Results in Journal Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences: 853
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Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 5-10; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.2
Lifestyle interventions can effectively reduce chronic disease risk factors. This study examined the effectiveness of an established lifestyle intervention contextualized for low-literacy communities in Fiji. Ninety-six adults from four villages, with waist circumference (WC) indicative of risk of chronic disease, were randomly selected to an intervention or control group. Process evaluation indicated one intervention and one control village fulfilled the study protocol. There were no differences between intervention and control for body mass index BMI (P = 0.696), WC (P = 0.662), total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.386), and TC:high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (P = 0.485). The intervention village achieved greater reductions than the control village at 30 and 90 days for systolic blood pressure (30 days: −11.1% vs. −2.5%, P = 0.006; 90 days: −14.5% vs. −6.7%, P = 0.019); pulse rate (30 days: −7.0% vs. −1.1%, P = 0.866; 90 days: −7.1% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.027), and HDL (30 days: −13.9% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.206; 90 days: −18.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.001); at 90 days only for diastolic blood pressure (−14.4% vs. −0.2%, P = 0.010); at 30 days only for low-density lipoprotein (−11.6% vs. 8.0%, P = 0.009); and fasting plasma glucose (−10.2% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.032). However, for triglycerides, the control achieved greater reductions than the intervention village at 30 days (35.4% vs. −12.3%, P = 0.008; marginal at 90 days 16.4% vs. −23.5%, P = 0.054). This study provides preliminary evidence of the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the intervention to lower several risk factors for chronic disease over 30 days in rural settings in Fiji and supports consideration of larger studies.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 27-29; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.7
Green nanotechnology is relatively new branch of science and technology with many interesting applications. This technology involves in the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) through green synthesis using extracts of plant-derived materials. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide NPs is a good alternative over the other conventional physical and chemical methods. This study deals with the green synthesis of manganese oxide (MnO2) NPs using the extract of Aloe vera. The green synthesized MnO2 NPs have been synthesized using various analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscope. MnO2 NPs were tested for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion method. The experimental results were indicating that the MnO2 NPs are good antibacterial agents against different bacterial species.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 53-58; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.13
Introduction: Gingival overgrowth is one of several oral side effects of phenytoin, a potent antiepileptic drug. Several mechanisms have been elucidated to understand the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. The frequency of gingival overgrowth associated with chronic phenytoin therapy remains controversial. and the possible subclinical effects of this drug on the gingival epithelium should be investigated histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Purpose of the study: To investigate the Bcl-2 for apoptosis rate and Ki-67 for the epithelial proliferative activity in epileptic patients. Materials and methods: Twenty four samples of gingival tissue from epileptic patients treated with phenytoin and in eight samples of gingival tissue from healthy patients who didn’t use phenytoin (control) were evaluated for Bcl-2 and Ki-67 immunohistochemically. Results: The results revealed moreproliferative activity of the overlying epithelium and an increased pattern of Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in phenytoin users compared to controls. Conclusion: These results concluded that the increased epithelial thickness observed in phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth is associated with increased apoptotic rate and mitotic activity , especially in the oral epithelium. Keywords: Gingival overgrowth, Bcl-2, Ki-67, Phenytoin.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 1-4; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.1
The search for new antioxidant compounds and minerals to combat the nutritional needs of the populace of Nigeria is on the increase. This study investigates the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, proximate, and mineral status of Egyptian Citrus paradise: A popular citrus fruit consumed in Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State using standard procedures. The result revealed that the presence of important phytoconstituents, namely, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars with alkaloid was reported to be absent. The juice concentrates exhibit an appreciable but significantly lower (P < 0.05) 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylradical free screening activity compared to the reference antioxidant. The result of the vitamin, proximate, and mineral analysis confirms the concentrate to be a rich source of Vitamin C, minerals such as sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, as well as a moderately to poor source of carbohydrate, lipid, protein, fiber, and potassium. These findings will greatly help nutritionist in properly making nutrition recommendations to meet the nutritional priorities of the populace.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 30-34; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.8
Functional tooth regeneration has shown promising therapeutic strategy. Tooth regeneration is possible by combine use of adult stem cells, growth factors, and scaffold. In recent years, researchers have explored tooth regeneration. Significant effort has been made in recent decades to identify and characterize tooth stem cells and to unravel the developmental programs which these cells follow to generate a tooth.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 44-46; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.11
Objective: The goal of this paper was to develop a model of intestinal sepsis in the investigational animal. Material and methods. Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4 weeks (N = 42) were used. Initially, a pilot study (N = 12) was performed and distributed in groups with .8 cc inoculum of Escherichia coli ATCC intraperitoneally administered at concentrations of 9, 7, 6. Subsequently, concentrations of 9 CFU are used in two groups of rats with reductions of 11 cc. Finally, a randomized trial of 28 rats was initiated in three treatment groups after intraperitoneal infection. Biological models of blood and peritoneal fluid were observed, and histopathological study of intraperitoneal tissues was done. Results. Demise of 95% of the rats infected with E. coli UFC concentration was observed. The blood culture and peritoneal fluid culture was positive for the same strain in all of them. The formation of blisters on the liver surface and polymorphonuclear infiltration in organs were detected. Conclusion. The fatal dose of E. coli should be diluted for intraperitoneal injection.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 39-43; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.10
Background: Since methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics, there is a possibility of extensive outbreaks which may be difficult to control. Early detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus is important from patients and hospitals point of view. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were obtained from admitted patients of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. The sources of isolate included pus from infected surgical wounds, infected burn wounds, conjunctival swab, aural swab, throat swab, vaginal swab, and urine for microbiological and biochemical analysis of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Results: All the 264 cases of staphylococcal species isolated from different clinical specimens were subjected to coagulase test. It was observed that out of 264 strains of staphylococci isolated from different sites, 165 strains (62.5%) were coagulase positive and 99 strains (37.5%) were coagulase negative by tube method. Out of the 165 strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci, maximum isolation was obtained from pus 74 followed by throat swab 55, aural swab 21, vaginal 4, conjunctival swab 9, and urine 2. All the 165 cases of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolated from different clinical specimens were studied for hemolysis, mannitol fermentation, pigment production, and phosphatase production. Out of these 165 strains, 162 (98%) strains produced β-hemolysis on blood agar medium. Pigment production was noted in 160 (97%) of cases. Majority of strains produced characteristic golden yellow pigment on nutrient agar plate. A total of 155 (94%) strains of staphylococci fermented mannitol with the production of acid only. Phosphatase production was observed in 157 (95%) strains of pathogenic staphylococci. Conclusion: Considering the above-mentioned pathogenicity test, it was observed that coagulase test was the single most reliable test, though coagulase-negative staphylococci are sometimes pathogenic too.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 59-69; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.14
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), accounting for approximately half of all deaths owing to non-communicable diseases worldwide, have become a major public health concern. The CVD risk is high among the Indian population, as well as varies by geography. The purpose of the current study was to test the independent effects of contextual socio-economic variables, whilst adjusting for individual socio-economic variables on CVD risk factors in India. Data from the 52nd, 60th, and 71st NSSO rounds pertaining to Social Consumption related to Health have been utilized for the current study. A four-level multilevel model has been fitted to examine the measured individual, household, community, and district factors on the prevalence of CVDs.District educational attainment, household expenditure quintile, and proportion of district urbanicity have emerged as important factors with few contra-indications in terms of traditional directions of association, as opposed to extant literature. Religious and ethnic composition of the communities and districts have also been found to have an impact. In order to better manage the CVD health of the nation, there is a strong need to focus on community-level and district-level interventions, in addition to individual-level factors. Future research should investigate these factors to account for unexplained variations in CVD management.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 23-26; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.6
This study was designed to explore new antibacterial agent(s) from the defatted methanol and water extracts of Ficus capensis. The extracts were obtained using various solvents, namely, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and water by serial exhaustive extraction, after which both extracts were challenged with pure clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Burkolderia cepacia viz-a-viz standard antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and amoxicillin at 25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml concentrations using spectrophotometric method. Using the zone of inhibition as an inhibitory parameter, both extracts of F. capensis showed promising antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner comparable to the standard antibiotics for all tested microorganisms. This research holds promise for the exploration of various potentially active secondary metabolites which would help in developing pharmaceuticals, especially antibacterial drugs, for combating common microbial infections. This validates the use of the plant leaves in the treatment of broad-spectrum microbial infections in ethnomedicine.
Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 7, pp 18-22; doi:10.21276/apjhs.2020.7.3.5
Background: Experimental tumors have great importance in modeling, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) is one of the most common tumors. EAC is referred to as an undifferentiated carcinoma and is originally hyperdiploid, has high transplantable capability, no-regression, rapid proliferation, shorter life span, 100% malignancy, and also does not have tumor-specific transplantation antigen. The current concepts that radiotherapy alone or with cancer chemotherapy is administered at a dose to the maximum a patient can tolerate before the onset of severe and even life-threatening toxicity is still in wide clinical use. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of radiotherapy in the treatment of EAC. Materials and Methods: A mouse bearing the tumor strain was taken from our laboratory in the Department of Pathology, IPGMER, Kolkata, where the strain was being maintained serially by inoculation of malignant cells into healthy mice every 8–10 days. In our work, altogether 25 mice were taken for each set of experimental work. They were divided in four groups of 5–10 mice in each group. The various parameters to assess the response of various therapeutic schedules were regression of tumor by decrease in body weight of mice and decrease in abdominal girth; cell count of ascetic fluid and morphological changes of tumor cells after treatment with drugs and to study the percentage viability of the cells. Results: All the mice in Group I gained weight steadily. Mice of Group II were unaffected by single dose whole body radiation and they behaved as mice of Group I. All mice of Group III died within 20–25 days. Conclusion: Cell changes were observed but not as marked. Cell viability was as high as 65% after treatment as compared to tumor control which showed a viability of about 75%.