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Results in Journal European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety: 1,002

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Nasra M. Abd El-Mageed, , Kaltham A. H. Kayaf, Abdulla S. Janaan
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i830438

Abstract:
The occurrence of pesticide residues in representative samples collected from imported dates palm fruits during 2020 to United Arab Emirates (UAE) was investigated to ensure compliance with the standard specifications and requirements by the regulatory and supervisory authorities, maintain the health and safety of consumers and improve food safety. An accurate, rapid, and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of pesticide multi-residues in 230 samples imported dates by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI (+)-MS/MS) operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) method was used. The performance of the analytical method was validated in accordance with EU SANCO guidelines (SANTE/12682/2019) for monitoring pesticide multi-residues to check compliance with existing regulations, especially for European Community. Residues level of 343 compounds were determined in 230 samples. Results indicated that the percentage of samples with residues above the maximum residue levels (MRL) was 4.34% in dates samples, whereas samples with residues within MRL were 7.39% in dates samples. A total of 230 samples of 88.26% were free from detectable residues. Out of the 343 pesticides tested, 11 pesticides were found above the limit of detection, according to UAE, Codex, and European regulations. The main purpose of this work is to inform citizens and traders who have concerns about food safety on the capability of the MOCCAE on quality assurance regarding pesticide residue in imported food.
I. M. Ikeh, B. C. Anele, C. C. Ukanwa, S. O. Njoku
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 62-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730437

Abstract:
Palm wine is generally consumed due to its nutritive composition to the human body system particularly when fresh and unfermented state. A total of 20 Palm wine samples obtained from two different locations in Elele community of Rivers state, were analyzed for their microbiological qualities. A ten-fold serial dilution method was used. For Total Aerobic Plate Count (TAPC) nutrient agar was used, MacConkey for coliform count (CC), Eosin methylene blue for Escherichia coli count (EC), and Potato dextrose agar for the fungal count. Microbial counts in the palm wine sold in the drinking bar were higher than that of the palm wine tapper. TAPC, the sample from the drinking bar has a mean value (6.73+ 0.22 log10cfu/ml) which was higher than the value obtained from the palm wine tapper (6.70+0.15log10cfu/ml). The coliform count of palm wine from the drinking bar was (6.57+ 0.10log10cfu/ml) but not significantly different from those with minimum counts (6.56+ 0.9log10cfu/ml) obtained from the tapper. Escherichia coli of palm wine from drinking bar were (5.73+ 0.23 log10cfu/ml) which were higher than (5.71+ 0.18 log10cfu/ml). The Fungal counts of palm wine sampled from the drinking bar were higher but not significantly different from those obtained from the tapper. Bacteria isolated from the two respective palm wines sampled included Staphylococcus spp 50% and 30% respectively, Klebsiella spp 20% and 30% respectively, Proteus spp 40% and 10% and 30% respectively, Aspergillus spp 30% , 10% and Saccharomyce cerevisae 20% and 30% respectively. For the analysis of variance, bacteria and fungi count was not significant. Consumers of palm wine are advised to purchase the product from the tapper to reduce the chances of contamination.
, Ogbo Frank Chinweike, Chigbo Chisom Godswill, Okafor Onyedika Ifeanyi, Iduu Nneka Vivian, Soludo Obumneme Christian
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 51-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730436

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to produce a fermented soymilk drink using Bacillus coagulans. This was performed in the Microbiology laboratory of Nnamdi Azikiwe, University. 20ml aliquots of soymilk containing Bacillus coagulans was fermented at 28°C, 37°C, 42°C and 50°C for period of 9 h. The pH of the soymilk and growth of Bacillus coagulans was checked during the fermentation period. The effect of sugar supplementation and adjustment of initial pH on soymilk fermentation was also checked. A 9-point hedonic scale was used by the sensory panelist for the sensory evaluation of the fermented soymilk. At 28°C, pH of soymilk did not decrease and cell count did not increase throughout the fermentation period. Fermentation at 37°C, 42°C and 50°C recorded decrease in pH and increase in cell count. Addition of 0.5% sucrose improved acid production and maintained a good cell count. Concentrations above 0.5% sucrose saw a slight decline in cell count. Glucose concentration of 0.5% to 2% improved acid production. Glucose concentration of 0.1% to 1% improved the growth of the probiotic cells. Concentration above 1% caused a drop in probiotic cell count. Adjustment of soymilks initial pH and addition of 0.5% glucose resulted in pH drop to 4.5 after 9h fermentation at 50°C. The fermented soymilk had moderate overall acceptability by the sensory panelist. Bacillus coagulans can be used as probiotic of choice to produce a fermented soymilk.
Ademola Adegoroye, Adewale Isaac Olutumise, Oluyede Adeleke Aturamu
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730435

Abstract:
This study examined the food security status and coping strategies to food insecurity of rural arable crop farming households in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and a multistage sampling procedure was used to select 150 respondents. Food Security Index (FSI), Probit regression model and Coping Strategy Use Index (CSUI) were employed to carry out the analysis. The empirical findings revealed that (54%) of rural arable crop farming households in the study area were food secure based on the recommended minimum calorie of 2260Kcal. Furthermore, the empirical analysis revealed that gender of the household head, household size, farm size and farm income of the household head had significant influence on the household food security status. The most widely employed coping strategy was withdrawal from personal savings as indicated by 14.82 percent of household and while reliance on less expensive food and purchasing food on credit were ranked second and third respectively with 13.66 and 12.85 percent by the food insecure households. In other to ensure sustainable food security among the households, the study recommended effective household size management, and enlightenment programmes on family planning in the study area. Farmers should increase their farm sizes. Farmers should use more inputs and technologies to increase output. Farmers should also be encouraged to have additional source of income towards attaining food security in the study area.
, Segilola Maryam Oladepo, Mary Oluwatosin Adesola, Sekinat Qadri
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 17-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730433

Abstract:
Aims: Fruits juices and soft drinks are among the most important and convenient foods which are commonly consumed to quench thirst, and as a source of micronutrients. However, most fruit juices commercially sold in Nigeria are not pure juice but contains additives which may affect the safety and quality attributes of the product. This study therefore, evaluated the chemical composition and microbiological safety of some commercially sold fruit juices and drinks and compared their quality with pure fruit juices. Methodology: Twenty commercially sold fruit juices and soft drinks were analyzed for physicochemical properties, vitamins and minerals composition and microbiological quality using standard analytical procedures. Results: Pure fruit juices contain similar pH, total titratable acidity, and specific gravity as the commercial fruit juices and soft drinks, but significantly higher total solid contents. The total soluble solid recorded for the pure pineapple (22 g/100ml) and watermelon juice (25.9 g/100ml) were significantly higher than the values (11.1 – 15.5g/100ml) recorded for the commercial fruit juices. The vitamin C content of the commercial soft drink ranged from 22.94 to 26.14 μg/100g, and that of commercial fruit juices and pure fruit juice ranged from 14.89 to 22.81μg/100g with pure fruit juice having the lowest value. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of the pure fruit juice and commercial fruit and soft drinks were similar except for total solids and Brix level. Commercial fruit juices and soft drinks contain higher vitamins and minerals than pure fruit juices due to addition of synthetic vitamins and minerals. All the commercial fruit juice samples and soft drinks are free of microbial loads and would not cause any health problems if properly handled after purchase. The study recommends the consumption of hygienically prepared pure fruit juices because they are free from synthetic micronutrients.
M. E. Haque, M. N. Islam, M. Y. Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. A. Rahman, M. A. Majid, M. Z. Turin, J. Tasnim
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730434

Abstract:
A study was carried out at flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to explore the relationship, contribution and direct–indirect effect between personal attributes and their coping strategies towards household food security practiced by the farmers during flood. Data were collected from randomly selected respondents through both the qualitative and quantitative techniques and analyzed with the help of SSPS. Out of 18 personal, economic, social and psychological characteristics of the farmers, the personal education, housing condition, annual income, annual expenditure, savings, organizational participation, participation in IGAs, cosmopoliteness, environmental awareness, knowledge on flood coping mechanisms and household food security had positive and credit received and utilization of received credit had negative while age, family size, training received, risk orientation and involvement in safety net programmes had no significant relation with coping strategies towards household food security during flood period.
, Jeanne H. Freeland-Graves, Ayodele O. Gbemileke, Funke F. Adeosun, Folake O. Samuel, Olutayo S. Shokunbi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730432

Abstract:
Objectives: Bauchi is one of the 36 states in Nigeria, the seventh most populous country in the world. This area has the second highest prevalence of thinness among women; with unacceptably high proportions of children 0 – 5 years being stunted. Household dietary intake is believed to be an underlying factor for this nutrition situation. Determination of the nutritional composition of traditional foods is essential in order to evaluate the dietary drivers of undernutrition, and to design interventions to promote sustainable, healthy diets. Yet data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods are lacking. Thus, this study measured the proximate and mineral composition of 31 traditional, composite foods consumed in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Methods: Proximate analyses and assays for iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and calcium (Ca) were conducted according to methods stipulated by AOAC International. Results: The protein content (9.12%) of dambun tsakin masara da alaiho (maize grits and spinach) and the Ca, Fe and Cu concentrations (89.64 mg, 6.01 mg and 0.31 mg per 100 g, respectively) of dambun gero da zogale (millet and Moringa) were the greatest among granulated dumplings. Danwake wake da dawa (cowpea and sorghum) had the greatest protein composition (4.78%) while danwaken gujiya da masara (Bambara nut and maize) had the highest Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations (3.97 mg, 1.20 mg and 0.28 mg, respectively) per 100 g of cooked dough balls. Miyan karago (powdered peanut cake soup) had the greatest protein concentration (11.40 %) per 100 g of soup. Among cereal paps, puddings and porridges, Chanchangan dawa (sorghum, peanut and beans porridge) had the highest protein content (6.43%). Of all foods analyzed, dambun naman rago (shredded, fried mutton) and awara (spicy, fried tofu) were richest in protein (49.31% and 16.86%) and iron (9.20 and 8.32 mg/100g), respectively. Conclusion: Traditional foods with good nutrition profiles are available to support adequate nutrition of women and children in rural households in Bauchi State, despite widespread undernutrition.
Opeyemi O. Ayodele, Ifeoluwa M. Dada, Rotimi K. Adekunle
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 58-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630431

Abstract:
Aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder that leads to other microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes affects fertility and blood clotting, and also cause impaired lipid profile thus leading to increased atherogenic risks and coronary diseases. This research investigates the effects of Carica papaya leaf methanol extract on fertility indices and lipid profile of male diabetic rats. Methodology: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of six rats each. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated orally with 100 and 200 mg/kg C. papaya methanol extract for 14 days. At the end of administration, the plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile were assayed by spectrophotometric methods; seminal analysis was carried out for evaluation of morphology, motility and sperm count under the microscope. The bleeding and clotting times of the rats were also determined. Results: C. papaya leaf methanol extract caused significant (p = 0.05) reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, bleeding and clotting times of diabetic treated rats, while the HDL-C of treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) elevated compared to the diabetic control. Percentage normal cells were lower in diabetic control rats (41.4±4.4%) and C. papaya treated groups (50.0±8.5% for 100 mg/kg; 47.5±9.1% for 200 mg/kg) compared with the normal control group (69.5±5.6%). Similar results were recorded for sperm count. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, anthraquinone, tannin, and other bioactive compounds. Conclusion: findings from this study indicated that C. papaya leaf methanol extract could possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Thus, could be considered as a potential source of bio pharmacological agent for management and control of DM and its complications. Prolonged administration of C. papaya leaves may negatively affect male fertility.
E. O. Nwaichi, , J. O. Akaninwor
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 44-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630430

Abstract:
Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants. Its increased presence in the aquatic environment has raised serious concerns about its effect on aquatic life and by extension, a man who is at the apex of the food chain. This research investigated the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Chromium) and PAHs in two species of commonly consumed crayfish in Nigeria and their health risk implications. Wet digestion procedure and atomic absorption spectrometry were used for heavy metal determination while the United States environmental protection agency (USEPA) test method for evaluation of solid waste was used for PAHs analysis. Results showed that Pb, Ni and Cd in both species of crayfish were above tolerable limits. The mean level for Ni in Litopenaeus setiferus was 3.0630.116mg/kg and 5.1571.676mg/kg in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The mean value for Cd in L. setiferus was 0.8330.070 mg/kg and 0.6000.025 mg/kg for L.stylirostris. The mean value for Pb in L. setiferus was 4.5500.656mg/kg and 3.6430.486 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean values for Cr in L. setiferus was 0.0870.082 mg/kg and 0.000 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean PAHs concentrations in L. setiferus and L. stylirostris were 0.0036±0.002 ppm and 0.0083±0.004 ppm respectively. Health risk assessment revealed an increasing health risk due to the consumption of both species of crayfish. Results for PAHs in both species of crayfish showed compliance with set limits. Its presence in fish food however suggests possible health concerns especially with regards to their carcinogenic tendencies. Anthropogenic activities should be closely monitored as bioaccumulation along the food chain is implicated.
E. C. Woko, C. O. Ibegbulem, C. S. Alisi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630429

Abstract:
The presence of essential amino acids in meat makes it a complete protein, this makes meat a highly sort after source of protein in the human diet. The World’s demand for animal-derived protein has been projected to double by 2050. As a result there is a resultant increase in livestock industries to meet this demand. While meat is generally consumed as a source of protein, processed cattle hide popularly known as “Kanda” in southeastern Nigeria is consumed as a substitute for meat though it may not necessarily provide the same level of nutritional value with meat. The method of processing this food delicacy (Kanda) by singeing with scrap tyre or firewood has opened the door for heavy metal and or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contamination, thereby putting unsuspecting consumers at health risk. This study therefore investigated the effects of consuming scrap tyre and firewood singed cattle hide on the kidney, liver and heart of male Wistar rats. The study took place for 21 days at the department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri. 35 rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 each, allowed to acclimatize for 7 days and fed with the cattle hide processed with scrap tyre (group 1-3) and cattle hide processed with firewood (group 4-6) while group 7 which served as control was fed with normal standard rat pellet feed. It was observed that consuming these processed hides increased the marker enzymes for heart, kidney and liver damage like lactate dehydrogenase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase with groups that were fed with the hide singed with scrap tyre showing severe elevations. Consuming the singed Kanda also significantly decreased the serum concentrations of K+, Na+, Cl- , and significantly increased HCO3- and urea concentration. An examination of the organ tissues also revealed serious morphological changes. In conclusion, consuming singed Kanda had detrimental effects on the vital organs studied.
J. O. Babalola, , V. E. Onyiaoha, O. C. Adejumobi, N. O. Oladipo, O. J. Oyelade
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630428

Abstract:
As a result of cost considerations, local grinding machine manufacturing outfits are employing non-stainless-steel components for equipment fabrication. Despite the fact that the components are known to corrode, the number of the manufacturing outfits has increased over the years. Corrosion is a major concern to the food industry because the ingestion of corroded metals can harm and affect the function of some body organs. Potentiodynamic polarization method and a weight loss approach at room temperature was used to investigate the influence of tomato, pepper, and onion pulps on the electrochemical characteristics and weight loss of mild, galvanized, and stainless steel over a period of 30 days, at 5-day intervals. The results revealed that highest corrosion rate was found in mild steel (2.95x10-8mm/y) but low compared to the corrosion value obtained for galvanized steel (3.4x10-8mm/y) in the hybrid medium. Consequently, the use of mild steel as a substitute for stainless steel is suggested, provided that it is coated, and that the machine is cleaned regularly to remove residues from the metal surface or to inhibit microbiologically induced corrosion.
Patience Abisola Ayeni, , Gani Oladejo Kolawole, Beatrice Iyabode Olayemi Ade-Omowaye
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 113-126; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530425

Abstract:
Aims: Food insecurity is a major problem in developing countries, to overcome this problem, fertilizers are used to increase yield of agricultural produce. However, fertilizer may affect the quality of processed products. This study aimed to investigate the influence of fertilizer treatments levels on yield and quality properties of garri from two improved cassava varieties (TME 419 and TMS 01/1412). Methodology: Cassava roots were planted with varying fertilizer levels [50% (45, 20 and 35 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively) and 100% (90, 40 and 70 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively)]. Garri yield, chemical, physicochemical, pasting properties, and sensory attributes of garri were evaluated. Results: Results showed 30% and 22% increase in garri yield from 100% fertilized TME and TMS cassava root, respectively. The chemical contents of the garri samples increased with increasing fertilizer level. Cyanide contents of the garri samples decrease with increasing fertilizer level. Garri from 100% fertilizer treatment had higher water absorption capacity (3.51 g/ml and 3.32 g/ml), reconstitution index (72.75% and 77.20%) and gelation index (7.0% and 8.0%), but lower swelling capacity (3.43 g/ml and 3.02 g/ml) and bulk density (0.55 g/cm3 and 0.51 g/cm3) in TME and TMS cultivar, respectively. Conclusion: High level of fertilizer application improved the chemical components, reduced the cyanide contents and pasting properties of garri samples from the two cassava cultivars.
, Ano Guy Serge Ehouman, Kouassi Clément Kouassi, Ibrahim Konate
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 106-112; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530424

Abstract:
Filamentous fungi are frequent contaminants of many plant substrates and certain animal products. Their presence can improve the organoleptic quality of the product or alter it and lead to the accumulation of toxic secondary metabolites, such as mycotoxins. The objective of this work is to characterize the filamentous fungi isolated from the rice "deni kachia" stored and sold on public markets in the city of Daloa. A count and isolation of filamentous fungi, followed by macroscopic and microscopic identification was carried out. Several genera of filamentous fungi was identified. These are the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and others. The different species of molds identified by conventional biochemical techniques were confirmed by the API 50 CH freezer.The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are the most predominant in the samples analyzed. The presence of these species with their ability to produce mycotoxins suggests that contaminated rice poses a risk to the health of consumers.
Zia Parveen,
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 98-105; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530423

Abstract:
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato for the development of natural colour to increase the awareness about the use of natural food colour which reduces the risk assessment of artificial colour. Fruits are very important constituents of the diet and provide nutrients such as, vitamin, minerals, and fibre etc. Orange is one of the most popular fruits in the world. It is rich in nutrient like vitamin C, folic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids etc. These nutrients are very useful for boosting immunity. In this study we discus about nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato. Proximate analysis of each sample was conducted to evaluate the moisture, fat, protein, ash etc. The morphological analysis of the samples was done by using scanning electron microscope which helps in identifying the different structural forms of the samples. Results of the study suggest that orange peel and tomato both have a good nutritional property. The fat, protein, ash and fibre content in orange peel was found to be 3.4, 4.8, 4.2 and 8.3 respectively while in tomato the values are 0.24, 2.26, 0.18 and 1.19 respectively. Orange peel removed the amount of cholesterol and fight against heart diseases in your body because orange peel contains pectin and natural fibre, it controls our blood pressure and helpful for weight loss. Tomato is an edible, red berry types of fruits. Tomatoes contribute to a healthy well-balanced diet. Because they are rich in nutrients like minerals, vitamins (B and C), sugar and dietary fibre. Tomato is a good source of lycopene; it is a red colour pigment present in high amount (2573 μg) per 100 tomatoes is a very good sources of raw materials for fruits and vegetables industry.
Christiana Naa Atsreh Nsiah-Asamoah, Deborah Amoasi, Jacob Setorglo
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 82-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530422

Abstract:
Aim: Generally, it is assumed that health professionals are knowledgeable about healthy eating and as such studies aimed at assessing their dietary practices and the factors that influence these practices have been largely neglected. These studies are important because the dietary habits of healthcare professionals (HCPs) can have an impact on their well-being, health status and even their work output. Largely, there is a dearth of information about the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours. This study was aimed at assessing the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours at a referral teaching hospital in Ghana. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire was administered to 320 HCPs. Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to the HCPs in the hospital after obtaining informed consent (written) from the HCPs. The questionnaire solicited information about their socio-demographics, dietary practices and nutritional knowledge. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies and proportions. Results: Approximately 13.1%, 47.5% and 39.4% were underweight, normal weight and overweight respectively. Carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods were consumed four (4) or more times in a week by more than half of the HCPs because they were regarded as convenience foods which could be eaten while working. About 76.9%, 52.8% and 58.4% skipped their breakfast, lunch and supper meal respectively at least once in the past one (1) week before the study. Conclusions: The findings reveal concerns about the unhealthy dietary habits and basic nutrition knowledge gaps among the surveyed HCPs. Most HCPs skipped breakfast and ate a lot of unhealthy foods such as carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods frequently during working hours. Recommendations made include the need for hospital management to provide canteens that serve healthy meals for HCPs at their job sites. There is also the need for management to organize the work-schedules of HCPs in order to manage their workloads in a manner that enables them have adequate breaktimes to access and eat healthy foods while at work.
Josiah Ndukwe, Antoinette N. C. Okaka, Victor Henry Azubuike Enemor, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Precious Uchenna Ezeobi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530421

Abstract:
Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various disease conditions with concomitant toll on the body’s defense mechanism against free radicals. To continuously sustain and support the efficiency of the body’s antioxidant defense system, natural plant sources are required. Thus, the need for alternative options especially of plants that are neglected and under-utilized. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the proximate and phytochemical compositions and in-vivo antioxidant effect of ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius on antioxidant enzyme activities in CCl4-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty albino rats of Wistar strain (120-150g) were divided into six groups (A – F) of five rats each. Groups A, B and C served as test groups and were administered 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg doses of C. olitorius leaf extract respectively while Group D served as normal control. Groups E and F served as the positive and negative controls and were administered 50 mg/kg Silymarin and distilled water respectively. The administration lasted for 15 days after which blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Results: Findings showed that the leaf was rich in total phenol (21.47 ± 0.00 mgGAE/g) and tannin (23.34 ± 0.75 mgTAE/g) with little quantity of oxalate (0.48 ± 0.09 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (0.30 ± 0.07 %) and phytate (0.25 ± 0.01 %). The result of the proximate composition revealed that the leaf was rich in carbohydrate (44.16 ± 1.21 %), ash (20.31 ± 0.51 %) and protein (11.29 ± 2.06 %) with negligible quantity of lipid (0.46 ± 0.11 %). More so, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were all increased in the extract treated group when compared to the controls. Conclusion: From the above findings, it can be concluded that the ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius may possess exploitable nutritional components and potential antioxidant activity against the debilitating effects of free radicals.
Eze U. Miriam, N. J. Okonkwo, Iroka F. Chisom
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 62-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530420

Abstract:
In Africa, Prostephanus truncatus is a destructive pest of economic importance which has assumed a serious pest status on stored maize and dry cassava chips. This study investigates the effect of processing methods of cassava varieties Manihot esculenta on the proximate composition before and after exposure to P. truncatus. The four cassava varieties used for this study were; TMS 0505, TME 419, NR 8082 and TMS 0581 subjected to two processing method parboiling and plain sun-drying at temperature 28-34oC and relative humidity of 65-75%. The experiment was carried out in a Complete Randomized Design. Proximate composition was carried out to determine the Moisture, Ash, Crude fibre, Fat, Crude Protein and Carbohydrate of the different samples. Analysis of Variance was used for the statistical analysis of the data obtained. The result reveals that the proximate composition of the sundried chips are significant at P<0.05%. All the proximate contents of the sample were significant at P<0.05% before the introduction of P. trucatus. After the introduction of P. truncatus and the storage period of 30days, the sundried sample had a higher reduction in the moisture contents of TMS 0505 with 13.05±0.00a and carbohydrate contents of NR 8082 with 50.0±0.00a. The activity of P. truncatus also has a negative impact on some of the nutritional components of cassava chips.
F. A. Ishaya, , A. B. Olaoye
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 53-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530419

Abstract:
Edible vegetable oils are very important resource that are in high demand globally, and used in a variety of ways as they are considered a concentrated source of energy for human beings and carriers of oil-soluble vitamins which supply the essential fatty acids that are required for a wide range of biological and physiological functions. This work was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties, cholesterol content and analyzes the vitamin A contents of commonly sold vegetable oils in Ado Ekiti metropolis. The physicochemical parameters such as density, acid value, iodine value, peroxide value and saponin value, cholesterol content as well as Vitamin A content were all analyzed using standard analytical methods. Results of the physicochemical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the densities of the oil samples, It was observed that sample 4 oil showed maximum (1.58 mgKOH/g) and sample 6 showed minimum (1.38 mg KOH/g) acid values. Highest iodine values were observed in sample 8 (68.13 g/I2/100g) and lowest in sample 4 (56.38 g/I2/100g). Peroxide value was found to range from 2.18 meq O2/kg to 2.67 meq O2/kg, while saponin value was highest in sample 6 (130.3 mg KOH/g) and lowest in sample 8 (122.4 mg KOH/g). All the oil samples were found to contain cholesterol which ranged from 1.21±0.04 mg/dl (sample 1) to 4.58±0.01 mg/dl (sample 4), while the vitamin A content ranged from 674.80±10.26 IU/g (sample 2) to 877.97±20.52 IU/g (sample 8). Findings from this research showed that the researched oils meet the acceptable physicochemical standard. However, the cholesterol levels were against the inscriptions of cholesterol free on the labels.
, Joy A. Ilevbare, Olusegun James Oyelade, Oluyemisi Elizabeth Adelakun, Ajekigbe Sola Olajire
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530418

Abstract:
Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a leguminous crop rich in protein and widely cultivated in Nigeria but underutilized due to high anti-nutritional properties. Several processing methods such as fermentation using non-pathogenic micro fungi have been used to address these problems. This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the functional and proximate properties of pigeon pea using Rhizopus species. The following ranges of values were obtained for bulk density, water absorption, oil absorption and swelling capacities (0.74-0.98g/ml; 71.67-189.00%; 120.00-205.00%; 6.81-10.93g/ml), respectively. Values of proximate composition were in ranges of 6.67-7.87, 16.09-22.09, 2.83-4.00, 0.84-1.23,1.33- 2.00 and 65.47- 71.35% for moisture, protein, ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents, respectively. Improvement in functional and proximate properties of fermented pigeon pea flour were observed. Hence, it can also serve as functional and supplement ingredients in different food formulations.
, Anuli Augusta Nwachukwu, Assumpta Ifunanya Okoye
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530417

Abstract:
Food processing links food production to the provision of food of improved quality and nutrient availability, acceptability, preservation to curtail losses and availability in time of need. To maintain these attributes, a critical look at our local food processing methods is required, with a view to improving it; for instance through the application of modern technology, so as to minimize food poisoning, and improve local food stability. In this review, we wish to highlight the various possible pathogenic poisoning routes of some African food processing methods and possible preventive measures. The food processes involved are fermentation, drying and salting. The source of food contaminant is evidently a portal for contamination by more potent pathogenic microbes, which may cause an epidemic, considering the popularity of the food products. The influx of contaminants; which may be a source of food-borne disease(s), maybe through the original food materials, unhygienic practices of the handlers or the process machinery. The incidence of food poisoning in local food processing can be drastically reduced with improved process operations, increased sensitization of food handlers on their possible contributions to food contamination, regular medical checkups and mandatory certification of vendors, etc. The standard for processing and preparing human food should be improved and researches should be carried out, to ascertain facts and prevent death due to ingestion of poisoned food. Investments in biotechnology should also be made in the most conscious and profound manner, to provide species for better food fermentation processes, and as well, advanced sensitive screening procedures to ascertain contamination, especially by non-culturable microorganisms. Hygienic practices in food processing and preservation are indispensable in food security, as we try to sustain food abundance and minimize food poisoning.
, William Tchabo, Winifred Manyaka, Isabelle Mulango, Mbafor Brain Chebelem, Amungwa Fonteh Athanasius, Carl Moses Mbofung
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 14-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530416

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes is a health problem worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has been steadily increasing for the past three decades. Diabetes prevalence is growing most rapidly particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Areas undergoing rapid westernization and rapid nutrition transition are seeing the greatest increase in prevalence suggesting that environmental factors are important. Diabetes is known to have no cure but can be managed through diet and modification of lifestyles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the predictors of diabetes and its management in Kumba District Hospital (KDH). Study Design: A retrospective, and a cross sectional survey was done where semi structured questionnaires were administered to subjects. Methodology: Information from the hospital record for the past four years was used to evaluate the trend in the prevalence of diabetes. Information from questionnaires was used to assess the prevalence and management of the disease. Fasting plasma glucose was measured to know their diabetic status. Results: The results revealed an increasing trend in the prevalence but the increase was not statistically significant. The results showed that, there was an association between diabetes prevalence and management. The overall prevalence of diabetes from the study was evaluated at 43.98%. Age, level of education, dietary habit and alcohol were found to influence the prevalence of diabetes significantly. Management with respect to therapeutic education, and monitoring of blood sugar were statistically significant. The significant predictive variables of the occurrence of diabetes base on Ordinary least squares were found to be age, level of education, therapeutic education, alcohol consumption, sex, and frequency of eating white rice. Conclusion: The study revealed that, diabetes is highly prevalent among older persons and the less educated in KDH. Public health officials should educate the public on the risk factors of diabetes, and implement guidelines for adequate control and management.
I. K. Ndubueze, H. A. Ogbunugafor, A. A. Oladejo
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 3-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530415

Abstract:
Catfish is a traditional part of the diet of a large section of the world’s population. This study compared the effect of smoked and oven-dried catfish on hematological parameters, liver and antioxidant enzymes of wistar rats. Catfish samples were processed by smoking and oven-drying and used for formulation of the experimental feeds. Twenty one wistar rats were acclimatized for seven (7) days, weighed and allotted into three dietary treatments; control (standard feed), smoked and oven-dried fed groups. The study was conducted for a period of 21 days. Haematological analysis was carried out using haematology auto-analyzer. Liver enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)) were assayed using standard assay kits while antioxidant enzymes were assayed using spectrophotometric method. The result revealed a significant increase (P0.05) in the haematological parameters of the treatment groups except in their total red blood cell counts, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin. A non-significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) of the test groups, indicating the absence of oxidative stress. The results of this research showed that both drying methods (oven and smoke drying) did not affect the palatability of the diets as the experimental diets were accepted by the experimental animals and their weight significantly improved. However, both diets have deleterious effects on the blood; hence, individuals with severe cases of anaemia and other blood disorders are encouraged to avoid them.
Kolade Afolayan Afolabi, Adebukunola Olajumoke Afolabi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 83-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430413

Abstract:
Introduction: The quality of feeding in early childhood depends on nutritional knowledge of mothers. Improving maternal nutrition knowledge is therefore pivotal towards promoting effective infants’ feeding behaviour. Objective: Study assessed mothers’ knowledge about complementary feeding and complementary feeding practices. Study also assessed effectiveness of Behaviour Change Communication on mothers’ knowledge and complementary feeding practices, compared the nutritional status of infants whose mothers received intervention to infants of mothers in the control group. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study conducted among 204 mothers in rural and urban local government areas, South-west Nigeria between March and September, 2019. Sample size was estimated using formula for comparison of two proportions, eligible mothers were selected through multistage sampling technique. Study was conducted in three phases: pre-intervention phase, intervention and post intervention phases. Intervention: Selected mothers were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group received Behavior Change Communication on complementary feeding and were followed up for six months. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 25, Chi-square and repeated analysis of variance evaluated effectiveness of intervention, level of significance was < 0.05. Results: BCC improved mothers’ knowledge about complementary feeding by 31.9% (χ2 = 21.62; p = 0.001), meal frequency by 16% (χ2 = 5.88, p = 0.01), dietary diversity by 19.6% (χ2 = 7.44, p = 0.01), minimum acceptable diet by 20.6% (χ2 = 13.09; p =0.01). Intervention also reduced under-weight by 14% (χ2 = 0.69, p = 0.01; (F(1,191) =275.34; p = 0.04) among intervention group. Conclusion: Effective nutritional intervention for mothers towards improving nutritional status of children should incorporate appropriate behaviour change approach. This approach is capable of improving nutritional status of infants and children and consequently reduce malnutrition and related complications in early childhood.
Hilde Kruse, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Espen Rimstad, Lucy Robertson, Eystein Skjerve, Yngvild Wasteson
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530412

Abstract:
This preliminary risk assessment is a result of self-tasking by the Panel on Biological Hazards, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety. The suggestion was offered to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet), which responded and requested a risk profile, or a preliminary risk assessment, to evaluate whether a full risk assessment would be needed at a later date. Yersinia enterocolitica is one of a few zoonotic bacteria that have a stable reservoir within the domestic animal population in Norway. This bacterial species has been isolated from human patients with acute enteritis, who sometimes exhibit symptoms resembling appendicitis. Y. enterocolitica has attracted considerable attention due to its ability to cause serious post-infectious complications. Serious clinical consequences occur relatively often with Y. enterocolitica as a relatively high frequency of people in Norway possess the tissue type HLA-B27. A severe sequela linked to this tissue type is reactive arthritis. The cold climate in Norway may enhance growth of Y. enterocolitica. Although the predominant cause of yersiniosis in Norway is Y. enterocolitica O:3, and the pig is considered the main source of infection, the relative contribution of pork consumption compared with other risk factors, for example drinking untreated water, is unknown. In Norway, a decline in human cases of yersiniosis has been recorded since the beginning of the 1990s. This decline has been attributed to implementation of improved slaughtering methods, including enclosure of the anus into a plastic bag after rectum-loosening. In Norway, most fattening pigs are slaughtered at the age of 150 to 180 days. By this age the tonsils may be an even more significant source of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than intestinal contents, since the occurrence in the intestinal tract and faeces is reduced at the time of slaughter. Accordingly, hygienic handling of the head and the plucks during slaughter and dressing is very important to avoid contamination of the carcass. The most efficient way to limit the spread from tongue and tonsils is probably decapitation early on in the carcass dressing procedure. In such a procedure, the head, including tongue and tonsils, should be removed on a separate line. Also, avoidance of incision of the sub-maxillary lymph nodes might reduce the spread, Epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Y. enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected and noninfected herds. Further, attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry might be able to categorise herds using serological methods, and use these results in its strategy to reduce the risks for consumers. However, such a strategy has to be evaluated in a cost benefit context. The apparently low prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food may be due to lack of suitable selective methods. The culturing methods, which are used routinely in microbiological laboratories, are insufficiently sensitive. There is a need for a standardised DNA-based technique, with improved sensitivity, for the detection of Y. enterocolitica in clinical, food and environmental samples.
Margaretha Haugen, Jutta Dierkes, Wenche Frølich, Livar Frøyland, Ragnhild Halvorsen, Per Ole Iversen, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Azam Mansoor, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Bjørn Steen Skålhegg
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 55-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430405

Abstract:
In 2006 the, the Panel on Nutrition, Dietetic Products, Novel Food and Allergy in the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) adapted a Danish model for assessing applications concerning food fortification into Norwegian conditions. The fortification model is presently used by the Norwegian Food Safety Authorities as a tool in the management of applications on food fortification. The model from 2006 was based on intake calculations from dietary surveys from 1997-2000. Since then, new national dietary surveys have been published. These are the comprehensive nationwide Norwegian dietary surveys among adults (Norkost 3, 2010-2011), among young children (Småbarnskost, 2007) and infants (Spedkost, 2006-2007). The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has requested VKM to implement the new data into the fortification model from 2006. In the model from 2006 it is assumed that 25% of the energy in the diet can be derived from fortified foods and drinks. Information from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, including about a pilot study for Norkost 3 suggested that the overall intake of fortified foods and drinks was marginal. From management of applications for fortified foods, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority also experienced that there are few fortified foods on the market in Norway. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has therefore requested VKM to evaluate whether the assumption that 25 energy percent (E%) deriving from fortified foods can be reduced to 15 E%, and if such a reduction will have health implications. In addition, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has asked VKM to perform an evaluation of the safety factors in the model. VKM argues that the model for fortification should be based on the dietary intake of vitamins and minerals at the 95th percentile level in various age groups. This is in accordance with risk assessments performed in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and will assure that the dietary intake in a majority of the population will be covered, still within a reasonable secure use of dietary exposure calculations. Mean intake of vitamins and minerals from food supplements (among users only) was chosen, in an attempt to reduce the impact of those with a high intake of supplements. The intake at 95th percentile from the diet plus the mean nutrient intake from supplements is deducted from the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for each nutrient in each age group, giving the maximum amount of nutrients that can be “allocated” for food fortification. The maximum amount of a nutrient that can be “allocated” is then distributed over the energy intake at the 95th percentile level. In this manner an estimate is made showing which age group is most likely to have an excessive intake of a certain nutrient. VKM does not have access to any other information about available fortified foods on the Norwegian market than the information given by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. However, based on this information, VKM considers that it seems reasonable that the energy intake from fortified foods is reduced to 15 E%. In this revised fortification model the assumption from 2006 that 25 E% of the total energy intake will be derived from fortified foods, have therefore been reduced to 15 E%. This adjustment implies that the addition of e.g. vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C and calcium per 100 kcal can be increased without risk of exceeding UL. No changes are made for e.g. vitamin A, beta-carotene, magnesium, iron, zinc or copper. A more summary is presented in Table 1 and Appendix 1. The Panel on nutrition, dietetic products, novel food and allergy considers that this model for management of fortification will reduce health risk that could be caused by unauthorised food fortification.
, C. Sathish Kumar, S. Sureshkumar
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 72-82; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430411

Abstract:
Aims / Objectives: Identification of fish species is essential in export industries. Among the different fish species exported, tuna forms a significant portion and hence the separation of tuna from other fishes is necessary. The work aims to develop automated systems for the separation of commercially important tuna from other fishes. Methodology: The work proposes two models for the classification of commercial fishes. The first model uses conventional feature descriptors, which extract features from both spatial and frequency domain. These features are combined and are reduced by an ensemble dimension reduction method. The combined and reduced feature sets are evaluated using different classifiers. The second proposed model uses four pre-trained convolutional neural networks, VGG16, VGG19, Xception, and MobileNet, for the classification. The models are fine-tuned for the classification process. Results: Results show that for the first model, extreme learning machine classifier with Mercer wavelet kernel gives high accuracy on combined feature set while the polynomial kernel ELM provides better performance with the reduced set. For the second model, a comparison of the performance of four CNN models is done, and results indicate that VGG19 outperforms other networks in the classification task. Conclusion: Among the two proposed models, pre-trained CNN based model shows better performance than the conventional method in the separation task. Different performance measures, accuracy, precision, recall, F-score, and misclassification error are used to evaluate the system. A comparison of performance of the proposed models with the state-of-the-art systems is also reported.
Ragnhild Halvorsen, Judith Narvhus, Jørgen Lassen, Tore Midtvedt, Jarle Rugtveit, Siamak Yazdankhah, Lene Frost Andersen, Wenche Frølich, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, et al.
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 58-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430406

Abstract:
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has appointed an ad hoc-group of experts to answer a request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority regarding benefit and risk assessment of B. lactis Bb12 in baby foods focusing on the age groups 4-6 months, 612 months and 1-3 years. This assessment is based on the literature provided by the notifier as well as that found by a MEDLINE search. An notification for use of processed cereal-based baby foods (from now on called cereals) intended for infants and small children supplemented with the microorganism Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) Bb12 in Norway initiated this work. Studies of potential hazards and positive health effects from cereals containing B. lactis Bb12 intended for infants and young children have not been reported in the available literature. However, reports on safety of and positive health effects from infant and follow on formula supplemented with B. lactis Bb12 are available and have been assessed by VKM. In most of these clinical studies B. lactis Bb12 was administered in combination with other probiotic strains. Clinical studies report no serious adverse events of infant formula supplemented with B. lactis Bb12. The effect of long term daily consumption of such supplemented formula by the actual age groups is not known. A few studies have demonstrated some effect of supplementing baby food with probiotics, including B. lactis Bb12, on diarrhoea and atopic eczema while other studies do not show such effects. Thus, the scientific evidence for a favourable effect of supplementing formula or solid food with B. lactis Bb12, is weak and in some cases lacking. There are no studies demonstrating a positive effect of cereals supplemented with B. lactis Bb12 intended for infants and small children. Several health claims related to probiotics have been assessed by EFSA, including claims on reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, normal functioning of the alimentary tract, building of the natural intestinal barrier, improvement of the general immunity, mental and cognitive developments of children and immune system of children during growth. In the opinions so far, EFSA has concluded that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the probiotic containing products and the claimed effect. None of the products assessed so far contained B. lactis Bb12 (1 November 2009). Commercially produced cereals are frequent given to infants and small children in Norway from an early age and this is particularly important for the establishment of the intestinal bacterial flora and the development of the intestinal mucosal immune system. According to the notifier, one portion (25gram) of the cereal powder contains 1 x 109 B. lactis Bb12 in monoculture. Taking into consideration that the daily intake is often greater than one portion of cereals, even in infants below 6 months of age, this would represent a daily intake of 1-2 x 109 cfu B. lactis Bb12 for an infant 4-6 months and even more in infants above 6 months. If a considerable amount of the B. lactis Bb12 survives the transport to the small intestine, it would represent a dominating and monocultural supply, often several times a day, to the small intestine. The immaturity and vulnerability of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system makes the two lowest age groups, 4 – 6 and 6 – 12 months, at the highest risk of unwanted health effects due to the daily intake of probiotics.
Wenche Frølich, Elisabet Børsheim, Truls Raastad, Livar Frøyland, Ragnhild Halvorsen, Per Ole Iversen, Inger Therese L. Lillegaard, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Azam Mansoor, Helle Margrete Meltzer, et al.
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 61-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430407

Abstract:
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) conducted an assessment of creatine in sports products (e.g. supplements). The evaluation has been performed by an ad hoc group, and assessed by the VKM Panel on nutrition, dietetic products, novel food and allergy. The evaluation of safety and possible risks of creatine supplementation in this opinion is based on previous reports, 23 original papers and 14 reviews from literature searches. Marketing and sales of sport products are increasing in the Nordic countries, with creatine supplements being one of four most common categories. In addition to be used by athletes, the use of creatine supplements seems to increase among general exercisers and young people. Creatine supplements are mainly used for their supposed effects on muscles mass and high intensity and short duration sport performances. Supplementation has been shown to result in higher concentration of creatine phosphate in the muscles, which is the limited substrate. For athletes, it is recommended a loading dose of 10-20 g/day for 4-7 days and a maintenance dose of 2-5 g/day for weeks or months. Some athletes continue the maintenance dose for several years. It is well documented that creatine supplementation has positive effects on muscle mass combined with strength training and performance during maximal exercise. There are however large individual variation in the response, and there are responders and non-responders. The new scientific literature, including long term studies, is in line with the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) opinion from 2004. VKM Panel on nutrition, dietetic products, novel food and allergy supports the EFSA conclusion that supplementation of creatine in doses below 3 g/day is unlikely to pose any risks if the purity of the creatine compound is adequate. Scientific long-term studies with doses up to 5-10 g/day in adult athletes have shown no harmful effects, but there are no dose-response studies indicating a safe upper limit for creatine. The potential negative effects (impaired kidney function, weight gain and gastrointestinal disturbances) which have been published in non scientific journals and anecdotal reports have not found support in controlled systematic studies on healthy subjects. It has been indicated that individuals with impaired kidney functions should refrain from creatine supplements. Creatine-monohydrate is the most studied form of creatine supplements, and only creatine monohydrate has been included in the scientific investigations on adverse effects.
Hilde Kruse, Sigve Håvarstein, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Espen Rimstad, Lucy Robertson, Eystein Skjerve, Yngvild Wasteson
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 50-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430403

Abstract:
Pasteurisation of all consumer milk became mandatory in Norway in 1953, and this has been an important component of the protective measures that have reduced the incidence of milk and food borne diseases. In 2004, a complete recast of the hygiene legislation addressing both food hygiene and veterinary aspects was adopted by the European Union, the so-called “Hygiene package”. According to this legislation, each member state may, on its own initiative, prohibit or restrict the marketing of some foods like raw milk or raw cream, intended for direct human consumption within its territory. In response to this, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) commissioned the Panel on Biological Hazards of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomitéen for mattrygghet), to prepare a risk assessment regarding the consumption of raw milk and raw cream. In response, an ad hoc Working Group of experts was appointed with the mandate to draft a risk assessment which should include the following components: identification and characterization of microbiological hazardous agents present in Norwegian raw milk; characterization of the public health consequences of these agents; assessment of the probability of transmission of these agents to humans by distribution of raw milk and cream. Additionally, the risk assessment should identify potential hazards to human health from the importation of raw milk, identify hazards associated with equipment used for production and storage of raw milk, and assess the risks associated with the potential transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes. Observations concerning infections related to consumption of raw milk and raw cream in Norway, other European countries and North America, show that a number of pathogenic microorganisms, including emerging pathogens, can occur in raw milk and raw cream. These pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins may represent a real threat to human health. The panel concluded that the risks associated with E. coli O157:H7 and other EHEC, C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes in raw milk and cream are high. Furthermore the importation of raw milk to Norway may result in the (re)introduction of microorganisms, which have been eradicated, or never previously have been present, in Norway. This can have serious consequences for both human and animal health.
Ragnhild Halvorsen, Jørgen Lassen, Tore Midtvedt, Judith Narvhus, Jarle Rugtveit, Siamak Yazdankhah, Karl Eckner, Wenche Frølich, Livar Frøyland, Per Ole Iversen, et al.
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 64-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430408

Abstract:
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has appointed an ad hoc-group of experts to answer a request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority regarding benefit and risk assessment of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (F19) in processed cerealbased baby foods intended for small children 1-3 years. This assessment is based on the literature provided by the notifier as well as that found by a MEDLINE search. A notification regarding two products of processed cereal-based baby foods (hereafter called cereals), intended for small children and supplemented with the bacterium F19 initiated this work. A daily supply of a monoculture of a particular bacterial strain in large quantities to an age group without a fully established intestinal flora, may have unknown adverse effects. There are however, to our knowledge, no studies investigating possible short or long term adverse health effects of F19 in processed cereal-based baby food given to children 13 months onwards. The documentation and information provided by the notifier regarding the genetic stability of F19 in the two products during processing and storage, is considered insufficient and does not allow any conclusions to be drawn. Moreover, the documentation obtained is not conclusive regarding the antibiotic resistance pattern of the bacterial strain used in the products in question, as the information on different antibiotics is partly inconsistent. The information about specific localization (chromosomal, plasmid) of the resistance genes is not sufficient. Studies demonstrate that F19, as well as other bacterial strains considered probiotic, is able to “crosstalk” with enterocytes in mice and that the result of the “crosstalk” depends upon the microbiota present. Whether F19 has a similar “crosstalk-profile” in humans is unknown. However, as the strain is originally of human origin, it seems reasonable to assume that such “crosstalk” may occur. Thus, before giving F19 daily for months and years, it seems reasonable to ask for additional molecular and physiological studies to unravel the functional impact of possible changes in genetic expression in children. Lactobacillus infections do occasionally occur, mainly as bacteremia, endocarditis and localized infections (e.g. abscesses, peritonitis, and meningitis) in patients with severe underlying diseases. Most of them are elderly, but children are not excluded. The species most often isolated are L. casei and L. rhamnosus, followed by L. paracasei. The increasing use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics which are ineffective against Lactobacillus, might increase the importance of these bacteria as possible pathogens. In order to be able to draw any conclusions regarding beneficial effects of F19, there is a need for randomized placebo-controlled studies in larger populations and in the relevant age group. According to EFSA, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 is sufficiently characterized. The documentation provided is, however, not sufficient to claim positive health effects and thus F19 is not proven to be probiotic. There are no published dose-response studies of F19 in children, neither regarding survival of F19 in the gastrointestinal tract, nor possible negative health effects. Thus the potential for negative health effects as e.g. spreading of antimicrobial resistance or unfavourable impact on the genetic expression in children related to the frequency and/or dose of a monoculture of F19 cannot be assessed.
Knut Helkåas Dahl, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Edel Holene, Mona-Lise Binderup, Trine Husøy, Jan Erik Paulsen, Tore Sanner, Inger-Lise Steffensen, Vibeke Thrane, Jan Alexander
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 67-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430409

Abstract:
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has on the request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) assessed four studies on developmental neurotoxicity following low dose exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) (Adriani et al., 2003; Carr et al., 2003; Negishi et al., 2004; Ryan and Vandenbergh, 2006). The background for the request is uncertainties related to developmental neurotoxcity of BPA raised by the Nordic environmental agencies in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. VKM was asked to consider if these studies provide sufficient evidence to set a lower no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in the hazard characterisation of BPA. Further, a Norwegian exposure scenario based on available exposure data should be performed. The task has been assessed by the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food and Cosmetics (Panel 4). Bisphenol A (CAS number 80-05-7) is primarily used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate, which is used to make food containers, such as beverage bottles, baby bottles, tableware and storage containers. It is also used as a precursor of certain epoxy resins used for protective coatings for food and beverage cans. BPA is permitted for use in food contact materials in the European Union (EU) with a specific migration limit (SML) of 0.6 mg/kg food. The migration limit in the EU regulations has yet to be modified according to an opinion from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) from 2006 where a new established tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.05 mg BPA/kg body weight (bw) was derived from a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day. A European Union Risk Assessment Report (RAR) of BPA produced in accordance with Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 has recently been updated (April 2008) reviewing a previously requested 2-generation study in mice (Tyl et al., 2007) and new data on human exposure and effects of BPA. A NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/day was suggested in this report. The Nordic environmental agencies (Norway, Sweden and Denmark) have participated in the discussions on this updated EU RAR of BPA and they strongly disagreed that this NOAEL also covers developmental neurotoxicity. According to the Nordic environmental agencies, the four above mentioned studies indicate a possible risk for developmental neurotoxicity of BPA at very low exposure levels (0.1-0.25 mg/kg bw/day). The position of the Nordic environmental agencies has been included as a footnote in the revised EU RAR. Recently, in April 2008, the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), Health Canada and Environment Canada have published draft reports on effects of BPA, including developmental effects (neural and behavioural effects) and expressed some concern for neural and behavioural effects in fetuses, infants and children at current human exposures. The European Commission has therefore asked EFSA to further assess possible age dependent toxicokinetics of BPA in animals and humans and their implications for hazard and risk assessment of BPA taken into account the most recent information and data available. The present opinion from VKM Panel 4 is based on an evaluation of the design, conduct (or accomplishment) and the results in the four above mentioned studies. The study design has been evaluated in light of international recommendations given in relevant guidelines dealing with developmental neurotoxicity testing in animals. The recent international developments on BPA in the U.S. and Canada are not addressed in this opinion. The report by Tyl and co-workers was central in the EFSA opinion from 2006 and the updated EU RAR from 2008. The Tyl study is a GLP compliant 2-generation reproductive toxicity evaluation in mice performed according to a modified OECD 416 guideline. However, the study did not include functional tests for developmental neurotoxicity. VKM has reviewed the four above mentioned studies on neurodevelopmental toxicity of BPA as requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. Although the design and reporting of these studies suffer from major and serious shortcomings, the overall findings may raise some concern. It is the opinion of the VKM Panel 4 that the four studies do not provide sufficient evidence for setting a robust lower NOAEL for BPA than the current EFSA NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day. The Panel is aware that the EU Commission recently has requested EFSA to re-evaluate the information available on BPA. In order to eliminate any uncertainty regarding potential developmental effects of BPA at low doses, it is recommended that a GLP compliant study is carried out according to OECD guideline 426. Such a study should utilize a broad concentration range from the very low doses up to those with known maternal effects. A Norwegian exposure scenario based on available data on exposure to BPA from food and beverages and via the environment was performed. In general, exposure levels of BPA in Norway are low. The estimated exposure of infants and children is in the range of 3.5 – 13.2 μg/kg bw/day, whereas the estimated aggregated exposure of adults is 1.5 μg/kg bw/day. As a result of the current use of BPA in food contact materials and other consumer products, infants and children are exposed to higher levels of BPA per kg body weight than the rest of the population.
Espen Rimstad, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn-Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Eystein Skjerve, Yngvild Wasteson
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 52-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430404

Abstract:
Coli is part of the normal gastrointestinal microbial flora of humans and animals. E. coli bacteria causing enteric/diarrhoeal disease are categorized into different groups based on their virulence properties and pathogenic features in humans. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are E. coli strains that cause bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in humans, and have a defined zoonotic association. The major virulence factor of EHEC (and the actual cause of HUS) is the ability to produce Shiga toxins (Stx), thus the name Shiga Toxin Producing E. coli (STEC). With enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the diarrhoea in these patients is due to attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the enteric epithelium. This risk assessment was conducted after a human outbreak of STEC O103 in 2006, associated with contaminated dry-fermented sausages. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomitéen for mattrygghet), Panel on Biological Hazards, was asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) for a risk assessment regarding shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in the Norwegian meat chain, with emphasis on dry-cured sausages. In response, an ad hoc Working Group of experts was appointed with the mandate to draft a risk assessment regarding this issue. The current report approaches the task by following and analysing the entire process, from the origin of the meats at farm level, to the final production and storage of dry-cured sausages. An overall aim of the report has been to identify and describe potential intervention options in various parts of this chain. The main conclusions from the risk assessment are as follows: It is not possible to give any reliable quantitative estimates of the current risk associated with consumption of dry-cured sausages. There are no clear indications of any general change in the epidemiology of STEC infections in humans in Norway over the last decade. There is no documentation that there has been any change in the occurrence of various STEC in the domestic animal reservoir during the last decade. The combination of proper slaughter hygiene and use of thermal decontamination of sheep, cattle and pig carcasses represents an efficient way to reduce STEC contamination. This approach would not only cause a reduction in the contamination level of STEC, but also provide a general beneficial effect on the level of other enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica. Proper use of starter cultures in fermentation, combined with higher fermentation temperatures, will reduce the probability of growth of STEC in contaminated drycured sausages. A combination of higher fermentation temperatures, a lower pH during the process, and heat-treatment of the final product should effectively eliminate the potential risk for transmission of STEC infections from consumption of dry-cured sausages. A 5 log reduction is possible. Technological options are available to reduce significantly the transfer of potential pathogens through meats in general, and specifically through dry-cured sausages. The most important data gap is the lack of information about the actual occurrence of STEC infections in humans in Norway. Improved laboratory diagnostic procedures and epidemiological surveillance, combined with better reporting and tracing in the health care system are necessary. The implementation of properly designed base-line studies of various domestic animals, to provide data on the occurrence of various serotypes and their virulence factors present is recommended. Also, this would provide a better basis for comparison with human isolates.
Åshild Andreassen, Ville Erling Sipinen, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Per Brandtzaeg, Knut Helkås Dahl, Knut Tomas Dalen, Olavi Junttila, Richard Meadow, Inger Elisabeth Måren, Kåre M. Nielsen, et al.
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 70-71; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430410

Abstract:
Carnation SHD-27531-4 is a genetically modified variety of Dianthus caryophyllus L. used as a decorative plant species. The red-purple colour of the flowers results from expression of the two newly introduced genes dfr and f 3’5’h, encoding the enzymes dihydroflavonol 4reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3’,5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H). The two enzymes enable the production of the pigments delphinidin and cyanidin (anthocyanidins) in the flower petals. Anthocyanidins and their sugar derivatives, anthocyanins, make up a large group of natural colours and are accepted food additives (E 163). The colours of most flowers, berries and fruits consist of a combination of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Carnation line SHD-27531-4 also contains a mutated herbicide tolerance gene from Nicotiana tabacum , coding for an acetolactate synthase (ALS) variant protein, used to facilitate the selection of GM plantlets during the genetic transformation process. Southern blot analysis and sequencing indicate only a single copy of the intended T-DNA insert in the SHD-27531-4 genome. Flanking sequences show no disruption of endogenous genes. In silico analyses show no significant homologies between the DFR, F3’5’H an ALS proteins and known toxins and IgE-bound allergens. No observed changes in the introduced trait, i.e. the particular flower colour, indicative of instability, have been reported during several generations of vegetatively propagated plants. Considering that carnation SHD-27531-4 is not intended for cultivation or use as food or feed, the VKM GMO Panel considers the comparative analysis of the anthocyanidins delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin and pelargonidin in the flower petals sufficient for the risk assessment. The reported morphological differences between SHD-27531-4 and the parent cultivar do not raise safety concerns. Based on current knowledge and the scope of the application, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that the DFR, F3’5’H and ALS proteins and anthocyanidin pigments are unlikely to increase a potential health risk related to an accidental intake or other exposure routes to carnation SHD-27531-4 compared to the conventional counterpart or other non-GM carnations. Likewise, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that carnation SHD-27531-4, based on current knowledge and the intended use as cut ornamental flowers, does not represent an environmental risk in Norway.
Afolayan S. Sunday, Fashanu T. Abosede, Enenche E. Daniel, Adediji A. Yetunde, Salawu R. Adenike, Lawal I. Oluwasanmi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 41-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430402

Abstract:
Almond (Terminalia catappa) seeds are rich in oil; however, their study has received limited attention, with researches focused mainly on their health potentials. The present study assesses the composition of the fatty acid (FA) components present in the almond seed oils extracted using soxhlet apparatus and analysed by 1H-NMR (Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Generally, there was significant agreement between the results from the 1H-NMR and GC-MS analyses, however, 1H NMR gave more reliable and reproducible results. The GC-MS and 1H NMR results revealed that the oils contained oleic acid (>18 %), linoleic (>28%) linolenic acid (≤0.03 %) and saturated fatty acids (>44 %).
, H. Amadi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430401

Abstract:
Fruit drinks are often packed as accompaniments with school children’s lunch packs in Nigeria. In recent times, reports from consumers stated that a lot of these drinks when opened up and poured into cups before drinking, fungal mass was present and this has queried the safety of consumption of these drinks. The aim of this study was to determine whether commercially packed fruit drinks consumed majorly by school children were microbially contaminated. Twenty (20) samples of sachet packed fruit drinks comprising of 4 different flavours precisely orange, pineapple, apple and multivitamin flavours were analyzed for their microbial quality. The total bacterial and fungal counts in the samples examined did not exceed the regulatory microbiological criteria for fruit drinks. Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Penicillium species were isolated from the samples. Lactobacillus poses no health risk to the consumer however, the incidence of Bacillus and Staphylococcus aureus in the drink samples is quite worrisome as they have been implicated as potential pathogens. The fungal species isolated are of public health concern especially as some have been implicated as mycotoxin producers. The presence of these organisms in the drinks may be attributed to indigenous microflora of fruits or concentrates used, poor hygienic practices during production and low pH of the drinks. It is therefore necessary that fruit drink manufacturers adhere strictly to microbiological quality standards and specifications during production especially for foods to be consumed by children with developing immune systems.
Fègbawè Badanaro, Amivi Tete-Benissan, Kou'santa Amouzou
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430400

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this study is to determine the nutritional values of Gnathocera trivittata and Gnathocera impressa in order to promote their consumption for food security. Place and Duration of Study: Samples of G. trivittata and G. impressa were caught in Togo in the three following localities: Kparatao (8°57'151"N; 1°11'838"E), Kpéwa (9°16'978"N; 1°14'149"E) and Soudou (9°21'604"N; 1°21'348"E), between September and December 2013. Methodology: The contents of ash, protein, vitamins as well as lipids were determined. Fiber content was obtained. Minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and colorimetry. Fatty acid composition of the lipids was determined by gas chromatography and the amino acid composition was obtained by separation of the individual amino acids using the Biochrom 30+ amino acid analyzer. Results: The results reveal that the average protein content of the insects studied ranged from 59.36 to 61.63%. Average lipid levels ranged from 9.09 to 9.86%. They contain all the essential fatty and amino acids. Their average fiber content fluctuates between 8.35 and 10.05%. Regarding the composition of micronutrients, the species studied are very rich in minerals and vitamins. The ratios of minerals, fatty acids and essential amino acids are balanced. Conclusion: Given the nutritional potentials of the insects studied, they can contribute significantly to the fight against protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in Togo.
, Gift Amukeru Amadi, Nua Janet Deedam
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 12-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i430399

Abstract:
The study examined the behavioural pattern of pregnant mothers towards antenatal clinics and its implications on their nutritional knowledge. The study adopted descriptive cross sectional study with a target population of pregnant women in the some selected villages in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area. The sample size of the study comprised 200 pregnant women attending their normal antenatal cares clinics in the sixty-six (66) primary health care centres in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. To ensure the validity of the instrument, the questionnaire was being giving to the women during their antenatal visit in the hospitals and lectures in the department of Food Sciences and Technology for scrutiny and suggestions, correction and amendment. The data obtained from the sampled respondents through the use of structured questionnaire were analyzed using frequency, percentage, cumulative percentage, mean and standard deviation. The result of the findings indicated that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that the most observable negative implications of pregnant mothers’ behavioural pattern towards antenatal cares clinic on their nutritional knowledge is that it increases the potential health risks during and after pregnancy while lesser number of the respondents strongly believed that the negative implications could be a reduction in the intake of nutrient capable of preventing anemia in the mother and lacks knowledge on the relevance of balanced diets during pregnancy. Therefore, it was recommended that the relationship existing between pregnant mothers and personnel of antenatal clinics should be made more cordial through increased awareness especially to pregnant mothers on the roles of antenatal cares clinics in ensuring the development of fetus and ensuring good maternal health. This will reduce the nonchalant attitude existed by pregnant mothers in seeking available antenatal care.
P. F. Wulam, M. K. Jiyil, C. E. Mafuyai, J. I. Oche, O. A. Olorunyomi, M. Silas
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 124-136; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330397

Abstract:
Background: Legumes are outstanding sources of macronutrients, micronutrients, phytochemicals, as well as antinutritional factors. These components present a complex system enabling interactions with different components within food matrices. The interactions result in insoluble complexes with reduced bioaccessibility of nutrients. The development of appropriate preparation technologies for use at the household and village-level become so imperative to facilitate processing and dietary availability of beans. Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical contents of unfermented and fermented red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the effects of the resulting changes on the in vitro protein digestibility. This will enhance food security and reduction in malnutrition. Methodology: Unfermented and fermented P. vulgaris were boiled using ordinary cooking pot and a pressure pot and the chemical contents were evaluated by standard methods. In vitro protein digestibility was carried out by pepsin digestion. Results: Fermentation resulted in a decrease in the traditional cooking time in the ordinary cooking pot by 40.32%. The protein content of the fermented sample increased by about 7%. The in vitro protein digestibility value was increased by more than 30% with greater percentage evident in fermented samples. Sulphur containing amino acids, methionine and cystein were the limiting amino acids but their contents appreciated by 6.64% and 10.92% respectively after fermentation. Total ash, crude fibre, crude fat contents of P. vulgaris were all affected by more than 20% during the open fermentation and cooking of unfermented beans. The antinutritional factors of P. vulgaris decreased most in boiled fermented samples compared with the other processing methods. There was overall improvement in the In vitro protein digestibility, reduction of cooking time and antinutritional factors when P. vulgaris was fermented and cooked. Conclusion: The outcome of the reserach justifies the fact that combining both fermentation and cooking results in the overall improvement in the nutritional value of P. vulgaris as against cooking without fermentation.
Marjolein Van Der Spiegel, José J. Van Den Driessche, Elisa Leune, Kirsten Knobel,
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 113-123; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330396

Abstract:
Aim: Fermotein is an innovative single-cell protein obtained from fermentation of the filamentous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus. Like other filamentous fungi, a lack of information on this species exists to assess its safety for human consumption. The capability to induce gene mutations or structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations of this fungus and derived products has never been studied before. The objective of the current study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of Fermotein using a bacterial reverse mutation test and an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test. Methodology: The bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test were performed in accordance with GLP and concurrent OECD guidelines. Dose-range finding tests were used to select appropriate doses of Fermotein Dry. The highest doses in the genotoxicity experiments were determined by the solubility of the mycoprotein. Results: The bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test were performed in accordance with GLP and concurrent OECD guidelines. Dose-range finding tests were used to select appropriate doses of Fermotein Dry. The highest doses in the genotoxicity experiments were determined by the solubility of the mycoprotein. Conclusion: No safety concerns regarding genotoxicity were identified for Fermotein and no further in vivo genotoxicity testing is required. Information from the current study contributes to the body of evidence for a novel food authorisation of Fermotein in the EU and a GRAS notification in the US.
I. T. Ityo, , R. E. Kukwa, M. E. Okoh
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 102-112; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330395

Abstract:
Aims: The contamination of groundnut by aflatoxins (AF) results in financial losses to farmers’ as well as severe food safety and public health challenges globally. This study was carried out to; (i) assess the levels of AFB1 in husked groundnut seeds in Makurdi (ii) determine the relationship between moisture content and AF levels, and (iii) investigate vendors’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of AF and their approach towards groundnut storage. Study Design: Quantitative research method was employed in this study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Benue State University, Makurdi from May – June 2019. Methodology: Duplicate groundnut samples were collected from ten market locations in Makurdi and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) quantification method. Results: The moisture content of the groundnuts was determined, and data on Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) relating to groundnut storage were obtained using mini-questionnaires. The results obtained showed that all the sampled groundnuts were contaminated with AFB1 levels ranging from 17.3 - 35.9 parts per billion (ppb). Furthermore, we found a correlation between high moisture content and high AFB1 levels and vice-versa. The knowledge of AF among the groundnut retailers was low (<40%), and 40.91% of the sellers confirmed that groundnuts were stored for ≤one month before sale. Conclusion: The levels of AFB1 levels in stored groundnuts are above the permissible limit of 20 ppb for stored groundnut in Nigeria. The data obtained raises concerns for food safety considering that groundnuts are widely consumed in Makurdi. Regular evaluation of AFB1 levels in food should be conducted in Nigeria.
, Gbocho Serge Elvis Ekissi, Kouame Claude Ya, Patrice Lucien Kouamé
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330393

Abstract:
Enzymatic browning is associated with the action of polyphenol oxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD). The products of these enzymes cause undesirable changes of color and flavor of processed eggplant products. The present study aimed to evaluate kinetic properties and thermodynamics parameters of PPO and POD activities for controlling this undesirable process in extract from of violet eggplant. The effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in violet eggplant were studied over a range of 30 to 80 °C. T1/2-values of enzymatic activities are between 6.15 ± 0.03 and 13,27 ± 0,04 min at 80 °C, they decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a difference thermostability of each enzyme. D- and k-values decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing temperature, indicating faster of these enzymes inactivation at higher temperatures. Results suggested that polyphenol oxydase and peroxidase were relatively thermostable enzymes with a Z-value which from 50.25 and from 88.33 °C and Ea of 41.21 and of 27.78 kJmol-1. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. The Gibbs free energy ΔG values range from 43.24 ± 0,03 to 91.45 ± 0,01 kJ/mol. These kinetic data can be used to predict prevention of browning in the violet eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by thermal inactivation of enzymes.
Mahamadé Goubgou, Fabrice Bationo, Laurencia Toulsoumdé Songré Ouattara, Daouda Fofana, Yves Traoré,
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 93-101; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330394

Abstract:
Aims: Lipids have important role in cookies production depending on their nature and function. In this study, the effect of refined cottonseeds oil (RCO), refined palm oil (RPO), and red (or crude) palm oil (CPO) on physicochemical characteristics of gluten-free sorghum cookies was evaluated and compared to control gluten-free cookies produced with a margarine (M20). Methodology: RCO and RPO were incorporated at the level of 20 % and CPO at the level of 16%. The physicochemical characteristics were determined according to standard methods of analysis. Results: Moisture, ash, proteins, lipids, sugar, fiber, pH, fat acidity, and energy value were ranged respectively between 0.12 ± 0.05 and 1.72 ± 0.02 % ; 2.00 ± 0.00 and 2.34 ± 0.01% (g/100g DM) ; 6.91 ± 0,08 and 7.49 ± 0.07% (g/100g DM) ; 20.61 ± 0.01 and 25.62 ± 0.53% (g/100g DM) ; 61.71 ± 0.52 and 65.79 ± 0.23% (g/100g DM) ; 3.41 ± 0.52 and 8.02 ± 2.04% (g/100g DM) ; 7.01 ± 0.00 and 7.36 ± 0.00; 0.03± 0.00 and 0.11 % of H2SO4 ; 462.70 ± 8.17 and 505.79 ±5.32 Kcal. The use of RCO and RPO induced significantly increase of the fat content. But, the moisture, ash, fat, sugar and the energy of the experimental and control cookies are in accordance with the recommended value of the guidelines of codex Alimentarius on supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Conclusion: RCO, RPO and CPO exhibit the potential to be used as substitutes to margarine in the production of gluten-free cookies with interesting nutritional values.
, Dan Chepo Ghislaine, Kone Fankroma Martial Thiery, Djedji Wilfried Frejus, Kouame Lucien Patrice
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 62-73; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330391

Abstract:
The African eggplant Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga is a widely consumed vegetable-fruit in Côte d'Ivoire. Although produced in abundance in the rainy season, they are subject to post-harvest losses and these commodities are expensive in the dry season. Also during culinary preparations, the cortex is often removed for various reasons (difficulty to be crushed, aesthetics, presence in the stool...). This study was carried out by determining the functional properties of powders obtained from the cortex and pulp of blackberry and non blackberry berries. The apparent density was between 0.25 and 0.35g/mL with higher values in the cortex than in the pulp. The cortex powders had higher water absorption capacities than the pulp in both ripening levels (Cortex unripe (Cnm): 657.51% versus Pulp unripe (Pnm): 622.12% and Cortex ripe (Cm): 600.33% versus Pm: 486.26%). The oil absorption capacity of pulp was lower than that of cortex in unrefined and refined oil. After analysis, it appears that the powders obtained from the cortex have the same physico-chemical properties as those obtained from the pulp but at different proportions. Indeed, at the biochemical level, the eggplant (S. aethiopicum striped toga) cortexes contain the same compounds as the pulp but in small quantities.
Gouagoua Séverin Kouadja, , Kouakou Eugène Kouadio, Brou Jean Kouao, N’Gouan Cyrille Kouassi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 54-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330390

Abstract:
Although pastures in central (Affouvansou) Côte d'Ivoire are abundant, signs of undernutrition are observed in the animals towards the end of wintering, possibly due to insufficient quality pastures, poor grass quality, or poor herd distribution. Using the in-vivo digestibility method, bromatological monitoring of the fodder from these pastures was carried out according to the development age of the regrowth using Djallonke sheep. The objective is to help in the judicious use of these pastures. At regrowth age intervals between the 4th and 8th week, the nitrogen content in the grass decreases, the energy value increases at 6 weeks, and decreases slightly to remain at a correct value in the following weeks. Due to its nitrogen value, this pasture can be classified as a more or less poor quality savannah fodder. However, the savannah studied is of excellent quality from an energy point of view at 5 - 6 weeks of regrowth age. Depending on the nitrogen value, the forage can be said to be of average quality from the 5th to the 7th week. Beyond 8 weeks, the forage is of poor quality. The nitrogen content is therefore a limiting factor here. It cannot meet the maintenance needs of the UBT. It, makes sense to use the pastures in the center of the country between the 6th and 7th week of regrowth to get the most out of it.
, Olufemi O. R. Pitan
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330389

Abstract:
Aims: The extent of stored grain losses depends on varieties and duration of storage, and most of the quantitative losses are attributed to insect pest infestations. The study was conducted to determine the damage caused by Sitophilus zeamais on maize stored at different durations. Methodology: Sitophilus zeamais at four varying population densities (5, 10, 15, 20 adults) and four storage durations (30, 60, 90 and 120 days) reared on 200 g sample of Jeka maize variety was kept in glass jars covered with muslin cloth in a 4 x 4 factorial fitted in a completely ramdomised design with four replicates at room temperature for 120 days. Results: Weight loss, seed damage and weight of dust caused by S. zeamais on maize seeds at 5-insect and 20-insect levels were statistically similar at 30 and 120 days but show significant difference at 60 days after storage. Sitophilus zeamais population continued to grow exponentially on maize grains after 120 days of storage, indicating that factors are not limiting, thereby causing significant losses to stored grains. Temperature and relative humidity were found to affect insect population growth positively (r = 0.73 and r = 0.70, respectively). Conclusion: The study concluded that S. zeamais, which is a major pest in The Gambia, in the absence of control measures at any number of infestations greater than 5 weevils could result to severe damage to stored seeds.
C. C. Ezegbe, H. O. Agu, M. C. Ezeh, C. S. Anarado, C. R. Abah, K. S. Okocha
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330388

Abstract:
Custard is a thick, rich, creamy sweet or savory dessert, made mixtures of eggs or egg yolks, milk or cream and commonly consumed in most part of Africa especially Nigeria. This research was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of custard produced from the blends of sweet potato and corn starch enriched with defatted soybean flour. The sweet potato was peeled, washed and diced into small cubes to aid milling while the maize grains were cleaned and soaked in water for 24 hours, and they were separately milled and filtered. The filtrates were allowed to settle for four hours, the starches were obtained and dried at 70°C and 60°C for 8 hours and 5 hours respectively. The soybean was cleaned, soaked, boiled, toasted, dehulled, milled and defatted in petroleum ether. Ten custard samples were then formulated using sweet potato starch, corn starch and defatted soybean flour respectively in the following ratios: 100:0:0; 80:10:10; 70:20:10; 60:30:10; 50:40:10; 40:50:10; 30:60:10; 20:70:10; 10:80:10; 0:100:0. The custard formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical and sensory characteristics, using commercial custard (Checkers custard) as control. The result of the proximate composition showed that moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate content in % ranged from 5.40-18.08, 0.70-3.07, 1.16-6.52, 0.82-5.23, 1.31-9.91 and 68.87-85.25, respectively. The functional properties also showed that least gelation concentration (%), bulk density (g/cm), swelling power and gelatinization temperature (oC) ranged from 4.00-10.00; 0.59-0.83; 6.37-8.02 and 69.2-80.1, respectively. The result showed that the swelling power differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other and some of the samples differed significantly in bulk density, least gelation and gelatinization temperature, respectively. Sensory evaluation carried out on different samples of the custard formulation showed that the control sample (Checkers custard) had the highest score of overall acceptability. The 100% corn starch and 100% sweet potato starch were accepted by the consumers as an alternative to the commercial custard product. The enrichment of custard with soybean contributed to an increase in the nutritional value of the custard.
O. O. Afolabi, C.C. Okonofua, , E. Dosumu, R. B. Aderoju
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 20-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330387

Abstract:
Food borne illness prevention system will depend on the extent of food safety control in place through food production, processing, distribution, keeping food at safe temperature and using safe water and raw materials. These stages of production are some of the important points determining food safety. This suggests the need to implement strict hygienic control measures along the food production chain during manufacturing, handling, storage and commercialization of foods. Ninety samples comprising of fifteen Milo (beverage), fifteen golden Morn (cereal), fifteen Maggi (seasoning), fifteen Lucozade boost (energy drink), fifteen Gala (Sausage) and fifteen Indomie (noodles) were collected from five stores of various shops in Lagos, Agbara and Sango Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples were processed and cultured using pour plate and streak plate techniques. Samples were cultured in five media consisting of four selective media and a basal media; Maconkey agar, Mannitol Salt agar, Salmonella Shigella agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar and Nutrient agar. Differentiation and isolation of various isolates were based on gram-staining technique and biochemical reactions using OXOID MICROBAT TM identification kits. The in vitro assay revealed the presence of five bacteria species namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellia oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Morganella morganii. Prevalence of the various isolates in the culture were found to be 67.66%, 11.27%, 9.77%, 7.51% and 3.75% respectively. The highest colony count (140.6) was obtained from samples (Maggi) from Agbara while the lowest colony count (21.0) was obtained from (Milo) Sango. The mean bacteria load of the isolates was 1.0*107CFU/ml. It was concluded that the hygienic quality of the sampled fast moving consumer products in term of microbiological standards compare favourably with international benchmarks as defined by Codex Alimentarius Commission all the observed ranges of aerobic colony count fall well below the upper threshold of microbial levels for class A products.
, William Tchabo, Juliet Egbe Nkongho, Gillian Nkeudem Asoba, Athanasius Fonteh Amungwa
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330386

Abstract:
Aims: Malnutrition remains an issue of public health concern in Cameroon. Optimal infant feeding habits and maternal risk factors influence the prevalence of malnutrition. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of feeding habits and risk factors on the nutritional status of infants in Kumba hospitals. Study design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 3 months at the Maternal and Child Protection (PMI) and Kumba District hospitals. Methodology: The age of the children were recorded from their immunization cards. The measurements of length and weight of children were recorded. Questionnaires were administered through simple random sampling to care givers of 227 infants at the welfare clinics from which information on feeding habits, anthropometric parameters and socio-demographic status was obtained. The Z-score classifications for malnutrition was used to estimate the deterioration in weight and height of children in reference to the children of same age and sex. Results: There was a low prevalence (14%) of exclusive breast feeding. A high prevalence of early initiation of breast feeding within the first hour of birth at 85% was observed. Early introduction to energy dense complementary food at 67.2% was observed in infants between 0-5 months accounting for the high prevalence of overweight, and possible risk obesity. Furthermore, it was found that 17% of children were stunted, 14.60% were wasted, and 11.70% were underweight. Among them, stunting was highest in children 0-3 months who were on breast milk. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and stunting (P<0.05), and underweight and unemployment (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed that exclusive breast feeding from 0 to 6 months was poorly practiced. Thus leading to a high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among admitted children in Kumba hospitals. This was also found to be linked to malnutrition, marital and professional status.
, F. Idih
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 165-175; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230385

Abstract:
Allanblackia floribunda seed is one of the underutilized and under-exploited seeds in Nigeria, it is a flowering plant in the clusiaceae family that has been used over the years in folk medicine especially in managing hypertension in Africa. This study seeks to evaluate the phytoconstituents of Allanblackia floribunda. Qualitative phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and volatile compounds present in the seeds were evaluated using standard methods. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins in the seeds. The result from the proximate compositions showed that the seed had high fibre (4.21%), lipid (10.46%), protein (19.25%), and carbohydrate (61.26%) contents. The GCMS result revealed the presence of compounds with medicinal and nutritional potentials, among these compounds are caryophyllene (13.228%) and oleic acid (2.021%). This study revealed that an Allanblackia floribunda seed has phytoconstituent with nutritional and medicinal importance.
V. F. Abioye, , A. O. Adeoye, I. O. Gbadegesin
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 74-82; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330392

Abstract:
Aims: This study determined the changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of naturally fermented finger millet studied at ambient temperature (28±2°C) for 72 h. Study Designs: Finger millet seeds were cleaned and fermented (72 h; 28±2°C). Samples were taken at 24 h interval and dried at 50°C for 48 h. Methodology: The fermented finger millet samples were analyzed for microbial, biochemical changes, chemical, proximate and mineral composition. Results: Biochemical changes showed a drop in pH from 6.74 to 6.04 while titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent) increased from 0.04 to 0.62% after 72 h. The moisture, protein, ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate were in the ranges of 7.08-9.449%; 5.31-7.274%; 1.10-3.392%, 1.296-2.47%, 1.154-2.46% and 77.44-81.58%, respectively. Significant increase were observed in the mineral composition with phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, and iron identified in the fermented finger millet flour in the ranges of 93.5-176 mg/100 g; 171-247.5 mg/100 g; 87.04-196.5 mg/100 g; 1.30-3.075 mg/100 g and 5.28-11.95 mg/100 g, respectively. Tannin, oxalate, phytate and trypsin were in the ranges of 1.537 to 3.23 mg/100 g; 0.875 to 1.59 mg/100 g; 0.195 to 0.85 mg/100 g. and 2.731 to 6.23 mg/100 g, respectively. The total phenols and total flavonoids ranged between 11.605-40.29 mg/ 100 g and 63.36 -172.872 mg/100g while the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of the flour samples ranged between 28.109 and 68.238 mg/ml. Microorganisms identified were Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus brevis. This study shows that fermentation decreased the anti-nutrients, increased the proximate and minerals contents and also improved the anti-oxidative properties of finger millet flour.
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