, cultural and ethical being of the ethnos, which ultimately determines the author’s desire to expand the aesthetic opportunities of cultural codes marked in a special way in such a text.
Slávka Tomaščíková
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-122-130

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present a part of an ongoing research into the roles food plays in the present-day communication. It provides an interdisciplinary insight into those aspects of intercultural communication that occupy significant role in the changing relationship between public and private spheres. These spheres represent spaces where the aspects of gender become more visible if combined with the elements of food. The author tries to argue that women and food act as ones of the most intriguing features in the ‘Circuit of Culture’ and their participation in intercultural communication is very complex and worth more detailed investigation. The concept of code-switching is often viewed as the one applied in the situations where multilingual communication takes place. The discussion in this paper focuses on those cultural communication contexts in which the cultural code-switching is used as a response to various gender facets in both public and private spheres. Food, that has become one of the most visible parts of both public and private domains of the human existence in the 21st century enters all aspects of the intercultural communication that is performed in smaller and larger social groups and its existence, production, distribution, consumption and representation are directly linked with gender perspectives.
Viacheslav I. Terkulov
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-209-223

Abstract:
The article deals with the description of language interference as the main process in creating the regional identity of the Russian language in Donbass. The relevance of the work is determined by the fact that it is the first attempt to identify the role and forms of language interference in the formation of a regiolect, moreover, the object of research of the processes of language systems interaction is the Donetsk diffuse regiolect, which arose on the South Russian language base as a result of interference of closely related languages and regiolects. The stated subject involves the identification of types, zones, models and participants of interference interaction. The purpose of the article is to determine the sources and results of language interference that occurred during the formation of the Donetsk diffuse regiolect. The author uses general scientific and linguistic methods and techniques for analyzing regionalisms, in particular, comparative, descriptive methods, methods of collecting and processing sociolinguistic data, specialized methods for determining regionalisms. The use of basic methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as the observation method when considering Donetsk language phenomena, allowed the author to determine the Russian basis of the Donetsk regiolect, its diffuse nature, to justify the implementation in regional modifying the “interference absorption” model of external (different language and different regiolect) and internal (idiom) language phenomena, to establish the language zones of interference interaction, the main language systems that participated in the formation of the Donetsk regiolect, and the degree of their participation in this process. The obtained theoretical conclusions can be used in the study of the regiolects of the territories of late settlement, formed on the basis of closely related languages and regiolects, for example, Russian and Ukrainian, Russian and Belorussian, etc.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-224-232

Abstract:
The paper dwells on the traditions of Mexican and Mexican-American ballads called “corridos,” such as “Ballad of Gregorio Cortez,” in the novels of Texas writer Rolando Hinojosa. Corrido that emerged in the XIX century and continues developing today is a unique phenomenon of Mexican and Mexican-American literature. It serves as a worthy material for understanding the problems of cultural interaction, cultural border and multiculturalism. The paper aims at defining the role of corridos in the fictional world of Rolando Hinojosa, the novels “The Valley” and “Klail City” were taken to be analyzed. It gives a brief overview of the genre development based on the key works of the top scholars who study corridos in Russia and abroad. The article also dwells on the creation of the corrido about the folk hero Gregorio Cortez. There is a hypothesis proposed to explain Hinojosa’s decision to opt for the Mexican ballads: the writer was averse to the didactic and propagandistic ideas of Chicano literature of that time which prompted him to use corridos as a means of the hidden moral. Traditional corrido motifs such as revenge, injustice and social inequality are analyzed. The article concludes that in Hinojosa’s polyphonic and fragmented novels, corrido type stories perform plot-forming and compositional functions, direct the reader’s perception.
Natalia Yu. Orlova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-111-121

Abstract:
Cross-Сultural communication cannot exist without interaction, both oral and written. One of the types of written communication is epistolary text. This paper considers one kind of epistolary texts, the so-called ‘dead letter’, i.e. a letter which cannot be delivered to the recipient because this person does not exist. The author introduces the term ‘phantom letter’ since a corresponding term has not been found in the Russian language, besides the existing English term ‘dead letter’ does not fully reveal the phenomenon under discussion. The materials of the article are 14 personal letters and 24 literary texts in the English language belonging to the cultures of Ancient Egypt, the USA, Great Britain and Israel. The methodology of the research is based on the discourse analysis of the personal and fiction discourses. The following types of ‘phantom letters’ have been studied: letters to the dead, letters to the future generations and literary texts which are letters to some famous historical or fictional characters. Special attention is paid to various reasons why people have been writing such epistolary texts: the writer may do it on practical grounds, as a form of trauma counselling and/or resurrecting the loved one or information. As for the literary texts, the author’s aim is to create a humorous effect since all these letters are parodies. Chronotope is also considered, which is especially important in letters to the dead and letters to the future. Discourse formulas typical for some types of phantom letters have been analyzed. The last part of the paper deals with precedent texts, because understanding of fictional dead letters is drawn entirely from the knowledge of precedent. The conclusion states that there are various types of phantom letters in various cultures, they are normally personal and they are written for various reasons, however, they possess common features. Some prospects for further study in this area are also outlined.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-195-208

Abstract:
The paper covers a range of issues related to the specifics of Russian language mastering by Indian students studying in English and Russian. The research is based on an integrative methodological platform that combines approaches to multilingualism formation from the standpoint of psychological linguistics, cognitive linguistics, the theory of language contacts, discourse and communication science. The research involves the techniques of psychological and semantic analyses and verbal associations, the methods of contextual analysis and comparison. The material of the paper is the data obtained from online surveys of Indian students who have been studying at universities in North Ossetia-Alania for six years (elementary and pre-intermediate levels of Russian language proficiency). The study is aimed at identifying perception channels that represent the features of foreign students cognitive style in the Russian natural environment, descripting level-by-level interfering influence of native languages and weak interference of English. Based on text fragments and lexical units, vectors and methods of interlingual interference were demonstrated, its leading types were determined, that are phonetic, phonemic, graphemic, phonemic-graphemic, morphological and lexical. The role of English as a communicative mediator is defined. The analysis done confirmed complex application of auditory, visual and kinesthetic channels at the information input, and revealed the dominance of the auditory perception channel at the information output while learning the Russian language by Indian students. The Indian students cognitive style tends to be simplified through contamination of written and oral speech, compression, abbreviations usage, intensification of associative and semantic links. Strategies for using Internet translation, imitation of mastering the Russian language, literal translation from English into Russian, strategies for the implementation of graphic, phonetic-graphic principles of writing, phonemic and grammatical reduction were identified as the basic communication strategies of Indian students learning Russian.
Irina V. Arkhipova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-16-25

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to consider the issue of actualizing of the categorical semantics of the non-prototypical taxis of simultaneity in German, Russian, Dutch, English and Polish. The study was conducted on the material of different structural languages within the framework of comparative typological and functional grammatical approaches to the study of taxis meanings, taking into account the phenomenon of interlanguage variability. The non-prototypic taxis of simultaneity is the secondary taxis of simultaneity, which is actualized in statements with taxis prepositions of adverbial semantics (conditional, causal, concessive, consecutive, final, modal, instrumental, medial) in German, Russian, Dutch, English and Polish. Taxis prepositions are distinguished by their interlanguage variability and polyfunctionality. They mark the semantics of the secondary taxis of simultaneity, in particular the causal, conditional, modal, concessive, consecutive, final and conditional taxis in German, Russian, English, Polish, Dutch, as well as the categorical semantics of the instrumental/medial taxis in Germanic languages: German, English and Dutch. Within the framework of this study, we distinguish the following variants of the non-prototypical taxis of simultaneity: modal taxis (secondary taxis of manner), conditional taxis, causal taxis, consequential taxis, concessive taxis, final taxis in German, English, Dutch, Russian and Polish, as well as instrumental and medial taxis in German, English and Dutch. The examined statements represent such secondary taxis categorical situations of simultaneity as: secondary taxis categorical situations of the manner, conditional-taxis, causal-taxis, concessive-taxis, consecutive-taxis, final-taxis (in German, Russian, English, Polish, Dutch), as well as instrumental-taxis and medial-taxis categorical situations of simultaneity (in German, English and Dutch).
, Elena A. Kondakova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-280-291

Abstract:
Der Aufsatz thematisiert das Verstehen fremdsprachiger Texte als eine der Schlüsselkompetenzen in der Germanisten-Ausbildung. Es wird sprachlichen Signalen nachgegangen, die der Text dem Rezipienten zur Verfügung stellt, um ihm den Zugang zu Textsinnen zu gewähren. Der zu untersuchende didaktisch angelegte Schwerpunkt ist für die Lehre von fremden Sprachen und Kulturen von großer Relevanz und besagt, dass Textverstehen im Fremdsprachenunterricht konsequent geschult werden soll. Im Aufsatz wird die interpretativ angelegte Herangehensweise an Texte mit impliziten Informationen zur Diskussion gestellt und das methodisch-didaktische Verfahren für Steuerung der rezeptiven Vorgänge im Deutschunterricht für Anfänger-vorgeschlagen. Eines solcher Zeichen, die verifizierbare Lesarten, von Studierenden aufgestellt, geltend macht, sind Sprichwörter als komplexe linguistische Entität und Träger kulturell relevanter Informationen. Am Beispiel der deutschen Volksmärchen in Bearbeitung von E. M. Arndt („Halt den Mittelweg!“), von den Brüdern Grimm („Der Nagel“) sowie von L. Bechstein („Bruder Sparer und Bruder Vertuer“) wird das textanalytische Verfahren vorgeführt, indem sich der Rezipient auf die in Märchen-Texte eingebetteten Sprichwörter in der Funktion des kognitiven “Schlüssels” stützt. Hierzu treten Sprichwörter als „Behälter“ soziokulturellen Wissens um ethische Normen und Wertvorstellungen auf. Im Bewusstsein des Rezipienten als mentale Einheiten gespeichert, werden die Sprichwörter vom ihm auf der formal-grammatischen und lexikalisch-semantischen Ebene mit Propositionen des Märchens als einer belehrenden Gattung in Korrelation gebracht. Dadurch wird Studierenden der Zugang zu verschlüsselten Botschaften gebahnt. Die vorgenommene Untersuchung wurde anhand der Methode der linguistischen Analyse, der Content-Analyse, der analytisch-hermeneutischen Methode und der Methode unausgelesener Stichprobe bei der Datenerhebung durchgeführt. Im Aufsatz wird ein Verfahren der linguokognitiven Analyse des Märchens als Genre der Folklore mit moralisierendem Hintergrund vorgeschlagen. Des Weiteren folgen didaktische Empfehlungen zur Wahl der Märchen-Texte zwecks deren Interpretation unter Einbezug der Sprichwörter und mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Sprachniveaus der Studierenden.
Olga V. Loutovinova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-3-158-171

Abstract:
The paper deals with communicative cyberpersonality types of aggressive behaviour as a cross-cultural phenomenon. The aim of the article is to distinguish and differentiate communicative cyberpersonality types of aggressive behaviour ssupported by such characteristics of the communicative cyberspace as globalism, virtuality, and anonymity. The relevance of the current investigation is determined by a constantly growing role of computer-madiated communication in a modern person’s life, by the appearance of new types of the Internet users’ interaction, by the display a communicative personality’s new qualities and by the necessity of giving a scientific background to all these appearing and changing phenomena. The analysed material comprises dictionary definitions and modern Russian an English texts selected by the continuous sampling method from different Internet genres, such as forums, blogs, social nets, web-chats, which reflect destructive speech products. The overall number of investigated material is 600 units. The material is analysed using such methods as introspection, conceptual modelling, interpretative analysis and contextual analysis. The analysed material shows that not any naming means of aggressive behaviour in a cyberspace can become a name for a communicative personality type. Communicative personality type should be distinguished on the clear lexicographical representation underlying the concept, its own communicative intensions, definitely chosen communicative strategies and tactics, certain modality and verbal and non-verbal means. Taking into consideration these characteristics one can distinguish the following communicative cyberpersonality types of aggressive behaviour: troll, holy war maker, hater, cyberbuller/cyberbully (cybermobber), shamer (blamer), griefer, cyberstalker.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-28-38

Abstract:
The paper deals with linguistic anthropology’s approach to virtual identity, the term “virtual identity” is defined, the distinction between “virtual identity’ and “online identity” is stated, the peculiarities of virtual identity’s structure are described. The aim of the article is to describe and investigate “virtual identity” as an object of linguistic anthropology’s approach; to define the terms “virtual identity” and “online identity”; to identify the virtual name’s functions; to state the tendencies of further research studies of the virtual identity. The importance of the Internet discourse investigation and key trends in the studies of the virtual personality structure determine the research topicality. The material analyzed comprises texts taken from online discourse, written speech card-catalogues compiled by the author during 2020-2021, the list of the virtual names (450 in number) retrieved from Rusfishing and Steam user profiles. Different groups of virtual names are discovered in the research: official; informal; derivative, i.e. formed by adding diminutive suffixes, etc. The main functions of virtual names are identified. Special attention is devoted to linguistic creativity of Russian online users, who create different types of texts (jokes, anecdotes, antiproverbs, demotivators, memes) that form the core of Internet folklore.
Svetlana V. Bylkova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-199-211

Abstract:
Within the framework of this article, the starting point of the research is the theoretical position, according to which reports on discoveries and achievements in the field of astronomy appear as a frequency phenomenon, covered in specialized popular scientific texts. As a result, a pragmatic analysis of the source of information and ensuring access to the voices of astronomer researchers in a journalistic report is an urgent problem. The personality of the journalist acts as an intermediary between scientists and non-professional readers, whose knowledge of astronomy is limited, and the created popular science texts are a kind of communication platform for voicing the judgments that are put forward by representatives of the astronomical communities. In this regard, journalists not only supplement the reader’s knowledge in an accessible form, but also open access to the voices of representatives of the scientific and astronomical community, relying on such means as direct and indirect speech, which reveal different degrees of frequency in the first paragraph of the text and in the subsequent presentation. To systematize the actual data indicating the explicit labeling of the source of information in a popular science message, the most frequent language signals that are used by journalists in order to introduce a «foreign» voice into the text (predicates that introduce direct or indirect speech) are analyzed. As a result, models and indicators of their frequency were identified, this, in turn, provided an opportunity to trace the trends in voicing the expert astronomers’ opinions in a popular scientific text. It is established that the distribution of direct and indirect speech with explicit marking of the source of information in the first paragraph of the popular science text is not homogeneous. In this text segment, indirect speech is the most frequent, which allows the journalist to focus the reader’s attention on an unbiased vision of a scientific and astronomical event.
Alexey N. Pechenyuk
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-240-249

Abstract:
The article studies a complex contaminated process of actualization of semantic components, which explicate various spheres of intentional objectification of general content in the texts of the precedent world “The Great Patriotic War”. The focuses, first of all, on the axiological basis for integrating the components of comparing personal understanding of the precedent phenomenon and its perception in culture. The dominants of psychic and socially oriented elements of the value space acquire their verbalization in the intimization sphere on the basis of texts of special cultural significance. They are analyzed on the basis of the hermeneutic method, which allows revealing the greatest number of facets of both the basic, nuclear area of verbalization, and to delimit the etymological, passive elements of the semantic hierarchy. In addition, in the process of analyzing the core and periphery, the most effective ways of verbalization and intimization of individual overtones of cultural concepts are determined. Within the framework of identifying the mechanisms of reflexive understanding of the phenomena of “feat”, “suffering”, “anger”, the initial contaminated space of modification of nuclear, etymological, historical and personal peripheral components in their inextricable interaction and mutual influence is recreated. The essence of the dismembered diegetic narration as a key technique for guiding the recipient into the process of derivation of the general content of the work with the formation of a common space of perception and understanding is revealed. The key principles of the reader’s presentation and awareness of the “intimacy” of the narrative with mutual reflexive assessment of the event by the reader and the reader’s hypothetical attitude by the author of the work are described. On the basis of the author’s intentional and unconscious reader’s social reflection in the process of actualizing the components of sociocultural memory within the framework of the precedent world of the Great Patriotic War, a complex conceptual-valency space with a multilevel structure is formed in the linguocultural consciousness of the Russian-speaking community, including the components of the author’s episodic memory.
Anastasia A. Buryanova
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-186-198

Abstract:
This article systematically analyzes the cognitive structure of discursive deixis. The category of deixis is interpreted in terms of structuring actual events in reportage messages and texts, an impartial representation of objective reality as an epistemological entity reproduced and changed by the journalist. Deixis is interpreted as a pragmatic category that is structured around the corresponding ideal cognitive model, measured on the prototypical scale, since it is implemented based on nuclear and peripheral means of expression. It is argued that deictic means reproduce specific mental spaces in reportage texts, while the metaphorical generating basis for discursive deixis is spatial deixis. The functioning of discursive deixis is based on the metaphorical awareness of the reportage text as an epistemological entity unfolding in space and time. In the reportage narration, the journalist shifts the deictic center from the situation in objective reality to the textual embodiment of the image of himself / herself. In this case, the category of locativity is represented as a cognitive structure that captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of an actual event through the prism of journalistic perception. Based on these characteristics, the reader localizes this event, interprets it in terms of the general event canvas unfolding in objective reality. In the reportage text, the deictic center is not static: the detail of the actual event is carried out, among other things, by means of shifts in this center. Current events are reproduced by the journalist taking into account specific spatial and temporal parameters. These events are often considered against the background of previous or subsequent (hypothetical) eventfulness, and therefore shifts in the original deictic center of the reportage text are a natural phenomenon.
Jana A. Solunova,
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-162-175

Abstract:
The topic matter of the research is the system of methods, forms and means of organizing the project-research activities among middle school students in the Russian language classes. This fact determines the work as practice-oriented: the authors of the article make an attempt to formulate and propose their own topics of projects and researches in Russian lessons within project-research activity in accordance with the feasibility and expected substantive studying outcomes. In the course of the work, with the aim of a comprehensive analysis of the indicated issue at different stages, general scientific methods were used: the method of continuous sampling; systematization and generalization; observation, analysis, classification, descriptive-analytical method; modeling method, which altogether have provided a full picture. Among the most significant results of the study, the author’s development of themes and a construct (algorithm with development and description) of the project-research activity of 5-7 grades schoolchildren within the modern directions of linguistics with possible subsequent implementation in Russian lessons and/or in extracurricular activities as a way to achieve a fairly wide range of substantive studying outcomes is showed up. The work’s resulting outcomes determine the practical significance of the research: the research materials can be used in the Russian language classes, in the organization of research activities for middle and high school students, in the development of special courses and special seminars, in the compilation of textbooks on relevant subject. The work concludes the next: the topic matter of project-research activity should be reasonable, appropriate for children’s age in order to increase students’ interest in learning and participation in project-research activity. It is especially important to ensure that they can understand its structure: their own goals in this activity, possible methods of solutions, etc. It is also important that students can search for information on their own, present their project or its fragment, etc.
, Ksenia E. Lukina
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-176-185

Abstract:
From the position of a cognitive approach the authors consider English deadjectival nouns, what involves identifying and describing knowledge domains represented by these language units in English language culture. The study is carried out on the material of deadjectival nouns, which are fixed in English dictionaries and selected by a continuous sampling method. A set of methods is used, the main of which are methods of conceptual-definitional and cognitive-matrix analysis. As a result of the study, it is revealed that English deadjectival nouns represent the structure of knowledge of an integrative nature, including the concepts of HUMAN BEING, ARTEFACT, NATURAL OBJECT, SUBSTANCE, and STATE. This knowledge structure is presented as a general cognitive matrix, the components of which are the above concepts. In turn, the matrix components can also be complex and include a variety of knowledge. It is determined that deadjectival nouns presenting the HUMAN BEING concept convey ideas about human physical parameters, psychological features and social status, as well as about human diseases. Deadjectival nouns representing the concept of ARTEFACT name human signs and sign systems, products of human speech, household and personal items, objects of labor activity, vehicles and buildings. Deadjectival nouns representing the NATURAL OBJECT concept convey ideas about natural landscape objects, about the plant and animal world. Deadjectival nouns representing the SUBSTANCE concept reflect ideas about drugs/substances, cleaning products, cosmetics, and technical substances, organic or natural substances. The STATE concept is represented by deadjectival nouns that convey knowledge about the state of a person, object, and phenomenon, about their being in a certain state.
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